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DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Environmental engineering-I lab

DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

SUBMITTED BY
UMAIR ABBAS
13-C-820
BS | FA13-02-0030

SUBMITTED TO
ENGR. ZUKHRUF ASIM

(DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING)

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE FOR ENGINEERING, SCIENCES & TECHNOLOGY,

LAHORE LEADS UNIVERSITY

WESTWOOD COLONY, LAHORE


DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
 Land Use (No. of houses ,No. of Flats, No. of Apartments Parks , School , Dispensary, Graveyards (if
any) Estimated area of scheme using scale factor of 1:10)

2. RELATED THEORY
 Sources of Water
 Water Consumption
 Factors Affection Water Consumption
 Component of Water Supply System
 Methods of Water Distribution
 Pressure in Distribution System
 Hydraulics of Water Distribution (Formulas)

3. DESIGN CRITERIA USED IN THE PROJECT


 Design Period
 Population Estimation , Per Capita Consumption
 Maximum Water Consumption
 Peak Hourly Consumption &Peak Factor
 Design Flow ( for direct and with storage)
 Design velocity

4. CALCULATIONS
 Regarding design of pump head, storage tank, pipe losses, pumps to be used (specifications), Average daily
demand or peak hour demands usage

5. RESULTS
 Attachment of Map (Manual)
 Attachment of Maps separate for direct or pumping with storage using EPA.NET (which represents
pressure values at node and diameters values at pipes and other parameters if necessary)
 Table for calculation of base demand
 Representation Of Results in table form output files separate for direct/pumping with storage (EPA.NET)
6. COMMENTS / RECOMMENDATIONS&REFERENCES
DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION
Brief Description of Housing Scheme:

No. of houses
Total number of houses is 281.

No. of Flats
Total number of flats is 3.

No. of Apartments
Total number of apartments is 3.

Park
Total number of parks is 2.

School
Total number of school in society is 1.

Dispensary
There is 1 dispensary in society.

Graveyards
Graveyards area present in society.

Area

A1=61x94=5734𝑚2

A2=248x190=47120𝑚2
1
A3= 2(186xx36) =3348𝑚2

Total Area= 5734+47120+3348

Total Area = 56202𝑚2

LOCATION:
The Future Vision Housing Society Situated at Left side of Jhelum road near upper Chenab
canal.
I.E.E.R

U.E.T Lahore
DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

CLIMATE:
Climate of the area in summer season is very hot. Temperature ranges from 30˚C to
45˚C.While in winter season the temperature falls. Due to hot condition in summer the water
consumption is very high and in winter water consumption is low.
TOPOGRAPHY OF THE AREA:
The surface area of the society is almost flat.

AREA CALCULATIONS

A1=61x94=5734𝒎𝟐

A2=248x190=47120𝒎𝟐
𝟏
A3= 𝟐(186xx36) =3348𝒎𝟐

Total Area = A1+A2+A3

Total Area= 5734+47120+3348

Total Area = 56202𝒎𝟐


DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Chapter 2. RELATED THEORY

SOURCES OF WATER:

Natural sources :
Rainwater, oceans, rivers, lakes, streams, ponds and springs are natural sources of water.
Man-made sources :
Dams, wells, tube wells, hand-pumps, canals, etc. are man-made sources of water.

Rain Water:
Rain water collects on the earth in the form of surface water and underground water.
Surface Water:
Water present on the surface of the earth in the form of oceans, rivers, lakes, ponds and
streams is called surface water. The water in rivers and lakes comes from rain and melting of
snow on mountains. Rivers flow into the sea.
Underground Water:
Some of the rainwater seeps through the soil on to the non-porous rocks below. This is
underground water. Sometimes due to high pressure, this water sprouts out in the form of
springs. It can be obtained by digging wells, sinking tube wells, etc.

WATER CONSUMPTION:
The amount of water used by a household or a country, or the amount used for a given task or
for the production of a given quantity of some product or crop, or the amount allocated for a
particular purpose.
It is the amount of water in volume that is consumed for different purposes. Generally it is
expressed in liter/capita/day (lpcd).

Per capita water consumption = 300+Y

Per capita water consumption = 300+20 =320 lpcd

Where Y = Last two digits of my registration No.

The various factors affecting the water consumption are given below

 Climate
 Standard of living
 Extent of sewerage
 Commercial or industrial activity
DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

 Metering or cost of water


 Quality of water
 Availability of private sources
 Distribution system pressure
 Size of city
 Efficiency of the system
 Type of supply (continuous or intermittent)
 Level of service (Stand Post, Yard Connection, Full Plumbing)

Rainfall, temperature and evaporation rates:

Precipitation and temperature varies widely across the state. Areas with high temperature and
low rainfall need to use more water to maintain outdoor landscaping. Even within the same
hydrologic region or the same water supply district these factors can vary considerably, having
a significant effect on the amount of water needed to maintain landscapes.

Population growth:
As communities grow, new residential dwellings are constructed with more efficient plumbing
fixtures, which causes interior water use to decline per person as compared to water use in
older communities. Population growth also increases overall demand.

Population density:
Highly urbanized areas with high population densities use less water per person than do more
rural or suburban areas since high density dwellings tend to have shared outdoor spaces and
there is less landscaped area per person that needs to be irrigated.

Socio-economic measures such as lot size and income:


Areas with higher incomes generally use more water than areas with low incomes. Larger
landscaped residential lots that require more water are often associated with more affluent
communities. Additionally, higher income households may be less sensitive to the cost of
water, since it represents a smaller portion of household income.

Water prices:
Water prices can influence demand by providing a monetary incentive for customers to
conserve water. Rate structures have been established in many districts to incentivize water
conservation, but the effectiveness of these rate structures to deter excessive use and
customer’s sensitivity to water prices vary.
DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

1. Increase access to potable water and sanitation facilities


2. Promote positive behavior towards water and sanitation facility utilization & hygiene practices
(Behavior Change Communication)
3. Strengthen capacities of relevant national, county, district, and community stakeholders to
perform their role in community water and sanitation services delivery management
4. Improve clean water and sanitation standards, guidelines, procedures, and approaches
achieved through regular & productive coordination and collaboration with relevant
government, NGOs, and donor stakeholders

COMPONENT OF WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM:

Catchment
Water supply and quality, Land use, Abstraction method and location

Treatment
Filtration, Coagulation, Clarification, Chlorination

Distribution
Networks Service, reservoirs, Tankers

User

General public Potable


DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

 At the top of the system is the catchment - this is the land where the rain falls and springs
discharge groundwater and collectively form a stream.
 Water is pumped from the streams at the water supply intakes and piped to the water
treatment plants.
 The treatment plant removes all the dirt and bugs, Chlorine is added to keep the water safe.
 Trunk mains (pipes) are used to move the water to reservoirs, where the treated water is stored.
 From the reservoirs the water is piped through the reticulation system to homes, businesses and
other water users around the town.
 The Council's system ends at the outlet side of the water meter, known as the point of supply.
Up to that point, it is the Council's responsibility to make sure everything works.
 After that the home owner, business or other user is responsible.

The Distribution System: Treated water is distributed around the township in a complex network of
pipes ranging in diameter from 200mm for the trunk mains down to 32mm in local reticulation. The
pipes are sized to maintain adequate flow and pressure to homes and businesses.

Point of Supply: The "point of supply" is where the Council's pipes stop and the customers' start. This
changeover is at the outlet connection of the toby/meter, i.e. on the house or business side. Up to that
point, including the meter, the Council is responsible for anything that goes wrong. Beyond that point
the pipes belong to the home owner, business or other user and they are responsible if there is a leak or
any other sort of problem.
DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

METHODS OF WATER DISTRIBUTION:


Definition

In most communities, the water distribution system is their largest single capital investment. To
preserve this investment, careful attention should be paid to the proper operation and
maintenance of the system. This starts with a good understanding of the components and their
function.

Method

 Distribution by gravity.
 Pumping without storage.
 Pumping with storage.

Distribution by gravity:

Distribution by gravity is possible only when the source of water is located substantially
above the level of the site where water is to be provided. Here we have to rely on the
pressures and heads already defined by the elevation difference between the water
reservoir and the area which is to be supplied with water.

Pumping without storage:

It is least desirable method as it provides low reserve flow during power failure. High
power costs are required to meet the peak hourly demands.

Pumping with storage:

It is the most common and the best method of water distribution


Water is pumped at uniform rate, supported with the stored water during peak hours.
This system is reliable during firefighting and power failures.

PRESSURE IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:


Pressure distribution, which comes closest in achieving uniform distribution

Pressure distribution is usually used in locations where it is either desirable or required to:

a. achieve uniform application of wastewater throughout the drain field area;


b. treat and dispose of effluent higher in the soil profile;
c. avoid potential contamination of ground water beneath excessively permeable soils;
DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

d. improve the treatment performance and extend the life expectancy of a drainfield or
other
e. component;
f. reduce the potential for breakout or seepage on slopes;
g. distribute effluent to all sand filters, mounds, all Type 1 soils, and all other soils with less
than 24 inches of vertical separation.

HYDRAULICS OF WATER DISTRIBUTION (FORMULAS):


DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

a. MANNING'S EQUATION:

V = 1/n R2/3 S1/2

V = velocity

n = Manning's roughness coefficient

R = hydraulic mean depth / hydraulic radius

S = longitudinal slope

b. CHEZY'S EQUATION:

V = C √RS

V = velocity

c = chezy's roughness coefficient

R = hydraulic mean depth / hydraulic radius

S = longitudinal slope

c. HAZEN WILLIAM'S EQUATION:


It has been used extensively for designing of water supply systems

Q = 0.278 C D0.63 (HL/L) 0.54 D2


Or
HL = 10.68 (Q/C)1.85 L/(D)4.87

HL = Head loss

Q = Flow

C = Hazen William constant

L = Length of pipe

D = Diameter of pipe
DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

One requirement should be fulfilled while using above equations is that, flow should be
uniform. Uniform flow means that "fluid characteristics should remain same in the section
under consideration."

d. DARCY-WEISBACH FORMULA
DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Chapter 3. DESIGN CRITERIA USED IN THE PROJECT

DESIGN PERIOD:
The design period of water distribution system of “Future Vision
Housing Society” is 20 years.

POPULATION ESTIMATION:
Present population of the society is 3060 persons.

PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION:


Per capita water consumption = 300+Y

Per capita water consumption = 300+20 =320 lpcd

Where Y = Last two digits of my registration No.

MAXIMUM WATER CONSUMPTION:


Max day water consumption = 1.5 X avg. day W.C
Max factor=1.5
𝑙
Q (max) = 17.882 𝑠

𝑚3
=0.017882 𝑠

𝑚3
=1545.0048𝑑𝑎𝑦

PEAK HOURLY CONSUMPTION & PEAK FACTOR:


Peak hour water consumption = 2.25 X avg. day W.C

Peak factor = 2.25


𝑙
Q (peak) =26.8223𝑠

𝑚3
=96.56028 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟
DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

DESIGN FLOW (FOR DIRECT AND WITH STORAGE):


Continuity of water supply is taken for granted in most developed
countries, but is a severe problem in many developing countries, where sometimes water is
only provided for a few hours every day or a few days a week. It is estimated that about half of
the population of developing countries receives water on an intermittent basis.

DESIGN VELOCITY:
Velocity of water through design can be easily gain by setting the pipes diameter in such a way
that smaller pipe should be fitted after the bigger diameter pipes, so that flow in pipes should b
in such velocity so that water can be easily provided in the area with pressure.
DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Chapter 4. CALCULATIONS

DESIGN OF PUMP HEAD:

Flow = 𝑸𝒎𝒂𝒙 =17.882

Pump Head=Level of G.W.T + Draw Down + Head losses + Difference of ELof G.L and Tank
Pump Head = 30.48 + 9.114 + 3.112 + 0
Pump Head =42.706m
But we use 62m because reservoir head is 60.406m
Head Losses are 5-10 %
DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

STORAGE TANK:

Elevation=120m
Initial Level = 1m
Minimum Level=0
Maximum Level= 1.5/2m
I use 1.5 m

For Diameter
we fixed height of tank =3.048m

𝟏 𝒎𝟑
V=𝟔 𝑸𝒂𝒗𝒈 ( 𝒅 )
𝟏
V=𝟔 𝑿𝟏𝟎𝟐𝟗. 𝟗𝟕𝟒

V=171.662𝒎𝟑

𝜫×𝒅𝟐
V= ×𝒉
𝟒

𝜫×𝒅𝟐
171.662= × 𝟑. 𝟎𝟒𝟖
𝟒

d=8.468m

For 1 story 7m diameter, For 2 story 14m, Commercial vary (20-30m) according to stories.
DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

RESERVOIR HEAD:

Total Head = Elevation -Height of G.W.T - Draw Down

Total Head = 100 - 38.48 - 9.114

Total Head = 60.406m

NODES:
Elevation 100m
𝒍
Base Demand 𝑸𝒂𝒗𝒈 𝒔

PIPES:
Length in meters
Diameter in mm(75,100,150,250,300…..)
Roughness 100

Larger diameter is used near reservoir and pumping station and smaller diameter is used near
dead ends.

Diameters are selected in such a way that the range of pressure is in between 14-35.
DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

AVERAGE DAILY DEMAND:


𝒍
𝑸𝒂𝒗𝒈 = 11.921 𝒔

PEAK HOURLY DEMAND:


𝑸𝒑𝒆𝒂𝒌 = 𝑸𝒂𝒗𝒈 x 2.25
𝑸𝒑𝒆𝒂𝒌 = 𝟏𝟏. 𝟗𝟐𝟏x 2.25

𝒍
𝑸𝒑𝒆𝒂𝒌 = 𝟐𝟔. 𝟖𝟐𝟐𝟑
𝒔

MAXIMUM DAILY DEMAND:


𝑸𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 𝑸𝒂𝒗𝒈 x 1.5
𝑸𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 11.921x 1.5
𝒍
𝑸𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 𝟏𝟕. 𝟖𝟖𝟐 𝒔
DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Chapter 5. Manual & EPA.Net


DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

COMMENTS:
 The Design of Water Distribution Scheme has been completed.
 The Maximum diameter pipes have been provided at the Tank as there will be more
pressure.
 The Minimum diameters at the dead nodes or at those nodes which are far away from tank.
 The design is economical also as the diameters of the pipes are those which are in the
market.
 The condition of Pressure greater than 14m is also satisfied as all the pressures are greater
than 14m.
 The pressure range is in between 20-21.
DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM