Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 15

1

11 Sommario
Piers 1-29

BRIDGE DESIGN

PIERS

Politecnico di Torino
Department ofdiStructural
Dipartimento Ingegneriaand
Strutturale
Geotechnical
e Geotecnica
Engineering
“Bridge
Corso didesign”
“Teoria e progetto dei ponti”

1
11 Sommario
Piers 2-29

Piers

1) Description

2) External actions

3) Internal actions evaluation

4) Details

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”
1
11 Sommario
Piers 3-29

1 Description
1.

St l
Steel Generally not used except for urban highways

Materials
Reinforced concrete is more used. Prestressed
R.C. / P.C. concrete is limited to segmental piers assembled
with prestressing

Monolithic sections for small hights10 ÷ 20 m)


Box shaped sections (one or more cells) for bigger hights. Variable
Geometry profile and thickness may be adopted (self rising formworks can be
used)
Coupled bearings (on wide piers) to improve the bending restraint of
the spans of long span bridges.

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”

1
11 Sommario
Piers 4-29

Twin
T i piers
i are to beb preferred
f d Single pier may result charming but gives rise
for small structures because of to transverse problems related to diaphragms
aesthetic and rational position and torsion.
under
d th
the webs.
b

Circular, elliptic and


polygonal sections
are to be preferred
p
to rectangular ones
for aesthetics.

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”
1
11 Sommario
Piers 5-29

Wedge-shaped ends
should be done in For very broad deks diaphgram piers or
running water. two or more piers are suggested.
An external layer of
stone may offer
additional
protection.

Box shaped
sections for tall
piers (minimum
thickness 30 cm)

Chamfer the section at least in The pier cap shape should make easy to
one direction (best if in both place and re-place
re place the bearings.
bearings There
directions) should be a place for the lifting jacks.

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”

1
11 Sommario
Piers 6-29

Piers with cranes

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”
1
11 Sommario
Piers 7-29

Bottom
prospective
ti with
ith
crane

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”

1
11 Sommario
Piers 8-29

Bottom prospective Pier and crane

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”
1
11 Sommario
Piers 9-29

2. External Actions
• Self weight (the thickness of tall piers should be variable with linear or exponential law)
• Actions coming from the deck:
• vertical – self weight, permanent loads, paying load, differential thermal effects,
foundation settlements, prestressing, creep and shrinkage, heart quake.
• horizontal – braking, friction in bearings, heart quake, wind, centrifugal actions,
actions on parapets.
• V
Variable
i bl actions
ti di t on the
direct th pier
i – wind,
i d thermal
th l effects
ff t (global
( l b l andd differential
diff ti l both
b th
from one side to the other and from inside to outside, vehicles crashes, boats crashes,
water and ice pressure.

• CD = shape coefficient → 0.8÷2 ρ


• A = underwater cross section FD = CD V 2 A
• ρ = liquid density 2
• V = liquid speed

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”

1
11 Piers
Sommario
10-29

3. Internal actions evaluation


Non linearities:

• Mechanical
(related to the material): bending- curvature
di
diagrams are nott linear
li andd may be b
approximated with tri-linear curves and are
function of the axial force.

• Geometrical:
a) Variation of static scheme (see next slide)
b) Slenderness of the pier
(remember to take into account the deformability of the foundation)

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”
1
11 Piers
Sommario
11-29

• Variation of static scheme : horizontal longitudinal displacement are in general free for
small magnitutes, but afterwards they find the abutment restraint action. Therefore the
pier is at first free on top then becomes horizontally restrained

• Slenderness: should be realisticallyy modeled takingg into


account building imperfections and foundation
deformability (unfavorable effects) as far as the
horizontal restrain action due to friction in the bearings
of the deck (favorable effect).

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”

1
11 Piers
Sommario
12-29

Real determinant lengths are deeply related to the effective restraint conditions,
conditions
in particular on the top of the pier at the deck bearing.
The values ggiven in the Final Draft dell’EC2 p
part 2 ((Bridges)
g ) are shown in
Table 1.
The real degree of restraint MUST be evaluated with great caution.
For high and slender piers (with variable section) the general method for 2°
order effects should be used. It is based on finite differences and on the
knowledge of bending-moment
bending moment curvature diagrams for a relevant number of
sections.
Itt iss used for
o ve
verification,
cat o , so tthee ppiers
e s has
as to be p
pre-dimensioned
e d e s o ed in adva
advance.
ce.
Creep has to be taken into account as it enhances 2° order actions. A deformed
shape since the building due to imperfections should be taken into account.

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”
1
11 Piers
Sommario
13-29

Table 1

* assumed value

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”

1
11 Piers
Sommario
14-29

Displacement
i l 1stt andd 2ndd order
d curvature
t
bending moment

x2
Taylor series approximation of the yn = yn−1 + xy 'n−1 + y ''n−1
displacement of the pier: 2
Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”
1
11 Piers
Sommario
15-29

The derivatives can be expressed with finite differences

1
y 'n −1 = ( yn − yn − 2 )
2x
1
y ''n−1 =
τ n −1

x x2 1 x2
substituting: yn = yn −1 + ( yn − yn − 2 ) + = 2 yn −1 − yn −2 +
2x 2 τ n−1 τ n −1

x2
In the same way: yn−1 = 2 yn −2 − yn−3 +
τ n−2
x2
y2 = 2 y1 + (as y0 = 0)
τ1
x2 x2
y1 = − y1 + y1 =
τ0 2τ0
(supposing symmetrical defromation for x < 0)
Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”

1
11 Piers
Sommario
16-29

The displacements can be expressed as a function of the curvatures:

⎛ 1 ⎞
y1 = x 2 ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2τ0 ⎠
⎛ 2 ⎞ 21 ⎛ 2 1⎞
y2 = x 2 ⎜ ⎟ +x = x2 ⎜ + ⎟
⎝ 2τ0 ⎠ τ1 ⎝ 2 τ 0 τ1 ⎠
⎛ 4 2⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 1 ⎛ 3 2 1⎞
y3 = x 2 ⎜ + ⎟ − x2 ⎜ ⎟+ x = x2 ⎜ + + ⎟
⎝ 2 τ 0 τ1 ⎠ ⎝ 2τ0 ⎠ τ2 ⎝ 2τ 0 τ1 τ 2 ⎠
.......................................................................................
⎛ n n −1 n − 2 2 1 ⎞
yn = x 2 ⎜ + + + ...... + + For a general section n
⎝ 2τ 0 τ1 τ2 τ n− 2 τ n−1 ⎟⎠

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”
1
11 Piers
Sommario
17-29

1 1
As a first approximation can be chosen: = Obtaining:
τi τ 0
1
y1 = 0.5 x 2
τ0
x2 ⎛ 2 2 ⎞
y2 = ⎜ + ⎟ = 0.5 2 x
2 ⎝ τ0 τ0 ⎠
2 1
τ0
( )
x2 ⎛ 3 4 2 ⎞
y3 = ⎜ + + ⎟ = 0.5 3 x 2
2 ⎝ τ0 τ0 τ0 ⎠
( ) 1
τ0
.......................................................

yn = 0.5 nx 2( ) τ1
0

So, as the
S h first
fi order
d bending
b di moments M1i are known,
k the
h totall bending
b di
moments Mi are:
M 0 = M 10 + Fn yn + Fn −1 yn −1 + ...... + F1 y1
M 1 = M 11 + Fn ( yn − y1 ) + Fn −1 ( yn −1 − y1 ) + ...... + F2 ( y2 − y1 )
...........................................................................................

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”

1
11 Piers
Sommario
18-29

1
The curvatures = f ( M i , Ni ) can be calculated and the procedure can be iterated as far
τi
as the results don’t change from one step to the other.
1
The convergence of the procedure is high and little influenced by the starting value
τ0

In the very common case of biaxial eccentricity, a linear interaction diagram can be used
once the resisting bending moment in the two principal directions X and Y are known:

The point that represent the internal


actions P(Mxs , Mys ) should be inside
the linear domain.
domain

This procedure is generally conservative

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”
1
11 Piers
Sommario
19-29

4. Details

• Leave enough room on the pier cap to change the bearings.


bearings

• Place horizontal reinforcement to control crack opening due to shrinkage and


thermal actions.
actions
• Analyze and design with attention the diffusion in the pier cap of the forces
coming from the bearings. (adequate strut and tie models). Some examples
are shown in the following slides.
The working stresses of the members of the strut and tie systems need to be
reduced of 20 ÷ 25% as these models respect the equilibrium but not the
congruence of the deformation.

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”

1
11 Piers
Sommario
20-29

Compression
Tension

Z ≅ 0.4 P + H

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”
1
11 Piers
Sommario
21-29

Compression
Tension

Z ≅ 0.2 P

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”

1
11 Piers
Sommario
22-29

Beginning of pier
concreting
Depth 0m

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”
1
11 Piers
Sommario
23-29

Concreting g with
self rising
formwork and
betoncar
Depth 14m

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”

1
11 Piers
Sommario
24-29

Concreting g with
self rising
formwork and
bucket
Depth 47m

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”
1
11 Piers
Sommario
25-29

Detail of the
flying bridge and
f
formwork k near
pier cap

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”

1
11 Piers
Sommario
26-29

Detail pier cap


reinforcement

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”
1
11 Piers
Sommario
27-29

Pier cap

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”

1
11 Piers
Sommario
28-29

Pier cap with


Pi ih
bearing supports

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”
1
11 Piers
Sommario
29-29

Pier cap with


Pi ih
bearing supports

Politecnico di Torino
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering
“Bridge design”