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ffiYffitrffiffififfifu?

ffiTffiY
OF FUEL CCI\4tsUSTION
AND RELATED PFIOCESS INDUSTRIES

Evelyrn Fl. Laurito

Chernicai Ingineerlng Department


Universify of Santo Tomas

f{#,"-lBook Store
ouAD ALpHA cEtur RuNl' ei"DG.
125 Pioneer St., [4andali.rvor]q City

,l-
-
firhlkhp,l b

leol 3torc CCNTENTS


ftilt lt't'tNtl coPYRlcHT. 1994 bt
F velvrr lt I aurito

Freface

of Publicatioirr, i991

PA6F-
CHAPTER

ill r lElrlc rcserved.


f{l lrar I rrl this book may be
I rNr*o,ucrtoN
t Fpt lrlur.rr l in aly fbrm or by
Errr nlr,ril:;, r:xcept brief quotations 1.1 i
1r) COMPLE]E COMBUSTION 1
l,rr,r I r'r,rrr!, without permission )
Irr r+r lltrrE lr.orn the Author. THEOREnCAL OXTGEN . ."... "."..".....
l.\.,
THEORETIC-qL A]R FOl1 COMBUSTTON 4
1.5 PERCENT EXCESS AiR 5
1.6 INCOMPTETE COidBUSTION

2 GASEOUS FUEIJ
2.1 CLASSIFICATTON 6

Ft l'li't ( r,r lilicate of a) Nai.unl Gas". 6

HeEli-lrrrlr,rr No. SP 594


b) Manufactured Gases 6
2.2 \TOLIJMR MEASUREMENI 7
2.3 CAII)RIFIC VALUES OF GASEOUS FUEIS ... ". I
2.4 CArcUIA IONS BA.SEE ON FLJEL ANALYS;S ., Ii
2.5 CAI-ORJFIC VALUE LOSSES t5
a) Dr:e to Incomplete Coinbustjon... i5
b) Due to Sensible Fleat;".":. r6
c) Due to t-lnccndensed WaLer \/apor t6
I ttnt, ,l l,t'
!,;,r I .,,/,r rt', f ,i11111.1,;17phic ArLt & /)rittii;;g ):'rc,s.s
+'i 16,t1,i1,11t,',1 , lrrr1.t,. ,\on .IO.Se, l.{.'-. isBN 971-0&5782.7
' t I ',r'
+.5 COAL COMBUSTION }l/iTH NO
CAiCULIiTIONS BI.SED Cl{ FLIJE CON,IBUSTIBLES LOSI' IN LHE RI;FUSE
tra
GAS A}IAJJSIS ....
PR.OBTEMS .....1..-." 60
4.6 COAL COMBUSRON WITH
ANALYSIS OF FLUE GAS...'".,,.... 62
""""""' 29 COMBUSNBIES I,OST IN THE FEFUSE
PROBIf,MS al Uncoked Cod I-ost i:: the $efuse,'",..":l,'."""""" 62
b) Coked Coal lnst in the Refuse""..-""".'..;"..'."""" 62
c) Combination of Coked and Uncoked Co-al "''"" 62
LIOUID FUEI.S 78

3.1
5 SIJLFUR AT{E' TTS COMPOUNDS

oa 5.1 SULFIJR- COMPOUNDS ,."..'."......'"..'."'"'':" 81


t) ,,1,
5.2 BURNiNG OF nXW SUFUR ""....."-,".'.....'...'-:... 81
Qr)
a) Calculations Baslt' on
Raw Sulfur Anatlsis' ".-.. ;...;-.. " " "'' " " " "' " "'' " " "' 82
3.4
b)t Catculations Based on Andsis
of Bunrer G'as "'"""""""" 84
3.5 CArcUIATIONS BASED
5.3 ROASTING OF IRON HfzuTES":"""""."""",;'r"' 86
ON PARNAL ANALYSIS OF THE FLUE GAS..". 43
PROBWMS..........'. -...'-,. :...' i.'.'.. "' ""'' " ": :". "', " "' 47
5.4 PRODUCTIGN OF H2S-O4 AND OLEI-llvl ' .' 90
,) Co.rt ct Process."...."-......'"" """"'.""' 90

' s.6 glsut,rrrr LIguoR PRoDUCTIoIq " ............'.',.. 98


rt SOLTD FIJEI-s QR]BLEMS "....."..""...... ...,..,-.-.-..r........ I01

4. r CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID FUEIS 49


a) Natural So1id Fuels ....,'..'. "
" " " " " " :" " " " " "' 49 PRODUCNON OF UME
b).arUficia.l Solid Fuels """" j"""""' 49
r04
FUEI,S".J............. 50 6.1 LIME PRODUCilON .' "... :...;.,.....
4.2 ANALYSIS OF SOLID
50 6.2 O{-CL.IIATIONS BASED ON
a)' Proximate AnalYsis
b) UlUmate AnaJysis """'"."""""',:' 50
50 6.3
4.3 EMPIRICAL pguATioNS Oi{ coAL
AI{ALYSIS AND CAI'ruFIC VALUES "...". ' "".... 51
a) Dulong's Ponnula 51
ui caa.riood
Equauon '.......-... 5I
(e
COMBUSTION CAI'I,II.ATIONS .. ".. "'

\rii
rrl
PREFACE
Dedicoted lo the Memory of nny
Mentor:
Prof,'sduardo M. Igqacio Jr.

Fuel combusUon consututes an tmportant


step in iilmosI aJry
c-hemical process industry-wh*r* t is desired. Thus
tlre study of combusrion ls mosr impoi.*i;;;;;hivl,
"di-g.rreration
of Chenri cal Engin eSring which ..,"o*p^"es
,t. r,.ra
the Cn.rir.", i".#
lndultry It is for tliis ieason that this -o-ook has r..u pr*p*.il
It js the autlior:s objeclive rhat"rhror.rgh
t.h,; bil{irr. "Cir*,rr.or
Engir:eering student is provideci *"r"t
,.o , .'o*,.
concepts encountered rn fuer combustion"J""1"?
and r.e,ateJ- fro".."
indusbies' It is afso trre
tle student to a meth.odbJory {1thor's hope that this .of book wilr'expose
for the sojution Stoichiometry
proble*rs that wiII developl6ls:6aiy,cal
O ur Qre.at 1)esire is tfiat Eatfr One of other related engineering problerns.
minA anJ ir.fp f.,,1iu"f,l.
.
'lt'ttp tts 5{ts Eagerness to /ou Fuel combuslion js such a vast and compiicated
topic that
tfie En{, so ifrit tfie Lhr's book can only cover thaf part
whjch oeas"m$: L"J., *or.
Ifirryt you g{ope and volume reliaUons among fhe fuel, a:r inA pioJu.tu
for Witt Comz True. combusLio," calcuration of heat ]osses are
a-lso ir"r.,Ju,l to
of
de[ermine ti:e arnount of heat avaj]able for power
-"ul,Ol g.n._*trorr.
Di{ferent g,pes of fuels- Uq"tri
6ar. are described u,jthin
9{e6. 6:17 problem statements to famiiiarize the
stude,t n"ith l}eir srr;;;
and u-ses. ot,er proces.s indus.rres ;;;;;;;:;:,; U,:"_,
Bisulfite and Lime production ha,e been "r; incrudecr because of iheir
similan ty in stoi chi om etri c ca] c-ulai on.
r *,i, ."",;;;;;'
Ttre approach of th-is book is rnturr);, .o,r,pr,u.o;;.;;;.roru
problems" irodr sample caicutatior*
Ld pir"r,".- rorri.il"-u rr,
ansl/ers have been lncruded to aid the studentf
in his -qrudy.
Although cornputauons are basicaly Materiai Balance calculauons,
tlle solution of problems have been further simpli-fied by diyiding
t /rern into cAsES or TypES each with u up..ifi"
irt)proach. The Systemi International (SI) ii appiied "o*iotationai
rir";gh;;
Itt rlccordar:ce with the shjft from English Cusio-mary units to
rrrrits worldu.ide.
SI
It is the author s hope that this book lr.lil help not only the
(lhernical Engineerirrg student but also students
CHAPTER f,
Iirrflineering disciplinel as well as those pr.p*irrg
of ,trr**
i;, il;;
l,l r:enSure Exarninations.
tastly, acknowredgments have to be gpen to those wh. have
INTRODUCTION
-lree, of great ngr,
i:: the_prepaiation of rhls book- To rry h";sband;
I)ean Alberto-laurito,,for providing arl the material
trrrpport and for pauently teaghing me all the
a,d moral 'fr

ireeded computer
s'{tware that have facilitated the p}epar:auo" *a-""*p"t.uon
of
grroblems; to the Iate prof. Bduaido ig';".,
vrrlurninous notes in stpichionlebDr, ;"roy of which
ro, rr.rra6;; ilil , .

have!.o*a*a
llre hasis foy the computational upprou."li pr.".oted in
uirJ"lx, I DEFINITION
rrls. to both these people ror'taung-time to^review
this manuscript 'COIv{tsUSTIONis a unit pro.*ui in which oxidalion reaction
rrrrl'.qrorriding usefuf suggesu"rr"" n',ully,
above ax, 1;t
wl,lehe?t.d grytttude to the Lard arrrgnty, and whose Light, Guid-
takes place. However not ait oxidation reactjons ar:e terrrjed as
,r(:e and lr:sp c.qmblstion, e.g., oxidation of toluene tt: benzaldehyde, oxlcla-
lauon helped me to pu*I,,r.le all trrr:oJgnout the tiorr of h;rdrogen chloride to chlonne, etc are not normally ternred
1rt elraration of this book. I feel wtthout Hirn, this bborr
iouta- not
^-":
Irirvt: treen a realit5r. ": :u.rybustion
whigh
processeq, Qqqlbustioq ]s a chbmical reiction in
gne- of t}e rg"q,c(ants ii o"yg*r, f.om tt e ait and the other
an:e] {gaseous, iiq.ria, soiiffi_g,pusuqn-1s,1g,gomp_q4ied by :
13
the evolution of ligh.t ana neat,6-d thus}und[smAa is g;";ra]Iy
t)velyn R. Laurito
:s:d in the generalion of heat to suppiy energltbtir-e"proeess-
industries.

I,2 COMPLETE COMBUSTION


The complete combustion of a fuel mezrns that a]l of its
combusubie components are gasified: all of the carbon
1',1,putever
forrn it may exjst in the fuel) jsbr:rned to carbor-i dioxjde: aJi of llie
hvdrogen js converted to water anei all sulfur to sulfur dioxide. j

h.-
2,, s-r-urr.ti i;CI\40.t.ii.,.

und ernorma-r oxidizing . IrvTt?onueroN i 3


rrrg pjace co:'r.sist o^f
conditJo:rs, furnace combi.rstion
riona-l puryoge_s of this
gomprix ,;;J;r. ..o.i,o;;:;;, ;omputa_ tak_ Solutioru
.sl,ral] be conSjdeied.
f,ooi. rror."er, Lne
v+L r.rL.,wEVCr, fo,owing freacuons
f.he IOilOwin$ Basis I mole of gaseous fuel
HZS + 3/2:.fu,=,S02 + HZO
tu
C+or=Co, (0.06) ,

. H2+1/2,Or= HrO I,:l


(0.05)
/2 o,= H,o

S +Or = SO, n IJ
-l
'r,4.t
Y"5 :do= 3 eO, + 4 HrO
f.t -ts',
complete combustio]r
t,,,,. of any organic fueJ is represented
p^o|.ro + t3/2 3, = 4 COz + 5 I{rO
(0.3)
( '''ll*(')vs, * r/2 [2w +x/2 +zz-;v] 02
= s7 coz + x/2Hro + z So,
*:o /2rc.05) + 5(0"5a n ru,,r(Q"so)
",'',: ?.Y#}fff":
T.3 THEORETICAL OXYGEN
'l'rreoreticai
o:rygen is the
o.lygen Method 2:
lrr r:'r r,rr' The.. *1il;,;;irr"o"ir requirecr for compiete
d.;;;i"ing corn_ Tg compo-nentsuto*"
: "llonorrairrg_ of the fuel are broken down
rnro
ll[Yl:('ll: Yv vr \r('Lcrirli rhe rheorerica,r of carb,o;:";"r#;;["-
gen and moles of o4ygen present.
' combustion, each For .odpi*t.
Met'rrod l: The indivirruaJ^!aranced c- i[uro** t more or;
"io-*- r
each atom sutfur requlres
tion of eac. comb,rsuul. equation for the oxida- mli. a",;;;.I,i*
car grygen is the sum
rlllntten. The rhdoreri- H requires r /4 mole 0* Th;
l;il
the fuer is subtracted frn* ur..o, *?i1., ,r A: ,;
ririi"the
each complete combur;;;: oxl,ger: used jn .."q"".LILq"
to give the theoretica-r o, from
air" The ralionare
behhd this is ti:at
!e{o!; ;, amount of O- is
tafren from the air, the fuel frr_, ,n."/r*,
together wlth it. Thus: "Oir?.,

l''r,l tt1ilt, De-termine the theoretjcal


moles of dry a:r re_
qulred for the cornbusrl"".i"ne
gases contajnj:rg more of refinery
6g6 ff"S, iqa l1r' 57o/o
cor. - C"LJ., 2;/a
";;'*t% cuH,,,.
(4) From Petroleum and oji shale
n By crachng (.Reflnerrr, Gas)
cHAprE - 2 . By hydi:ogenaUon (Ort Cqs)
o By u'ater gas reacUon (Orl Go51
.

GASEOUS FUELS ,r
:
ai nxjdauon tCrit Cas)

(5) From Carl:ides wirh water (Aee{risn.1


(6) By Electrollzsjs wjttr eiectncity (FJr1

2.2 VOLIJME MEASURENfiENT


7. T CLASSIFiCATION GF GASEOUS
FUELS -J-"yj'
fuels of value in Commerce inciude a,r d temp erature, these coi dtions'"i."" ia
';i:rr:ous gases, gases
Irvrl,',,,,,nrbon ,atural when ttte volume of a gas js given. fJ rl::",ilt;
manufactured solely for.use as fuels,
'rrrrl ;lirses obtajned as by-prod""i"^ or sr;me jndushes. The Cornrnon Conditions for Gas Vohrme Measurerqents
lrrll,rrri'{ classificatiorr .of giseous r,-,ers
r oI nt I rf ,r-(,ia_l importance.
,"J"a"" o, are:
"r",_[." I tan d :rd te,m p erature anci pre-ss r*re(s. t. p )
-, .

,r) Natura.l which is 0"C and 760 mnr FIg


u,ith petroleum oi) deposils, wjth Norrna.l Temperaturg and press-ti.rl (]rJ"fp)
^_*::"j:ited
"u. or wirh the decay of o4ganic ;i;..-*
,.\ ::1itrlulac[ure
t) rvr ":r-" gases , which is 3l|[a.:fig_g*g]trg. or*
t

(r ) From Woo_By disLillaUon Q"c sla ?60 aAXt


-
or carborrizatiou (Wood Qlagdard Tgrlperature and kessure{STp)
Cas)
(2) Frorn peal_By CjstjllaLjo:r which ts OO"F and S0' Hg or
or carbor:izaUon .(peot Ga-s) 15.56"C arrd 760 mm Hg
(iJ) From CoaJ_By carbonizaUon
{Coal Cas)
" By gasificaUon Drgcpldtrons mears no water vapor js presenl i,,r+,- !L -
(j) in atr (Froducer Gas)
![-u't e!.n-dE-ons ireans r}re gas is sati:ratlo *ii-*r l]Y *t g*
{iiJ in ajr arrd steam {Water at STP water vapor
(::1 ,, O, a::ld stearr: (Lttrgi Gas)
Gas)
' By h-v*drogenation .\t ScLturaiort
As a b1',-product of rhe redu cuo,. Partial Piessurq of w.arer ji.l gas
p.tmace of ores (Blasr
Gas) - \/rnn,-
= ,qyur. rres_S..ur:€
D At padja.l Sa,iur:aUoq"
= \/apor pressurr r: (%Rll/ jO0)'

b<
IN'lR(ji-rl.jCil0N z 5

I' tn1, | ,\,unpie I by Method 2:


t1.r'.1,, I rrrole of glseous fuel I "5 FERCENT EXCESS AIR
In actual practice, theo::etical. ajr is not sufficjenl, to get
compl ete. combu sli on. Tw o_ob*iou s phen 0menon 0f in c'mplete

!i
Llt tl .ta

)
A?S

0.06
ATC ATH
4.12
:ry or parUal combustion a-re CO and H2 formation jn fire flue gas
and the presence of uhburrred eombustibles in the refuse fcrr
solid fuels. Excess air suppiy or eacess o2 supply is a r,ust ior
complete comblrstion" It js defined as follows:'- "
i!
0.1
Excess Oz = Actual O, $ufnly - Theo O-
r.71 4.56
%
E-rcess O^
0.02 0.02 7,0 Excess Ai-r = ;-.:- . -#-ua x l0ti
rneoreucal
():t0 - -7.
r.2a 9.00
!y_p1,:9 9z_ I:l_gz_ y , orr
I ()o o.06 oo,
L,JO '7.78 Theo 0,
4.02
-----
x5t (,z-- *. ,^n
ilr-r !r, ',, !l.J I O 06 + 7.78/4 _ Supplied 0, - Excess O, ^ '"
0.0? = 4.gI S Ansu;er

I I II II ()I\'I IICAL AIR FOR COMBUSTION The act,a-l Percentage Excess fur depe,crs on t.he fuer ,serr
irrr r'1r'(ir ;rrr" is air.that
for combustion. NormaJtygaseous fuels re qurre very rrt[le excess
ri" "* rr' r| ( l')'rlAir fr-rrcombustio.,contains the exact aniount of or; liquid fuels require s'rlewhatmore vo excess o, depending o.
alarroqi.nsis assumed to be their characteristics; solid fi:els requrle maxirnum excess o...
1 i. r'r | -' ttrtl i' l'l'i, NZbyvolume. IV2in
-, r ..r, .r ,lllrrr,rrl lo the O2in thJa:r. airlsnon-combustible a::d

1,ty1,1, ,Allrrnace js fir-ed with petroleurn


oil containing i .6 INCOMPLETE COMEUSTION
,'ioolr C,
lA%H,30lo S, t% N and 3o/o
rirc rnoles theoretjcd_] air requiieJ O. Deterrnlne Incon:plete combustion cf f'uel repr,eser:Ls a loss of heat
lrusLion of one kg of oi1:
ior tHe com_ sincb thls should have Lieen given off foi ,ddruonal power use
had the fuel been complete.ry brur::t. IrrdicaLars of incomplete
'11i1, ,11 lt,i:;is: I lg'of fuel ojl
ccimbustion are the presence of ccr, H" a-riri sool in the exhar:st
gas as well as urrburned combustjbl6s nr Lhe relusr.
iir',r t r
;,,tt / )') + 3/3; + t3/4' , rr, = 0.0991 7
i ,,i,r,,ll

,.1 ri.:; r.i:ci.


t r-r'l"r.rlr.:;iO;riEi-li)'

T]-ie Vann- D.-^^.----


Dquerion il6ffi:::.:t bl usins Anroine,s
""'*ruted
I

Total
B
lqgVp=A* rvhere Ir =
C+T i-atent Heat of Cr.:ndensaUon
= 44.04 M.l/lqmot of flp**-.,
u,ll(jre \,? is in mm Hg: T js jn
"C _ Ca-ionfic Value i,r Si a,-e exf.1e;sed
l,irr.rvarcr A= 7.9668f B
=-iois.z, ci22g t basis"Tjf..
rku75-sMl']r Gooc-ieq=d 9l u ,JCr (MJi dry
roeB
'-::-t \.f,,ffient .i7
Lruiu tC i,a_lue jS
^al^.+tri^
[g',,0
,,
u,hether ir js rhe GCV or Hivg, a OrOblern WjthOUt SpeCrfung
r..I CALORI'r]C..V4IU-ES ti-ri XCri"lr ff"y n. assumed
_O.E G4SEOUS FUETS Valut to be rhe
ir) 'lhe balorific 3;'"":,.t"orific "irr.. ,t-,"'in,.'r*rue which is usua,rr
v;alue) o1'a rirer is rhe
given off bv the compJete ;*:S:::rT
oirnousii.;;
,rf the fuei &t sonre rcfa-o^^^ -rsUorr of ;;'::-',] hear
'j].'- "."t
a unjl quanUry
t.", p.r" r,l *"
Exaryle /: Calculate the gross
tclnperature *
":: ff
Ill.I."as". 2s"c
_
^
;l;;
;";;.;:::[T
h#f#.? and net
natural gas at- 25"C which calorific
has
value of a
;rrrrbient air lemperati.rre
ffiI.:,.,,:*en composition: the foiloio:ns
may be used). 89.40/o CH., S% C.,H^" ,.gri;;';'*
0.40/a i-CoHio, 0.60;6 n.C.,H
l,i 'l'y1.rcs
of Calorjfic Values llf : ,a" a Zrt io, .,0 Jdi,ii.

"' ,?l;?il
calo^fic v;;;
tGc\'1 or Higher r{calins-va,ue a) MJllorol
b) kcal/gmol
falo,nfic Va.lue measurecl when rvater formerl by MJ/ks
n'l
r'rrrbustion is,.r t1;jr#;tilnen
,,., Nct
(',')
d) MJrdry SCM
Nt't C;rln;t';^
caloririe \r-r..- -. ri?^i n e) MJ/SCM
Y;*:*:::..:;#:::L"
*
;" x:I;,.?tr
tins varue (LFrvl
;I.T# l'lis in.
.,rnbustjon r,r:tle *"lliq"
g.;.;;; ;;;., J:iY Solulion Basis: I igmoi of natur-al gas
r I ( |t:;(,ol:S Mt_XtUfeS
Hc,MJ/ inxr{c
kmol
CH, 0.894 .ROn o< 796.5I
u lrllr. ll(,j = Heat of u^I-t^ 0.05 l 560.92
CombusLjon cf qornp6nent 78.05
r
{Refer to ,Appendix l)
rrj = mole fracli ii ofgaseolts '*:l'
'8 0.019 )ni1 i. tt r)
con-ljlollerrt i
j-a ri 0.0c).{

L , , ,,* *-*
GASiOI rS Ftiir_-.I.S I I I
I
-) ji rl r ------T! n x. H" I .,rr-r
I Hc,MJi I
'2j l,ie( Cairirjfrc: Vialue

rr-C 4H l0 0.006 ToLal rnoles wat"er formed - atli/2 = 4:l2B12 = L.A64 kg rno)
0.06 I ss
( l()z Moles Water frorn Fuel Combustion
0.007 NC\'= GCV -
I
I
ni
*',* x Lc c,f Warr:r
Total Moles of Frrel
I!,, 0.02
t28 wtrere k = Latent Heat of Condensatinn
945.52 4.12s1 I8.088
= 44.04 MJ/i(,gmol af HZO

a) MJllginol = 945.52 - (2.064/t) (44041 = 854.62


nvcrage molecular weisht of
the €as = 18.088 kglksmot b) kcal/gmol = S54 62 /4.18? = 204 tl
l/ Gross Calorific Value c)" MJ/kg = 854.62/t8.0BB = 47"28
a) MJllgrnot = 945.5?
d) MJIdSCM = 854.62 10.04221= 36"06
li) kcd/gmot = g45.5, x (t/A.lB7) )nR aa
= LLUIL'L
e) MJTSCM = 854.62 lO.O4I4Tl = 35.44
r:) [4r r}u = 945 52:: (1/1B.0BB) q1 17
=

(i) MJ i dSClv{=94_5-i2 MJ o*o,. 213 2.4CAI-CIJLATIONS BAsED Or.J FUEI ANALYSIS


:kgmol.
224m3 " 273+ l-i.56 {CASE U
:945_i2 [0+]21
a) Fronr the cornplete anirlysrs ol the rLietr. ihr rhcr:rerical
= i9 9i .A.ns o,a:!'gfn and Lj'le calorific va_lue ca;r he rjelerrrrined.

(') Al_ l5.S6"C using Altoine


Equalion: b) If data,n air (0/o exccss air or arnoJ,t o[ air supp]jerl) is
gi\/en togelhtr r.rrith lhe degree of cr_rrn;rletiorr of {.he
lrr;f \lP = 7.96683 - 1668.2 l/{228+l reaction, the follovr.i;tg can be ca_lcr_riated:
r.56) = 13.i mm Hg (l) Analysis iOr-_qat or CompleteJ of i_he prociur:ts r:l
n{' ,. ks moi corntrustjorr ca_lled [he flue gases or {lre stack gases.
I\4, r/ scM
=, -. 273
kg.mol " 224m{ '- ;73;1556
zb0 - 131
These-$!.ses are rronr:ally CL)r, CO. SO" l_{, frce
. , .= 9qSS2 x i,O4t4V, 760 02, li, zLnd i-1,O. Orsat aralvsis of tie gas ir j_,ll u,-il Coe*=
noi. ili,c;1ude r,,'ater.
= 3C2t .{\,S 1:r * Q, r1r;; ;1r<1j'I iq
= :i:::: 'r
?,: i'i ,',ii l" ';71
6

't..., - it fr,lrrr ,i,r' + N. Ir-,,r1 l,,i.l


Ij^() = rrtoist.Ll.c frOl: i'ucl ; irriJt\[urr-. llOrlr ;t i.
. ii,O ionned /l-orrr r:ornburslroLr ol l't.r e i

b-
..,s;ij()lis r

Air-fuel Ratio at Ca-rton = 2


Stack gas-Fuel ralio at Hydrogen = 6
,,11."*1, effictencl, of combustion 2-614=3.5
ca_n be ca-lculated Theo C), = at C + aL H/4 - moies
1,,,i:: f:".-"- :*:
l.:;.ses,
y : :_T ". ;";;;;
of rhe rr-r er ald t_rr. )Css O, = 3.5(.2) = 0.7
-neglecling heat input from the il;; O, f.rom air = q"5 + O.7 = Art
.

.. ..,.* urrrLrcrrLy
tlrr:nnal elficiency of uornouslron
combuslion rneasu:
.Itrirt {.rr measures % of the "?, \ frorn alr = 4.2 179121) = 15"8
from the fuel that can ta rsJ to por,..rt"
-,
CO, formed = lotal a[ C = 2
I{rO fornled = at H/2 = 612 = 3
r';rlcrrlatiorrs is rj:e DEW pAINTof
tlte flue gas. *I!r."ti Free O, = e-xcess A, = 0.7
I I u r-moistr:-re present jn
tJ.e gas, the nilne. is lts dew poJni
ll tlre flue gases are cooled below fie Oew point. H, al Orsat ,AnalSzsis of Cornbustjon Prociucts ,AJ\JS
,,1,1]:].:':1..:1d rnav ciissorve
l'lr.se acids *. .o..o=ir,* uoJ r?;;
Co, a.nd So, Lo i"; ;;; GA.S Moles Vo

;;r;O* CO, 2 10.81


o2 0"7 3.78
L,rtrtltl(' 2: pure etha:lje is burned completely
in 20o/o N2' 15,8 85.41
ajr. Air ts sr-roplied at 25"C, V4O lorrs arrd 18"5
substantiall), ciry. Calculate;
a) Orsat analysis of tl-re products ,rf cornbu
bl F.dl, li, :,-:pp1ierJ,/kg of luel.gas b) kg dry ak/kgfuel = il11i*8)A!l = 1e.33 ANS
t)
c) Cnbic r::il.*;-s c{ ur/kg ethane :3

d) .Cr-rbic rr)rll,ir-s of tiie prodrrcts of


ilreasr_ri-cd i,rl, 400,,C, 100 kpa/kg c) ei9sry = !1?--'ljjl??9:#r 1#f-
cl P;ritial prcs.suIL: oi wa(er in fh.:= kg ettrane -10

cofitbu stj,:n = 1671 ANS

, tlt ttrr,r r: Hasis: I kgnrole stia:ie or 30 kg ethane d) ToLa-l rnol:s of comhusUon products = 18"5 + 3 = 2.i".5

101325 273+404
AIR
Stack m3 stackgas
tnno kg etlnne :i0

100 KPa
P*, moles *'aler
RIlilFqiFF
EVtiitd_:\ 'Pt tota.l moles
--r,
qr.
i't,re !- -ll'

, tl,,
.j,i..
:i.. e) Ptv ., I 00 x (3/21.51 13 953 k-Pa ANS
+6.
#
{
-yt.

&i.

h- ft
l4 I ltr )tctitoMETi<l ilAstr()L;S i''i.;h.if, / l5

l'lrrrnple 3; Pure met-hane is bur:ie,J with 40% excess ajr al,rj aJ Orsat Analvsis ANS
25o/o of its carton conlent is converted to CO the
rest to COr. 9Or/o of ils hydrogen bums to rvater, GAS moles o/a

the rest remains as unbumed Hr. Air supplied is CO, 0.75 5"88
at 23oC; 758 mm Hg urith 800/o RH, Calculate: CO 0.25 1.96
a) Orsat analysis of the combustion products H2 0.20 1.57
b) m' of air suppited per kg.methane o2 i.0?5 8"03
c) ms of combustion products at 35OoC ald N2 to5_t8 82.56
riormal barometric prEssure per kg metftane. 12.758

.$olutton.' Basis: I Ig mole metharie at 23"C, log \rF = 7.9668i - 1668 2lll228+23): VP = 20'82

' )n or{n s)
moles water from air = (2,8+10.533) * - = 0'30I
AIR --"''-:"'"'
758 - 20.92(.8)
Stack Gas
230C
758 mm t-{g
3500C
40 o,/o x'ss 1 atm (z a*tos::+0.30i)x 22 4Y9,31lI
,r' ait
Bt.iRNER b)
l6
kg methane

Fuel =20.75 ANS

cH+ moles waler jn cotlbustioir produe:ts = C'301 + i "B = 2.101

' \ 273-35(r
;rtC=l ?^
m'Comb
''^
Gas 112758+210),)x224x
,.+
.lt
Iil
l1 --
A
a -27J__
kg metha-ne 16
'l'lreoOr=l+1/4=2
= 47 47 ANS
x'ss O, = 0.4(2) = 0.8
(), frorn anr = 2 + 0.8 = ?.8 '. ''
N., from ur = 2"8 x (79121) = 10.533
2.5 CALORIFIC VALUE LOSSE5
()t.) icL;neC = 0.25 x I + rJ.25
(l(t ion,-red = I - 0.25 = C 7i
al CaJori{lc Va-iue loss due to irlcomplelr combr-rst-ion
Th'epresenceofUnbumedComlrL:srib]esco]lsliLtltea
Ilnbumed H, = ().1 x (4/2) = 0.2 calonfic \/a,lue l,oss: had iJ.]ese sui:slalces bee;r comlllg't-e,iv
,l IrC fc:'inei = 0.! .t i'i,i2) = l.E
br:rned, t,irev would have ,{iven olf addiUonal heirt-
lit'c r), = 0.3 t" '\ii.2':i)-i +-{,lt:i2) = l.C)25 (1) due to CO = mr:lqs CO lr:rmed x 283 18 MJ/kgino)e
izj dr-re. lo Hu = rnoles H" forned x 286'03 M'likgmoi

u.
ll z:;'rc_rrcntoMETRr,

lrt Crrjoriflc Va-iue loss dr_re GA-sEous ruals / l7


part of the to sensible heat
generateJ uy fuer conrbusuon
is absorbed Soh:fu:ru Basis: I
ll,f#::€ases *hi"h r.u*-i',"
^heat
;h;;;;; "i,.,1., n,gn
kg mole dr-y Blast Furnace Ga-s

AIR
CV ]oss due to Sensible 300c Stack Gas
Heat = r: rx (Cpl1000) x (le_To) 762 mm Hg 2000c
where T^- = sat'd 750 mm Hg
of stack gas, .C
TX = femp€rafrrre
6affi-[*#,"re,assumed BURNER
+!vs ur
as au
2S,c
cp = specific heJt, rollrgmolK
Cp
Fuel
T.1y be esiimared by: Riast Furnace Gas
cp /g.sl4 = A * BL * i/ _ -rtT2 + D
s(sr^_T2 /(TiTr) (25"C, 98'trpa, srltd)
Refer to Appendix .D 27o/o CA
2 for A, B, C and I2o/o CO,
T, = & +273 : = to *zzi':L f (ir+7,)/2
1 2o/o H,
ll (';rlorific Value lost due to Uncondensed 570 CHo
(:V I,,ss due to Wrrter Vapor 54o/o N,
Uncondens;J;;;
rrroles water from cornbusuon
i-n+.On MJllanoj
l"rrrtrtple 4: A blast Gas mole at e ,nole O,
lyi"l.-. gas analyz ing 2Tok CO, t2o/o
CO, co 0.27 0"27 1t"
,oro ,r^:,.y. CfJ*,-and S+ilo N, at 2S"C alrd gg
and situratea .Lth ,rt.r rrupor kpa co, 0.12 a.tz
0:1 35

is burned in l$a/o P,2 0.02 0"04


excess air. Ai1 is supplied
a_lso saturated wjih *rt... g0%
a[ 30"C,.ZOZ to_" ,ra c[{{ 0.05 .0.05 i.,,
jn t1.e fuel js converted of tfiei"t.J \,
to CO, tir. ,;; "iU",
JJCO. 0.44 0.24 R eEq
Moiar ratjo js t:4 jn t6e
:iil to COZSb
leaves at 200"dana "a.L!*
,*.i.i.i,
,oI;.s. Calculaie: Tt1 o, 10aa+{0"24/4)
0.15 x 0.245
-0.2sb- =a"24s.
Il"1o, = = 0.03675
a) Orsat ,r-,aylis of tht slack gr.s O, from air = 0.245 + 0,03575 O.:AiZS
b) air-fuel raUo by vclume N, from air = 0.28t Zb :, ,.Tg/it)=
c) moles stack gasrzmole fuel = l G'
dJ Gross Calonfic Value of C ccr:r,erted to CO, = 0.g x A.44
the fuei jn KJISCM
e) 9,6 of Lhe calor]fic valrie losi C conveded : - = 0 396
jl r,rnbumi combustibles due lo !o CO = {J.044
,
jj) uncondensed u,ater vapor Hr_unburned = 0.044 x (ti4)
:iri se;ts;irll hc,;,i HrCJ formed = (0.24/2),
= .011
:l -,1.,::;l.j ,.tl.:i:jer,ci. 0li = "109
f". + (.aaa/2) i
N, =?"=-.03675
N, Irom fuel * N.,
(,0r--'-'
frorn.ai:.
1/2) = 06425
cl
-=.:r.i+l.Ub=1fi
l6 i9

Analysis AN*s e) Ca-ior-iiic Value l.osses

Gas moLe o/a i) % cv josr dr,re Lo co *0'044(283 l8) x 100 = 9.811% ANS
CO, 1.2613
0.396 18.72
CO 4.a44 2.CB
H2 0.o11 0.52 g?]Ii8lryl
o?. 0.06425 3.04
% CV iost due to H, = x 100 = 2.48% "ANS
N, l./.O. I )
t.r) 75.64
21 15% iJ) GAS mole Cp
nt 25,C logVP = 7.96683 - 1668.21iQ28+2$1 CO, 0.396 41.89 16.59
, VP 23.61
ll0"c log"v? = 7.96681 - 1668.21/(228+30) ; VP = CO 4.a44 29.6V 1.3
=31.687 H, 0.01I 28.85 ne,
o2 0.06425 30.54 1" 96
Mrrles water from fuei 23"6 i N2 1.6 20 2,1 +/ u5
= -nn?a HrO 0"2002
98 x 760 34.21 .6.86
101325 - 23.61
74.A8 kJlK,
o/o
CV loss dr"re to ser:sible heat
Mtrlc:s water from air = (1.06 + .28175) * -*:l',687-= (].05g2 _!+.osl iooo)(2oo - 2:)
7b2* 3t.68i x 100 = 7A.23o/o
1261'l

(toe + 28)15 +0.-s82]\ x


760 213 + :O iji) o/o CY loss due lo Uncondensed Water Vapor
.
1
ilt illr -, -- - -
l,) 126 2i3_* 0 109 x "14"U4
rrr' firel i01.325 273 + 25 x i00 = 3 79 A-NS
(r + o::) * 126 13
98 273
= LJ./.y
fJ Thermai Elficiency = 10Cl - tg.g3 + 2.48 + 10.28 + S.79)
l(,lirl waler in stack Eas = 0.1C9+O.tr33+0.05g2 0.2OC2 = 73.670,/o ,sJ{S
=
rl Mrrlt:slackgas/rno1e fuel = {2.JtSZb + A.2AO2)l }.033 = 2.Z4ls Exctmple 5:-cozil Gas ai .r5"c, 760 rr:rzs a-nr-J sa(uraled r,vrrr]-r
u'al_er vap,or is
buri:ed l:r a fui-rrace. Alr wjlh 6002i
,l) (;('\./ = (-'.)7t233.181
+ 0.C2(286.C3i - 0UJi5l0.g5) RH js supplidel at iie lale of S.l rn2/ m,,coal gas
- 726.23 |IJlkgmol aild eniers at the sixnf Leil.tljcr.3ture ;l-nd
c:t' )26.7?,{C.O414Zl ;trrssure
= 5.2S ivI._r/S{t}4 as lhe coal ga.s. I*he r:r;al .q;r.; ;rn;-il-\.zcs ) 4, a()
2.7a/o C",11.., 0.79/aA-. S Sq4,' CrJ 53 2()/,,H". 2g 6jt,

h. i
,lllMl:.lJ'R'iJ

clAst<.rrisl t'urus / 21
CHo, arld 6.670 Nr. ratro of CO, to CO
jn thegtack gasj: ]e.mofar
iO:i. Ail ttre H, jn the fuet is
bumed to water. The stackgas tea.res Moles of Dr1 Coa.l
1 '160 - 12/a4 2'73
at 4O0"C and
224 213 + 15

= 416.14
a) %o excess air
b) Olsat Analysis of the stack gas
c) ms qtack gat/m3 of coal gas- Moles water frorn coal Eas 416.14 x (12"64/76A) = 7.A4
d) Dew Point of the stack gL
=
GAS n atC atH mole 0,
10000 m3 of coal gas CO, J.6J C.O*)
C,H, 17"24 22.48
o2 2.91 2.9r
r'rt"ri'/1f coal gas CO 24.14 24"74 ]2"07
H, 221.39 442.78
AIR CHn 123.18 123.18 492"72
1 soc Stack Gas N, zt.+t -:,-_,
/(i0 torrs 4000c I75.63 957"98 20.81
fio % RH 100 kPa
BURhJER
theo 0, = 175.63 + (9tr7.98/4) - 20.81 = 394.32
Moles wet a:r = 57000 x (I/'22.4 x ZTB/ {2TB+LS) = 24tZ 1t
Fuel
( ]OAL GAS Moles dry air = 2412.1I x [760 t2 G4("6)ll16CI = 2388.04
(t s.c, 760 torrs, satd)
l.4o/o CO. Moies O, from air = 0.21 -x 2388.04 = 501.4g
2.7o/o crH, Moies \ from air = 0.79 x 2388.04 = 1886.55
O.7o/o O, Moles water from air = 2412"11 - 2388.04 = 24"A2
l;.8% co
53.2o/o I\
29.60/o CHo -s0t.49 * 394.32
ti.6olo \ 7o excess O, = --JX;;-*- * I00 = 27.19 ANS

CO, formed = il0/11) x 175.63 = I59.66


\/olrrrrrc of air = 87000 mj CO formed = {7/11j x 175.63 = f1EJ.-1lF I

Al lir'C- logl? = 7.g66g3 _


1668.21
Free O, = [501.49 -394"32] + {15.97/2) = 115 16
/(22t+15)
VP = 12.54 rl:rr Hcr
-.
Nr, '27 .17 + 1ti,50.55 -- I914 (12

L_
HIOMI!TilY
;A_sEous iunus z 23

Analys.is ANS
c) . An O" baiance will deterrnine the O, unaccounted tb.r" This
GAS ,n o/o
burn H, to water, and w.as not accotrnted sirrce
O, was r-rsed to
CO, 159.66 7.24 water js not included jn the orsat anaJysis.
co 15.97 0.72' d) lAtten losses of eombusUble matter such as sdot are small.
o3 I 15.16 5.23 a1i the Carbon in the fuel are accounted for in the stack gas.
N, 1914.02 86.81 e) The ADTIII{DROGENis t}re hl"drogen in the fuei that useJ O,
22A4:91 from airfor combustion. The net hydrogen is equai to the totai
hydrogen in the fuel if no Or. is present in the fuei.
water from combustion = 9:57.g2/2 47g.gg
=
Exarnpte 6. A pure saturated hydrocarbon (C"Hr"-) is bumed
,moles water = 478.gg + 24.A2 + 2.04 = 510.I with e.ycess air" Orsat anaiysis of'tiiiiproOucts of
combustjor.r shows 9.08% COr, I.630/o CO, S.2Bo/o
O, and no'ftee Hr. CaJcutate:-'
I rta.k
, l0li25 213 + 400
(2204.81+ 5I0.i,) x 2/.4 x
= 100 z't3 a) The fomrula of tfre hyclrocarbon
C08J gas 1000 b) o/o excess air
- c) ry dry atr/YS of hydroca-rbon
= I5.i9 AIttrS
Scrlufion-' Basis: 100 kg moles dry stack gas
Prebsure water in SG = I00x5l0.I ,z (2204.81+510.1)
= 18.79 kpa or 140.94 mm Hg
9.089/0 CO,
,lt Antolne Equalion: AIR
1.630/o CO
log t+o.s+ = 7.goo8r- 1668.21 /(228+1) 5.2gak 02
T = 58.74"C
58.74'C ANS BURNER
I

i
'!:

TIONS BASED ON FLUE GAS ANALYSIS 'r\ H


un"zr,r2
Eill
\ tn.the fuet is neglig]ble, the N, in rhe flue
gasmal,
turned ic be all comil$ lrom 'aj..' By dilierenCe: %-N, in the stack gas = 84.01
C" {rom air = 84.01 x {21/79) = 22.33
lE O" mav be computeci as: O, unaccounted for =22.33 - (9.08 + ).63/2 + 5.28) = 7.16
O, = frt'e C^ - (CO/2) - (h /?.)
net I-1, = H., iit the fuel = 7.16 x 2 = 14.32
I otaj at H in the fuel - 14.32 x 2 = 28.64
lllC)t'di:ltiy
GASAL'IIS FL.iEI^S 12i

l,t, C in tj:e fu,el = 9.0g .r i.63 = i0,71


O, from ajr = 82.69 x {2I/79) = 2L9B
r,t c 10.7t n Xss O, = 5.43 - (1.37/2) - (0.69/2) = 4.4
ft H 28.64 2n + Z a) o/o orcess O, = [4.4 / (2l..gS-4"4)J x
100 = 250"/a ANS
n =- 2.965 or 3 O"/.unaccounted for = 21.98 -
19.82 (t.32 /2)+ 5.43, = 6.045
+
Moles net H, burned to water = 6"045 x 2 = .12"'Ag
I of the hydrocarbon: CrHr A.j\S Total moles I{, in fuel = 12.09 + 0.69 = L2.78 or.25.56 at H
9z= 5.28 - 1.63/2 = +.+O-S Total at C =.5.82 + 1.37 = 11.19
I-et x = moles CrH, and y = moles CI{+
alr = [ 4.465/ i ZZ.eS-+.q6S)] x taO = 21o/o ANS I
moles
i GAS at C atH
qtr C,H, x
_Egl. "g
.c =- (ro.zi)irrlx[
12.33)
= 7e'62 Ans
tr;
t,
t:
CI{o v
2J<.

v
2;t
4y
r
t
b+y = 11.19
Cbalance: '2x
Orsat analysis of the stack gas from ttre combus- lIbalance: + 4y = 25.56
Uon of a gaseous mixture of acetlzlen. ,ort SoMng simultameously: k = 3.2 and y = 479
metlrane shows 9.82:(.Q9r,_i.SZ o/o CO, 0.69ohHr,,
5.43% 0, ai-rd 82.6g0/o lVri O.t.r*irr.,'

a) 7o excess
o/o CrHr= 13"2 I 8.2+4.79)j x i00 = 4O.OSa/o ANS
a:r o/o CH; -- [4.79 / (3.2+a.79) J x I00 = 59.957o
b) M^ole o/o composjtion of the gaseous fuei
c) m3 wet air supplied at 26"C, zls torrs Ai zovo At 26"C logVP = 7.9668i - t668.211(228+26) :
RH per kg_ of fuel Vp = 25.06 mm Hg
Jasis: j00 rnoles dry bumer gas
25.ad01)
Moies #ater from air = (2L98+82.69) x = 2.457
AIR 76s-2s"0q.1)
Stock Gos
I 28OC
torrs
9.82o/o CC, 273+26
%RH 7.37a/o CO n.r m-" wet air {eroerqooe\.,nnn76a
\-i'98 + 8296) x22'4;* " -ilr=-
BURNER o.69 H2
'
U,,
kg fuel 4.79(16) + 3./.2.6)
5.43o/o O,
= 16.335 ANS
Fuel 82.69% N,
qrr,
CHn
i_:;:ljili)lt< F'tii:)iS 7 !:..i

=
, f-,qlci"rlA]-ig}ru5 BASE# Snxl FAfiTIAL a) 0/s C, = il29.7Vi65Aj
€xcess (100) = 11.0ti94 ,A-liS
ANALITSIS CrF FLUE GAS {CASE $iU b) Orsat Anaiysls ,aNS
+l lr,,rrr iht: conrplere ana-lysis uI rhe fuei, rhe theoreUca-l O, carr
GAS n ttk
Irr ,llrcrrnirreC: O, ar-rd \ from air can be *pressecl ln tern:s
rrl llrr: Li-reoretic::J O, ald tire i,rnknown excess Cr. co, 400 "11.55

I't r ,rrlror) is used as a Lie subsLance to relrrte the fuel u,jth the 02 129.77 3"75
,rl ,rr'lt
N" 2933.43 84"70
ACIS
3463.2
I .,1111;,f1 ' 8: Ttie buming of pure butate wjlh excess air gjves
Exasr1r.te 9: A gaseous fuel at 22"i:, 763 terrs arttl saturzited
: stac!: ga-s';;hich anialvzes ii.55?o CO, on a dry :with watervapor is hurned witir txcess air. fu:"u'lttt
basi ::. Assu min g c ornplete cornbu stj on, calcu late :
60q/o RH is supplied at the same temperature and
a) 7o excess ajr pressure as the fuel" The cornpr:silion of the fuel
b) Cornptetc orsal aLta-lvs,: of the stack gas shows 9 "20"6 CA 0 "4a''A CzH +" 2A.9o/a CO, 1 5. 6% I{r'
",
1.970 CHo, and 527oNr. The stack gas leaves at
/\tR 40ffC and 735 mm Hg ard contalns 13.160/tr CO,
--->- Sfcck
^r Gcs
anC I .84o/o CO on a dry basis. Calculate:
r_\y_- L__r 1 1.550/o CO,
il a) o/c
txcess air
i EUR'{ER hi Complete analysis of the stack gas

--)'
Fuel I
I

--J
i
. c) Dew poinl of the stack gas

Soluhon: Basis: 100 kgrncles qaseous fr.:e]


r .l II I r)

AIR Stack Gas t3.16Bit CA"


ttlltttttr: i'ji,t:;is: j00 moles C,l"lr,. -,c0n
LZV I
400CIC .L.g4o,/o CO
/ bJ IOrrs
llrcr, ( )., .. 400 + {.\000/4) = 650 ^^
bU ^/
70 Kt-1
Rl r
735 ti:im

I rl .: -r'ss O,
---

() irr,lg1 air= x+650


l'J, lrorrr ;'rr " [-r , CSC] l'iCi2 rl
Ir lr ( ) irr st;rck flils = x 0
{22'C. 763 torrs, satd)
I2a/o O(),
,l l ' , :rl i
0.4olo CrH*
tit(l (t,l , r.:, , :,olr l ijt*r, :,1;rt:Ii ,q:ts) 20.9a/o Ca
tttr,l, l, {, r'l' :r5 6% Il,
r,,,1,,i I l|()'ir ( )i In
llr 1) .lri iri.l] ' 1,,? (')ori, l^i,,
GA:titoLls i.ulits / 2g
(iAS n AtC at tri
|'r ) () .) molesO2
9.2 HrC from combusUon = 40.4/2 20.2
I
t,rll{
('( I
"."
0.4
2O.g
0.8
20.9
i. 9.2.
-t-
=
Total water in sia.ck flas = 2g.2 + 2"4llg + 2.647
= 25.285
10.45
il,, 15.6 3t.2 b) CompJete analysis of Stack Gas AJ,iS
1,ltr l.g 1.9 7.6 '

Nj 52 GAS %a.
ca 40"4 CO, 28.77
r9.65 11"79
CO 4.423 1.65
l'lrrr r), = 112.8 + (4O.4/4) 19.65 = 23.25 o2 11.336 4.64
N, 174.54 1 r.q
I el y cxcess 02 HrO
"2

I l{ lrr}rl irr'r ,= y + 23-25


25285 irl.4
243.9s4
N, lt,trrr air - (1' + 23.25) x (7g/2I)
Parilal Pressure of HrO in SG ZB5 x (2S"2BS/248.}54)
Al t' 1,,,1.
0.I5(moles DSGJ = 32 g i.
=
rnoles DSG = 21g.67 t'
r. = 26.18
ttlrrft:s *
99, ," DSG .T3Itj x 2tg.67 2g.TZ
[']
Antoine EquaUon:
Irrrrlcs CO in DSG .01g4 x 218,6i = i,, Iog 76.18 = 7.966g1
= = 4.022 F - 1668.21/ (228 + T
t, T = 46.2 "C
lrrt,Or=yi@"A2:j/2)
N, f)2 + (y+23.2510t /?.t) c) DE\Y Point - 4G.2 .C flts
Itf ir i lr;rl:
,,).t
u.(;7 _ 2f...?7 + 4-023+ y + (4.02 t/2) + i2
t U + 23.25)(19/21) PROBLEMS
Y = 9.324
El o,_= {9.324 /zs.2il) x r00 4l.to/o
i" Ca-lculate the orsat ama_lysjs of tJre products
of combusUon
l'l ::1.11..,? = upon buinir.g pure hexane unth -Sg%o excess ;;
At'.)'_'"t) Iog\,P= 7.9668I _ r658.2i;e2g+22) ,f;---^
: !?= 19.5775 a) Combusr_jon is cornpiefe
ll,r ) i111111 fuel = 166, *_-19 jI2 _- Anstuer: t0"tB%CO;, 6 l39o O^
153
= rsol
_ 19.6;1 5 bl 85% of rt e C bu:rrs [o COr. rhe iest to C(), moia] mtio
o/'H, to C0 js l:2.
Ansu:er: 8.49o/o COr, 1.89/n CO
/^ ^
ll,r r 1,(;ri; ari _ (9.32a + 2325) 1 9 677si 6s) 2 The s5.nthesis of melhare enrjcherj gas fr"om waier gas
'\,
A.2 ) 76s-r9577s(55) a promislng sr:lutir:n to *ie probiem of hydrocib,onis
= 243t shorta.{es in t}e f1-rtu1e ln one sich,prccess"
the folouang
gas composiUon is obtained. 34%o melliar
e. 3a/oCO, l:9)i
CO, 39%o-I-{r, *,g }3ozo Nr" Detennine ftre gross
cijor-tfic
va}re and net ca.lorific .,*ue cf itre gas in:
CtA:.J:r.li. lsj r-t]I;]s /,3 I

l'vl, l./lc.{rnoi Airs: GCV; 443.62 398.5


lr, ,rl,/ll$nol
ei m' slacl( gas{}00 kPa; 300'C),r100 s:cles dry BWC
106.43 106:43 (r 7036.8r )
[4.1,u rISCM 18.8 15.82
r/scM d) CCV of BWG {Milkgmoll
N.l, 18.48 i6.53 (263.39)
il nllr(.llr: Natural Cas (SNC from a US based planl) has e) % Calorific Value iost due t.o

I lrr. rrrr rl;rr composilion: 96.59o/o CHn l.2go/oH,


ilCO (5.5s)
0.22o/o CO ii) Hz
I t)% CO,. Calculare ute CCt'ana ruCff'r", iji) HrO
.(t.+)
(8.241
l\4,1/kgmol ArLs: {864.ffi : 779.24)
(206.56:
iv) Sensible Heat u2)
hr';rllkg
186.11) f) "Itrern::l efficicnr:y- 172"9o/rfi
itr.bil,.ry ;
a1n^r d i
^
t rJb3.5bJ
Itr';rlISCM (8566.04)
6. Carburetted watergas is produr:ed in tl:e san)e way as Lrlue
t 4 fr rr'l ..rltairrin{75o/o etiane 'and 2so/o proparie is bumecl
waler gas except Lhat it is done in t},e presenee of cl:acked
i,.lllr rlry air. Allthe H, bunrs to HrO ana tne CO, to CO oil vapors in a carburelor. A t5pieal gas analysis shows
4.7o/oCO r, 7 .Bo/o CrH o, 0.3a/oO r, 36. SozoHr, 35. 5olo C0, B ti%
i,rltrr i:+ l0:I. Fifteen percer:t excess air js supplied" l,: "

r rlr r rl. rle: t, CHn and 6.60/o Nr. if th:s gas is saturated wift HrO at 20"C,
. fr
,rl Mrrles stack gas/i00 moles fuej 742 torrs"and burned in 10"434 m3 air at 30"C, l0lkFa
I
(/:l t zmd 600/o RF{ per m3 fuel, caleulate:
!)5)
lr) 11.-;,1 a) 7o excess O,
andysis of stack gas (l B3o/o)
lo 38%cor, 1.04%ccl
t
b) Or:sat ana-lysis of Lhe st.ack gas (400"C,760 torrsJ iI 859/o
, ) ('orrrplete anaiysis cf sla,cl"; gt.;:
(r.r 1) l%c02' 0.Bg?6coj
of C bums to CO.r; all ll, hums to Hr0.
,ll rrr" rlry air aL 28 "C, 768 nm ligr{moje iuel Ans: (5.3370COr, 0.9a%,CO)
c) GCV in MJ/kgrnoi t3gl.68)
tl,:10.66)
d) % calorific value iost due Lo:
I rlrrl W;ricr Gas js oblalneci by passing stcatn over reci hot il co {6 s84j
r ,r lx rr r cnricheC coal (cokeJ. The gas is called -Blue'. water
ii) Uncor:densed water \r.rpor t7"79)
jii) ser-rsjble heat i33.661
1,,r,, lrr:cause of its blue liar::e] a characterjstic of the
r p115,1i66 of CO. A f.vpical composition sitows 4.Zo/o COr"
.[
r r1 11f

l"i, (]O,
7. Bottled Gas (L,iquefied Pebtrleun: Gasj is found to corri..ri;r
arid 4.50lo\. If biue water g*.
490/0 ts2,0.8% CH4
1.40./c ethane , 23 8a/r, propa.ne" 2A Tatb i-butane and 114.10/o
.rt ',llr"(1, 745 torrs ard 90olo RH is bumed in *,et -ax, 3Oo/o
rr (.xc(_^ss, supplied at ttre sarne condilions as BWG with n-bulane. It is available ;rt P )i.'lkl. l,ssr:ciate.C gas
a-nalyzing E3.6% methane, 9"S?io elh;uie, \ 2t)/o Dropale,
l:"" r. Iil i. CaJCuiaLe:
0"90./o n-bulane and 4.702b i br.:liane is, ava;}ah",ic atP2.5t/
,r) ( )rsat mab,sis of ihe stackgas if lhe rnoia-rrario of CO,
SCM. A fuel is ra be selecled betwee;t the lwo fcr curing
l,: (lJ l'8: I-1, tc CO is l:4 a refractory iined furnace tr\ihich i.q cheapef
/ir.er il l.5,lozo CO", .l 41o4CO) (An-s: Assr:cjated Gas)
t,l rn ir-ir/nr3 BWG
l'). i',t.\
t3 ', tr rl( I 1( )t4llTliy
I
I
i G.ASEoIJS t.unm u 33
A prrre saturated hydrocarbon !.

t )r;:rl anolysjs of tlie


is burnt w.jttr oicess ak. I

sack S;; ,h;;" Z.9o/o, CO2 t.tgo/o t/, ' A pure saturated hydr,cad;on is bumed in e*eess air. Air
{'(\, Q)4o70 H", S.2S% o,, is supplled at the rate of 2g4.14 mslki4mol of .*re
_ElS.eIv. w, Air js substan-
j I
ll, i"r;
:II
rtr 6 s tac k g*E r. u". ;;
"
;ff #;;;
r.*_#J
hydrocarbon. Alr enters at 3trC, i atrn and satorated o,ft}
BteI:rapoI" Partial orsat ana$rsls of tJre statffi-sEofrs
,r) (20 excess air 8.68% CO, and 1.3olo CCI" ealculate:
lr) lig airl}g fueI {24.s86vA
a) 7o ,excess alr {1Sols}
lJ l;crmula of the hydrocarbon 12r.58)
b) Fomnula of the hydrocarbon (CHrl
rl) I)cw point of the-stack gas {cHJ c) Cornplete orsat arraJysis of the staeligas
(54.29,c).
(3
"ffio/o Or, 86.37t26Nr)
llotrlcd gases are lhe
,liquefied petroleum gaseS lropane
,rrrrt.trutane. If a sa:-opl.
ormi"g*;;;. bumed jn excess
,rir, a bumer gas of the foilorfiog
I
ry. A mjxture of a saturated hydrocariron and N, js bumerj
-],i''ii.'?"'a"lu:i'"o' ,l,ruJy"i. is obtained:
I
in excess air suppli.ed at Zb,C" 240 torrs wjth g0%q RI_I.
I
orsat anatysis
6 45o/oo,. a,-'a si;u^1U &;;ffi, I
I
f1 :{,,,rh^g,:!ack
22.28o1a CO. L74o/o-Hr,
gas shows Z 60/o' CA,
6.037o Or:ana ge.g}o/o q wrm'a
t,) tror,po-Jr# of the botJed gas .. i dew point of 53.46"e. ihe stack gLes Ieare at 300"C, 765
E2??*propane) I
mm Hg wjth a volurne ratio of i"O+S ms wet sLack gas/
lil I'lrr: bumin8 of
I
rn3 wet air. Calculate:
frurl;rllryS with dry airgives a stackgas I

l'
u/lri(.lr aralyzes g.g2Vo a) Forrnula of . the hydrocari:on (C,H6)
CO, f'e-siffia".u t eave.at T4S I
, ,,1 ,,,, ,g. Assuming
] compi6te .o,rrf.r"ti?rr, de terrnine: I b] vol o/o- analysis of t],e fuel lzi.izVo Crnr)
,r) tzo e.\cess air t
c) 7o excess air (24.ggb)
I
1.1,9.97o/o) I

lr) Oonrplete orsat ariaJysis


of stack
i
gas
-'..!'r bq
(!.,.2o/oO,B4.6E% I
Nr) l
, ), I)t.rv point of stack gas !
l
(lj0 86"C)

I I l'rrrrjrrcer gas analyz-ing.2_5.3o/o


,',n.y.C^O, O.5o/oO, u,,la
CO, 13.2o/o lf2. O.4Vo C!-Iu,
SS Zioi Xr-i. U,..o.d in
;rt ,tj,,C, 74F toirJ and 60oZo excess air
nff.rpu..rrf orsat arrdysts of
t,trt: :.;tack
Sas .shou,s t6 13% CO),\.zsu, CO
II., C;rlculate: and o.Z2%
,r) ()(r
C_rCeSS O^
2
(l t.o4l
lr) { )111np1g1. o.=_ql-lloJy..srs of rhe' stack gas
(i l;".rc:.O 78.860,6N,)"
r ,J (,r_'\: -

( t t2 96 NUlkgrnol)
rl) il.l C;liiniic uai_,,, Iost riire
('t, r''r- ,3.16i)
lo CO a:rcl ii.,
LJQIJ)l: i.Ut;r.S / 35

eiJ, generally included jn the ciass of orls k"rrou,n a-s


pelraffin, kerosene ornaphlha ere suitable for:jet errgines.
CHAPTER b) hurtace Orls.-include the heayiest gradep of r:atural
petroleurn oils and lubricaling oils frorn which the more
valuable lubricaling oil and fraeUons have bee:: r:emoved
LIQUID FUELS by disUlJation.

3,2 COMBUSTION AIUALYSIS


The analysis of licluld fueis is normallygiven in Vo by weight"
Thus a unit weight basis is employed which js eonverted [o mnial
It ( I AssrFtCt-TIoN oF LroUtD
FuEis
units when eomparing tle fuel witl-r air and w.rth the combustion
gases" In the case of fuel oils, the anatysis in terms of lndlvidu-al
I i'Irlrl lirt:ls may cherirical compourrds is rareiy krown. Ihstead the approximate
.
h*r. 11,,.u rvtll be used:!e divided,l into two main classes, based on
i.ight ;ris."*'sprnts and Heaqy oils weight 7o elemental alalysis consisUng of C" H, O, N, S are given.
:rl I ullrl ,ils or spu.rts*suitablel for use _ittr'iot"*"f Of these, hydrogen is sjgnificant in the combuslion alalysis.
r rnrlrrrsUon eng;ines and;et We comrnonly speak of Lwo ]r:nds of hydrogen in JiquicJ fueis.
engines. It includes:
| ) 11 rr.. iighter, more vo]atiie
fracf,ons oUtaureJUy]tsuUng One kjrid is that equlvalent to Oxygen jn tl:e compl* compounds
,r. r'racking natura.l petroieum oirs
a_nd reratid nat.,rj
of tlre fuel. it is ca-lled COMBINED fJffiROCENand is treatecl as
r lr.; rosits. though it were already combined wilh oxygen in the proportions
1.,1
't)rc Iight frac.ons of water called COMBINED WATE.R" This concept of iombined
obtained by the hydrogenati,n of
r.rxrl. coal tar or heavy oil residues. water rs just hffidmffis r:sed n:a;nly ro simplifr
.l) I'lre Light ,?actionsi obtained by the qrnthesis calculations. The Secorrd kind of hydrogen js called -NET
lrvrlrocarbons by the Fisher_Tropsch pro..=" --^ of I{YDROCEIJ. It is defined as the hyrlrogen that uses O, from air
.l) A.lt:otrolfr pariicularly meth;-t :and 16-r cohEustion. Net hydrogen ptus combined hyr:lrogen gives the
olr(irined by slmlhesii or fermentaUon"1fryi" "faonrr,
process. total hydroger'). jn the fuel.
Ll lJt.rrzole, ob-tained by the djstillaiion of coal tar or by
" The quallrtjty of N and S in the fuel, rs relatively srnall: it is
r.rlr;tcUon from cr:ai gas. corrunon praclice to ne$ect them rf their c.ombirred percen-.a€e js
t,) Alr:ogas or Gasohol_mixtures of methyi or lr:ss than or equa-l ta 3o/o.
ethyl alcohol

( )l lfrese,
only the most volatije ald clearest producLs,
pl,r.,rrliur or petrol (natural or 3.3 CANCUMTIONS BASED ON FUEL ANAJ-YSIS.
syndtetic), ben)ole and (risE
irlr ,lrrrl are suitable lor -.hb spart rl
ignriron a"g,".. :t; ,..O
lrtlllrr,r iiact_rons of peiroieuir: o:t,"il.ra;e ttumple J TJrr uctane numbcr
oi LiA s-r,ntheuc of gasol)ne js Lie
vo)ume0'r bv
tsc-ocrat-le jn an rso octane{CuH,.}.--r"t,e ptane
1:
(C?Hr6) rnixlure u,irh the s;l-me ktocktng lendency
--
as the luel. An ar_rtontobile uses al rrnieacied

.- ---'-'_---- -'_-_--_--- _ _ .. Ei4ri:i:-*


_ ' nnii; i_;
rl

ME-I'RY LIOIJII) r'ui,:t,s / 37

gasoline wii-h an ocrane number Of 85. Air is O, from ziv = 10"97 + 3.29 = 14.26
supplied 30%o in excess such that the molal ratio N, from atr =14.26 (79/21) = 53.64
of_CO, to CO is 5:2 rnd H, to CO is i:I i"G.
orhaust gas. Ca_lculate the brsat anaiysis of the C converted to CO, = 7.0154 x (5/V) = 5.01
e,xhaust gases. C converted to CO = 2.0
of iso-octane is 0.60lg and n-heptane
-D-qnsiry
is 0.684 g,z Hz=2
free O, = 3.29 + (212) + (2/2) = 5.29

Orsat Analysis ANS


Exhaust Gas
30% x'ss .GAS n o/o

CO, 5.0r 7.37


CO 2 2.95
H2t 2 2.95
Fuel o2 5.29 7"79
Gasoline N2 53.64 78.94
Ociane No. : 85 67"94

Assume thai
cornpositiori of gasoline car be Exonple 2 An ehglne bums fuel oil anaTyzing&so/o C and l2o/o
expressed as ax octane-hepiane- mlxture H with air supplied at 21'C, nomral balometric
presSure and B0% Rli" The air supplied js less than
the gasoline analysis from voiyo to wto/o
the theoreucal arnount required for complele
combusUon of the fuel oit; 25o/o of the C burns to
ugD vol, Densit5z wt wwo
CO, the remainder to COr; O, is aJI consumed and
the mola-l ralio of CO to H, in the exhaust gas is
C.H,, - 85 0,6918 58.803 85.144 3:2. The exhausl.gas ieaves at 480'C and 745 mm
,CrH,. 15 0.684 / .. l_Q?6 i4.856 Hg. Catculate:
69.063
ei) o/o of the theor:etical air that is supplied for
100 kg gaseline - combustion
b) m3 arr suppled/kg of oil
UgD wt n c) m3 exhaust gas/kg oii
Mw atC atH d) % of the ca]orfic value of oil (411.616 lv{J/kg)
crH], 95.r44 1t4 0.7469 5.9752 13.4442 -lost as
CrH,,, I4.tr56 iCo 0 i486 1.04c2 2.377,0 j) unbumt CO in the exhaust
? .i)t 54 I 5.82 I B
il) Sensible heat in the e>iraust ge$

O, = f.C;i lt+ + {i5::,')1|=./4} = 10.g7


.Sc;iiriiorr: Basis: I00 kg fuel oil
O,=03x10.97=3.29
i.l(,'l' l'' i t;l'L' t
il, I ll, ,rvli-:-ilrv
=t
760x,2'73 + 480
* n-.,,'
AliR
Siack Gas ,.,'
47.29A7 x 22"4 Y ::-
.7-45 __ _'U,) _
., IOC c)
E,*harrsL Gas ----. _*
48ooC 100
I :ttm kg fuel
r1(l'ff)RH
745 mm Hg
= 29.8 ANS

ilt..
,l) Calorific value Losses
Fuel il % caloi:ific value l:lst due tcl C0 1t
( )ll.
- t1.833 x 28g"18/43'6161 x 100 = 90lo ANS
li8'/o C
l'.),t)/o H
iij GAS n ep nCP
CO, tr6 45"65 251"47

ili,.rr {},,:: al C + at})/4 = l8B/L21 + (L2/4) = }0.33 CO I.833 30.39 55"71

lrr lltl crlrausl tas: H,,


1 1)g 29.16 35"64

r't r,. Iormed = 0.25 x (88/ 12) = S.5 N, 33.1 25 30.01 994.08
('() li)nlred = 0.25 x(88/t2) = 1.833 H,O 5.6107 35 63 -L9g-92
15:16.42
ll, lorrned = 1.833 x (2/3) = 1.222
I l.,r ) lirrmed = I2/2 - 1.222 = 4.773
(1535 42l1ooo)' (+uo " zsJ
I 100
rr.ll,rl %o sensible herL ]oss =::::::i-i6 _ [0-----a
( l, lrorn air
= Oz for CO, + O, for CO + O, for HrO
= 5.5 + (1.E33/2) + {4.778/2) = 8.8054 = 16'03'X' Aj!S

l;. lrrrn) ,rr'= 8.8054 )t {79/2't) = 33. 125


\
+l ''r, rrl llrt'ci rrirsupplied =(8.8054/ 10.33)x i00 = 85.2160,/0ANS 3.4 CALCULATIOhIS BASED '3N FLUE GAS ANALYSIS
;\r ','l"(l log\P = 7.96tj8i - 1668.21 /(228+2t) .
(cAsE lll
Vp = 18.5 nmHg ExampLe 3: A furnace is fired wjlh. fuel oil cr:nlainjrr$ 860/o C'
Lo/o N a:rd 0 l0lo '5 wlth a calordic
va]ue o[ 46;4 MJ /
l85(08) tur is supplied at 25"C' 740 rnin F{g and
l\trrlr,,, rviil_cr liom air = (ssos+ + 33125) x kg.
760 - 18 (0 8) saturaterl wittiwai er' Average &n'al1;5je of the stack
4.8327 gas shr-r'ws 10'62% CO,' 1.170lo CO' €':3..aY: O'' and
Bl.87olo Ny Ttre slack gas iearres at 400"C aro
765
nmr l-lg" Ca]cirlale:
ill
(s.sosa = 331 2s + o 8327), T,::" a) 9/o e'xcess air '
"ltl !/Jt
= 103,i57 b) CompleLe elemerrtal a:ral-vsis cf fuel oil
l,;'lrrt'l I UL.)
c) mu airlkg ilil
t,,l,il ilrolirs e;Aei,.:st,.l:,as = 5.5 + 1tl-r-i T :.2:- + .:i. ,, \.
d) nt3 stack gaslkg oi1
eJ % calorific vaiile Iost cjue 1'c r.tnl-iurilt
.,
() .- r)
:. .OJ//
-i-
+ -i.., i?-5
r:ombr:stible s
= 47.2907
1t

I-IQUII) t)tJELS ,/ 4l'

10O nroles DSC At 25'C log\? = 7.96681 - 1668.21 /(228+25) i.VP = 23.6I mm

Motes water from ajr ; (2t.zl+ 8I.87) - = B 4IS


-'#{!
740 - 23.6r .

Stack Gas 70.620/o CO,


40ooc 7.17% CO
6.349/o O,
t 760 273.+ 25
765 mm Hg 3..
malr \21.76 + 81.87.+ 3.415) x 22.4 x :-
81.87o/o N, c) '
740" --;--
273 .
kg fuel . i64"51
= 16.34 ANS

c' Moles water frbm. combuslion


N,c moles net H2 + moies Combined water
or =. = tolal moles H,
t 46.4 NIJ/kE = 8.43 + (.0265X1645D/"18 = 8"67
or: = { }0544X164.51)/2 = 8.67
I

air = 81 .87 x (2L/79) = 21"76 \\i,r!r"'r in sLack gas = 8.67 + 3.4f5 = 12.085
- 6.34 - ('1.17/2) = 5.755 !

--- x --:=-
?- (100 +12.085),< 22.4x
O, = [5.755 / (21.76-5.755]) x 100 = 35.9670 ANS m" stack gas 765 273
lnaccounted for = 21.76 " [i0.62 + (t.tZ /2 + 6.34] = 4.218 dl
kg fuel i64.51
= 32.38

x Wt of fuel = {10.6Q+1.lV x t2
Wt of fuel = t64.bi hg 1"17 x 283"18
eJ o/o beaL loss due to CO = x 100 = 434%
46"4 x 164"51
H = (i6.86 /164.5U x 100 = tO.2ba/o
ned water = 100 - 86 - rc.25 - I - 0.t = 2.65o/a \
In Combined u'ate;' = 2-GS x (2/18) = 0.2g4 Example : 9slane-Lni.rmbers are u.sed to indjcate the qudi:ty
ln Combined water = 2.GS x (16/ IB) = 2.356 of a djesel fuei oil for compression igniUon engines.
It is delined as the % by volume of cehrre, Crfl;-
ntal.AnaJysis:of fuel oii ANS a meihyt naphtha.tene (9,,4,") m_tGre
ai
,= (}O ll ,cetale-
that Eas rhe@ rhe fuel. A hjgh
= L0.25+.294' = 70.544 'speed diesel engine bums djesel fuel to give an
= 2.356 ej<haust gas analyzing 7 )4 0/o COr. 421a/o CO..
-l
8.24o/o O, and 80.34% Nr, Calcdlate the ce[a]te
=0.i number of the fuel fired.
| , rl I ii \' ' I.lQLi,;r r:iiili .i'i / 4-J

rr, ,rr\ (,1 (reLane is 0.775 1 altd merh-yl naphttraJen-, is 3"5 CALCULATIONS BASED ON PAtrTIAt .A"I'{ALYSIS
irr',, ;'/tnl
oF FLUE GAS teASE III)
,rrrr r, rr r Assurnre diesel compositjon to correspo;d to cetane ExampLe 5: A lorv grade fuei oil iCV= 46.4 MJlkg) cont'alnjng
appro;mately B10lo C, Bqir 1L' 30la 0,4%,I'tr ar:rl 4
o/oS is burned in a funrace tllat IS weli ilesi$ned
a-rld rvell operat.ed glving a Cnmbustjor] gzis, the
partial orsat imaiysis of which shows \tr"2-Zohcoz
and 1.46% C0" The ilola-l ratio of I1. tc C0 in tlie
cornbus'Ucn gas js 1:S Calculaie"
ENGINE
a) o/o exC€SS O,
b) m3 air (30'f, 760 rnrr- Hgl/ )q fi:el oii
c) m3 stack gas (250.C, ?65 mm l-Ig)/kg r:il
d) %o calorific vadue lost due to CO a-nd H,
'i
Solutroru Basis: 100 l€ tuel oil
t..t , lr,,:111s1195 drv E:.hatrsl. Cas
AIR \.1.220/o CO,
i Stack Gas
tr, rr inr = 80.34 x {21/7gJ= 21.356 --+ nrrr O r 1 46% CO
,, ilr,r, (.rrritc-d [ot.= 2].356 - 7.14 - t4.28/2) - 8.24 3.835
= 765 mm t"{g

rr n I Il .. 3.836 x 4 = 15.34+ = aL [otal H BURNER


rr I ll42
Fuel
l'tIEL n atc atH
,,,,.FI,. CIL
x 16x QA-.
810/o C
( I I rr
-u*
i0v BVo H
rr r lrll",1J,,
: l6x + 1ly = 11 .42
3olo O
,t rl lnl ,. 34x + l0y - 1f:.enA
4olo N
4%S
= 0.255 _r
Y = 0"667
i',,1 rrl ('ctane = 0.255:x 220 -
:,,1 I Mf = 0662 x fqZ / ).a25= / 7T5i = 74.35 rni Theo C, = l9ii)2) + (814 \ + W/32) i3l3?.1 =- B"7E
g240..t
"" ir.r;Lre b.v vol = 174.35/ {92 404+74.35)l xri?
100 = 44.5Etto Lety=XssO,
' l,rrr' l,l = 44.58 A\5 O, from air = 8.78 + y
j "70 Nr. (
N, frem air = {8 78 + 1') x 21 il.
*1 t:'l {)l{lHlOMf,l*RY LlQUur FLIF)$ / 45

Ar O l:a-i: 0.1268 (moles DSG) = Bt/tz


rrroles DSG = 53.233 A'777 x'28318
c-{ lost due to co = x LL'}0 = 4 T {
d) o/o
4a4, lo0
rnoles CO, in SG = 0.1122 x 53.233 = 5.973
nroles CO in SG = .0146 x 53.233 = :V7Z
rrteles SOr, in SG = at S = 4/32 = 0.125 0-1554
- x 28E PP
- --*j;::- x 100 = O"96
rrroies H, in SG 0.2 x A.777 = 0.1554 o/o CV lost due iO H-2'=
= 46.4 x 1oo
Iiee O, = y + t.777//2) + {.t554'/2)
rnoles\ in SG = (B.ZB + v) x Zg/Zt +' (4/29) ,

l)l;C bal' of 3 lower aromatic


Example 6: Motor Benzole is a mixture
53.233 = 5.973 + O.ZZZ + 0.1554-+ 0.I25 +' +'0'777 pierportions of 75o/a, lSiz-o 31a. 1Q0z.i. bV wei$ht" Its
{, 2. cafbrnc vatue is 41'9 N4J/kg' A nrotor rs nrn us[ng
0.1554 ,__^ , 7g 4 benzole ar.rd glves,ry-Tl1"ilgas whl ch ianalyzes
+
-.^._-- + {8.78 + v} x A ?/o C;O2 and L'AZa/a CO' Calculate:

Y= 2'63E 'r a) excess :iir


o/o

b) Complete anaJysis of exhaust g'as

c) o/o heat loss due to CO


rXr cXCesS O, = (2.638/8.78) x 100 = 30o/o
SolufrorL: Basis: 100 kg benzole

IIrr at , _0.21 -
x2i-4
27i
=_ '' - Exhaust o."'? l#
kg [u el 100 E3'
= i3.52 ANS
ll,O in the SG = (B/2) - 0.1554 = 3.8446

t-.^^^^ ^^ \ 760 +-.


273+250 BENZOLE
rrl
,,,rJ r(dL^ roo (SS.Z3: + 3 Baa6) x.22.4 x
.i.^1, 3.1> X 75o/a C"HG

kg furi I 00
-765 273
'
l5% ciHs
i','
1,".
109/0 CsHro
= l+.iJ i-"
I- cv = 41.9 MJ/kg
li'
i
t;
H
T:'

I
t: *-
{A t,,t, tn,,n.IET]lY

!.lt1rl trVt lrrIV n atC atH


{ ',11,, 75 78 0.9615 5.769 5.769 PROBLEMS
,' ll,, 15 92 0.163 f i41
. I,304
{ 1,,, l0 106 0.094 0,752 0-994 1. Crude petroleum oil is general)y conside'r"ed tCI be fonrieci
from anirnal and vegetable debris acclrmulatjrg iri sea
,,1
7.662 8.0 13 basins or estxaries and elecomposed lly anaerohic
Llacteria
resulUng in a biackviscous product" A lrroic-ai eietr.lerilal
l'lrrrr (-), = 7.662 + (8.0L3/4) = 9.67 10/o N,30/o O and 3% S'
lll 1, : X'SS Oz -.ufrsis"shows EOqZ C, r3orr1,
During a cerlain cornbustjot-1, air sr-rpplied is le'ss lhan
the
theore-tical so that all of the (), is used up' 7Ao/o o1'
the C
), Irorn air = -v +9:67 CO; the molal raUo of C0 lo Il,
(
burns to CO, the rest to
[J, frorr] air = (y + 9.67) x 79/27 in the exhaust gas is 'l;2. ealculale:
Ar (r [ral' 7.662 = 0.1177 x moles DSG
a) Orsat analysls of the exhar:st flas (i2'560/o COr' 5 38%
co)
nroles DSG = 65.098 b) % of the theoretica-l airwhic'h is supplied for comhustror]
(70.7o/o)
nroles CO, = 65.098 x.tO7 = e.gOS
CO = 65.098 x ,0107 = 0.697 | 2, An a]cogas rnixture made up bf 85Vo $asoline [octarte
"rnoles
'/ no. = 951 and 15Yo elhar:oi is used as fuel for atr engine
frceOr=yt(.697/2) in Lhe presence of i7.05 m3 a'irlkg ajcogas supplied
N- = gr+9,.67i x79i21 dry at 30tC ard 740 rnm Hg BO! of the C
essenriJly
"CO,,
bums to the resl to ClO; r:rolatr ralio of H, to CO is
/ r,'i(,1 bal'
1:2. Calcuiate:
(,1, (.)98 = 6.965 + .697 + y + t.6g7i2) + (y+6.97) x 79/21
a) Orsat analysis of llie e--thausL gas
Y = 4'349 (8.18% COr, 2.040/o CO, I '02o/o Hr)
b) o/o excess air (36.143010)
"rr r'-\ccSS Or= (4"349/9.621x 100 = 44.97otb ANS
I\4oles water from cornbustion = B.0l3/2 = 4.C1
3.'ALernarybie::dofgasollrle(900/ooctaneno)'alcol:ro1(75o/o
15%o
efh.anol, 250lo meli.a:;ol) anrj l:enzole 1750/obelene,
)ornplete Analysis of stack gas ANS toluene arrd i0% xylene) is i:rirnerl completely in 350/o
(

GAS n o/o
excess 02.
QO, 6.9965 10t06 Anall'sis of 1}re bienci 5!16rvs 70% gasolirre'. 1[-r%o
co 0.697 1.01
benzole and 1Sclo a]cohol Calculate t'he compleLe ana]Ysis
o, 4.698 6.8 of ttre exharrst $as.
N" 52.738 /o.31 (9.77c/a CO2, 5. )Sa/o A,. 74:689'oN, io.a tgzo Hrcl)
H:O
' 4;0i 5.8
,/
c9.lc8 uses a high eracie iist-iilirte frie'l ojl v'al-h a c:r-lonl'jc
/4r/a'oort*
r'alue of 13 ljE Vrkg" Ar:eJvsis r-'f Llie st.ack gases at 31 llc
0,19J:-2s!.-1tl ()'37ati'\1"" 7 Ab'+'')
anc.l 765 rorrs sho..'s-9% L'0-, ) 21a/o CO
,r,i,
cV rosi, cr;c r"1.. co = 100 x 419
,1i,v =.-r.71 AI,is

I
I
.i'i
i\

, t rl
.82.37o/o N,. Assuming thaL the fuel oii consists
r rl lrydrocarbons.
Calculire:
rrl il,r 1..1gs55 2j1 (4O.A3o/o)
l,l Wt,t/o composiuon of rhe fuel ojl (g4.gs%C,
IS.OE% H) CI-{AFI t.R
,l ,,,, (.-'V lost
due to:
t) Llnburnt combustibles (Z.l7o/o)
r,) Uncondensed \4,ater iz igiri
Iri) Sensibte Heat
il g.5LVo)
SOLID TTUELS
h ,\ lrrnrace js fired-with fuel oil with a parlial
r' g and 2.8"/0 N:gjs1r
( i,!,i1
a:ralysis cf
anatysis th;;;r.k;;;r.;;*."
o';, "f
gj
-d;';;
'
1,,' !)',S Airl 13L,?:'
,.r.t..r'r:-,Nr. !,),1
.: if'j ?:' J
v" H,, a:8
suppiied is:at 23.i, i55 ;;r;; LirUt.i
(liilculate:e.
l.'l I (l;rlcrrlet
,r) rl4rexcess a_rr (3B.AS9A
4,I CIjSSIFICATION OF SOLID FUELS
l,) Arralysis of the fuej oil (ZS.Z4%;C,
lt. o/oH, 2.460/o61) Solid organic fuels are classified into naturirl aind ;u1ificial
, ) rrr3 arrlkg fusl (15.34) fu els.
aj Natrlral Solid Fuel.s
H I'o,rl lar fuels are l;quld fuels obla-ined
by b)erlding coal il Wood-May be bunied directly as a fueJ or maybe
t,rr riisIillaLion products.such as carbolic converled into charcoa or producer gas Sawdust is
,f,
orl, t.reosote bil, a,nthracene oil a:rd ,neairoi,pu.fr.
".plrUi=u-f"rr. sornetjtnes bumt at salrmills supplemented u/jth oil to
',,rrrrple etementa.l aralysis shows gS.go/o a ieduce fuel cost.
I i, i; b,lo O rutd l.I % N. If
C, 6.3%i{:-i'.2V,
this luel is frrr,r.a-ir_, ;;;;, 2.) Peat-Brown fibrous mass of partiaJly rler_:ayed plarrt
,rt ti(J,,C and 755 r.i' Hg wjUr g0% malerial that has accumulated" under waier logged
;;;-,;;;, " R*r, ;,
lrrrrrrergas containing 10.64%o CO", conditions:
3. lgo/a CO and 0.640/o
ll,. Oa]culate; 3) fuginiles-Immature cotls that are inlerrnediate in
,r) 'l'u excess air eL.l}otol composition between peat a;rd bitumipous coals and
,,) Compiete crsat alal-ysis of bumer gas I
are about 1 to 100 M years oid.
, 4) CoaLls-{ompact sfrafiJierJ mass of mummified planl I
02' 7s ]50luN,)
r ) rr3 srack gaslhg coar rar [lil(l debrjs thaL has acc'unulared dunng past geol;gical I
ages about(i00-300M years old) ard h:Ls been a_ltered
I 'l'hc principal motor fuej blerid jn German_v by processes involrrjrg bio ch emt c"al. ac Li c.rn, su brners j u n
)itjt)-rkr{skof made up of 50% has heerr
moto r lseraore(7soft in water and acUan of heat and pressure.
I rc I zerr e, I 5 7o tolucn
OUn .1.rvien e), 21c/o I etr:Jtn
t d ?.So/o i n d u sr riC 3, ! C,.H,. j (
b) Artificial Solld Fuets
c.oh ol (.qOyo e ti,a,r ZO.i ;; J;i?;;ii
; t
"l
Af t:r cort:i_iL:si.jln ir r i_.:r:tsS
aJr i1 "f g"s colL?i;i)ltg 1) Wood ClrarcoaL-Solid resitlr,ie {rom i]le carbcr:rzatjoi,r
l).,139h CC, a.nd t.E39a H, is obiain..f =lrck wood u,hich invoh,es healilg woocl strongl-v irr rhe
;ri 9,h excess ar.r (50S,il Coi"rf;;;,"'"""" of.
absence of oxl,gerr .

l,) corrtpleLi,iL;;:ii.:.r. ,.,j lii,: sLack


!;rs
(8 09% o,, 80 9b'r,c,\,1 4g
.i ,i lllr lll' )MD]-RY SOLID lrl-l!,1^S / 5i

'.'l l'r:ai Chorcoal--Iviade by carbonizing peat at iow 4.3 EMPIRICAL REIATIONS CIN COAL rtr{ALYSIS
l(,rnperature.
',\l I ignite Biqt"ettes-hr dried lignites AhJD CALORIFIC VALUES
'l) lignite Coke--Air drjed and carbonized Jjgnite a) Itulong's Formulo-
i,) (loke-Carbonized coal
CV = 0.338 C+ 1.44 (H - Ol8) + 0'094 S

where: C:l = Grbss calorific value


l,l nrualvsrs oF solro FUErs l C,FI,O,S - % by wt o{ Ca-r:bon, hydrogen, orygen and sutlirr
el t'tr\trruile.Anclysis-This important method of laboratory
in Dulong's formr:Ia:
F{,lnllraUon of solld fuel js based upon lheir volaUlizafion Assumptions
r lrrrr,rct.eristics. It invoives t}:e determinaUon of 1) CV of the fuel is the algebrzje sum of the heaullg valucs
ll M( )ISTURE (M)-ivatei ex;pelled when the coal sample is of elemental comPonents,
lrt:;rted for I hour at 104-il0"C. 2) Oxygen is combined wjttr trydrogen as in cr:rnbine{ wa!e5
''l VoI-ATILE COMBUSTIBLE MATTER tVCM)-Tota-l loss:n ancl n:oisture, so that surplus moistu're avarlatrle for
wcight minus the moisture in coal when coal is heated combustjon NET H) is I-1 - A/8
frrr 7 min in.a closed crucible placed in a muffle fumace 3) That the heat of fomalion of eoal is zero"
;rt 900"C in the absence of air. It includes volatile C,
lornbined water, netH, N and S. b) c,a)derusouT Eqr,t,:tiotrc-useful in finding the total _c:1r]ton
ll ASl{-Residue t}rat remains when a weighed sample of content of the coal if Lhe proximate arnalysis and the GCV are
crr;rl is slowiy heated in a:r open crucible for 2 ho'.lrs at known
IrO0- Bl 5'C.
.ll lrl.XED CARBOI{ (Fc)--Cbtajned by riifference from 10070 C = 5.88 + 2.206 (CV - 0'094 S) + 0"0053 180 - i]00 VCMIFC)IIs=
of the sum of moistr:re, VCM and ash:
F-C=100-M-VCM-ASH Example ): A furnace js fired with su]:r-Lrituminous B (SubR)
coa-l containing -10.3% rnoistdre, 3a% VCM a:ld
l,l llllirrrcte Anrrlysis"_It is a precise chernica_l deterrrrination oI 7.7o/o e^s,]n.lt is also lqrciurn tr:i contain 1'2% N and
llrc. o/o by weight of Lhe six basjc components of coal.: Carhon, I "57o/o S. Its calorific value is 22 M,Ukg' Caleulate
I Iyrlrogen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, A-eh, and Oqgen (usually ott-tained its:
lrv riifference).
aJ h-oximate Arralysis
r I tltxltfteclAncrlysis-Mociifications of the uidinate.euralvsis {br b) Modified tuta$tis
r outbuslion ca-lculations. It inch:des: c) l,ltimate AnaiYsis
l) C, N, S. ash d) Anaiysis of VCM
'.)) Moisiure e) Calorific \/a-iue oi VCM
:') Com],,i;trC r','aier {Ctl1- i.rre u-y,.qen irr rhe coaj(lrot pl-e se Llt
jn rlo.islurei is treared as tJrough jt were already combined Soiunoru
u.ith hvdrogen. Bv diff-erence: ToFC = 100 - :34 10.3 - -/'7 = 4d
,1) Net Hvdrogelr (iit-iJ--1-i';tt;-lgelt r'"'iijr:l-r rc..frLlr.c::; O^ Irctni .i jr-
for co:nbr.rsLiorr.
tr !tr I lt( )ivlDTi?y
sol,iD ruiit.$ ,/ 53

Cl l'lr{ )XIMATE ANALYSIS: e) Calorific Value of VCM


It) 1",,M, 34% VCM, Z.Zo/o Ash, 48% FC ANS = gV of Coaj x 100yqsgal:_.y. o{ea$pq{-.leFe
I t.,tt tt 1 ilte CaLderu:obd" Equatioru
(' lt.8B+2"2O6 122- .O94(t5Zl+.005S = -22{]q0)'- 3.8-{48i
i8O_100(34/48;1,..,
54.25% 34
'
I t,,ltI rt lhtlong's Forrrulfl; = i6.988 MJ/kg ANS
'.'',t 0.338(54.25) + 1.44 (NH) + .0094(t.SZ
Nl I - 2.44o/o t.

lry,llllbrence:CW = 100 -54.2b-2.44- IO.3 _1.2_T.T_t.S7


4.4 COMBUSNON CALCUTATIONS
= 22.54o/o a) lfhe combustion of coal may be'car:ied crut by spreading it
over a grate and firing or by iniroducing ir a-s p"r"-*.r.J ifi*r.
irl M()l)lIrIED ANALySIS: ANS coal and air are brought together at a temperat,re suficient
to decompose the coal Jnto fixed carbon and *oiatrle matter
!t4.ZSo/oC, 2.44o/o Neill, 22.54o/o
CW. 10.3%oM, and to. cause the fixed carbon'to ignite" Combustion then
7.7o/o ash, I.2yo N, l.S7o/o S becomes self supportinf; 'i.e. sufficient heat is evolved tci
rnaintain these conditions. However, coal contains non-
, Irrlrrl H = nelFl + H in combined water
and moisture combusLible matter (ash) which separates irorn rhe materia-ls
ll rrr (CW & M) = (22.54+1O.Sl x
tZti8) tJ:at can be gasified ard is removed fi"om Lhe fumace as
'lirlirl H = 2.44 + 3.64g = 3.649 REIUSE. This refuse may or mav not contau: unbumt
= 6.0g
combustible.
r) rrr (CW & M) = (22.54+1a3) x (i6lt8)
= 29.13 b) For combustion ca]culaUons the combined % of N and S is
r I Irl.'lllVIATEl ANALySIS: ANS i-reglected if the total is less tha:r or eqrral to 3%.

! t,\.2.5o/oC, E.0g%li, ZS. 13o7og, I.2%N, Z.Zo/o ash, j.S7olos


Vol;'rtile C in the VCM = Total C Flxed Cal.bon 4.5 COAL COI\{BUSTION WITH NO COMBUSTIBLES
IN THE REFUSE {TYPE II
= 54.2i _ 48
= 6.25 Exampie2: A furnace is fireti wrth high ,cilatile A tritumino,s
coa-l whose ultimale a:ra$s:s shows TS.2a1a C.
rll Arrall,sis of VCM A-IiS
5.19o/o H,8.72oto O. 1 5% N" 7 B0lo a^sh, a,d t.tj%o
VCM wt
C
' ;^-
o.1,J
o/o
S. 600/o excess ;itr rs supplied.. As5un.1e CO t0 (:.n
. ralio of 0" 178. Th-
NH a AA
rO.JO ;;;[;as ]eaves * ZaO.C, ii6
7.18 torrs. Calculate:
ClV ,o.<1
LL.J1 66.29
N
?) Comp)ete(zrnalys)s of the star:k ,gas if air ts
1.2 Q r.
cl
srrpplied at,2,S C, 100 hpa;rnd csserrt.rally rJry.
J )t,t) c,1I
4.62 b) m. air .supphecli 100 kg sii 6ocii
34.00
/ 11.{ )I(]F{ICITiETFY -._tUi.j,) i'rrLi.:j / 55

c)Ca-lorific V'alue of Coal ComPlete l'rrai1'sis of Lhe stack ga.s ANS


d) -qzo of the ca-lorific value losL due to:
i) Unburnt combustibie GAS n ala
ii) Uncondensed water
CO, b.JJJ
.J. 19
iij) Sensjble heat of the stack gas
CO 0.s33 1.61

,$olufurrr' Basis: 100 i1g coal SO, 0.05 0.09


o2 4-8715 8"40

N2 44.245 76.24
AIR Stack Gas HrO 2'595- 4"47
s8.CI275
280C 3000c
100 kPa
740 torrs ...* 101325 2'73 + 28
60 o/o x'ss Lt' d!
-3 - x "--nra-
BIJRNER \
=(+a.tgi +l1.7a7)x224**;^
luu at\)
lOOkgcoal
= 1399'83 ANS
Fuel
Coal
c) Cv = 0.338,t 5.r1 + t'4":' 15'19 - lt""?2/Bll + 0'094(1 6)
75.2o/oC
5.190,r0H = 31 .472lvIJ/kE ,LhlS
8.72o/cO
d) o/o calorilic va]ue lost due tcl'
1.5%oN
7.Bo/o ash
1.6% S 0.933x28318
'u'u x I00 ^6^n, ANS
il't '*Co" = = 13970
I00 x 3i.472 '

'lheo O, = (75.2/t2) + (5. i9/4 + (1.6/32) - {8.72/32) 7.342 2"595 x 44-04


= * ll)lj = J.oc
X'ss O, = 0.6 x 7.342 = 4.405 ii) Uncondensed waler Vapor =
1;;;3\A7;
O, frorn ur = 7.342 + 4.405 = 11.747
N, from air = 11.747 x (79/21) = 44.191 .
iii) Sensible Heat
'l'otal N, = 44.791 + tl.5/28) = 44.245
GAS n Cp(30O'C)
C converled to CO = 75.2 /12 I (0.i75/1.175) = 6.933 lJv2
4J. ),.
C convened to CO. = {75.2/)2) - 0.933 = 5.333 29.63
CO 0.s33
Free O, = 4.405 + t0.933/Z) 4.BTt5 SO, 0.05 45 34
=
o2 4.87)5 30.9E
l'l-O from Cnr;:f,r::.iror.t - :-: igiZ - 2 J-t.t 29.6l
N" 44.245
}I"C) 2.s95 *q4.69
GA -1 I.;I.UICHIOMPTF.Y s;lrt..ll) ttt;t';.s / 57

Sum nCp = 1E13.37


aL ner i{ cor:verLed to'pater = 1'6+6 x 4 '' 6 'i84
fotal a[ net H = 6.584 + 2(0.22) = 7^424
(18r337/i0c0) x (300- 25)
% Sensibie heat loss - Ar c bal: 0 e004 tu) x 12
3L.472 r tOA " r,: i::1 : !Ltu,*#
= 15.85 ANS
o/o netH jn fr.rel = {7.A24 / L55.729} x }00 = 4.43
% CW = 100 - 90"04 - 4.43 ' A'79 - 1"2 = 3'54
o/oH jrt CW = 3"54 x. (2/l&l = 0.3$3
l,'rttmpl€ 3: A high gradb semi-antlracite coai was found to o/oA ft SXI - 3"54 x (i6//i8) = 3.147
conr:atn -o}.A4o/oC, 0.790265 and i .2o/o N on an ash "r''
Yo Total H tn fuel = 4.43 + 0"393 = 4.823
arrd moisture free tiasj$ If this coal were burned
in excess air saturated with warer at 30"C and I0S
ULTIMAI.E .AruAr.YStS: ANS
]<Pa. a I)ue gas wjttr the following orsat anaJysis and 0'79%5
90.04Y0C" 4.B23VoH, 3.747o/oO, 1.20r'0N
results: 10.83olo COr, LOBo/o CO, O.2?o/oH",8.t7o/o
O, arrd 79.7o/o \. edcuiate:
Exarnple 4: A medium volatjle bituminous coal(mvb)-hf^""
a) Ultimate analysis of coal(ash/moisture free) "as receiv-bd- analysis ri{ 27"13% VCM, 62'529/o
0z6 excess
b) air FC,7lT;/;ish, 0,95% S and 1"28YoN' Its caLloriic
v'a-lue is 32 3 MJ/kg Thjs cr;al is burned in excess
.Solutron-' Basis: 100 moles Dry Stack Gas (DSC)
alr supplied at 30"C, 756 tors with 800/o RH'
ParUat orsat alalysis of the slackgas shows 9'78o/o
AIR CO, emd 2.450/o CO. Calcr.:late:
Stack Gas a) o/o excess O,
300c
105 kPa 10.83% CO, b) Compiete orsaL analysis of tl:e stack ga^s
sat'd 1.08olo CO . e) m3 stack g'as (270"C' 768 mm l{g)/kg-coa1
0.220/o H,
B.l7Vo 02 Soluhon- Basis: 100 kg.coa)
79"7o/o N,
Coal AIR .-*-';Stack Gas
9A.O4o/oC
9.?"8o/o C0,
O.79oioL1
1.20,6N
756 mm l-ls f- 2.45o/c, Ca
Bo%RH I

O, fron: t:: = 7?.T y- (21/79) = 21.165


I

Ijxcess C'. = 3.17 - il.CEz'2) - iA.22/2) -'7qn


I l-

"1 E;.; cc.-. ,.=,7.12


t' t:l.ls{; _ 722;j:: )t/I lrrl -- q,q -, ,,-<
Aa7r.:. .-,.,-
1.")_vLt.t
27.13o/a YCM
(), Uilat:r-ot.,lr,c jbi: j.!,il (l 62 52% !-C
=')l . - il 0.83 + .AS/2) +3.17]= L5.lij
7 I loz'o ash
ST()lCHiOiviE'IF.Y soLlD FUELS /.59

Qi.dbnuood- EqtLaltiorc
DSG baf'
ToC = 5 88 + 2.2}6rc2.3 53.3797=5.22 + 1.308 + y + (1.308/2) + (Y+7.524)
- 0.094(.95)J x 79/21
l- o?iall.55 Y = 3:7576
+ o.oos3f 80
I - too'1rr I
62.52J a) 0/o Excess Oz= 13,7576/7.5241x 100 =5Oo/o
= 78.34
b) OrsaL AnalYsis
'Bg hnongs Farmulcr
3.7576 + (i.SOSlZ)
o/- _ 32.3 _ 0.33g(7g 34) _ 0e4( e5)
o/o Oz - x 100 = 8.26
r\Trr
/.Ji\i-L=% 53.3797
7.44 = 3.98
7.524 + 3.7576
%Nz :i 100 = 79.5I%
9.6 ICW & M) = 100 - 78.34 - 3.98 _
1.28 - 7.11 53.3797
,' -.95-3.24=5.1
F H = 3.98 + s.t(z/til) =
%O=5.1 x(16/t8)=7.41
+.gi' at 30'C
'logVP
= 7.96681 : [1666'21/(228+30)l ;VP = 31'687

Theo O, = lTB.S4/r2) + (4.91/4) - s3576


+s3576
r.5h44 + 3i.687{.8)
{7.41/32) = 2.524
Or Theo Oz = atC + (at netll,/4) moles HrO from air = x
Theo O, =-(TB.B4/1Zl + B.eiiil 0.2I 756 - 3r 687(.8)
= 7.524
,lct y = excess O- moles wet air = ('7..524 + 3:75761/.21 + 1'864 = 55"586
Q from air= y i z.SZ+ l

N, frorn air = g + 2.524) x Zg/21


At C bzil: (.0^978+.0245) motes DSG ms wet air 55.586 x 22-4 1QGAl756i '(ZzZ " 3:q) t27X
= Zg.A4/ j2 #=
Moles DSG = S3.3ZIZ coal 100
!g
- moles ," _SC .O}ZB x S3.3Z9Z = S:22
moles 99,il sG
= i3.89
90 ==.9245 x 53.37g7
- = 1.30g
-'vvu
t.sol/z
-Eqqg1_-q=v+
moles N, = (y+7.524) x Zg/21
sr,)i"lD f'l)ELS ,/ 6l
r.--

rt,ff {Jt,Eilds
d) C\r lost due tr.r
.\ sirn:ple of ]ignite
Unburrit eornbustiblcs (9.5270)
Uncondensed wa.ter (4.71olsl
:
fI? i:"#;{*$i iilf i,:,f 'Sensible
i
fi .1,',r rs=ixi,: Heat l\9.24a/a)
;t),ftrxrmate Ana]isis
1r5.43%vcM)
,, Modrfied
Ir)
L+. A boiier is fired wjth eoa-l containing 72'$3a6e ' I4Vo ;rsij'
Arialysis L6.o/oN and l.2olo S bumt under eonditions that the
(46. IATo/rtC,'
.i2olnrlu cr o: ar. ^,. *
9'913cracw) elimination of comirustibies frorn the refuse is cotnplete
t:/ I
_Ulurnare
b.46o/oH, ^r,"t
*lIH' The air enters t}.e fumace at 25"C, 760 mrn i{g with 80yo
_ r\
rli
Sg.5loloo) IlH. The flue gases g,les to ihte stack at 280"C arrri 'i 10 I
AnaJysis of VCM
kPa. The al errge flue gas o:sat anaiysis is 8 41% COr'
65.26o709, t.47ot Or. Calcu lale ttre ftrliowi n g:
28'o5eocw] 2,52ok CO, O .7 60/o H, and 9. 8602'o
r) caronfic
(24.G3 tvrJ/kg"dr; ;;t[ a) %o excess air (65"08%)
b) UlUmate Anaiysis of Coal (4"530/oH' 6'04%(])
c) m'flue gaslI9 coal (24"5)
;:)' A bur,.jer uses pirroh,,**r coar d) m' air/i<,g coal (13.7e)
-,t
gg;:A:"::!^:rgh
i'l,i T?ry'lg 14 r% ash,
;::,.?:
.H" f;.",;e#"
r'i:a.lculatei
' 'wy'a co' #:lr.!
g'24o'o
"
;:r#
sor' 0.-: "!(r
5a'"/o-rlz
rrt *-#
ana:\zes
a,d g
5. A certain coai is pulvettzedand brirnt in a burrier. Analysis
ofcoa-tshowedTO%C"IA'7o/a;lshandl'20/oI'l"lJ:r:refuse
l6iloor' is substantiaJiy frie of combustible. A sampie of tJ.e flue
a) excess .air
o%
Lr c";;r;;.',fi ,*,,.'trj;:,l gas collected and analyzed in ar orsat apparat-us 'rver
*"r"rry conlains $.$':lzo C0r' 3.320/o CCl, 0'32010 S0*" 3'32%o
4 7to/oH. z.r6t/oo) H, a:rd 9.53o/o O". Air supplieri is at 30"C, 1 atm ;alrd
turlks coa.i iir'ffit" sCturated with water. Ca-lculate: I
",j SG,/kg
:J m3
tU
coa t26.25) a) o/o excess O, (45' 130./o)

i.tl 'as b) Complete uitimate anaJYsis of coal


i]:-:"
rcpresentaLj'e
i-eceived- basis,
rhe pi-oxir:^.r- analysis
^.- . (4.68%H, 8.280/o O, 5"140/o S) I
coatft";;.;: Sernirara of c) m' flue 6fas (250eC, 1 ahn}/k$ coal (22.721
s3e6 Fc, ;r;;
;;l ':'3 ii. "":._f*T."te js 32a/aYCM',a
l I
ts'23 78tqJ
ik:!.e,. ,1?%N ^;;';'.;%{Iant :
wrrj j5004 *:cess j,llt u:""*,,,"i o"r,"11,::;#[;,lJ: A hjgh voiatjle B biiuminous coa-l a:railzing 22ilk YC\\n,
js. 5:l dri- so iliat the 64o/o-FC,4o/aM, 1.4% N and l.60zo S hras a- *;.lcrriic valr-Le
.r.rl.i,c molal ra.itr of'co' to co
of 325 MJ /kg it is br,rmerJ in e-xcess ajr suppllr:d
..] -, ciry
r:J comple,.
a.rr at 2
y* Ilg/x; coal (i6 641 essenlialiy dry at 2B"C alrl 1 atrn. The star:k ,{ases ie ave
-,u=Soc,^7?,0 rhe flt';';X^s at25O'C,'740 rnm tlg and cortain 8.370ia CO,, 4 1990 CO
t5.76o,6gg" J r rc"zeuu'
r's:lt^:f 0 '28q"'so-, 12.75at.o..76 and 2.51oto FIr. Calcuiate:
:.i?!i-]-:'
!/ ,i, -4rry;N. a) oz'o excess O, t400tbj
", rruf lli ;r f4C.C.
77() mn rjfz.xg b) Complete crsai anal-vsis of tbe stack gas
c,"al (2g.Sn ( 9.11% O. , 75.82o/o N.)
c) mt stack gasl m3 air (i.89)
,
'
-' / ti.f( )ici jioL{F.T.liY
SOI-.lD i)til:ll.S / 6r

4.h, ccAr- c"yy.y:rfoN WrrH ccft,rEusriBlEs


coiel r:r:ntairrin{ 4 79/n M' 24o/u
rN TI-!E REFUSE
{-rvPE t,} - 5: A fur-naee burls
Exanple
VCNi, 630/o FC, 1'20lo I{, 1.8% Si and B.99zo ash" Ils
r\40re often in t,e c4lorjlic value is 32 MJlkg" Deterrnine the 0lo VCM,
combusuon of sorid fuers,
the fumace ashes
r r111(;1i11 a significant
r,ltt:.Live,1z called
arnount ;i;;b"rrr combustibre e anri Calorific Va]r:e lost r-rt t}e r e lrse f it
me nedSe;;;, material analYzes.
rhe instances, to be able to
'|'r''t1\'7-e refuse berter, *;;.;; .pinro.a into it to rorm what a) 4"8% VCM. I2"6a/a F"e and 82.6% astr
eiLse i",rr.' b) 24ak C ar:d 760r'o ash
I.', i3 :.f;f"1 "
]l'
;
"",ii, "u o,, car c uralion s, these c) 7.fiah VCM, 29"2o/o FC a-rrd 63.$/o ash
'l'l rere
are four cases
,r) Case A_Uncoked ofC"ri'il=, CombusUble lost jn the
refuse: Basis kg coal
js
,, the Refuse 'Sclunon-' I OO

;m"h;f,coal "orr trr.tlas tosr only its moisrure al Test for ttre Case
*rHra:?i djil :"*rT: :; JiuiH.;r
Thus ttre.following
r* 63/2al'?= (12"6/4.8)
2"62b = 2.625 Case A: LJrreoked eoal
reiation js true;
(FC/VCM) in greei bal: 0"826 x WT Reft:se = 8.9
."rt = lpgffiM) jn the refuse Ash
Wt Refr:se = 10.7'75
l,J asigToked Coai Losr in rhe Re{use Wt VCN{ iri Refuse = 048 x I0 775 = 0"5172
\_nKed Joal is coal t-har
has lnst lroU, lL. moisLure wt FC in Refuse = .126 x 1A.775 = 1'357'7
VCM content. Thrrs *, and
-;l^;s of rie refuse ci.ntains
negUgible volaule conrlrusiible'rn]rt..; e/o VCI\4 lost = (0.5172/241 x 100 = 2.155o1o plJ'!;
t}re main constituent"-. ;" jcir.i) Carbon and ash irie
refuse if Lire o/c VCMin rhe
is less rha:l 0.2t6-;';;.. Cr Ll de rut o or7 E Q uatia n:
e.ssenlially carbon. '- '""v ,-^
uc assumed to 5.8-B + 2.2d\6 132 - + .0053
Lre o/oC = 0"0i14(1 $)l
ls0 - iclo(vcMlFCl)Jr ss

c) of Coked a::ci ijrrcokeci Coal = / /.6J


ffif-ombinaUon in o/oC jn the VCM = (77.83 '- 63)124 x ltl0 = 61.790/o
The refuse is a mlyture of
ash, VCM and FC. The
uncoked coa-l that gces i,to
,i_r* .lf,r". co,ntributes Wt C in tlte refi-rse = FC in refuse + C in ttre VCM in relrrse
vCM and FC; rhe.Iokeci bo{ir = 1.3577 -+ 0.6179(.5)721 ,= 1.677
;;j;; goes into ilre refuse
only the FC. -fir,r"-t_[. foljc,,l,ing
mTO",es retauon js o/o C lost = 1.677177 tl3) x 100 = ') 155%: AIVS
(FCI\,CM in green coaj
* (FC/VCMI jn refirse 32(roo)
jl_ - "'_'. 338t63)
- .___-._'...'- ..
r-\/
u\ v1^. r//-M - 44 h(8 htj, }-g
,l) Pa;+;*-r- Ccl.;rcj CoaJ 24
P.uiil-lir., ,;kiJiE;,1 CV lost in Lhe refr.rsr: = 33.8( 1.3b7V * 4 4.ti08(.5 172) = 68 96 t I;
i,r;J Lj:ai lra> .lcsl a_ll jis
r:.
content brit not all VCX{. a"ulyuil'cf r no jsrurr_
ozbCV lost in tl're R.efuse ,= [68"961 5 /{32x 100)J .x }00 = 2 l55a/c,
sr.qn;i;,.;,:;:,"-,].il l.,i;i J..:,,.,^ rhe refu,ss slrcu,s
.li.:,,.
cr:itl ;:; ,,ut .,iuot lo r.he i-aiii_.
oi eC,",".-r,');#;t:].k:::.
,i,1,,, r 1'alji,t HIOtu1r:.rTirii,

S{)l.,li) i.'i,i:ilS r' ilS


rV,fe: Ataiysis oi oro nerH ,ost, o,t, Cv/ lost, % N lost,% S lost
'r' rr.llj .lost = lyr.eF f., VCNatfUd of VC
0z6 VCM lost = t1"C5/24) x I00= 4375olo /J{l;
r"z"ne$r r', vcloa[" 100 = 2.1sso/o From arJ o/sC tst coal = 77.83o/o; o/oC irr VCM = 61
";##fm]x i
C.V= 44 608
79uto

"' W rast = m#*#Hm###*+*ffi x r00 z tss*,,, I


t Wt of e j:r refuse = 4.088 + .6179 (),05) = 4.737
=
I % C lbst ln the refuse = (4.737 /77.83) x J.00 =, 6.08% AN,:i
'rr'['J lrrst I
I
CV iost in the r:efuse = 4.088{33,8) + i.05(44.608) = 185.0.tii
o/o (N lost
x ]oo = 2.tssa/a I = tl8s.Ol5/(32 x I00)l = 5 78oto ANS
t
I
,rr,t,
Jtr' lr,...t
frl:il= Note: Analysis of Yo netFl losl, % CW lost, 0/o
- iozoS tn Vt I
Iti 1ost,94 S k:st.
x]oo =z.lsso/o I
i o,,c netH tcxt fl6rrslf-LlnYQ_M{u'i-A[Jcl{ln_r_efusc]x 100 = 4.BTSa/o
I'hus for uncoked coal; I
-"=(-o4netH ln VCM)(wt of VC[4 tn gr.Coa!
('()VCM I

lost = g.ol!-fost ahClosl o/oCVlost I


= = yonelH ]ost
= t%QW-l!"Y-CMhvt qf VcM-lu.Refuse--l x
t

= o/o CW lost = oz,o N lost 9/o S lost = I


l'
%CW ]ost
P/r{:W ,n VCM)(wt of VCM lri Gr.Coal}
100 = A.;.'I1ato
= in the refuse I

l,l l(r.fuse arraJysis: 24o1oF.C t


and 760/o ash lost = 1%NI!-YAML"WL of N lq-i/eM lr-refuEE]
I o/oN
(0/oN tn VCM)(WI of N trr VCM in Gr"r:oa.!
x- 100 = 4 BTso/o

no VCI!{ is present, t{re 'l f,


, ,,ro].S,r". t-r.pe oi combusUble is Cokeri t

I.
o/oS lost = !2qtrlYeMJilUlof S ITLVCM ln retuse) --x t00.
" 4.37bota
(%S lrr VCMIWI oI S ln VCM in Gr.Coaj)
Ash bal: 0.?6 x Wt refr:se
Wtrefuse=ll.7l = B:g
Thus for Case C: o/oC lost * % VCM ]ost + o/o CV lost + % neltl
Wt C in the refuse lt.7l (.2+) lost
= = 2.61
'!6 C lost in lne refuse _ (2.gi/77.g3)
_r 100 o/o netll iust -%o CW los'. = o/o N losf. = 7o S ]ost = % VCM losi
l^ cv in refuse
rosr in the reruse :
i;:jf'"tr_l / (]00 x 32)j .x r0o
= I!"92o/o ANS ExanpLe 6: .A boiler is fired w:lh co;1l irr:aiyzing 13 80lo VCM.
lSala M, I.2o/a S, negligible N arld a r:aJorilic value
I.tefuse analysis:
'r-csr: (63,/?+) .t= ,y1 ::CM, -v'!/e 29.2o/o rFC
\ and 63.6% ash of 32.95 MJ/kS.The drv refuse rernoved anallzes
(2g.2/Z S)' 5% VCI\4, 27t/o FC ard 680l,: ash. 600.t0 excess air'
2.625 * S.Bg3 Case
C; coked ar-rri uncoked coa,l is supplied at at 32 "C, 758 rnm lJg s,it-h 85cz'oRll.
A-.;h bal: C.636 x \..t.r 90?b of the cat'oon Easified bums to CO,, tJ-le rr:st
relusr = I e to CO" The molal ratio of H, to C0 rs 2.9. [-liilcr:]ate:
wt r:t:s,: = :1
l\t of \'g1u.r ;- r_ -r a\ o/a C lost in the refuse
liii ci rc r.'i,.,]''== r_!,., ;,.,r=] b) irr: ajrlkg coa)
',i:t c) Orsat analvsjs of *re stack {irs
dJ m"= stack gas/ke roa)
' e) tr:ia1 t'z'o CV k:sl
6F ,, ,;'l r )ir_HlOt"{ETRy sctt..tn l't rEl-s / 67

ig coal Theo O" = 18L.46/12) + (3'68/4) =


,Soluito,-i-' Easis: 1O0 7"71)BZ
rreq f) '= 0.6 x Z TA83 = 4.625
AIR
Stack Gas
ii:t"#, ut = 7'7A83 x= 4'625 = 12'333
320C n;il; air = 12'33.3 {79/2t) = 46'3967
4000c
/58 mm Hg
765 mm Hg At 32"C: log VP = 7'96681 - I658'211t228+32\ :

60 7o x'ss VP = 35 532 nim Hg


85%RH BURNER .^ n^-n\ -x
HrO from aY" = (12'333 + 46"3967) -jjg:jlqs?.-
7ss - (85X35.532)
Fuel Refuse. = 2437
C,:al 760 273+32
13.80/o VCM
5% VCM
27% FC ms air
(tz.aea
**-
2::'):2:-ffi.]::W-
r n6ss6''.**100
8.6% ash 680/o ash b)' +- .
kg coal
3.07q. M
7.2% S = 15.348
CV= 32.95 MJ/kg = 6'477
At C gasified = (1 -"0458) 191"a$112) 5'83
b conirefred to CO, = 0"9 x 6'4?7 = 0'647
'l'est for the type of combustible: C to C0 = O'l x 6"477 =
(74.6/13.8) ? t22151 "orr"..t.d
5.406 .=.5.4 Uncoked Coal H, in the qtack $as = a'647 (2/9).= 0"144

Wt of VCM in the refuse = (8.6/0.68) x 0.05 = 0.63235


.: .H,z . -t I'ry.i:1
o/oVCM lost in t.t.e refuse = (0.65235/13.g) x 100 = 4.Sgo/o free o, = xI55 02
"
()zn
C lost in the refuse = 4.580/o + at C lost in refuse
(\tFC 74.6
= tby difference)-
ig gH.
= 4'625 - 9-Y*
I Cat d-erutood equation:
free o,
o/oC 5.88 + 2.206 (32.95
= - (0.094)(I.2)
"UT*
3 8lrss 0 0458(81 46)
+ o.oosa[so
L - lgsJ746) a
'L
= 81.46
=537
I lt 1 lh ig,. eAe ,2ao
l.:;r -Forml.rlcr-' '-YY \ -
t-l,O jn Srack Gas = (t - 0.0458)-zu It
:
u-0458]-
il2:-,i = 0.33t(31.4e) + I..14(nerHl - 0.r_,94{t.2) -
rt)
o/c -rtetH = 3.68 a
'Ya (l.ii.- l0C El.';6 - 3.o8 - 3 - 8a - I t, -. ).tc
,.' -144+2..1?,7
18
(1
.'lvir.i.;tur'c =J = 4.325
I ., 1' )t(tIJIOMETPT \
SOLID ITU}']I^S ,/ O9

( )r,i;tt A;:alysis ANS


e) TotatVo.CV iost = 4'58 + 5.56 + 1.25 + 2.52, 22,'65 = 36"5604
Gas n
Example 7: A furrace bums coal a:ralyzin g 78.3r.>o/oC, 27ale'
o/o
,1Oz 5_83 9.98 VCM, 1.3%N, 7.1olo ash a-nd 0.95705. Aneriysis of
CO 0.647 1.1I tl:e refuse shows 6oloVCM, 32% FC ancl 62Vr: ash.
H, 0.144 0.25 Air supplied is at 30"C, 735 torrs wjth 90% RlI.
o"2 5.37 . TLie stack gases at 250"C and 745 lorrs has a
g.2O
N, partiai orsat analysis of 9.79% CO, and 1..47% Cro"
46.3967 79.46 Assurring that 5. L90/o of the e fired is lost in the I
58.3877 ' refuse, calcfulate:
aJ Complete ultimate anaJysis of eoal I
b) Tlpe of combustible in the refuse
c) %o ericess O,
A rrrir.stack Gas
kg coal
*$a.uzz + as2s) x 224 " * ^zis
! +oa d) Complete orsat analysis of the stack ga-s
e) mt stack gas/ .kg eoal
= 34.4
llr0 from combusUon 4.325 _ Solufurru Basis: 100 kg coal
9{r CV Iost in the
= .2.432 = l.g876
refuse = +jS
,x, oV rost I

ctue ro co =U6i;;zffi.ol)/(i00x
s2.gs)]x100 AIR- ..-- Stack Gas g. zg%co,
= 5.56 300c 2500c 1.470/o ao
'r1, CV lost due to
735 torrs
H, = [(. i4+ x 2g6.03)/ {] 00 x 32.95)l x gO%RH
745 torrs
toO
= 1.25 BURNER
rX, CV Iost due to uncondensed I
= [(r.8876 x 44.0a)/ tez.gsflwaler
i"l aC = 2.52 /
Fuel Refuse
GAS n
COAL
60lo VCM
32% F-C I
Cp n9p 620lo ash
CO, 5.83 44.79 261. I l
78.350/o C l,
nn 0.647 27o/o YC
)

30.19 19.55 lr
,LI12 0.744 :rti 29.06 1.3% N
o2 5,42 C I 4^
4.l8 / . Ie/a ASr)
ir

.r1.JO I 68.52
N, 46.3967 io 0.950/o S
- ar-9{ aa
H"o r3
l 384.
35.2 _ I52.31
r 9,-c9.Bl Wt of the refuse = (7.\/0.62) = 11.45
f;;t of C in the refuse = 05i9(78 35) = 4.1166
o/: cv g,ffit#f \\zt of C in VCM r.n ref = 4.066 - ("32.1(i1.45) = 0"402
rosr ci.-.e ro sF{
= "_, P x )oi) = i2.t 6.r
o/oL'. in VCM = 1402)/(.06 x ii.45l x 10C = 58.il1
oz'oFC jn coal = 78.35 - (.5851 r 27) = 62.55

,r'
ll
, l( il(:l-llUMETIl';' Sr.;.-lli 1'l'r

I r,,rrtg the Cd.denuood. Equation:


free O, = y+(.BCBl2l + (.trS t9 :t7E35l/$2
78 35 = 5,88 + 2.206'{Cv _ 0.94(0.g5ll + + (.025q x 9.96)//4
0.0053
I t7 lrss y + 0.766
iso -'
roo62.55.1
=
L - i

iv = 32.292 OSG bal:


54.973 = 5"38 + 0"808 +y+. 768 + br+7.5241t\79/21)
I t:,ing DLlongs Farmule Y = 4'74
32.297 = .338(78.3S) + t.++ nerll + .0g4(,9S)
net FI - 3.98y0 c) 96 Excess O, = (4.14/7"5241x 100 = 55"02a,'o ANS

ll(.u ,/-rrro.r.r Lrl a,,o C, in SC = [(4.14 + ""793a\i54.97'ii i 10C - 397 A)iS


tL, rY qvt/ ^;^
= O,JZ
rr,irl'l in (CW&M) = B.Z2 x (2llg) 0.g2 %o N, in SG = 79.77
(l{r()
in (CW&M) = 8.32 x ,06/tgl== 2.4 A- 30'C. VP = 31.687
rXr total H = 3.98 + O.g2 = 4.9
(t i*:rtnt):lt:,p !)2 - zz+t
.l tII,TIMATE ANALYSIS: ANS mores warer rrom ajr =
7ll.35o/oC, 4,9o/p[, 7.4%O, t.3yoN, Z.tVo ash,
0.95705
(l4r
Moislure = ]00 - 2T - 62.55 Total HrO in stack gas = (1-"0254)(3.9812) + (1-.0254)
- 7.1 = 3.35 (4"97/tB) + 3.35/iB + 2'24t
'k' CW = 8.32 - 3.35 = 4.gZ J EQtr?
* A. UJ.J
'
'li:st for the type of cornbusljble:
(62.55/2n ?= $2/6) 273 + 250
m3 Stack Gas
(s+sza + a63s7) x 224,|?t, '--^*;;--'
Lti\
e)
Ll 2.316 ;* 5.333 Coked arrd Uncoked_ coal in Refuse kg coai
ANS
VoVCM lost = o/o CW lost o/o NH lost
in
=
' =.06[1t.45)/27 = 2.54 ref = 26.09% AN-S

1j,v:x'ssO,
'l'l.reo
O, (78.35/ Example 8. Coal fired i.n a furnace ana)yaeso/o 340./0V(lM' 44a/oF'C"
= t2) + (3 98 /4) = 7.524
O, frcrm ar = 7.524 + y 7.7o/o as]n, i.2oloN axd 1.570/o S. llhe reli:se
N, from al't = t7.524 +'y) x 7g/2] contains 6.2010 vcM " 8.750/o FC, 35010 a'sh and
50.05% HrO. fur sr:pplied js at 35"C1, 765 min Hg
At C gasified = (l-.0519) (78.S5lt2J = 6.19 u'ithB5olo Rll' The stach gases leave at 250"C' 766

Mcrles I'SLI = (6 lg/ I l./Si = CO. 2.320/o Hr, 9^54ako" itnd 76.5)-0zb N, Calr:r'rlaLc:
CO, jn'SG = 54 973 x 0g7g =4.973 a) o/o C lcs[ in i]re rrfuse
= 5 3g b) CV o{ coal
CO ;r SG = 54.973 x .U)47 = 0 EOS
e) ijltirrlale tuifl1,sis o{' cca-}
d) o./o excess 0"
I
:.i()1,1D lfliL;i..t; ,/ /3

o/o neri-i in ir-rel = 6"250651F x 100

. tr\'. Calderu:ood Equafr'on:


AIR Stack Gas 9.37o,COr\ ',
tJ(
l
2560c 2:.3?a/o CO+- '\ ]2]OtPl x r00 = 5,88 + 2.206[cv - 0"094{1 57)}
hlltl l lg 766 mm Hg 2.Spato H, F
9.5p0/o O,
l
it t.il1
I f. 3+1'55
BURNER 76.52% N., I + 0.0053 [Bo -- I 00
os ]
t. I

f uel Refuse ./ I
-

-.//
fttr,tl 6-2o,'o VCi'i;-1
8.75olo FC \ \ + 14'* t6'250651FI
CV = 0.338 x (12.105 x t}/f
f,4'1,(r VCM
{Hrl4 FC 357o ash I
)
x 100 + .094,(1.57)
'l,'itYo ash 50.05%HrO .;'
I il'Zo N Soluirrg simultaneourslY;
I lr79lo S
F = 282.8I kg
CV = 20.69 MJ/kg
f'r,,t lbr combustjble 134/48) ?= (6.2/8.75)
0.7083 = 0.7085 Uncoked
= t(i2.I05)(12)/282.51j. x 100 = 2'21
5I'36
Coa-l o,/oC
7o netH = [6.25065 /282'811x 100 =
(2.7t.35) x 0.62 .2. iCwarra) = 100 - (51.36+2.2L+1"2+7'?+l 5'4 = 35'96
rhr V(lM lost = x I00 = 4.01
.34 o/oH in (CW&M) = 35'96 x l2/l&) = 4
o/oO in (CW&M)
= 35'96
x (16/18) = 31"96
rHr O lost in the refuse = 4.01
ltrsis: 1O0 moles dry stack gas (DSG) c) ULTIMATE A]ttAlvsts, arus
1'57VoS
51.36o/oC, 6.2La/0L1, 31'96outrO, 1'2oloN' 7'7a/a'as]n"
Al C Sasified = 9.3 ;2.32 = IL62
'lirtal -at C'charged = 11.62/(t-.0401) = ti.rO5
o, = e 54 - Q'32t2) !19'(?*?f
1I-'U.99)
N, Iiorn asr = 76.52 x'ss
t ri frorn atr = 76.52 x t2l/79) = 20.341
' .0401(282.81X0.022l)
(,7 unaccounted for = 20.34i - (9,3 + 2.32/2 + 9.54) = 0.34]
4
or ;( 1.364 at netll . = 6.672
,rt. net H gasified = i.364 + 2(2.32) = o 672)l'x 100 = 4B'81?b 1lJ\iS
'l'olal at netH charged = 6/(1:.0401) = 6.25A€'5 d) 9'o e,<cess Or= l{6.622)/(20'3]]-6
lx: t F = ,;;i cf rirt ir.i,:I DxantpLegrAfunlaceisfit'edlr'it-hcoalu'ill:the'follo"wing 4/'
allall'sis: 3O 3oZn\rCN1. 43 6% trC lA Tott:;rsh' ii
12iC5 i2 is 29'5
-i ' M. I 2ti,\, a;rtl 5 lozi'S lt's ciilorillc '"'alur:
t\'('. in ,i.: iirl x I O0
-

-=1.-ll|rrrry-
SCILIi) ,.LlLl)i) ,/ 75

*,r^ry- AraJysis of ihe werted refuse shours l2go


o/oC it DSG
C , 65oh ash ar;d ?-39/o HrC. Dn ar. is
supplied at = 8.71 + 7.74 = L0.45
27"C and 1 atm. The stick gases leave
at S50"C, r:roles DSG = (5.6687/0.1045) = 54.2459
moles e0, in SG = 54.2459 x .0871 = 4.7248
Tn|- ^yy' Hg with a parlial orsat a-r:alysis of
8.77VICO2, l.7.inh CO anci O.3So/o
H.,. moles e0 in SG = 54.2459 x .0174 = .943"Q
a) 016 a';cess O" ! Calculate: rnoles H, in SG .0035 x 54.2459 = .18986
b) Comptete orlat aralysrs of the stack gas =
moles SO, in SG = 5.1/32
c) m3 stack .gas/Ig coa-i moles free,.O, = y + {"9439 /2) + (,1898612} + (1.9754/ 121
=y+J31b
.Sohrtforz' Basis 100 1g coal moles N, in SG = (y + 6.923XT9/2tl, + tl.2/28j
DSG bal: gives Y = 4.4961.
AIR
?'/oc r--_-;rsiack Gas B.7Ia/oCO,
'l ;rtm
rr;'
JJU
l.} n
U
7.74o/o CC a) o/o excess O, = (4.4961/6.923) x i00 =- 64,.94 ANS
0.35()/o Hz
rlry 745 mnr Hg b) Cornpiele Orsat Analysis ANS
BURNER %SO2 = l$r/32)/54.24591x I00 = 0"29
o/o], = [(4.4961+.7315)/54.2459] x 100 = 9.64
Fuel .t 4.496r)(79 r 2i) + (t.z tzat,
Reflrse n,-*.;_ (s.uzs
o,/^Ni \ ,' _ r nn .aA dry
rJ6 p% vcM
49.60/o FC
72o/o C ' --___ b42459 - x 100 ,='79.27
6570 asli
10.7% ash
23o/o H"O
HrO from combu$Uon = (3"72/2) - .18986 + i5.88118)
i\,40/o M ' (3.4/18)
L2%o N = 2.1857
ll. lolo S
ov = 29.5 MJlkg
c) :geck-g3:
lqi CoaJ
=
!3I1* ??') :'?1:#":-:i;#
r00
Ilsing the Calderwood equation: o/oC 7a
o/oCW by difference = :
.r 2E42 ANS
= 5.gB
IIsing Dulongs Formula: o/o netH 3.7?. -/--\\
=
Qxnmple /L; The ult-imate a-nalysis cf col iired in a borier showed
Weight of Refuse = (10.7/0.65) 16..6 -'---/ 57 .O40/a tota-l C, p0 5% VCh{, 1.2% N, 9.7% ash and
\\rt oI C in [he refuse = O.i2 x =16.46 ].gTS4 6.30lo S. Analysis of the u,etled ;e :se showed
=
1 FC, 2 1 .1a/a \ CM, 47, 8% a^sh an d 1 5 90./o FIr O.
3 . 8o/a "
At C gal.tripd = {70 -).975q/)2 5.6687 tur is ar 28'C,.756 mm i{g with 760/o RlI" Orsat
=
a;la.iysis of *re sLack gas sltows V.92a/o CC)r, 2 380z6
'lheo C), (7Oii2) +
= t|.Z2,i,t) + (5.1/32) = 6923 CO, 39% SO2, 1"79a/aT1r" 10.6570 O, alid 7V.47o/o
J,ctv=:..'ssO.. N,. Calculate :
(), fror-i'l ;:-:1 .= -: $.g23 a) 7o VClyl ;ind C jost jn Lhe r"elu..,ir
i,:
N, from air = (ly" ,r 6.g23) x i7'gi2.1t b) Ullirnaie anah,sls ol coaJ
-] 9,0 eX:eSS C, 7F^'r ', 238!2' , 'tr.o

c) Calorific Value of ,Coal O, unaccounte'J for =


'-Or'JUUr";;;:
4 1'68
Colutian: Basis: 100 lgrnoles DSG H burned to *''iti = A''42' x =
Ai nd!
[r.oe*I.iq.2I -^.7^
AIR f6t2l At net H = ;6) - =+ta
'Stack Gas -1l\-
280C ' 7.92o/o CO,
756 mm Hg x 100 = 2'05
2.38o/o CO o/o rrctH = t4'74/231'151
76 % Rt4 39% SO, \t'vt++ r-?qiqg
(zuz ^o2)1? * 100
BI.JRNER i.19% I{, o/o of torerl c that is
gasified = os@tzat ls)
10.65% o,
77'470/o N' = 9374
Fuel Reir=u 100 '93'74 = 6'260/o
ANS
Coal 21.5o/o YCM o/o C lcst in the refi:se =
57.44o/o C 13.870 FC t
o/olc'*r (21]6) 2"63
30.5olo VCM By difference:
,t#'-J# !'ZZZ, xx (16/18)== 21 06^
f
47.8o/o ash
l
9.7c/o ash tr6.9%H2o i
7.2o/o I't
[:
r 70tl;iCrvaY6=z'3'J'1
l 2'O5 = 4'68
6.3ozi, S i: o/o total if in co'i = Z'Og =
r
r..
t
t
:
ANS
o,/NCl/I iost in the refirse (9 / t478) x A.275 I
t b) ULflI\4A"lE ANALYSIS I'2%N' 9'?o/o ash'
6"3'rhs
- X lUU t qaeirllzto""o' rn refl4
atC in ref - al- ne*{
305 I 57.oryo/oc.
= 14.39i, nt*{S r
I . Xss O, = free O^,-'- "Ot':
%N lost in the reluse = Yo S losi in *re refuse =.L4.Bo/o
(00626)(41lErygq{
SLltfilr boJance: Oz = 10"65
* 11e
.) L2
)(ss
0.053 &\'t fuel) (1-.143) = 0.39 x 32 0143(2p115x099)q)
. Wt of fuei = 23i.15
Moles of ItJ, from'the fi:el that is gasified
-?
O12(23115)
28
, (i - r+:)
- t e' /t20 5?-8) I x 100 = 63 619/o ANS
9/r e)icess Oz |" t
-
/-,Qq c)
-
+ \'4412'O5l +'094t6'3)
d) CV of coal = .338(57.04) ANS
Moles N.. Iroin ar = 72.47 - f)4tr - -;'; ?a= 22.82 MJ/kg
' /,\-:L..,
Moies (1., i:l;n ;tr = 77.1,6,:: .:i (7?./'i)] - ){) v7
,,|l

fired in a furnace analvzes


'# Coal
;iir5;" i"1i'
6i.4% !U, o'ro
"';:!1":]t#;^:,1,::"1*
rvr' ir' i"'*'"9 1:*::Ti1,.13;'i';."iJr:
tjtii::, shows 44ola ush,
o"t/kg Analv?i: 91-tiT ^-o.r anaivsis 5;:
l"'A ftrrnace is flred wiih coai wif-h the following proxjrrrate "izo:"s
f#$J,fr '116'f'ffi Y'q'**:ll -#:
tr3'.:f'
: t'r. Tg,.',,27:.:?f?*,.:
ol

analysis: 5o/o M, 60% FC, 250lo 'vCM and 10olo ash. Its fl: ::;k #' \ oii
i"
caloriflc value is 31.33 lvil/kg. Calculate the %o VCM lost"
=i.,;"I"
"#:Sfi,,-#";;;'Li;i'-ida tarrs with B0% RH'
%o C lost a4do/o CV lostin the refuse if t}le refuse analyzes:
ff
(Ie'92 ' 17l']l)
d 250/o FC, 4o/o VCM, 71Yo ash 15.1, 4.59, 2.25) ""lHFtila o/ovcM lost in tlte refuse
b) 14.4%FC. 60/o VCM; 79.60/o ash (3.02) Ui Vo **.u" O, [20:41^-.
c) 19.6% C, 80"40lo ash 8.2. 2.63) J n-I'
cl airl}€ uua
a:r/KB co'af 1g'OgS)
of'ililr"tgas (g.170/o 02,
;?B"Cgq,ol'12)
".'
di Orsat 'ana]Ysis
',t. A fligh volati.le A bituminous ccal anaJyzing 73.77o/s C, aiTil
5.23o/o H, 100/o O, 1.40/o N, B 10/o ash,3.90/o M and 1.50/o t:.'1
S js burned in a fi;rnace together wlth 45% excess a-ir
5 A hi gh gracl e se mi - a:r thrac*:, " :.TTl;t ffi
t3,I;'^"ifil.f1,l
T'i"t' o' l3i,
suppiied saturated aL 25"C and I atrn. Ana.lysis of the
tt?ElB'#t:;;^fr'ii'
g il'Tvll"';t *. ;'r;"n"y:rtfl: K;
"o;';i-iil; T: ?"jf ,Ht:#i
VCM" 23.55o/o FC, 32.480,2o ash i; |.ii'iiH
;'"# :;;\spl?g*S:1?.t:T-;
welted refuse shor,vs 160,6
:*3-:J:3,:
ows 8 o5%o
and27,97o/o HrO. The stackgases leave at 300"C. 7'15 ton-b a)]@rv"*
ixi.i,:iJ g:"' ::,T:119 sh
with a CO to CO; ratio of 0.12. Ca-lculate: co", 2,42% c9 Tj-, { z"gP/o }\' eaiculate:
a) a/aC and CV lc'st jn-the refuse (1i.18) -%
a) excess O- (55)
b) ly"pe of combusti)rle in Lhe refr-rse (Uncoke'i coa]) ili Co,r.,pt.te oisat ana]ysis of stack gas
c) Ors+t analysis of siack- gas (i09/o CO, l.2o/o CA) UO.73o/o C2, 75 9olo Nr)
d) nr3 SG,/)<g coai 125.21,; ,r' =t^.i. g"asl mt alr (1 624)
e) 9zo C\r lost due to CC e:rd $e:sii:le heat (5.38 , 14.76) ")
cunran.1"'1:IJl]:3itr1
'
to
A sarrple of coal rvas found
,i<' The following datawere obta'necl durirtg coa1 cornbtrsUon: t ;ilJ8l ;; #$" ;?",i,.;* ;"'1": :'^ ::::5,i' i I 3"il$
Coa-l: 13.8% VCM, 71.6% FC, 8.6?ar ash, 370 M, 0% N. ;;iEi
1.1;ii,;#dfr"",H;; ,";
1I 00 i,Q. e+Y' so''"l'ffi,'i:l
?:-*o T*^,?: e87ez6 0'
L /Vvt
3:='j;H:t;ryr..i;;f,?";co'
zg.zgolo Nz"' calculate"
CV = 32.9582MJ/kg; Ld
Refuse: 4a/o YCM, 4Ao/o FC, 5670 a:;h; .t ulrimate analysrs of coai
Air: 25"C, 740 torrs, 800/cr P'H. 50Yc exsess O, "' C;orr:DleLe
tsz iozoc:. 3.950/oll. 12.15ozoo) 117'93%
Stack gas: 300"C. 755 torrs. lr,z/Co ratio = l:4 irt Corlplele .nal-vti-t ;ith; *iu" if it cont'ajns
CO/CO, ratjo = I:10
'' (54'3% FC' 7'77% VC\{}
Ca-lculate: c)
^sir
o/o excess O- ( 39 5ryol
a) ml ajrlkg coal (14.I9i 8Yo ash' 1'49lo
57
b) Orsa-t a;:ajysis of uie slack 91" Coal fired in a furnace aralyzes l?icr'
Z+sw'C rrrrd 7ra5o/o
i10.39% CO-, 1 C:49'o CC). tr.2Glb i{-) N and O.?7a/oS' ti';;f"=tlo"'"= gas shou's 11'21% CO.,'
ash. orsat uo"-'ytit"oitit-"iu"rt
7-i-oro N'",,caiciilzrie'
isztz.'co, z.+iota o, and 79 (5'Fj5r:'b ]i '2ri [i8% O)
2i) Corni-'lere trtr:nrii J'"i, tt= r
'[ ''na]
fJ 9t excess O, (40Y0)

t"""t'
i t' =t"=='t-'t" '
/ SToICHIoMETRY

8. Coal flred in a f-lrmace anallzes 30ozo VCM, |le/o FC, l1o/a


ash, So/o M, L6% N ald l.ioto s with a GCV
of g0. i MJ/
kg.-leJUse analysis shows 30% FC, iS%s VCM, 4oolo ash
Td-Tf.-HrO. Air supptieri is sarurated at 2S"C, Z4O rnm CHAPTER
!S tvtotl ralio of Cq t-o CO is S:t and FI, to CO ," i,r
The stackgas leaves ai 900"C a:rrd.Z65 *ro'Ug.
CJ""r"t.,
a) ors_at anaJ5rsis of ttre stack gas SULFUR AND ITS
Y:9Z:,_9.A,. i.E9o/6, CO, J.Egozo Hz, tt.!bo/o b,,
ZZ-69a/oN2)
b) ms stack gaslm3 atr (Lg6)
CO'MPOUNDS

5.I SULFUR COMPOUNDS


' One of the most imporlant an<i basjc raw rnateria-ls jn the
chemical process industrjes is SuUur. It e<ists in nature both in
the free state as Rau; Suli-r and combjned jn ores such as pgrites.
Before conversion intO its other eompounds Raw Sulfur or pyrites
are bumed to give S4 or_-SOr. The operations are simllar in
prlnciple to the corflE?StffiFb-f carbon compounds, aJthough
special furnaces have to be empioyed. Among the most jmportant
applicatioirs of sulfur is in the manufacture cif Sulfuric Acid- Olgn1.

5.2 BURI\IING OF RA\v SULFUR


. Raw suifur js a combinaUon of pure S and inert materials.
When srrifur is bumed, the foilowjng reaetlons Lake place;

Main Reaclion:
S+Or-SO,
SiCe Reacuon:
S+3/2Or=SO"
I

8l
T
,' ', ir )11 ill(lME1liv :: UI-i'UIr,tj'it, ll'S aofti Pi-.i. i N i. i;l r' B.i

.r *^,, , C.
O, calculations rnay be based on
any of the above
Solution: tsasis: i00 1-
tq laf,w J
11,,,;111,",r.,
'l'l rerr
O, (S conversicn to SOr)
l'lrr, o, (S con'ersion to Soji = Total aJ At S
i;;
= x s,/z i AIR Staek Gas
'l'lrr detemlnaUon 300c
of the Excess
l(lly whether the ca-icr-tlations are ?,
*9 7o Excess O, shouJd 740 mm Hg
oased on t"l:e conversion
lltrr to SO, or SO.. of 65 7o X'ss
60%RH BURNER
'l h l,;xcess O, (S conversion
to SOr)
\\
O, Irom air - rireo O" (S tro so2
)
Fuel Cinder
x 100 10% s
rireo O, (S ro Sorl- Raw S
95%o S inerls
9Oo/r:
rl ir l,l-xcess O, (S conver.sion 5olo inerts
to SO.)
O, from air - ttreo
%F ro so3) x 100
theo o, (s to sol Total at S = 95/32 = 2"96875
Theo O, (S to SOr) = 2.96875
,,lt,""y::"=,,r::: Eap Sr.:tfur Anatysis (case O, from ai1 = (1.65){2.96875} = 4"898
,n};. ffi;",iI11, i,, *. o
-o= tai n s rJ N, from ai1 = 4.898 {79/21) = 18.427
:.":.:* -::{,
,?
i,li?pffirH] ffi:: : -con
a,sena.a,." l" Tlreo O, (S to SOu) = 2"96875 x 312 = 4.453
.:: T.:::: ci rn n ur ;;;
;i:u"::T
,' :,, ,*]o :",1 : *. s " " ;;rffi
III i 11
j

;i
I Ii

i
y
:H: ?.:;s il"' ?: :::l ;i ;: 3 :1,
il T".;
I**:
e I e e

*;;;; a) %o
=
excess O, (S
100z6ANS
to SOr) = t(4.8g8 '4.453)14.a531 -r r00

g*j:, - 1668.2t1t228 + 3A)


l','lIi::,:::,'l:'in #ua
L' ttot included
Itt "l!', *. #'ffi
qru .iii,
Lrrus #as water
;X#
At 30"c log\P
'VP = 7.96681
= 31.7 mm Hg
lll ll]e rcqrrlfc ^a *. t.lt).( I /
"1
Moles H,O from ai1= {4.898 + 18.427) x 0615
l')turnple l: Raw Su.ifur 74A.- | 6)(3i7)
anal_r-z:ng g5gtr S and 5 ineris
5olo, rrtct Ls is
JS

3,Y::1,*i? ai(s r,: so,) Ar )s


30"c, 7.40 mm He ;,;"do#^":
"2?!':I:ess . 76r) 2'/ i " '.t)
::llil:: ollf the
.A:-raiysis cjnder shcr.r,s jC.:j'S ,", .:L ilt 3arr
(q.ssa . 18 4'27 = Lt.6L5l ,'224, _.^ , :.:..
inens. 8B0,/o of tilc li gasiieO Ur,u tlr.,,!]
i-,1
i.,;,:.. t" SO)' illo :,,,,,
ic SOr. Calculate:
1^
-^ h: aCr! J 10t)
a) 9/o excess aj:iS tr., Qr\ I
:,
i)) It ) ;t1., , L'..1 ..... ..,.. .l
.i.
=61127,ANS
:r
c) eortrJ,j,:ie ariaj_vsis of iJle bunter gas
14,,,slolc;-rlcMEll.ry sul-FliR.A-NU i.is 6'e1'4;1r''r
r'l'' s5
'/

Ineri bal: 0.9 x Vlt crndei- = 5 I00 moies dry SO, free }3u;-rter g;;"s
Wt cinder = 5.5b5 Soiuti,crr-- Basis

At S gasified = 2.96gZE - (.t .x 5.555)/32 2.951 9.7970 SO,


=
A.IR -^.^O^ Gas
Burner
At S convertecl.to SO, = 0.gB x 2.gil 2.SG-"^ oro^ 9.169/r, O,
= l.OU t-
At S converted to SO, O.l2 x 2.g5I 0.385 81.057o i't,
= 745 mm Hg 760 mm Hg
= drv
I\{oles O" i-isec.i BURNER
gr_{o., SO, = O, for S0.
"p = 2.596 + ol:ssti/2) = s..tzz
Fuel
Free O, = O, from air - O, used up 4.ggg _.3.t22
= = L,t I I kaw S
Complete Analysis ANS 88olo S
l2olo inerls
GAS n o/o
SO, 2"596
O- from 2i1 = 8I'05 x l2l/79) - 21"54
10.93
a2 1.771 7.45
N, 18.427 77.54
o' fo, SO^ = 21.5:4 - (9.79 + 9.16) = 2'59
SO, 0.355 r.49
fuflf** So. fon-ned = 259 x (2/3\ = l'727
HrO 0.615 ,EO = at S convet'Led to SOu
23.764 at S converted to SO'
Total at-S = at S converted to S0, "+

bl ' =1.727+9'79=1i'517
Calculations Based on Analysls of Bumer
Gas (Case ID Theo o, to SOr) = 11?11 ,,. .;
(S
In the orsat araiysis of the bumergas, SO.
To find the moles.of SO.. a comparison
is noi included. 'ir,r". ol is to sorl = 11'517 x (3r2) = L7"28
of rje oxyqeri-ln tne
Wut",ipp-
,ru."om orvgffi I 1l'il"71x I00
s inea a) 7o Excess Pir (S to SOr) = l(21'54: 11"517)
-Ib-trred = 87.030/o ANS
during combustion. The O, frorn *re Jr .L
determined from the U.
comes from a:r.
\ ln the bumer- gas since aI of ttrese b) %o Excess Air (S to SOr) = [(21 '54 ' 17'281/ 1728)x L{]0

= 24.65% A-1{S
ExamlsLe 2:. Ilaw sul{ur andpirrg gB% S an', l2o/oineris
bumed::ndl.:: a gas wirtr an orcat;al,=t" when (roo * tz2z) xzz4, l:* "?7:;#9
9.79o/o:O, of , ,nt Burnei Cas
- 760'.2'i3 ''2it
a,nd 8i,05 N;- nry,Jt,
,ci,jrr[, is
c)
suppliec ai 25,c ^?r_6yoqand zoo nrm lig. m'alr (zi.s+ + 81.05), 224' - zt-)
;;'-
/4)
A) 9rr, r;:ii ..s Zri:. {S tO ,qC.,J
b) 96 excess air (S to SO,) I706 ,{NS
='
=
c) nt3 j-,r,r_.-.,..-. gas/rn3 e,,i;
'I
I, i,, ji_'.i jil )i,,,, j:1'5r'
S,iil,rri.)'(,r\Iln ITS COMP()1-1lii,)S / 89

Ir , l,he ieaciion:
4 FeS, + Il O" = 2 Fe,O. + E SO^ Solulioru Basis: 100 i;roles SO, iree BumEr Gas
:1777 L.3136 .2s8g .9d-5.4

F'ree O, = O, nct usecl jn ttre ;-eactions AIR Burner Gas


= 3.1165 -.5986 - 1.3i36 = t.2O41 8.150/o S0,
8.460/o O,
( )rsat Analysis ANS.
83.38% N,
GAS n O,/-
BURNER
so, 0.355.i 6.89
o, 7.2A41 6.ti / Cinder
N2 11.723 84.,44
Fuel
I3.BB:5 Flrites 3.06% SO3
62% FeS,
Vapor pressure I8o/o gangue
at, 2E C = 25.61 mm Hg

II,(J fi-oin air + 23'61x.8 O, from ajr = 83.38 x {21179) = 22"164


= {3.1163 11.723) * = 0.388
74O _ 23.61( 8) SO, ir, lhe burner gas = 8"15
SO, in Burner Gas = O.3tg2Z - .0255 = O.2.g3TZ
In the reaclion:
;n3 ^.
uurrrer Cas _ rl3 8825 + o.388 + O29377) x 22 1 ^A- , ?ry::'79
I 4FeS,+I1 O,= 2FerO,+ ISO,
d)
E' =---- 75o' 27;) 4"075 I 1.206 2.A375- 8" I5
-r rr.*
lo0
, = 554 ANS O, f SO. = 22.164 - 11.206 - 8.46 = 2"498
.or

Ih the reaction:
4 FeS, + 15 O, = 2 FerO, + I SCu
.666 2.498 333 1.3325
tlxcLmple 4: Drv p_vnte fines contai n)ng B2o/o FeS, and
)g%
gangue are bu;ned jn a Herreshoff Burner. -lhe Cinder Analvsis:
cinder produced contains 3.0670 SO, and no \ rl Wt%
unburned FeSr. Orsal arla1_vsos of the du.r., gu.., e7O QQ
shov.,ed g.ts9/o sor. g 46% C- a-nd ss.:gt =r, Fe.O. = Q.0375+.3'33) ]60 a

Gangr,re = {4.075+,666)( i 20Xi 8i82)


OIJ LA

tl+.6Cr
i
I

9694
ClJcr:l;ie: -/

aj g.i, o{ the ieS, chil_.ged coirvei_ied Lo


b) Zo c.rcess airl.-ts, io SO,i -- SC- --2 ar) ? 306
c) (_.rr;tirlet. il.tit_],-. , . ,;-- , ;ic -l;L: it.ra,r
,qaS \1'l i)l -)ll lll cirider = t379.2t+.i2.+ 88) x (.0306r.3694) = l3 9

.'".-
,l
. .
rr',t_
T
I
r'.-
.J..!'
.- r ,;.,1
'.
(,,.1:' :' , i) l

,", l , ,lCHlulnETR':

The SO., irom rhe


gtt!'-t' the conver"lers,l:r3l:iT:,ertt:l
the gases [uprfo*t'=
rllr ["'e-q2 Cha-rged converied SC2- W.A75 / (+.O75+.866)j .orrni.r.roerrt passage of Sirlfunc Acrcj
?"titta
r, 100 = 85.95% ANS houid (ciow'nwa'r-d)
iJforl".a
';=;";';"
bY t}re reacLion'
I'lrer'l O, iFeS, to SCr) = @.A75 +.666) x(lI/4) = 13.038
uor r H,o = H,sor f
x
/
rl'ir c-xctss a:r(FeS, to SOr) =l(22.164 - 13.038) / 13.0381 1O0
" 70% ANS
I
Moles SO. in'the bumer Sas = 1.332 - (15.9/80) = 1.3325 -i""'od I
absorhing
\.6 to bL the most efficient
('ornpleie of Bumer Gas ANS sM#{|,''= t"t"f'"'# otnt*se known.as
ap'ent to procluce ""ff""t ,ut]g'.
produet utttt to give
grades of
tt'e
GAS n o/o o=i"u*Water is added io
SO, B. r5 8.06
'"*"Jo:"::ilffJ1:l';al Rllnose= -1".^tn'= if
book' dirrerent I
used *' ub'n'u''S a;!ents'
Q D'7
o2 8.46 .at"i
N2 t1J.JO 82.45 concentralions o[ 'fir'"ile
So. r.3325 1.12
1 0 1.13325

l.+ pnopucrtoN oF suLFURlc AclD *HF*so rl:e rr-ts nav !:, f "-?-:f.';. .,333iJ:: 3
AND OLEI"'M
q -
i"9,^-t' ;qi'li::
:

"f3l
oxi d a' o n or tn e. s ior
in the corr'er1e r 8? J,T::H;:#
* ;",
r[u ric Acid has hjstorjca]ly heen produced by two melhods,
I ir
;";;;;this, the o, I
llrr (lonracf Process and the Ch,anber Process. Both of these gases'
the O, ln the wastes
Ittrtlrr:rcls involve the formaUo4 of SO, irr abunterusingeitherRaw
for the Conlacl Process is
illustrated
f3 ur lyrite; foliowed by cortversicn of Lhe SOr-to SOr; ard The flow ciia$ram
nlr';orljon of SO, in water lo give Sullurjc AclO of Oieum. below':
lt

Hl C.rndtct Process l---- Sulluric Acid


Soi'n
'lhe contact process involves the calaivtic oxidalion of SO, Seconcary Arr
'
a) Dilule a'cid
?nmaeY Atr
to SOo usirrEi Vanadjutn Pentoxde or Platinum dispersed in tr) Conc 'Atrd

irsbestos or sihca gel as cataJ-vst unde;- appropriate condjtions CAJALYTIC GAs


irr an equip:rrent kno'*,n as a Conuefler. The reaction is: BURNER CONVERTER ABScRSERI
I

qnl 1,/2 O" = !SC. *_J I

,t, ; I CNlrl /'''id


-fV'o o;-more convei-t.ers ina.v be in series. a'lrd extra air Co.wllea aias ir i {.-1lD
'-
m

( i ; r.il t: rj Sc'co;-iitl;irr/ -{ ii i i'l:'r-u 1ig 5rr pp 1 i -.J


11.
('( rlVi\'llllli)::l i 'ri
SIJI-FiiIi Airi; lllS

Ge's
Soir-dioi r-- tsasis: 100
moies SO" free Bur;'rer
lr) Clzanber Process
Aside from the bumer, Lhe pi:ocess involves the use of a
GloverT'ower, and the Chari-,bers and Gay Lussac's J'ower. The Br.;r RNER AlrllJ-YSI S :

Primarl' O, fi"om air = 81.5


x Q1/79i = 21 66
hotgases frcm ttre burner passes up tlrough the GloverTower
wheie SO, is converled to H-SO,. This comprlses ai:out 157o O, unaccounted for = ir"oo-18-o'5=3'16
of the total HrSO, product-ion. The baiance of the conversion x t2/$ = 2'10
takes place in the chambers. The chamber process produces '"" = 3.16
S converred to SO" in BG
a weak sulfurjc acid (70o/o H-SO4).
= *ot"" S9'ioy'*d
(B:2) (l/"s6) = 670
Since the contact process is the more pooular methoti for Toial wL of Raw sl= ti.iitll6's1
Sufuric Acid production, it shall be the only oae considereci '-sis'of Burner Gas ANS
a) ComPleLe Praly
in the computational analysis of this book"
o/s

Exompie 5: Raw Sulur, 967o pure js burned in dry exbess air


.GASN
r.7.63
producing a g?s wjth an orsat anaJysis of 18 7o s0, 18
, 0.49
SO2, 0.50% O, ald 81.5070 Nr. The bumer gases
02 o'5
79.82
are fed to a calalyLic converler together wit}:, 20o/o N; B1'5

excess secondaqr air resulting in the oxidatjon of


sbu *2J
102. r
2"06

. 60% of the SO, to SO' The gases fr-om th9


converler enier an absolber to produce the acic.
CO I,TIIERIER AN'AIYSI
S:
Assuming no fi:rt-ire: oxidatjon of the SC, taicng of SO, to SOu
place in tJ-e absorbE:r, citjcr-rlate. Theo Q, for comPlete, conversion
- ttnl." free Orln Bunier Gas
a) Compleie .urir'':;is i.,-f ihe bumer gas = 172 x Moles SO,
b) Complete a.t:eji':li; of ihe converler gas =l/2x18-O'5=LI
c) Wt of an 6592o ccncer:traled LI-SO* sc;luuon per 8'5 x (1"21-= 10'2
Secondary 0, Irom air = 37
kg raw S charger, if the absorbirig acid is 400/o
g.s6nflary N, from #'= =ia"z*zgl';-! = 38
FlrSOo: 'tii"-l'$fzt)
d) wi ;f a 570 oieurri forrned per kg ra"w S charged x 18 = 10'8
if the absorbinq acjci js ai 9096 H,SO4 solution. SO, converted to SO. = 0.6

The Reacbon is: SO,


+ 1/2 O, = S0,
10.8 5* 10.8
Sulfuric Acid

SO, unreacted =- ,3 - 19.3rA =r) - l: A


Secondary A,lr(20% r'ss) Sol'n
72
a)40% Aciu
+ 1L/,1 = 5.3
b) 90% Acid O, iJter reactjon = tl.J '38.37
'i:
ti9E7
N, after reac[lon ; 81.5
CATALYTIC GAS + =
CONVERTER 2'1 + 10 8 = 12 s
ABSCRBE ;b;;.;leacti'rn =
tlt5,z s r-,ric t{l{i^.1ii'I-r'r' SUl,iLi R :\ND iTS COiv'l](']lrj'iDS / 87

5.:, HOAsfiruG 0F lEtOhi P-fHlTEs


Solu.&on: Basis: 100 kg Pynte
Iron pr,rlres reler to rhe sullide ore n:ost commoniy burrred
for SO, rnarufacture. It consists primarill, cf jro! Sulllde (feSrl
sma1l amounts of meLa-llic sulfides and appreciable antounrs 01 AIR Burner Gas
totaliy jncombuslibie mateials. These inconnbustjble materja-ls ^,-o^
lcw 3500c
ue reported as GA.N'GLE in the a-r:alysis. 740 mm Hg 750 mm Hq
The following reacUons take piace ir the combustjon of BO% RH
*filiZt,^ 17 33% x'ss B U RhIER
+ 11 o, = 2 Fe,'o,+ B so, y'
Reacuon: 4 FeS,
fl SiAe .Reacijon:4 Fe.S, + 15 O, = 2FerO, + 8 -sO./ t--------- t cinder
Fuel
1 L .1 10lo FeS,
As in the bumji:g of raw S, the tJ:reorelica-i O, and.o% excess Raw S
66.630/o FerO,
ajr have to be defined as Lo wheLher based on conversion of FeS, 85%o FeS,
2.670/o SA.
to SOz or SO. .,.,)r'
150/o $a;r$ue
19.6% gangue
'Iheo O, (FeS, to -qC,,) = Tctal rr:c;les FeS- x ),7/4
Theo O, {FeS, to SO.) = Total moles FeS, x I5/4

Dr:ring buming, the gangr-:e a;:d lhe ircn oxide goes to the N4c,ies FeS, = 85/t2a = 0'70833
cirrder. Unbur:red FeS^ rnay alsc be :;resefrt aiTFcsbibiy a smajl
arnount of the ciiva-leai oxide n:a-v a-lso be formed" The latter is Tkrec O, (FeS, to qO,) = 919!?l x (\t/4) = 1.948
.;-r.,o^ n' fFes to so;) = 0 70833 x (15/a) - 7- h,5b
small enough and mav be neglectrri ilr a ri,eli cperated'furnace-
Thus t}e rnain Sulfur cornpout-lcis in the cinder are SO" which ij"#o# ;'";' il Tllli " 2 656 -- 3 I i63
is absorbed on rhe cinder by rJre tnaFffi t r't o,-,-, air = 3 ll€ill x Qg/21 = 17'723
F.Sr_ - l'948) I 1'948] x lO0
a) o/oexcess O, (FeS, to SO, = [(3'1163
s) Catculations Based on P1'rite Ana-lysis = 59.97% ANS
Carngue Ba.l: 0'196 x Wt of 3inisl = 15
Example.3: $rrite Fine s conLarning E50/o FeS, and 15% g2ngue tVt oI cinder = 76.53
are charged to a bumer. An arralysis of *re c;lnder Wt of FeS, in cinder = 0'tiiIi76 53l = 8'503
shows I 1. 1 1plo FeS,, 66.6302'o FerO., 2.620/o SO. and
FeS, lost in the cinder = (E'503185J x 10tl = i0ozb ANS
. 19.670 gangue. Air js supplied lT.Z3a/o in excess b) Yo
(FeS, to SO") ar 25"C. 740 nrm FJg md S0?e Rli. Moles iSO, fo,med = 0 0255/'08 = 0'319"27
Il 8o/a of IJre SO-, fcrmed js absorbed in Lhe cjnder,
ca]c u la{ e: ln the reacuon:
a) o/o excess air(Fe-1, lc SO-) '1 FeS^ - ]5 u: -? .0796
F'Z?:-- 6 SO,
--
t-.] o,l
cf lltc I'eS. ;:zr=.ei iu.Sl ir', -ilrt ,:jr:rl::i-
r.:
. i596 o.sgso '31s2'v
c) C:-s:iL an.,ai-lvsis r-,i' iiit b,:;;ier .3.as
d) mt cl l;'.:me;- gas at 3511 f-: a,t,-l lfii tr:;':: l-j:'./ iv'Jrrles FeS. cotivill'€cl Lo SO, = :".'::-
1.<. ir-.i.rr:- = f).t,77'7

.".S0 +t.'ffia.,
I r Comolele Anaiysis of C,--;nVe:-Ler Cais AJiJS
ihe i:bso;"i:ers a:rarirze J.950zir S,i)r, 7"820;,b 0. iurd
GA.S ft o,/o
9l.2301; N, Calcuiate:
SO, 71 /j..
a") Cermpiete analysis of tlre brrmer gas
Yfr
o b3
b) (% conversion of SO, to $0, in fi:e coriverler
I\i2 119.87
":)"
82.51
,J Wi of a 6C9/o H"SO. neecled tr: p;:orlirce a
So. 'l? a cor:centated 9002b I{?Se4 solution /irr
8.88
1At aa d) Wt of an 88% H,SO4 aciri needed to produce
120lo Oieum/tr
r\II.SORBER ANALySIS:
[-ct y = wt of 85% HrSOo solution formed
j, - I2.g(80) = y I tC32 = wL ai 4Oo/o H"SO* useC Waste
0.95% SO2
G:s
Sulfuric Acid
Prirnary Ar 7 Eza/, A2
Sol'n
91.2;!,6 lr2
H,SO4 Ba-la:rce: a) 60% Acid

Oa$ - +1032{9Sl80)=0.85y
1032) i ^,.^.,_* |.9Y':i9{ -*^.-"1 b) 88% Acid

y= 1892 kg/i00 motes Se free BG - | BURilER ls a,r.


ra* tnrrr^JX' I cor.rvrnlrn
s

-I' Bo ooo," *, '----|'


I

r') Wt of 8596 Actd/kg ra* S = tB92/620 2.g23 ANS


=
|
cind.,
'
Pyriie B.Z9 % FeS2
I

l_ _ - a) 90% uonc. Acid


I,et z = wt of 596 oleurn fonnerl 1CC0 kg,hr 3 81 % S03 converter cas
z - 1032 = wt of g0%o H-SO. ar:id useC 81% Fe52 1 .B'{utbsoz
b) 12 96 Oleum

19% gangue

SO, Balarice: \q\a


0.9 (z - 1032) lsoigS) * :0gz = .c5 z + 95 z (80/98) Solulion: Basis: 100 moles dry,S{}r-{+ee Br:mer Cas
z = 3014.83 kgl100 moies f::O, fi.ee BG
BURNER AI.IAIYSIS.
'l) M't of 57o Oleurn /kg raw S = 30.t 4.83/ 6Z0 = 4.5 AN,S O, from atr = 84"44 x (2t/79r =.22.446
Example 6: l00O l€/1r $rntes arLalyzirrg gl9.o FeS,
and lgo/o For the RedcLon:
gangue js bumed in t:xcess
g*_*lf
at to produci a burner . 4 FeS, + 11 O, = 2 FerO., + 8 SO,
.al
orsar anaiysis af b-.84% SOr. 9.22o/o O,
, 2.92 8.03 1.46 s.84
and 84.44010 N,. Analysis of the cin'rjer: shows
B.2go,c,unbumei FeS, L:d : af ra SO, t"l. g_r., O, icr conversion oftseS, tO SO. - 2.2 44€, E.iJ3 - ii.72 = 4 696
from ttre bumer entei a catal-l,tic conierter _he..
SO. js oxidized to SO.. parlial orsat arra_11_s;s of For the Reacl.ion:
lhe
conl,erter gas shorvs 7"87i/, so,. l,rc acldjrjctc 4 FeS, +- 15 Or'.= 2FerO, + 8 SO,
:r3ccrda;r. ?-:r- iS s..rpj,rlierl ;;, ihi coi:i.et1ei. .j-he t.2522 4"696 0.6261 2.5045
conve rt:rga.rse S at_e dtet: sent lo ar: absorber w.here
.li:1rcl w';,.t l::-;, i;,-1,:s pllc:. Tii.l.r.i.r:_.-.ie ga: L,cn, Cinder ,A"na]vsisi \1ry' bti,

FeS, - (',v rlroies) 12C t 2(i.v a.l i


FerO- =, {1 .a6+.52611(}60j :137 "i 7b
!1i "'{?*
96 / srorcritoMETRi' SIiLI'-Lln AJ'jD IlS COitl;'C;UivnS '/ 97
S $dd dsd*l
G -a:rgu e = (2.92+ I .2522+w)t1 2Ol i I I /8 I ) \ tt +y' * 2S ) 4,{w I con'r,ersion of SO, to SO. = (4.0846/5 84) x 100 = 70 ANS
so. = a motes
. b) %o

\ y" /.u i
Converter Gas n
Tota-l Wt of cinder = 451.216 + 148"l4g w + g0 a SO, = 5.84 - 4.0846 t'7554'
Or'=O.ZZ = i"5(4.0846) 7'6777
SoMng simultaneously: N, = 84'44
w=0.36268a=0.25
'fu*,07,
Wt of Pfrite/1O0 moles SO, free BC
sb, = 2.2545 + 4.o846 = ###
= (2.92+1.2522+.3G268XI20) / .81 = 6Zt.S4
NRSORBEF- ANALYSIS:
SO, in BG = 2.5045 - .25 = 2.2548 . O, in waste $as = (84.44/.9123) x 'OZB2 = 7'238
O, reacling = 7.€i77V - 7.238 = 0'44
n) Complete AnaJysis of BG For tlre reactiotl: SO, + I/2 02 - SO.
88 .44 .88'
ci.s n Vo
SO, 5.84 5.71 SO, avaiiable for absorplion = 6.339i + '88 = 7'2tgt
o2 9.72 9"51
N2 84.M 82.58 lrt y = wt of 6070 H2SO4 acid charge -- ^^ formed
SO, 2.2545 2.2 y + 7 .21g i^(80) = y + 577 -528 = wi of 9Oo/a FI?-SO{
02.2545 _t
SO, Balance:
CON\DRTER ANALYSIS: (80/98) ('9)
,156/98) (.6) + 577.528 = (y + 577.528)
I.el b = moles SO, converted to SO. in converter Y = 625.655
. The reacuon. is: SO, n ,rr'fr= c) Wt of dilute 600/o acjd/ hr.= (625 655/671"834)
tO. x 1000 = 931.26 FJ'JS {
6yu,,\ o(1ro1
i$^st:)
L1i"old Ylh(
GAS n ah
l-et z = wt of 88% acid
SO, 5.84-b l.B7oto z + 577.528 = wt of l2o/o oleum
a2 9.72 - .5b
N2 84 ++ H^SO. Balance:
r i00 . 1.5b olAA ) + 577.528{98,180) = (0. 12Xz+577 .528){98 I 80)
+ 0.88(z+577.528)
1';'7 QOr,
forSo^: 584-b =org7
-l_-ttt.aJJ
-
' i00 - i.5b
o}i{tof88%acid/hI=|777895/67].834]-x1000=1]57.87ANS
b = 4.0846
!., '
I .' .utro-'
lrry'? '-
/ $J
(-l()l'lPOlli{llS. i !}9
ito , ,rv{q
SLJi,rLiR .4"ND i'T:

I5,5 BI5I-'LFITE LiCIUO,? PRODUCT'*r*


F,euylf< only O, and N,. Assunring nci furtlrer oxidalicrn of
l. bisuifite liquor produci:Ion, tJre gases f::om the
sur-rurbumer /-' S0, to SO, and forn:aUon of HrSC* in tl:e lower,
/
ere passeci thror-rgh a coorer, an entrajnment separator ald r tte tl')-
-
t].en I a-^i"- calculat e:
llrl() ax absoqption tower. It the tower, it is made to corile.mto r[o\ i
.n
rtact with MiIk aJ Dme or sld<ed- L,ne (lime mixed with t lrarT
u
' a) Wt of Lhe bisulfite iiquo;:
Cy'\ J
l,'rrr form the bisuifite. Lime is essenliary a mixture of cao,ivater),
Mgo , FI
, su'1
b) Lime consumptron/hr
c) Wt of water used for slaking/hr
errrl inerts. The foUowjng reactions take place:

SL.{HER: CaO + FI,O = Ca(OHJ,


-{
"t baL
7-+';,is"
.Soluhon-' Frorn 8x.6, Eas;s. 100 ir:oles SO, fi-ee Burner Ga:;
MgO+H,O=Mg(OHi,
ABSORPTION TO\,VER: rLime
',Vaste Gbs lc
Main Reacrions: 82'k ceo
_C_"!9y],
+ 2 SO, = Cq(HSOr), 0,959t SO2
x6% Mso
7.820A 02 SLAKERI
-jr--
Ms(OH)", + 2 SO, = 91.23% N2 ?o/" Inens
YglY_s_ct,l
Side Reactjons: + SO. = CaSOn + H,O
_C_"f.9p,
Se1ou1 I so, = Mgsoo + Fi,o
yzO*SOr=HrSO,
SC" + I/2 02 - SO, i--i__
Cinder
To determi,e i.f oxida'cn of SO" to SO, takes place in the 8:29 % FeS2
Bisulfite Liquor
,lls.rber', the waste ge.ses are compi;ed wii]- tlie coored burner 1.15%free SO2
( //
3.81 % SO3
7 05?; SO2
fiitses. If the o" in the waste gases js less t_l-ra_n t-i\e o" in the cooled \ 5 9olo as Brsulfrtes
,lrrr_rler gas, oxidatjon took pffi-.-----.- r*€
The rnixture of caEd Nag nisurfires, ca ancr Mg sulfates,
ll?SO' inerts and watermake up the Bisulfite liquor. T)-ie anaJysis a{ 3oz
,l' t].e bisulfite liqucr is usuaJl-v reported in terms of the 9/oSo, \t{L pynLe/ 100 moles SO, free BG = 671 834 oxida,h't'-n
lI contains, boLh 'free" ard present as bisu]fiLes; e.g. A bisuulte I
llqrror contains i0% so, ofi,hich Bo/o is 'free'and the rest are Bumer Gas: 5.84 moles SO, 't ,rf

9.72 moles O,
J)resent as bisulfites.
84.44 moles N,
Surbtrr
2.2545 moles SO, from exarnple 6 iLa u
,.,
Example 7.. Using Lhe pvrjtes and Bume.r Gas in L.xzrmpie MaO <--- ttiert+ks
6, r-i -
the burrier gases are cooled ard made to cbme jnto
Let y - wt of tie bisulfite lir;uor
. contacL with Mjtk of Lime jn ar absorplion Lcrr,,er.
Tlre doloinitic lime rrsed is 32!i Cr,O, 150/c }1sO
SCl, Ba]ance: 0 0705 .v = 5.64 (6it
a;rrj 21'o jner-Ls.'ihe it:suJire llq.,:or l,r"oraiC
ccriain_< 7.Clo/o toral SO, of wh;ch i.rSyo l. -fr..- ). = S:Ot 56 kg
ar:d lhe resi 5.9clzo belrg i;;-es::i :r: l-;isr:llirrs ,1::: .
al iig i:jsr:ifi te I)q'Lr orlhr 53()l 5{i ; ll(r()a,/C7 t srr-tr
.,--t]11.,1-.;5:;gr r-'.il-l:e f_i:-g *'as1.e .!l:tS tl.i(:r;,.,:.: il.t:,. jt .t.a.iii., jil.S - 789.i.17 A]\s
.ifl
;l
l0c / silrcHIoMETRY
x F"q$ SUi,FLjR A.N-I) l'l-s i:or": x;i.it'lDS / i0l
I

PROBLEMS
Moles Cao & MgO converted [o Bisulfites
= (5301.56)(.059)/64 x 1/2
= 2.444 X n^* Sulfur which is 75% pure is burne.d iR e'tccss alr
Moles Cao & MgO converted to Suifates
' suppiied at Lhe rale of 4.7 13 m3 /kg erf raw' Srrlfur at 25"C,
745 mm Hg wit.h B0% RH. lf 87o/a of the suilbr charged
= Moles SOs
= 2.2545 bums to S0, and the rest lo SOr, cdculate"
a) Vo excess air{S to SO,) (65o/d
Ioial Moies CaO & MgO supplied = 2.444 + 2.2545 = 4.6985 b) Vo excess air(S to SOr) (l0y0l
c) 'Cornplete analysis iif tle bu*ret gas
( I0" 88% 5A
u, 2 .32r:to O r, 77 .62a/o Nr. I 63Yo S0r, 560/o
2"
Fcr lOC \g linic: ivioies Cao anrd MgO= 82/56 + L6/4O.i) "

Hr())
=.I.86

Wt lime/100 moles Bumergas = (J 00/1.86) x 4.6985 = 252"6 /, The burrter gas from a sulfur burner analv-zes I20lo $Q,
7.l3ak O, a:rd 83.67o/a Nr. The raw Sulfur: cirarged contains
82a/o pure Sulfur and andysis of t1e einder shaws 2090
, Wt of lime/hr = 252.6 x (100A/67I.834) = 375.986 ANS
unburned sulfur" Ca-lculate:
OMB in the Ahsorber
a) olo excess ai(S to SOr) (60or'0)
Wt Br-rrner Gas + Wt Lime + WL HrO for slaking b) o/o excess'air{S to SO.) (6.670l,rl
= Wt waste Gas + Wt Bisuifite"Liquor
c) msof saturated air(28"C" 750 torrs)/kgraw 'S {5.076)
d) mn of trumer gas (300"C, 730 torrslllg mw S (E.75)
SO, + SO, + O, .' N, + lime + HrO for slaking
S ffrite ar:aJyzing 78olo FeS, and 22a/a gargue is hurned at
Lhe rate of 1000 kg/hr. Anaiysis of Lhe ctr:der shows 7 22o/o
O, and N, in bumer gas = O, ald N, in waste.gas S as unbur-ned.FeS, and SO, ahsortred hy FerC.. Alr
'+
5.84(64) + 2.2545(B(t) + 252"6 H,O for S]'aking = 5301.56 supplied is 70% in excess based on conoerbion of FeSr'to
Water for Slaking = 4494.84 SOr. The ratio of SO, to SO, in the br.rrner gas is 3.48:1.
Ca]culate:
c) Wt water for slaking/hr = 4494.84 x (1000/671.3a) a) o/o excess air(FeS, to SO.J t24.67%1
= 6695.32 ANS
b\ a/o of the FeS, oharged lost in ljre cinder (l?9/o)
,-., c) Complete anaJysis o"f the trurner ga-s
i-. (6.260/o SOr" 9,570lo C)r, 82.35a/a Nr, I 820/c SO")
i
/ /n w@ttcw

Fuo
llJ C, -=* Sur'furc 4 Irr the burning of pynle coritaining 92ak FeS, and B0lo
. gargue, i30/a of the FeS, charged js losl in ihe cjnder.'fheA
p-anjal anall:sj5 oI lhe cinder also show.s 5.31% S0,,.
orsai tural1,sjs of the bumer qa.ses sirows 6"75910 SO,,
6.880,/0 O, a:ro 86.3804 N, AIr supplied is at 23''C" 74ll; rnnt
i-Ig iLnd SB0Z RII. C;rl:uialt
a) 7o excess air (!-eS", to -!Or) (40q4,)
bi % ercess air (FeS, to SO^i 12.676o/oi
SUl.,Fi.jll. Al.ll-r jI'S rI(),\,i),t)tII'lD:-r / i[)::
I ()2 // S'1CIC;IIOMETRI'

c) k€ of a;r HzSCo acjci formed 'from a '400'zo ac:ci


c) m3 air / kg pyr:te (3.58) BCto.,ir

d) m, bumer gas(25O"C, 750 mrn Hglii€ plTrte {b.9261 charged (i"84)


d) kg of a 75o/o H2SO4 needed lo Prociuce ltlo./o oleurn
(0.662)
X Raw Suifur containing 83%o pure S is burned together.r dth
8Ao/o excess air (S to SOr). a51 analysis of tne .iriJ.i
2096 unbumed sulfur and 800/o tnerts. Air is supplied"fro*u The buming of rav; S consisting of 95% S and 50/o i:rerts
saturated at 30.C and 750 rnm Hg. The gases fi-orn the produces a gas whose orsat analysis shows 1t'39%o SO'
br,rrner enier a converter where cataly'tic o*ldatirrr of SO, 7 .zA'/, O, arra 80.840/o Nr. Ten %o of the total strlfi-rr charged

to SO3 tales piace. A partial orsat anaJysis of the converter is lost io tf.. crnder. fhe burner ga$es are eooled 'dr:ld
gas shows 7.37a/o S0r. The gases from the converter enter absorbed in milk nf linre c'bra-ined by slaking a"Jime
arr absorber where aiter absorpUon in acld,soluUon forrns consisUng of 580/o CaA, 32o/o MgO and ]0010 inerts witlt
awaste ga$ analyzlngO.55o/o SO2, Il.9go/o O, and 82.460/o wa'"er, Tiie bisuifite hquor formed contains LZVo SA, of
Nr. Calculate per 1O0 hg raw sulfuri which 2o/o'is free and"the rest present as tris'-rffites' Orsat
a) Complete ar:alysis of the bumer gas (9.59% SO2, alalysis of the wastc gas shows thal jt contajns V '39o/o O,
9.O3oh Or, 76.070/o N2, 1.07% SOr, 4.25o/o H2CJ and 92.610/o N, Calculate:
b) % of u:e SO, enlering the converter that is conve:rted a) KS bisuifite liquor/kg'raw sulfur (9'65)
to SO, (B8.3olo) b) G hme consrjmeel/kg raw sulfur t0.BB32)
c) Welght of a 60% dilufe H2SO4 needecl ro produce an t G of water used for siaking/k€ raw sulfur (6.92)
B7o/o HrSO4 Q48.C4)
d) If the absorbing a:id is is g49lo Ii2SO4,- what wejght of The roersliirg of pyrites axalyzing 8570 FeS, and 1502
a l4o/o oleum js formed (587.6i) ; gangue utlhzes 4001e excess air (FeS, to SOr)suPglie! 1t
tne iate of 35Q m3lhr at 23"C, ff3 mm Hg ard BB% RI-l'
,^*. A partial 'aneiiysis of the cinder showed 25,920/o FeS,
(XD ern," containi;.rg 807o FeS, aytcl20o/o gangue js burned jn
\'Js .lxcess ,-r.ir to produce a gas with a complete ana,rysis of andt7.839/o gangue 9llly 95% 0{ @
7.78o/o SO2, i .39o/a Oy Bi.OAolo Nr, 4 g29lo SO. md-S.gSq. r:onverted to so^ and the rest tcr so". The bumer gases
i-lrO. AnaJysjs.of the cinder shows a.tolal sullur content are cooleE arldTnar$edTo-a conve fter togetJ:er with slalied
of 6.46rlo due to the presence of unburned FeS, and SO. lime from a dolomiUc iime contain ing?S1/o CaO, 250lo MgO'
absorbed by FerO.. tur supplied is at 27"C, Z4S mm Hg If 850 kg/hr of bjsullit.e liquor are produced u'ith nc
and satr-rrated wjth vapor.f'l-he burnergases then enter a oxjdation of SO, to SO" taking place" Assume all SO"
converter Logether wjth. 30% excess secondirry air ( converled lo bisulfite, Calculate:
supplied at the same condjlions as primary ajr) based on a) kg/hr of lime t33.-i24)
the comclete conversion of all SO, [o -sO" Z5o/o of t]re SO. bl k€/hr of rvater for slaftjrrg 1704.7'7
acti.rally bums to SO,.f fn. .orrr.*.r'gur.r .;;-# c) Comp)eLe aratysis of t-he' bumer gas (5.35olo SO,
absorber ald absorbed in acid solution. The u.aste gases
' 8.83a/o O,. 81.06?6 l\rr, 2.15o/a S0, a-r:d ?-.61a/o TI"O)
fom:ed h.as a partlal orsat aralvsjs of 0.7010 SO.. Ca,lcr:lale
per: i€ oi pynie
a) ',r e)^ccss air (S to SO,j il\.l7)
Lr) CorrrricLe analysis of the con\.crlrj- ri,. il 7ltar, JCs.
I .5:?,r1.; C, L?,.'i]\it it,. J.!;5Vo.iir"),, .i.q2,7. 1-j. i-)
PROI}UC}i']OI'J U}T ]-,IME ,' iLiS

Ca-icuiaUon Anal1'sis depend on whether tle ftrel (:onlaj:rs G, \e,r


CFiAPTER 6 ncgllgible or considerabie Nr. .U the N, in tlle fuei r9 negiigjbf :. the
fuel G related with the kiln gas us@
subgtance; tf the N, in the fuei js considerable, the
nA-sEbsGnce js the sr- qf V N, Jrom the fueI and N, for
FRCI}UCTICN theoretica) Or"
@ w,ri
- Another solution aside from the tie substance iuralysis is to
OF Lrh4E u.se the aigebraic mettrod and the materjals are r:elated by a
Czubon, O, ancl N, ba"larrce.
\

6r.? CALCUIATIONS BASED ON NEGUGIBLE


N2 rN THE FUEL ICASE U
Exarnple l: ftre buming of fimestone containing 65% CaCO,
25olo MgCO, and 100/o inerts, using a gas mD<ture
ma d e up of i}o/o eth ane ancS, 25o/o propan e produ c es
Lime 'can be formed frr:m the C.rilcination a bur:ner gas containing 22.A7o/o COr, 0.9% CC,
of Limestone.
@s-tq .lElruaitv a rmxtu;-e of caco.,, Mgco" and jnerts. 3"A20/o A, and 74o/o Nr" Calculate: .
Ca-lcjnation tatesltaG-in .Ei, *nEF]Lffi ' a) Fuel"Ratip by wt ,

from the combuslcn of a fuet. The fot-towing ..;;,r.";il.: b) o/o excess air
:i.T::

650/o CaCO^
25a/o NlgCA,
94 @ may
^^^3.calcrilaton *d EgdS co[ect to form rhe liqs..In some ]00lo inerts 22.470/o CO,
L;ases' not be coniprete so the uncieffimec urne
Limestone Burner Gas 0.9% cc
_may contain small amounlis ot"."O,_@ 3.02910 tO.:
rep?fed in rerms of irs eO; conGnf
744/o N,
The kirn gases Enntd-mer combuslion and ca-icination
contain aside 1iom the products of combusUo",
Lh; CO, f..* U* Air
ca-Icinalion of lime; likeu.jse jf u,et limestone
is introduce d, waier BURNER
from It may vaporize ard go wjth the kiln gas. ffius
from ca-icinarion rnu st be ieparateo lrom *il .;;,; CO, urO UrO
;;' #oar. rc {r{irtt',, t7i;c2
u,hen detennL,rg tl. i".t consumpuon and
:l^"3-T_!:=tir],1
producLicn.This:aiic.5rr,ihea:.niunl"i-*uf"l"irJJ;;.;;;rr; rirne 'rq1 cl1):'r l-;-Jz
of ffuel
vr uL/ useu is ca:l:i
uscu r5 ,,""
l,qLci .;ic:lc. : oFr. r,6Q
c3jia3 ir.---T:Zal.---=.. \

6t
+
) i.-
*-- ;;tu., i Fuel t Lime
-=-:--
i it/t, 25o/o ra I-1 act(c\.\), I ".,
CH l.ta.) (rH) ,
,ned l;M€. !9n|^ 7Sc/r,
";"3:,
' Qs
.
cacau ssuo)
(r)" ++rA^.,..4 t<-fu,L
_,::-
! -.,a 1u17
r _i_-. z. S.; irl(:::iOtsiii.:fli, PII.{:)DUCTION OF. i,J}VJE,/

Yk,rT)
&luribn-. Easis: iCC moies riry kln gas For i00 moies oi
X: r l\n
IVfe$rod 1: n atC arH
O, from atr = 74 x (21/Zg) = Ig.67i
f-i:eo Oz = 19.671 - (3.02 - 0.9/2) = tZ.iot
crHu
c.Ho
.75
25
150 450
2AA
i* 'i^o
nn 650 S.o
For 100 moies of fuel:
For 100 kg of Limestone:
n atC atll oh CO2 = 42'28Vo
crHn 75 150 . N\M = 57.72o/o
45A o/o
crH* 25 75 200
225 650 At C Eai: At C from fuel + Ar C from I-T = At C in FJln Gas
2.25x + .42282/44 *- 22"07 + 0'9
Theo O, = 225 + 650/4 = 3,87,5
.

Tie Substarlce: Theo O, Moies O, Ba-i:


O^ in C6, of LT + O, from ajr = Oz in kiln gas
Motes of Fuel:= (I0O/3gT.S) x l7.t0l = 4.4]3 ' .4228L/4a + .211i + 22.A7 + -9/2 + 3.02 + 6'5/4)x
At C from tr,e f.,ei= ; * 1.413= 9.93 N, Birl: N, fr;:m air = Nz iri kilrr gas
At C from Limestone = 22.07 + .g - g.g3 = i3.04 O79Y = 74

Carin ijmestone = 65 x(44/tO0) + 25 xtaa/BO.a) Solving si:nr: ItaleousiY:


!_o
-il/t of limesrone = 13.04(M)/0.422E = 1357.05 tq
= 42.28o/o
y = 93.67 moles air
o-lo
x = 4.413 rrioles fuei
Non-volatile Marter in hmesrone = ro0 - 42.2g = 5z.T2o/o z = 1357.A5 kg limestone
Wt of lime = 1357.05 x .5772 = ZgJ.2g lq
See method I for artswers-
a) FueI ratio = 7B3.2gS/(0.75 x 4.415 -x 30 + 0.25 x +.+lS xq+)
= 5.3 ANS gxsrqLe 2: A vefi.ical shaft icilri is c'harged wiuf
-+-!o11tt-ryt
of lirnestone cor:Laining 54alo CaCO., 3B% MgCO'
b) 9zo excess air = 113.62 - .g/Aii7.ro;1 x 100 = 15.03% ANS )% SiOr, 1.202i, R,O, (iron oxide) and 3 8ozo flz-a' 125
kS of fuel oil conta'rning 86oz'oC' 10 59/oH' 24o/oO'
Method 2; 1%N a-nd 0" I9loS is charged per tonne of Lmesione'
I-et x = moles of fuel gas 1lne ljme product leaves t'i.e bott-om artd conLains
Y = moles of air 2.3o/a CO.,Air suppiied i-q at 25"C, 755 mm Hg ';:ld
z? -- !',/
wt Cr::I-iJr::.iOile
^f r:-
saturaled rryilh u:ater. Pariial orsal arla]vsis of the
lci1n pas 5i.r"rrt'5 20.6101, CO, and ] 189/T CO'
Caicr-rl;rle:
a) 4 of hme fonned/hr
b) o/o e-rcess ajr
c) complete alalvsis tf the kil;r gas
'108 / srotcHroMETRy FIloDUCttoN (.)F LIME / \Oq

54o/o CaCO" Wt of li::re = 2153.94 kg/i"rr ANS


iierozo ugco, C bal:
3olo SiO" C from CO, ln'LT + C from fuel
li2o/o \6, = (l jn lime + C ln dry kiin gas
3r8oh HrO
(0.0a359x4 AOO)/44 + (0.86 x 500)/12
Lirnestone B unner Gas
20.610/o CO, = (.023x21 53.94 / 4a+ .0.2 }79(moles DKG)
r.18% CO llry Kltr Gas = 341"14
,i.4oles
Moles-CO, ln DKG = .20611341"i4) = 7O"309
Air Moies CCI:tn DKG = .01i8(341"14)"= 4"025

BURNER l*ty=XssO,
Theo O, = ("BGx5OO)/12 + (.1.05x500)14' (.024x50O)/32
= 48"583

O, floin a-tr'= y + 48.583


N, fiom air = I + 48.583) x79/21
Lirn':e Free O, in DKG = y + .01i8(341.14112 =v + 2.01.)
Fuel oil ltU" n \o./^ (-.!'\
(125 kt/k*'l:E Dry Kibt Gas Bel:
860/o C" 341.14 = 70.3C3 + 4.025 + y + 2.0J3 + (Y + 48.583)t79/21)
]0.50lo H y = 17"226
2.4o/o O
i.o% NI .o) 7o excess O,= (17.226/48.583) x 100 = 35.460/o AJ{S
O.1olo S Free O, in kilnSas = 17.226 + (4"025/2) = 19"2365
\ in kiln Sas = ('r7.226+a8.583) {79/21], = 247"567
HrO from limesione = .038(4000)/18 = 8.44
Soiufron- Basis: t hr
\? at 25"C: 23.61 mm Hg
o/o CQrin ]imestone = 54xQ4/!OO) + 38 x {44/84.3) = 43.59%
17.226 + 48.583 23 6l .--lntl
i{,O from ajr'=
NW'I bal: NYM in Ume = I!"/]VI in liriesicne 7s5 - 23 67
0.977fr1.'t oi )ime) = r-4e. 1t4 \- 'l i-;f tnl
H"O lrom fuej = i05(500)/2 = 2t,"25

Tota-l
"vafe:
in kilu gias = B 44 ' IO.i I ', 2.G.25 = 59 !17
PRODUCI]OI{ OF. I-IME / ] 1I

r:) Ccmpiete Anali:s;s cf t[in Gas.a-NS 52 c/o CaO


2.tYo MgO
G,.qs a/o 35"89b, CO:}
II
0.33o/o S10,
CO, 70.309 1'7 trD t..22o/o A\O, 1"00/6 CO
CO 4.425 1.00 1"2 o/o H28 63.zvo tu,
o2 t9.2385 4.80 Lirnbstone Bunrer Gas
\ 247.567 61.72
Hro _59.97 14.95
401.1095

Air
6.3 CAI.CUI.ATXOfiIS BASED ON CONSIDERABLE BURNER
r{2 xr{ ThtE FUEL {CASE irl

In this case, it is more convenien; to reiate


Iorn gas using the.surn the fuei with the
l.f *,. N; ;;; rhe fuet arrrl the \ for
theoretica_l O" as tie substan"..'F.o.r,
theore,cal O^-can he delemlrnea, lrr"., ,l-r. fr.rl"uirl,r, ,n. Lime
O, = \ frqr; fuel + rheg A, x (7.:) i2I) IV, from fuel -r N, for theo Fuel
Fuel Gas
?"7/o CA
Erom the kiln gas an..ilysis. l-nc
'fhus: N" from cxcsss C, carr be ietennined. I2o/o CO,
tuei + N,"f;;';;""1;; = rc,ta_r - xss o, 2o/o H,
\ x
5o/o CHn
54olo N,
Exampte r, js calcined jn a ro.rary
lll:rjone
Diasr
ia_tn fired wirJ.
AriaJysis cf tj:e Soiulron-' Basis: I00 males dry klin gas
Cao, TT1.-.-8T "to". "iro_l SZoZ,
2.to/o Mga, t.zu u,o,, r 2,r;"ii"","6.rur^

ll? ,"0 +s isa co^


contains 27o/o Co, t2Vo b,Or,
ee br*i fr;;"I g*
2o/o , S9/r,Cff,-r"J S+X
Xss O, = free O, = l
N, frori fuel + \ for theo O, = S,2 - Il79/21) = 59'4381
lilo/oft.
gases tear.Ing ,rr" #i;;;;;;;;i;r; - u''2.
O, and 63.20/o
a) o/o excess
[,. Calculate:
air ' *.
". For l0O moles Blasl Furrrace Gas

b) Fuel Rauo {irg/moteJ' GAS n ntC at II molee O,


CG 27 27 13.5
co
- -2 12 12 l2
Lro
, t2 d.

u5r ). 5 20
i{, 54 :_ * o<a
44 1,+
I i ?,,' .9'1'616iti.lviE'l,.)'
Irq{)nLlCti.ir)},j i_ti. t..ttrlfr ,r I J.i
,+ ..
Tlreo O, = 44 + 24/4 _ 2S.S 24.5
N, iionifuet + = ExampLe 4: A calcjnaiion p)anl ry;a;:t:faclr:txig I 0 tonnes ljme./
\ tor rh.;;;, = 54 + 24.5{7g/2i) = )46"1,1 day ccxsisting of 83% CaO, 5% CaCO, and 12o/o
Moles etast FuTace Gas inefis. Ttre fuel used is cclai gas arlalloing 5.9or"
= 0Oo/146.1V x59.43g1 = 4i1.1i6i"3, co, 53.2% 14r,29.fia10 4.1 CCr, 0.70lo O, r::rd
Theo o,'= (24.5/t4e.rn xsb.iger CIJ4, Vo
= 9.962 ' 6.5% N, entering at 25"C, 7"40 mm Flg with 800/0
a) 1:.o:.:" O, = {r/9.062J x 100
RH. Orsala analysis of the kiln gas shows 10.630/o
. UU" tjal: C0" from = to:g4olo ANS
COr, 0.6ffr'0 C(), 0.66% Hr, €'"75010 O, zutd 81.llolo
LT + CO. from fuel = CO, in kiJ,
flO.lrom Lr : 35.s - o.++tqa;dia = ,r.s,
g;is Nr. Calcu.late:
a) 1€ of Urnestone charged/elaY
()',
N\n4 in LT = 100 - 43 lS - 1.2 35.656/o b) m' ol Coal gaslcjay
. = c) 7o r{rcess O,
Wt of Lime = tZ.gI(44) x (.5565/.4315)
= i016.32 I0.6370 {-'0,
b) Frrel Ratjo = (10I6.32 /40.6ffin Zi Irg lime,/mole fuet ANS
0.66% C0
= 0"66% H,
83% CaO
Methorl 2: 57r: CaClO, 6.750h A,
kt x = moles of fuel 12o/ct \nerLs 3i.2olo N,
v = rnoles air Lirnestone Kiln Gas
z = weight :f limestone
--)
For 100 n;oles Blast Frrrnace Gas(see Ivfethod
1J:
aL C = 44 at-H = 24'moles O, 25.5
=
. Arralysis of LT: 43.l1o/o CO, l.Zoto FIrO
Air
ald 55.650/o N\,J\4
BURNER
At C Eal: O.++x + O.43tSz/44 = 35.8
ir4oles^Or^B al:-.2SSx + 0.431 Sz/44
+ .2Iy
=,Jb6 + l +.2a.x/4
\ bzJ: 0 5a1+ .079y = 63"2

Solving Siniuitareously; x 40.66


=
Fuel
.:2.207 luel'^baS
-v =
z = tS:S.Ci+ 5.9 % CO
l'1 o/^ (-i
-a q ()/^
See I, leril.ci I fcr [rd a;.:su.:ls \)J.L L;
7U !1.
2?t 6 9/a CH.
6.5 o/o N,
4.7 atb O^
i 14 / s;otcjiiorv,ETi?y PRaiii.j(11()N t)l'- l.lMf /

{bltion: Basis: 1 day 8(23 6 i) --=15.1


Moles HrO frcm coa-l ges = (576"66) x
Weight of lime = 10 tonnes or j.0000 1g 74A -, CI.s(23.61)

a) Wr of limesrone-/day = .83(10000X100/56) + (.05)tOOO0)


vl m3 coal gas./day = (576.66 + 15.1)(22.4iU6A/740)
+ .12(iO000) = 16521.43 ANS 14860'35 ANS
1273+25)/273 =
Moies CO, from LT= Moles Cao .g3(I0000) (t
= x /56)= I48.2I Theo Or'= (88.05/100) x 576"66 = 5A7^75
Xss Or-= (6.09/100) x 3335-41 '= 2Ai3"72
For 10O moles Dry lfiln Gas;
-.!ss O, = 6.75 - .66/n - .66/2 = 6.00 96 excess O, = (20i' 12/507.75) x 100 = 40% ANS
N, from fuel +
\ for theo O, = Bt.3 _ 6.09(79/21) = 56.39
For I00 moles Dry Coal Gas:

GAS Il atC atfl moleeO, PROBLEMS


CO 5.9 5.9 2.9
rL 53.2 106.4
CH, 29.6 29.6' .: i. A pla.nt is buming limestone analyzn$ 47o/o"eaCOr" 45o/o
r r8.4
CO, 4.1 ,1
.1.
tvtgCOr'ana B%o inerls. The lo1n is fired with producer gas
I 4.1 25.3o/o CO" I 3 290 "0 : 4oh CH4, 5 1'4olo AO r, 0'1Vo
o" o.7 o.7 "ont^ii'ri"g
"

N, 6.5 o, and S{.zvo Nr. The kil" E,t ts sampiecl nd the average
analysis is foundto be2l.9Tlo COr" 3.54% CO and l2'A9f./o
39.6 224.8 iru If the fuel ralio is 20 kg of lime/mole of producer gas,
ca]culate:
fheo O, = 39.G + t224.8/4) _ Z.ZS = 88.O5 aJ o/o excess air (44.557oi
N, from fuel + N, for theo O, 6.5 + AA"CtitigtZt)
= = 337.73,tj Lr) Complete analysis of the BJln gas
I-et x {7.74o/o ()2, 61.44% N?)
= moles Dry ki.in Gas
moles dry coal gas
,A high sujfur fuel oil eontaining 75.2o/oC' 9'59% S and I

at C ba-iance: 0.396y + negilgible N is bumerl in excess air to suPp-iy -the heat


l4B.2I = (10.63r.66)/l0O x
n*".r"ary lo calcine a stone consisting of 52"3% CaO,
Tie subslance: i337.736lt00) y (58.39/IOOJ 2.5n/oMrgO, 43.1% CO, and 2" i7o moisture' The operauon I

= x of ttre kilrt i*" such rhat the lime is incompletely bumed


Soii,l ng S jmu jta-neo u slr,:
arrd coniairs 6.2ola C0,. The average ana-tysis of the kilrl
??o( rl
.\* *- uuuJ,lf
gas shows 25.4ok CO2," 1.9% CO' 0.5% '50r, 5Vr O, a;rQ
I
Y = 576.66 07 2a/c N^. Ca-iculate: lt
a) Completi: ulriurate a,rra-lysis of the fuel ll

At 1<
, --: '.
Dr.. 17 .77o/c H, 7 44ah A)
?
i.y.:ii6t 1566.1? t /(22,g+21i i;) i;r-itl raii,: (€j.57 kg lirr;c,'kg oii)
'-,'L) -- 2,16i :nm ljs tl

if;
I i6 / srcicHi{l:.tr'iny

3. A luei gas made up ,*'f a rnj-xture of r::rethane'and eLharre


is bui-ned ln lxcess air anci tjre heat grven off is used to
. calcine ccmpietely a stone containing 950/o CaCO u And 5o/o
ineris. Compiete andysis of the kiln gas showJ 2|.4Toto
CC, , 5.54o/o O,, 62.54Vo N, and 10.50/o H,O. Calculate the APPENNIX
anaiysis of the fuei gas and t}.e fuel raLio. (TS.IG o/o CH,+
a:rrd 24.84o/o CrHr; I0.5 kg hme/kg fuel)

4. A kiln is used to ca.lcine a timestone analyzingl2Vo CaCOt^, I


30olo MgCO., 5o/o A\Ar, 470 il.icr"ts, 60lo SiO, and 3%
moisture. Coal is burned to supp$ heat of calcination.
a
A;ralysis of coal shows 13.89/o VCM, 8.60lo ash, Jo/a
moisture, L.Zo/o S, negUgible N \rlh a.caloi:ific vaiue of APPENDIX T
32.95 MJ/lg,Ana-lysis oitlre kiln gas shows l8.SVo/o CO, TABI-E oF STANDARD HEAT
Io/o CO, 0.22c/olr 8.390uo O, and Zl.82o/o N,. Calculate:
a) i\g llmestone/kg coaj { 7.48)
oF COMBUSTION ln4l/Kgmolf
b) Fuel ratio (4.37)

5. A pia;rt js burnjng limestone whjch ana-lyzes 52o/o CaC, Compound *.,",,;-l**o;"


419/o COrand 70io jnerts using coke that ana15.zes 90% C
arld I0olo ash. The lin:e prociuct obtajned contajns 3ozo CO,
and 1o/o unL,urned C. The top gas shows 22Vo COz, 1% CC
AcetalrlehYde

ACeTiC ACid
cH3cHo

CH.COOH
-1 193.15

"872.28
!
artd Nr. Calcuiate:
B7o/o
a) kg limestone/\g coke (I.9) AceLone C H.O iT
br) Fuel RaUo (1.16)
'crH, 1300.50
I
ct -
Acetylene b
6. A p)arrt produces )ime analyz-ing 53% CaO, 35% MgO anti
-3269"8I
12o/o inefls. Watergas ana-lyzing 38.30lo CO,52.8o/o , O.4o/o
CH^, 5.5010 CO2, 0.1o/o A, and 2.90/a N, is used as fuel.
Benzene L,^11- I
d -3303.72
il
CH^
Anaiysis of itie kiln gas shows 15.710/o COr, 3.3I?6 CO, ir
6.6}% , 9.Bl o/o O, assd 64.560/o Nr. Calcu)aie: n-Rutane
6
t)
I
i

a) Vrreight of lirnestone/mc:,\e water gas (7.69) i

b) % dxcess air i40%J Isobutale 1 -2E50.92 i

6
b
-2870"63 I

I
ll

lt

il

tl.7 It
Ir
ti
il
Ir
I
i

I
I
I
"".I'p[NDi] / I l"
I
I
i
Compound Forrnula I

I
Formula State I{e I

-14r eI
t!.
-2720.40
l-Butene
-*---"J
t.
CnHu t- C,H, 6 1
t Ethylene b I

Carbon J:
{.- : n-Heptane NLI I -482a L4
73
I

."1075.88
Disulfide CS, lj
t,-
C-H. - b -4856 I
UD, -1103.3i I
ffi CuH,n I -4165.91
li:: n-Hexane I

Cilrbon l4,|t..

6 -283^ rB
pr :286.03
I

MonoXde CO s). Hydrogen H2 d


t>

Carborr m' Metharre CHu 56 -8E0.95


Tetrachloride cct4I i -352.4 H--._

ccl4t d *Ji5C.ZJ
AA FI -72V"O4
I

I
b
^A/
tr:
i{ Methyi Alcohol cHsoH I
i
I cH3oH d
t)
-764.47
Chloroetha:re c2H5cl 6
b -t422.09 E
!(r
r-.
F Mettryl
Cumene c6H5cH(cH3)2 I -5218.93 F Chloride cHscl .-767.15
c6H;cH(cH.)' o -5264.11 LI,

l.r
:
Methy!
Qyclohe>;ane C.H,, I -3922.53 Cyclohexane CrHru -4568:34
Nrf , *:
d -3955.65 -4603.76
"6, 12

Cyclopentane CuH,o I -3293.09 I\'letyhl-


C-H 6 -3321.77 C.H,u -3940.36
) tu b cyclopentaxe I

Ethar-te C^H^ 6 -1560.92 Nilrobenz-ene C.H-NO- I -3094.04

Erhyi Acetale cH3cooczH_ I -2255.68 n-Pentane C"H,, 1 -35 r i.89


CH
-5''12
6
D
^
"11.)o. c I
Erhyl AJcohol crFIsOH I r 367.83
c2HsolI d
l>
-14i0.18 Fropale d -222.1"52
.CrH,
etirl't Berw-ene c6F{sc2H5 I -4567.92 Propen.e C^H^ 6 -2059.85
o
cHb)i:
c^H- 6. -46\0.21
:i-Prop-li
Ethr,l Etirer r-
L2r ur=vv-r
fll- lJr - I -2732.26 Al cohol c^i-r o
il
it
Itl __.._l .-
A-rl'|::ll;l.i ; I 2l

C.inlpi:und I{FFEIUDIX 2
}.IEAT CAP/\CITY OF INEAL GFSES
r:-Pi'op;zI kVkgmolK
Ben::sr-"e -522r.74

Styrene c6HscHCH, -4441.78 Chemical


Species
t o1!._lene c6HscH3 3912.56
-3950 58 Acetlziene 5. r32 1"952

m-Xylene c6H4(cFI3)2 -39 ]2.'56 Air c ?(6 0.575


c6H*[cH3)2 -4s97.6 i
-0.206 3s"064
o-?ry]€ne c6H4{cH3)2 -4555.91
c6H4(cFI3)" -4599.37 5.457 1.045 -t.157
Car"bon Dioxide

c6Ho(CFI3)2 -4 555. g I Carbon Moonoxide J.J /O 0.557 -0.03 i


c6H4(cHe)2 -45Ft8.32
4.442 0.08d -4.344
Chior-irre
H2CO
Dinitogen oxicie 5.328 \.211+ a.928

a t-\tr"7 -2./c,/
Diniirogen Telroxide 11.66

Ethane i.13 i 19.225 -5.56I

Ltnyiene 1.424 i4.394 -4.392

a. qao a.422
Hydrogen
2Cl..t 1"49
Irrydrogen Sulficie

Me&ane l:742 9.08l

lriilric Cxide 4.982 1.195


I

,'). -1,6 0.593


t

m
/ s-iotr--H lr:rMi:t ri',

Chemical B C
Species tr ooo! roooooo)

Oxygen 3.639 0.506 -4.2)7 1.

1
REF-ERHNCES
Ftopane 1.213 28.785 -o.oz+ l
.lr
j,',t
Propylene i..oJ / 22.7C6 -6.9r 5 i'
j.:]',.'i
j ir.:',
Sulfur-Dioxide 5.699 0.801 - 1.015 l'.

Sr'tlfur Trioxide 8.06 1.056 Arrstin G.T., Shreve's Ciremical Process Indust:-ies" Mc Grarn,

Toluene
Hill Book Co", New York, 1984.
0.29 47.052 -t5.7)6
, Bhatt B.l. and Vora S.M., Stoichjonret-ry, Tata Mc Graw Hill
Water ,1.+ / 1 A.r. q.121 Book Co., New Delhi, 1976
Fra;rcjs W. arrd Peters M., Fuels ard Frrcl Technolopy,
Pergamnon Press, l9B0
4 Hougen O., Watson K.M., and l{agatz RA., Chemical Process
priniiples. Part I, John Riley and Sons, 1966.
E
J. l-ewis V/.K., Radash A.Il. iLncl Le'wis H.C , Industna]
Stoichiometry, 2nd Ed., Mc Graw Hiil Book Co., New Yorlr
] 966.
Perty R.H. ard Green D", Peny's Chernica1Er-tgineers'Haldl:ock
6th Ed., Mc Graw Hill Book Co", New York 1984.
Petcrs M., Elemen(ary Chenrical Llngineennq, Mc Graw l-lill
Book Co., New York, 1984.
a Regel E.R. Inclustnal Chemjslrv. Iieirihold Pu.};lishut! Cc..
)943.
\\rilli:lns
E.'1. ar-rcl Johnson R. C., Stoichrorrretry for Chenticai
Engineers. Mc Grall, Hill Book-Co-; lJc1,,; Yorli-,i953.

lr)a
I -1- -)