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Reefat

reefat@mun.ca

July 4, 2018

Overview

• Asymptotically flat solutions of Einstein equation

• ADM mass for aymptotically flat spacetime

• Angular momentum of a gravitational field

• What does the ”Mass” and ”Angular momentum” means

• An Example for stationary, axially symmetric spacetimes

• Komar Formula

• Bondi-Sachs Mass

Hamiltonian solution for an aymptoticaly flat spacetime

total energy of the system, hence the Hamiltonian H.

• Therefore, we assume that the same is true for any spacetime.

• The Action A defined in the last class admits two different

solutions for the Hamiltonian.

• For compact manifold, the solution is

HGsolution = 0

1

I h i√

HGsolution = − N(k − k0 ) − Na (K ab − Khab )rb σd 2 θ

8π St

Non-compact manifold

on the asymptotic behavior of lapse and shift.

• Lapse and shift are arbitrary which poses problem when we are

trying to relate it to time invariant quantity.

• We need to fix this.

• We know that spacetime should be aysmptotically flat, i.e. Σt

should coincide with a surface of constant time in

Minkowskian or Lorenzian spacetime, L.

• Coordinates in L are (t, x, y , z)

• We want asymptotic portion of Σt to coincide with a surface

of t = const.

Non-compact manifold (conti.)

• In the asymptotic portion, the arbitrary coordinates y a of Σt

are related to the spatial L, i.e. we have the asymptotic

relation

y a 7→ y a (x, y , z)

• Similarly, we also have

x α 7→ x α (t, x, y , z)

• t is the proper time for an observer at rest in the asymptotic

region.

α

• The observer moves with a four-velocity u α = ∂x

∂t

.

• Because this vector is normalized and orthogonal it should

coincide with the normal vector nα which fix our asymptotic

relation

∂x α

nα 7→

∂t

Non-compact manifold (conti.)

• We know

t α = Nnα + N α eaα

α α

∂x α ∂x

=N +N

∂t ∂y a

and there is a 1 − 1 correspondence between lapse and shift

and a choice of flow vector(above).

ADM Mass

2-sphere at the spatial infinity evaluated with the following choice

of lapse and shift which is

N=1 Nα = 0

1

I h i√

HGsolution = − N(k − k0 ) − Na (K ab − Khab )rb σd 2 θ

8π St

ADM Mass(conti.)

√

I

1

M=− lim (k − k0 ) σd 2 θ

8π st 7→∞ St

• k AB is the extrinsic curvature on St and k = σ AB kAB

• k0 is the extrinsic curvature of St embedded in flat spacetime.

• The quantity M is called the ADM mass of the gravitational

field.

Angular Momentum

∂x α

shift implies that asymptotically t α 7→ ∂t

.

• The flow vector generates asymptotic time translation.

• The ADM mass is the gravitational Hamiltonian for this

choice of flow vector.

• Since time translation gives us energy or mass.

• Therefore, rotational symmetry should give us angular

momentum, i.e.

∂x α

t α 7→ φα ≡

∂φ

• For this we should have the choice of lapse and shift, N = 0

∂y a

and N α = φα = ∂φ respectively.

Angular Momentum (conti.)

defined to be the limit of the HGsolution when St is a 2-sphere at

spatial infinity which is

√

I

1

J=− lim (Kab − Khab )φa r a σd 2 θ

8π St 7→∞ St

Here,

• Kab is the extrinsic curvature.

• r a is the normal vector

• φa is our specific choice of shift.

Does this make sense?

4j sin2 θ

2m 2m

ds 2 = − 1 − dt 2 + 1 + (dr 2 +r 2 dω 2 )− dtdφ

r r r

(1)

Here:

• j is a generic angular momentum

• m is a generic mass

We want to show that m = M and j = J which were the definition

we derived in the earlier slide.

Asymptotically flat, stationary and axially-symmetric

spacetime

is both stationary and axially symmetric.

• We will choose a hypersurface Σt to be surfaces of constant

time, t.

m

• We define the normal vectornα = − 1 − r ∂α t

• The induced metric on 3-hypersurface is

2m

dr 2 + r 2 dΩ2

hab = 1 + r

• The boundary St is the two- sphere at r = R with normal

m

vector r = 1 + r ∂a r

• The induced metric on the 2-hypersurface is

A B 2m

2 2

σAB dθ dθ = 1 + r R dΩ

Evaluating M

• We evaluate k = r a |a = 2 2m

R 1− R

2

• We the evalute k0 = = R2 1

R0 −m R ,

the extrinsic curvature

of a two-sphere of identical intrinsic geometry but embedded

in a flat spacetime.

0 =σ

• By identical we mean σAB AB

• We calculate k − k0 = − 2m

R2

and

√ 2m

σd 2 θ = R 2 1 + sin2 θdθdφ

R

• Finally, by substituting in our mass-function

√

I

1

M=− lim (k − k0 ) σd 2 θ

8π st 7→∞ St

we see that

m=M

Evaluating J

• At first, we calculate Kab φa r a = Kφr (1 − m

r ) where

Kab = nα;β eaα ebβ

• The non-vanishing components of the metric are

tt 2m 2j

g =− 1+ g tφ = − 3

r r

which gives

3j sin2 θ

Γtφr = −

r2

2

• Thus we get Kφr = − 3j sin

R2

θ

and finally by substituting this in

√

I

1

J=− lim (Kab − Khab )φa r a σd 2 θ

8π St 7→∞ St

we get

j =J

Komar Formula

There is an alternative method of calculating the mass, M and

angular momentum, J. The alternative definition is given by

Komar Formula. The definitions are:

1

M=− lim ∇α ξbβ dSαβ (2)

8π St 7→∞

1

J=− lim ∇α ξφβ dSαβ (3)

16π St 7→∞

where:

ξφβ is the rotational Killing vector

√

dSαβ = −2n[α rβ] σd 2 θ

Komar formula is equivalent to Hamilton’s definition

following relations:

2m

− 2∇α ξtβ nα rβ = − = k − k0

r2

∇α ξφβ nα rβ = Kab φa r b

• Thus, we see that for stationary and axially symmetric

spacetimes, the Komar formula is equivalent to our

Hamiltonian definitions for the mass and angular momentum.

Komar formula is equivalent to Hamilton’s definition

(conti.)

Z √

1

M=2 Tαβ − Tgαβ nα ξtβ hd 3 y

2

ZΣ

√

1

J = −2 Tαβ − Tgαβ nα ξφβ hd 3 y

Σ 2

more terms in RHS of the above equation.

• Only in the case of stationary, axially symmetric spacetimes

that M and J can be defined as hypersurface integrals

because that is when Komar integrals can be used to calculate

the mass ad angular momentum.

Bondi-Sachs mass

• The ADM mass was defined keeping t fixed and taking the

limit at spatial infinity.

• There exists another way of reaching infinity, which is by

taking null infinity instead of spatial infinity.

• We can then define a new mass called called Bondi-Sachs

mass.

Bondi-Sachs mass (conti.)

• We introduce the null coordinates u = t − r (retarded time)

and v = t + r (advance time).

• In this coordinates, a two-surface of constant t and r becomes

a surface of constant u and v .

• Null infinity corresponds to the limit v 7→ ∞ keeping u fixed

• Thus, the Bondi-Sachs mass is

√

I

1

MBS (u) = − (k − k0 ) σd 2 θ (4)

8π S(u,v 7→∞)

• This definition is important because of its physical importance

in gravitating body that radiates.

When an isolated body emits radiation, the rate of change of

MBS (u) is directly related to the outward flux of radiated energy. I

F denotes this flux, then the Bondi-Sachs mass satify:

√

I

dMBS

=− F σd 2 θ (5)

du S(u,v 7→∞)

Distinction between ADM and Bondi-Sachs

• ADM mass and Bondi-Sachs mass are the same for stationary

spacetimes.

• For dynamical spacetimes, these are different.

• Bondi-Sachs mass decrease according to the formula defined

earlier.

• ADM mass does not change even for dynamic spacetimes.

Distinction between ADM and Bondi-Sachs (conti.)

• We will consider Schwarzschild metric but with

r

u = t − r − 2M ln( 2M − 1) as the coordinates.

• The mass parameter M 7→ m(u)

• The metric takes the form

where f = 1 − 2m(u)/r

• The energy-momentum tensor takes the form:

dm/du

Tαβ = − lα lβ

4πr 2

where lα = −∂α u is tangent to the radial, outgoing null

geodesics.

• When the strong energy conditions are satisfied, m

decreases with increasing retarded time.

• This spacetme is known as the outgoing Vaidya metric.

Calculating ADM for Vaidya spacetime

• We choose a spacelike hypersurface,asymptotically flat, and

coincide with t = const. of Minkowskian metric.

• A suitable choice is to let Σ be a surface of constant

t = u + r for which the unit normal

nα = −(2 − f )−1/2 ∂α (u + r )

vector ra = (2 − f )1/2 dα r

• We then follow all the calculations earlier and end up with:

ADM and Bondi-Sachs conclusion

• Bondi-Sachs mass represents all the mass present on a null

hypersurface of constant u.

• The hypersurface fails to intersect any of the radiation that

was emitted prior to the retarded time u.

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