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th

Proceeding 8 International Seminar on Industrial Engineering and Management


ISSN : 1978-774X

INOVATIVE DESIGN OF WHEELCHAIR BY USING


USER CENTERED DESIGN APPROACH

Hartomo Soewardi1, Bagus Tri Ajie2, R.Abdul Jalal3

Department of Industrial Engineering, Industrial Technology Faculty


Islamic University Of Indonesia Yogyakarta, Indonesia
hartomo@uii.ac.id1, bagus_triajie@yahoo.com 2, 835220103@staf.uii.ac.id

ABSTRACT
Wheelchair is one of the tools for disabilities feet. Some existing wheelchair is still simple
because it has the limited functionality and is also less comfortable in use. However
wheelchair is still required by them even though it has not satisfied what they need. The
purpose of this research is to develop a multifunctional and ergonomic wheelchair design
which can meet user’s requirement. User Centred Design concept is used in this research
to specify design parameter of wheel chair. The survey was conducted to identify the user
criteria and the statistical analysis was utilized to test the hypothesis developed. The results
of this study are the design parameters of wheelchair that can satisfy the disable require in
ergonomics and multifunctional criteria.
Keywords: Wheelchairs, Multifunction, User Centred Design, ergonomics

1. INTRODUCTION design of web-based student administration


system [f]. This paper presents a study on
According to data from National designing the wheelchair for meeting the
Socioeconomic Survey in 2000, disabilities disable user’s criteria by using this concept
in Indonesia reached 1.46 million people such that it will be more comfortable and
(0.74% of the total population) which is useful.
about 0.83% live in rural area and 0.63% live
in urban. Meanwhile, the World Health 2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
Organization (WHO) predicted that one in 10
people suffer disabilities and it has an The quality of human-product interaction
increasing trend compared to the results of a can be improved by following a user-centred
quick survey in 1979 which means the design process [g, h]. Most design
disabled in Indonesia reached 3.11 percent processes involve the basic design cycle as
[a]. Therefore, most of them who suffer from presented [i].
disabilities require tools to facilitate in User-centered design consist of five
performing their activities in daily life. phases [i]. The first is analysis of customer
Wheelchair is one of the tools for need where designers try to understand Sin
disabilities feet to move from one to another a product. Synthesis is the next phase that it
place, whether a flat or a slope road. But is performed to unify the user’s criteria and
some existing wheelchair design is still designer’s concept by mapping process to
simple and has the limited functionality as determine the design parameters. The third
well as uncomfortable. Thus it is important to phase is the simulation. In this stage, its
re-design a special wheel chair to improve activities carried out are to test alternatives
mobility and comfort. design made based on design parameters.
User centre design (UCD) concept is Evaluation phase is performed to re-
one of a method that can be used in design. examine whether the design is already made
This method has been successfully applied which represent user desires. The last
in most field for example, the development phase is decision making. It is to decide the
of online gaming technology [b], commercial best designs that ready to make a real
product development [c], advanced wireless prototyping. Figure 1 describes these
sensor networks [d], the design of the tablet phases.
case made from coconut husk [e], and

Inovative Design of Wheelchair


(Hartomo Soewardi) ER-81
th
Proceeding 8 International Seminar on Industrial Engineering and Management
ISSN : 1978-774X

coefficient. Descriptive non parametric


statistical analysis was used to map the
customer attribute to physical design
parameters. The test is performed to
determine whether there are differences or
Figure 1. The basic design cycle of UCD [i] similarities between the two groups of
responses related data. Stuart Maxwell test
3. RESEARCH METHOD It is Marginal homogeneity to validate of
3.1 Survey wheelchair and differentiate an existing
Survey was conducted to identify the user design as well as developed design [p].
criteria of wheel chair, the design parameter,
and to validate the purposed design. 4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Questionnaire were developed and 4.1. Customer Voice
distributed to more than 30 respondents Customer voice identified from a wheelchair
(disable user). Their ages ranged from 17 to user which four attributes valid and reliable
60 years old. customer.

3.2 Mapping Process Method Table 1. Customer Attribute


Mapping process was conducted to No Atribut
determine the design parameter for 1 Forceful
satisfying customer criteria [j]. The method 2 Multifunction
used in this process is axiomatic design 3 Flexible
method (AD). Axiomatic design is a theory 4 Ergonomics
which has the function to determine criteria
for the best design and minimize the
Based on Table 1, forceful described as
complexity of a system [k]. A process of the
wheelchairs that are capable of prop the
method is started from determine the
weight of the wheelchair users. Interpreted
functional requirement (FR) and the design
multifunctional design that has more than
parameter (DP) that satisfying FR [l]. See in
one main function that can be used. The
Figure 2.
flexible design that can provide balance in a
wheelchair when used. Ergonomic design
attributes can be interpreted into design that
has a comfort for wheelchair users.

4.2. Proposed design of Wheelchair


Table 2, Table 3, Table 4 and Table 5
present result of mapping process to
determine the design parameter of
wheelchair. Table 2 shows the result of
design parameter satisfying customer
Figure 2. Four Domains in Axiomatic [m] attribute: "forceful". While Table 3 shows the
result of design parameter satisfying
3.3 Statistical Analysis Method customer attribute: "multifunctional". And
In this study, a non-parametric statistical table 4 shows the result of design parameter
method is used. Test validity is the degree of satisfying customer attribute: "flexible".
ability to show the extent to which a Table 5 shows the result of design
measuring instrument measures what it is parameter satisfying customer attribute:
supposed to measure [n]. Validity of "ergonomics".
customer attribute testing can be done by Figure 3 shows virtual design of wheelchair
the method of Spearman's Rank Correlation based on the identified design parameter.
test [0]. The method used in determine the
level of reliability is Cronbach alpha

Inovative Design of Wheelchair


ER-82 (Hartomo Soewardi)
th
Proceeding 8 International Seminar on Industrial Engineering and Management
ISSN : 1978-774X

Table 2. Forceful of wheelchair


Code Customer Code Functional Code Design
Attribute Requirement Parameter
FR1 Have the ability to DP1 Sturdy design
prop the human body
mass
FR 1.1 Designing appropriate DP1.1 Durable material
construction
FR1.1.1 Do welding DP 1.1.1 electric welding
FR 1.2 Using a hard material DP 1.2 Materials iron
CA1 Forceful plate, iron pipe
FR 1.3 Determining the DP 1.3 endurance of
supporting material material
FR 1.3.1 combining of material DP 1.3.1 sponge, Synthetic
Leather

Table 3. Multifunction of wheelchair


Code Customer Code Functional Code Design Parameter
Attribute Requirement
FR 2 Have functions in DP 2 Multiple attributes
addition to the main
function
FR 2.1 Provides functions to DP 2.1 Sleeping position
rest
FR 2.1.1 Using the back of the DP 2.1.1 The seats can
chair recline
FR 2.2 Provides functionality DP 2.2 Moving on to the
CA2 Multifunctional to transfer or move bed and toilet
FR 2.2.1 Using armrests DP 2.2.1 Can be separated
pairs
FR 2.3 Providing sanitation DP 2.3 Bedpans
functions
FR 2.3.1 Using the seating DP 2.3.1 Seat cover can be
section pulled

Table 4. Flexible of wheelchair


Code Customer Code Functional Code Design
Attribute Requirement Parameter
FR3 Having balance DP3 easily turn
CA3 Flexible FR 3.1 Having a complete DP 3.1 axle good
wheel components

Inovative Design of Wheelchair


(Hartomo Soewardi) ER-83
th
Proceeding 8 International Seminar on Industrial Engineering and Management
ISSN : 1978-774X

Table 5. Ergonomics of wheelchair


Code Customer Code Functional Code Design Parameter
Attribute Requirement
FR 4 Provide wheelchair DP 4 wheelchair according
design that is anthropometry, has a padded
comfortable to use pedestal, Convenient walk,
painless,
FR 4.1 Determining the size DP 4.1 Size according to ISO,
of the wheelchair measure dimensions
FR 4.1.1 Using the appropriate DP 4.1.1 Anthropometry high body parts
dimensions in a sitting position, popliteal
wheelchair design length, shoulder width, high
popliteal, width calf
FR 4.1.1.1 measured in a sitting DP Dimension of P95 is 83.23 cm
position 4.1.1.1
FR 4.1.1.2 Measure the length DP Dimension of P50 is 38.98 cm
of the popliteal 4.1.1.2
FR 4.1.1.3 Measure the width of DP Dimension of P95 45.51 cm
the shoulder 4.1.1.3
FR 4.1.1.4 Measure the height DP Dimension of P50 is 43.09 cm
of the popliteal 4.1.1.4
CA4 Ergonomics FR 4.1.1.5 Measure the width of DP Dimension of P95 is 12.7 cm
the calf 4.1.1.5
FR 4.2 Determining the seat DP 4.2 sponge coated synthetic
cover leather
FR 4.3 Determining the type DP 4.3 Front wheel, rear wheel
of wheel
FR 4.3.1 Determining the front DP 4.3.1 Rubber wheels with a diameter
wheel of 9 cm
FR 4.3.2 Determining the rear DP 4.3.2 Bicycle wheel with a diameter
wheel of 67 cm
FR 4.4 Determine the DP 4.4 Not far from the reach of the
position of the wheels hand 60 degrees
so easy to reach

Figure 3. Design of wheelchair

Inovative Design of Wheelchair


ER-84 (Hartomo Soewardi)
th
Proceeding 8 International Seminar on Industrial Engineering and Management
ISSN : 1978-774X

The forceful design (Table 2) have 6 design Table 5 Stuart Maxwell test of Marginal
parameters: user resistant to body weight, Homogeneity results
durable materials, using electric welding, User’s requirements z values
material steel plate and steel pipe, durability, Forceful 0.450
synthetic leather. It explains that the Multifunctional 0.631
wheelchair has a resistance to load user. Flexible 0.117
Multifunctional design (Table 3) have wide Ergonomics 0.670
variety of additional design functionality with
design parameters: the position of sleep, a Table 5 present result of this test which the
chair can recline, go into bed or toilet, and value of z ranges from 0.117 to 0.631. it
bedpan. It identifies that the wheelchair means the null hypothesis can be accepted
design provides functions to rest, can move because z> 0.05. Thus the design
to bed, also provide bedpan in wheelchair, parameters of wheelchair is valid to made
it's mean that wheelchair is more useful. customer criteria.
Flexibility in design (Table 4) includes the
design parameters such as easy to turn 5. CONCLUSION
aside and have the right to part laker
wheelchair. This shows that the wheelchair It can conclude as follow.
is easy to use and has a balance at the time 1. Design of wheelchair which is developed
used by the user. Ergonomic design in based on customer attribute needs are
(Table 5) includes the design parameters forceful design, multifunctional, flexible,
such as the size of the corresponding and ergonomics.
dimension of high body sitting upright 83.23 2. The design parameters of forceful design
cm in size, dimension size 38.98 cm attributes are solid design, durable
popliteal buttocks, shoulder width material, electric welding, material steel
dimensions of 45.51 cm, height dimension plate and steel pipe, sponge and
popliteal 43.09 cm, 12.7 cm calf width synthetic leather. The design parameters
dimension, providing a base sitting foam of multifunctional attributes are sleeping
coated synthetic leather, the front wheels posture, the seat can recline, moved into
using a bicycle wheel diameter 67cm, rear bed and toilet, armrests separated pairs,
wheel using a rubber wheel diameter of 9 bedpan, cushion bias pulled open. The
cm, hand reach 600. This means that the design parameters of flexible attributes
wheelchair design provides comfort for the are easy to turn and use the bicycle
user. wheel axle. The design parameters of
ergonomics attributes are size according
4.3. Result of Validation to ISO, anthropometry body sitting
To test the hypothesis whether there is a position the size of 83.23 cm,
significant difference between the needs of anthropometry length popliteal
wheelchair users and design. Then tested dimensions 38.98 cm, anthropometry
Stuart Maxwell Marginal homogeneity shoulder width, measure the dimensions
implemented to validate wheelchair. Here is of 45.51 cm, height anthropometric
a hypothesis developed. popliteal measure the dimensions of
H0 : There is no a significant difference 43.09 cm, width anthropometric calf size
between the user’s requirements and 12.7 cm, sponge coated synthetic
wheelchair design leather, rear wheel diameter of 670
H1 : There is a significant difference between bicycle wheel, rear wheel diameter Karet
the user’s requirements and wheelchair 9.cm. calf in the recline position
design 3. According to validation test, a design of
wheelchair valid to satisfied customer
criteria at 5% significant level.

Inovative Design of Wheelchair


(Hartomo Soewardi) ER-85
th
Proceeding 8 International Seminar on Industrial Engineering and Management
ISSN : 1978-774X

6. REFERENCES Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics


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University, Cardiff, United Kingdom. AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIES
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(d) May., Mitchell., Piper., 2013 A user Hartomo Soewardi is a senior lecturer of
centred design evaluation of the Industrial Engineering Department, Faculty
potential benefits of advanced wireless of Industrial Technology, Islamic University
sensor networks for fire-in-tunnel of Indonesia, Yogyakarta. Currently he is
emergency response, Loughborough Ph.D in Engineering Design and
University. Manufacture. His teaching and research
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berbahan sabut kelapa dengan metode design. His email address is
user center design, Universitas Islam hartomo@uii.ac.id
Indonesia, Yogyakarta.
(f) Sutariyani., Kusrini., Sunyoto, 2013 Bagus Tri Ajie is a final student of Industrial
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mahasiswa berbasis WEB Industrial Technology, Islamic University of
menggunakan metode user centered Indonesia, Yogyakarta. His email address is
design, Amikom, Yogyakarta. bagus_triajie@yahoo.com
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ER-86 (Hartomo Soewardi)