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STUDY PACKAGE

1e

GATE
INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING
Vol 3 of 5

►► BASICS OF MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS


►► Transducers, Mechanical Measurement and Industrial
Instrumentation
►► ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS
►► ANALYTICAL, OPTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION

R. K. Kanodia
Ashish Murolia

NODIA & COMPANY


GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol 3 of 5
RK Kanodia and Ashish Murolia

Copyright © By NODIA & COMPANY

Information contained in this book has been obtained by author, from sources believes
to be reliable. However, neither NODIA & COMPANY nor its author guarantee the
accuracy or completeness of any information herein, and NODIA & COMPANY nor
its author shall be responsible for any error, omissions, or damages arising out of
use of this information. This book is published with the understanding that NODIA
& COMPANY and its author are supplying information but are not attempting to
render engineering or other professional services.

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To Our Parents
Preface

The objective of this study package is to develop in the GATE aspirants the ability
to solve GATE level problems of Instrumentation Engineering Paper. The highly
increased competition in GATE exam from last few years necessitate an in-depth
knowledge of the concepts for the GATE aspirants. There are lots of study packages
available for GATE Instrumentation Engineering, which includes the theory and
problem sets. But through this package our notion is to develop the problem solving
approach rather than just introducing the theory and problem set. This study
package fulfills all the requirements of a GATE aspirant to prepare for the exam.

There is no special pre-requisite before starting this study package. Although it


is always recommended to refer other standard text books to clear doubts in a
typical problem. The study package is published in 5 different volumes that cover the
different subjects of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Paper. As the weightage of
General Aptitude and Engineering Mathematics in the Instrumentation Engineering
paper are 15 % each, and the subjects are very much wide in the syllabus; these
subjects are published in separate volumes to provide practice problem set on all
the important topics of the subjects. Rest three volumes cover the core subjects of
GATE Instrumentation Engineering.

In the very first volume of this study package, General Aptitude is introduced.
General aptitude is divided into two sections: verbal ability and numerical ability.
Some important rules of grammar is introduced at the starting of verbal ability
section, and then different types of verbal ability problems are given in separate
chapters. At the end of each chapter answers of the problems are described with
detailed theory and grammatical rule. The numerical ability part does not include
theory as it is expected from an engineering students that they are very well known
to the basic mathematical formulas of under 10th class. In numerical ability section,
the chapters are organized such as to cover all types of problems asked in previous
GATE papers. There is the detailed solutions available for each of the numerical
ability problems such that even an average student can clear his/her doubts easily.

In volume 2 of the study package, Engineering Mathematics is introduced. Each


chapter of Engineering Mathematics introduces a brief theory with problem solving
methodology and important formulas at the starting and then the problems are
given in a graded manner from basic to advance level. At last, the solutions are given
with a detailed description of formulas and concepts used to solve it.

Volumes 3, 4 and 5 include the core subjects of instrumentation. The subjects with
interrelated topics are taken in the same volume. Volume 3 includes the subjects:
Basics of Measurement Systems; Electrical & Electronic Measurement; Transducers,
Mechanical Measurement and Industrial Instrumentation; Analytical, Optical &
Biomedical Instrumentation. Volume 4 includes the subjects: Basics of Circuits,
Analog Electronics, Digital Electronics. Volume 5 includes the subjects: Signals &
Systems; Communication Systems; Control Systems and Process Control. For each of
the subjects, the chapters are organized in a manner to cover the complete syllabus
with a balanced number of problems on each topic. In starting of each chapter, a
brief theory is given that includes formula, problem solving methodology and some
important points to remember. There are enough number of problems to cover all
the varieties, and the problems are graded from basic to advance level such that a
GATE aspirant can easily understand concepts while solving problems. Each and
every problems are solved with a good description to avoid any confusion or doubt.

There are two types of problems being asked in GATE exam: MCQ (Multiple Choice
Questions) and NAT (Numerical Answer Type questions). Both type of problems
are given in this study package. Solutions are presented in a descriptive and step-by-
step manner. The diagrams in the book are clearly illustrated. Overall, a very simple
language is used throughout this study package to facilitate easy understanding of
the concepts.

We believe that each volume of GATE Study Package helps a student to learn
fundamental concepts and develop problem solving skills for a subject, which are key
essentials to crack GATE. Although we have put a vigorous effort in preparing this
book, some errors may have crept in. We shall appreciate and greatly acknowledge
all constructive comments, criticisms, and suggestions from the users of this book at
rajkumar.kanodia@gmail.com

We wish you good luck !

Authors

Acknowledgements

We would like to express our sincere thanks to all the co-authors, editors, and
reviewers for their efforts in making this project successful. We would also like to
thank Team NODIA for providing professional support for this project through all
phases of its development. At last, we express our gratitude to God and our Family
for providing moral support and motivation.

Authors
Syllabus

General Aptitude (GA):


Verbal Ability : English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups, instructions,
critical reasoning and verbal deduction.
Numerical Ability : Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and data
interpretation.

Section 1 : Engineering Mathematics


Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and
minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes,
Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential
equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s
equations, initial and boundary value problems, solution of partial differential equations: variable
separable method.
Analysis of complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula,
Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem, solution of integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode and
standard deviation, random variables, discrete and continuous distributions: normal, Poisson and
binomial distributions.
Numerical Methods: Matrix inversion, solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, iterative
methods forsolving differential equations, numerical integration, regression and correlation analysis.
Instrumentation Engineering

Section 2: Electrical Circuits:


Voltage and current sources: independent, dependent, ideal and practical; v - i relationships of resistor,
inductor, mutual inductor and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC circuits with dc excitation.
Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power transfer
and reciprocity theorems.
Peak-, average- and rms values of ac quantities; apparent- active- nd reactive powers; phasor analysis,
impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, locus diagrams, realization of basic filters
with R, L and C elements.
One-port and two-port networks, driving point impedance and admittance, open-, and short circuit
parameters.

Section 3: Signals and Systems


Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; Laplace, Fourier and z-transforms; transfer function,
frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems, impulse response of
systems; convolution, correlation. Discrete time system: impulse response, frequency response, pulse
transfer function; DFT and FFT; basics of IIR and FIR filters.

Section 4: Control Systems


Feedback principles, signal flowgraphs, transient response, steady-state-errors, Bode plot, phase and
gain margins, Routh and Nyquist criteria, root loci, design of lead, lag and lead-lag compensators,
state-space representation of systems; time-delay systems; mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic
system components, synchro pair, servo and stepper motors, servo valves; on-off, P, P-I, P-I-D,
cascade, feedforward, and ratio controllers.

Section 5: Analog Electronics


Characteristics and applications of diode, Zener diode, BJT and MOSFET; small signal analysis
of transistor circuits, feedback amplifiers. Characteristics of operational amplifiers; applications of
opamps: difference amplifier, adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, instrumentation amplifier,
precision rectifier, active filters and other circuits. Oscillators, signal generators, voltage controlled
oscillators and phase locked loop.

Section 6: Digital Electronics


Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families: TTL and CMOS.
Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger, multi-vibrators, sequential circuits, flip-flops, shift
registers, timers and counters; sample-and-hold circuit, multiplexer, analog-to-digital (successive
approximation, integrating, flash and sigma- delta) and digital-to-analog converters (weighted R,
R-2R ladder and current steering logic). Characteristics of ADC and DAC (resolution, quantization,
significant bits, conversion/settling time); basics of number systems, 8-bit microprocessor and
microcontroller: applications, memory and input-output interfacing; basics of data acquisition systems.

Section 7: Measurements
SI units, systematic and random errors in measurement, expression of uncertainty -accuracy
and precision index, propagation of errors. PMMC, MI and dynamometer type instruments; dc
potentiometer; bridges for measurement of R, L and C, Q-meter. Measurement of voltage, current
and power in single and three phase circuits; ac and dc current probes; true rms meters, voltage and
current scaling, instrument transformers, timer/counter, time, phase and frequency measurements,
digital voltmeter, digital multimeter; oscilloscope, shielding and grounding.

Section 8: Sensors and Industrial Instrumentation


Resistive-, capacitive-, inductive-, piezoelectric-, Hall effect sensors and associated signal conditioning
circuits; transducers for industrial instrumentation: displacement (linear and angular), velocity,
acceleration, force, torque, vibration, shock, pressure (including low pressure), flow (differential
pressure, variable area, electromagnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and open channel flow meters) temperature
(thermocouple, bolometer, RTD (3/4 wire), thermistor, pyrometer and semiconductor); liquid level,
pH, conductivity and viscosity measurement.

Section 9: Communication and Optical Instrumentation


Amplitude-and frequency modulation and demodulation; Shannon’s sampling theorem, pulse code
modulation; frequency and time division multiplexing, amplitude- , phase-, frequency-, pulse shift
keying for digital modulation; optical sources and detectors: LED, laser, photo-diode, light dependent
resistor and their characteristics; interferometer: applications in metrology; basics of fiber optic
sensing.

 **********
Contents

BASICS OF MEASUREMENT 2 Error and Uncertainty Analysis


SYSTEMS
2.1 Introduction 27
2.2 Errors in Measurement 27
1 Characteristics of Measurement
2.2.1 Absolute Error 27
Systems
2.2.2 Relative Error 27
1.1 Introduction 3 2.2.3 Percentage Error 27
1.2 Measurement Methods 3 2.3 Limiting error 28
1.2.1 Direct Measurement Methods 4 2.3.1 Relative Limiting Error 28
1.2.2 Indirect Measurement Methods 4 2.3.2 Percentage Limiting Error 28
1.3 Measurement System 4 2.4 Types of Errors 29
1.4 Static characteristics of 2.4.1 Gross Errors 29
Measurement system 6 2.4.2 Systematic Errors 29
1.4.1 Accuracy 6 2.5 Random errors 30
1.4.2 Precision 6 2.5.1 Statistical Analysis of Measurements
1.4.3 Repeatability 7 Subject to Random Errors 30
1.4.4 Reproducibility 7 2.5.2 Gaussian Error Analysis 31
1.4.5 Tolerance 7
2.6 Combination of errors 33
1.4.6 Linearity 8
2.6.1 Sum of Two Quantities 33
1.4.7 Resolution 8
2.6.2 Difference of Two Quantities 33
1.4.8 Sensitivity 8
2.6.3 Product of two Components 33
1.4.9 Dead Zone 9
2.6.4 Quotient 34
1.4.10 Hysteresis Effect 9
2.6.5 Power of a Factor 34
1.4.11 Threshold 9
2.6.6 Composite Factors 34
1.4.12 Range 10

1.5 Dynamic characteristics of 3 Statistical Analysis of Data


measurement systems 10
3.1 Introduction 55
1.5.1 Zero order instrument 10
1.5.2 First order instrument 10 3.2 Probability 55
1.5.3 Second order instrument 10 3.2.1 Joint Probability 55
3.2.2 Conditional Probability 56
3.2.3 Statistical Independence 56 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC
MEASUREMENTS
3.3 Random Variable 56
3.3.1 Discrete Random Variable 56
3.3.2 Continuous Random Variable 57 1 Electromechanical Indicating
Instrument
3.4 Transformation of random
variables 57 1.1 Introduction 3

3.5 Multiple random variables 58 1.2 pmmc instrument 3


1.2.1 Construction and Working 3
3.6 Statistical average of random
variable 59 1.3 dc ammeters 5
3.6.1 Mean or Expected Value 59 1.3.1 Shunt Resistor 5
3.6.2 Moments 59 1.3.2 Ayrton Shunt 6
3.6.3 Variance 60
1.4 dc voltmeter 6
3.6.4 Standard Deviation 60
1.4.1 Multiplier Resistor 6
3.6.5 Characteristic Function 60
1.4.2 Multirange Voltmeter 7
3.6.6 Joint Moments 60
3.6.7 Covariance 61 1.5 Ohmmeter 7
3.6.8 Correlation Coefficient 61 1.5.1 Series-Type Ohmmeter 7
1.5.2 Shunt-Type Ohmmeter 8
3.7 Some Important probability
distributions 61 1.6 Multimeter 8
3.7.1 Binomial Distribution 61
3.7.2 Poisson Distribution 62 2 Measurement Of Resistance
3.7.3 Gaussian Distribution 62 2.1 Introduction 29
3.7.4 Rayleigh Distribution 64
2.2 Ammeter-voltmeter Method 29
4 Curve Fitting 2.3 Ohmmeter Method 30
4.1 Introduction 91 2.4 Wheatstone Bridge Method 31
4.2 Methods of curve fitting 91
3 Measurement Of Inductance,
4.3 Fitting of A straight LIne 92 Capacitance
4.4 Fitting of a parabola 92 3.1 Introduction 45
3.2 Measurement of inductance 45
3.2.1 Inductance Comparison Bridge 45
3.2.2 Maxwell Bridge 46
3.2.3 Hay Inductance Bridge 47

3.3 Measurement of Capacitance 48


3.3.1 De-sauty’s Bridge 49
3.3.2 Schering Bridge 49 5.2.1 CRT Construction 105
5.2.2 Deflection System 106
3.4 Vector Impedance Meter 50
5.2.3 Focussing System 107
3.5 Q-Meter 51 5.2.4 Astigmatism 109
5.2.5 Time Base Generator 109
4 Electronic Instruments For 5.2.6 Synchronising Circuit 110
Measuring Basic Parameters 5.2.7 Blanking Circuit 111
4.1 Introduction 71 5.2.8 Delay Line 111

4.2 Electronic voltmeter 71 5.3 CRO Probes 112

4.3 Analog Electronic Voltmeter 72 5.4 Oscilloscope Techniques of


4.3.1 AC Electronic Voltmeter 72 Measurements 113
4.3.2 DC Electronic Voltmeter 75 5.4.1 Measurement of Voltage 114
5.4.2 Measurement of Current 114
4.4 Digital Electronic Voltmeter 77 5.4.3 Measurement of Frequency 114
4.4.1 Resolution and Sensitivity of DVM 5.4.4 Measurement of Phase Angle 118
77
4.4.2 Types of Digital Voltmeters 78
6 Waveform Analysers
4.5 Electronic Multimeter 80
6.1 Introduction 141
4.5.1 Analog Electronic Multimeter 80
4.5.2 Digital Electronic Multimeter 81 6.2 Signal Analysis Techniques 141

4.6 Measurement of Frequency 81 6.3 Wave analyzer 142


4.6.1 Bridge Method 82 6.3.1 Frequency-Selective wave Analyzer
142
4.6.2 Frequency Meter 83
6.3.2 Heterodyne Wave Analyzer 143
4.7 RF Power measurement 84
4.7.1 RF Power Measurement Using
6.4 Harmonic Distortion analyzer 144
Dummy Load 84 6.4.1 Tuned Circuit Harmonic Analyzer
145
4.7.2 Bolometer Bridge Method for RF
Power Measurement 85 6.4.2 Heterodyne Harmonic Analyzer 145
4.7.3 Calorimetric Method for RF Power 6.4.3 Fundamental Suppression
Measurement 86 Harmonic Distortion Analyzer 146

4.8 Shielding and grounding 86 6.5 Spectrum analyzer 148


4.8.1 Grounding 86 6.5.1 Filter Bank Spectrum Analyzer 148
4.8.2 Shielding 89 6.5.2 Swept Superheterodyne Spectrum
Analyzer 149
5 Cathode Ray Oscilloscopes 6.5.3 Spectra of Different Signals 150

5.1 Introduction 105


5.2 Basic CRO circuit 105
TRANSDUCERS, 2.2 Signal conditioning system 53
MECHANICAL MEASUREMENT
2.3 Input circuits 54
& INDUSTRIAL
2.3.1 Power supplies 55
INSTRUMENTATION
2.3.2 Constant Voltage Potentiometer
Circuit 55
1 Electrical Transducers 2.3.3 Constant Current Potentiometer
Circuit 56
1.1 Introduction 3 2.3.4 Constant Voltage Wheatstone
1.2 Classification of Electrical Bridge Circuit 57
Transducers 3 2.3.5 Constant Current Wheatstone
Bridge Circuit 57
1.2.1 Passive Transducers 3
1.2.2 Active Transducers 5 2.4 Amplifiers 58
2.4.1 Operational Amplifier 58
1.3 Resistive Transducer 5
2.4.2 Instrumentation Amplifier 60
1.3.1 Resistance Thermometers 7
2.4.3 Chopper Amplifier 61
1.3.2 Resistive Displacement
Transducers 7 2.5 Filters 61
1.3.3 Strain Gauge 7 2.5.1 Low pass RC filter 61
1.4 Inductive Transducers 10 2.5.2 High-pass RC filter 62
1.4.1 Operating Principle of Inductive 2.5.3 Active Filter 62
Transducers 10
1.4.2 Differential Transducers 11 3 Measurement Of Translational And
Rotational Motion
1.5 Capacitive Transducer 11
1.5.1 Operating Principle of Capacitive 3.1 Introduction 81
Transducers 11
3.2 Measurement of Translational
1.5.2 Capacitive Thickness Transducer 13
displacement 81
1.5.3 Capacitive Displacement
3.2.1 Resistive Potentiometer 81
Transducers 14
3.2.2 Linear Variable Differential
1.6 Piezoelectric Transducer 14 Transformer (LVDT) 82
1.6.1 Measurement of Force Using 3.2.3 Capacitive Displacement
Piezoelectric Transducer 14 Transducers 85
1.6.2 Equivalent Circuit of a
3.3 Measurement of Translational
Piezoelectric Transducer 15
Velocity 86
1.6.3 Loading Effect on Piezoelectric
Transducer 16 3.3.1 Differentiation of Displacement
Measurements 86
3.3.2 Integration of the Output of an
2 Signal Conditioning For Electrical
Accelerometer 86
Transducer
3.4 Measurement of Translational
2.1 Introduction 53
Acceleration 86
3.5 Measurement of Rotational 4.4.3 Absorption dynamometer 119
Displacement 87
3.5.1 Rotary Variable Differential 5 Temperature Measurement
Transformer 87
5.1 Introduction 145
3.6 Measurement of Rotational
velocity 89 5.2 Resistance devices 145
3.6.1 Digital Tachometers 89 5.2.1 Resistance Thermometers 145
3.6.2 Analogue Tachometers 90 5.2.2 Thermistors 147
3.6.3 Differentiation of Angular 5.3 Thermocouple 149
Displacement Measurements 91
5.3.1 Multiple Junction Thermocouple
3.6.4 Integration of the Output From an Circuit 149
Accelerometer 91
5.4 Non-electrical methods of
3.7 Measurement of rotational
temperature measurement 150
acceleration 91
5.4.1 Bimetallic Thermometers 150
3.8 Measurement of vibration 91 5.4.2 Liquid-in-glass Thermometer 151
3.8.1 Vibration Measurement 92 5.4.3 Pressure Thermometer 151
3.8.2 Seismic Device 92
5.5 Radiation methods of
3.8.3 Force Balance Type Seismic
temperature measurement 152
Device 93
5.5.1 Total Radiation Pyrometer 152
3.9 Shock 93 5.5.2 Selective radiation pyrometer 152

4 Force, Torque And Vibration 6 Pressure Measurement


Measurement
6.1 Introduction 173
4.1 Introduction 113
6.2 Important terms used in pressure
4.2 Mass measurement 113 measurement 173
4.2.1 Column Type Load Cell 113
6.3 Classification of pressure
4.2.2 Cantilever Beam Type Load Cell 114
measuring systems 173
4.2.3 Intelligent Load Cell 115
6.4 Manometers 174
4.3 Force measurement 115
6.4.1 U-tube Manometer 174
4.3.1
Balance
115
6.4.2 Cistern Manometer 175
4.3.2 Hydraulic Load Cells 115
6.4.3 Inclined Tube Manometer 175
4.3.3 Pneumatic Load Cell 116
6.4.4 Micromanometer 176
4.3.4 Measurement of Force Using
Accelerometers 116 6.5 Bourdon Tube pressure Gauge 176
6.5.1 C-type Bourdon Tube Pressure
4.4 Torque measurement 117
Gauge 177
4.4.1 Transmission Dynamometers 117
6.5.2 Twisted Bourdon Tube 177
4.4.2 Driving Type Dynamometer 118
6.6 Diaphragm pressure gauge 178 ANALYTICAL, OPTICAL
& BIOMEDICAL
6.7 Bellow pressure gauge 179
INSTRUMENTATION
6.8 Pirani Gauge 179
6.9 Thermocouple gauge 180 1 Analytical Instrumentation
6.10 Ionization gauge 180 1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Elements of analytical
7 Flow Measurement
instrument 3
7.1 Introduction 193
1.3 Mass Spectrometer 4
7.2 Flow measurement 193 1.3.1 Operating Principle 4
7.2.1 Differential Pressure Flowmeter 193 1.3.2 Components of Mass Spectrometer
7.2.2 Variable Area Flowmeter 196 5
7.2.3 Turbine Flowmeter 197 1.3.3 Types of Mass Spectrometers 7
7.2.4 Ultrasonic Flowmeter 198
1.4 Ultraviolet and visible
7.2.5 Electromagnetic Flowmeter 201 spectrometry 9
7.2.6 Laser Doppler Flowmeter 202 1.4.1 Absorption Instruments 9
7.3 Level measurement 203 1.4.2 Operating Principle of UV-Vis
7.3.1 Dipsticks 203 Absorption Spectrometer 10

7.3.2 Float Gauge System 204 1.4.3 Construction of UV-Vis


Absorption Spectrometer 10
7.3.3 Displacer System 205
7.3.4 Capacitive Devices 205 1.5 Infrared Spectroscopy 11
7.3.5 Indirect Level Measurement 206 1.5.1 Basic Components of Infrared
Spectrophotometers 11
7.4 Measurement of ph values 206 1.5.2 Types of Infrared
7.4.1 pH Probe 207 Spectrophotometers 11
7.4.2 Practical Range of pH Measurement
207 1.6 X-Ray Spectrometry 12
7.4.3 Voltage Output of pH Probe 208 1.6.1 X-Ray Generating Equipment 13
1.6.2 Collimator 13
7.5 Measurement of viscosity 208 1.6.3 Monochromator 13
7.5.1 Viscosity Measurement by Placing
1.6.4 X-Ray Detector 14
Liquid between Parallel Plates 209
7.5.2 Rotating Concentric Cylinder 1.7 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Method 209 spectroscopy 14
7.5.3 Industrial Viscosimeter 210 1.7.1 Construction of NMR Spectrometer
14
7.6 Measurement of humidity 210
1.7.2 Types of NMR Spectrometers 14
7.6.1 Electrical Hygrometer 211
7.6.2 Psychrometer 211
2 Optical Sources And Detectors
7.6.3 Dew Point Meter 211
2.1 Introduction 29 3.3.1 Total Internal Reflection 56
2.2 Optical Phenomenon 29 3.3.2 Critical Angle 57
2.2.1 Refraction and Refractive Index 29 3.3.3 Acceptance Angle 57
2.2.2 Reflection, Absorption and 3.3.4 Numerical Aperture 57
Transmittance 29
3.4 Fiber optic sensors 58
2.3 Photometry 30 3.4.1 Pure Fibre Sensros 58
2.3.1 Point Sources and Extended 3.4.2 Remote Optic Sensors 58
Sources 30
3.5 Fiber optic detectors 58
2.3.2 Solid Angle 31
2.3.3 Luminous Flux 31
4 Biomedical Instrumentation
2.3.4 Luminous Intensity 31
2.3.5 Luminance 31 4.1 Introduction 67

2.4 Radiometry 31 4.2 Fundamentals of medical


instrumentation 67
2.5 Laws of Illumination 32
4.2.1 Physiological System of Body 67
2.6 Optical Sources 32 4.2.2 Sources of Biomedical Signals 70
2.6.1 Sunlight 33 4.2.3 Basic Medical Instrumentation
2.6.2 Incandescent Sources 33 System 72
2.6.3 Fluorescent Sources 33 4.3 Biomedical recorders 73
2.6.4 Light Emitting Diode 33 4.3.1 Electrocardiograph (ECG) 73
2.6.5 LASER 33 4.3.2 Electroencephalograph (EEG) 74
2.7 Optical Detectors 34 4.3.3 Electromyograph (EMG) 76
2.7.1 Photo-emissive Cells 34 4.4 Clinical Measurement 77
2.7.2 Semiconductor Photoelectric 4.4.1 Measurement of Heart Rate 77
Transducers 35
4.4.2 Measurement of Pulse Rate 78
2.8 Interferometers 37 4.4.3 Blood Pressure Measurement 79
2.8.1 Construction and Working of 4.4.4 Measurements of Temperature 81
Michelson’s Interferometer 37 4.4.5 Measurements of Respiration Rate
2.8.2 Formation of Interference Fringes 37 81
2.8.3 Measurement with Michelson’s
4.5 Ultrasonic imaging systems 81
Interferometer 38
4.5.1 Physics of Ultrasonic Waves 82
4.5.2 Medical Ultrasound 83
3 Fiber Optics
4.5.3 Characteristic of Real Time
3.1 Introduction 55 Ultrasonic Imaging Systems 83
4.5.4 Requirements of Real Time
3.2 Optical fibers 55
Ultrasonic Imaging Systems 83
3.3 Operating principle of optical 4.5.5 Biological Effects of Ultrasound 83
fibers 56
4.6 X-Ray Computed tomography 84
4.6.1 Gantry Geometry 84
4.6.2 Patient Dose in CT Scanners 84

 **********
CHAPTER 1
Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion

1.1 Introduction

Instrumental techniques are available for the measurement of linear


as well as rotational displacements. In this chapter, we will deal with
the electrical transducers that is used to measure the translational and
rotational motion. Following topics are covered in the chapter:
•• Measurement of translational displacement using resistive
potentiometer, LVDT, capacitive displacement transducer
•• Different methods of measurement of translational velocity and
acceleration
•• Measurement of rotational displacement using RVDT
•• Different methods of measurement of rotational velocity and
acceleration
•• Digital and analogue tachometers
•• Vibration and shock measurement

1.2 Measurement of Translational displacement

Translational displacement transducers are instruments that measure


the motion of a body in a straight line between two points. Many
different types of translational displacement transducer exist and these,
along with their relative merits and characteristics, are discussed in the
following sections.

1.2.1 Resistive Potentiometer


Figure 3.1 shows the different types of potentiometer circuits. Circuit
(a) provides dc output currents of range 4–20 mA or any other desired
range; Circuit (c) is the usual variable potential divider, also known
as single-ended potentiometer circuit, Circuit (d) is a push-pull
potentiometer circuit. Circuits (b) and (d) develop bipolar outputs for
bidirectional motion about the central point.
GATE STUDY PACKAGE INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING
Set of 5 Books by NODIA Publication
Page 18 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Chap 1

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3


. in
. c o
d ia
o
Figure 3.1: Different Circuits of Resistance Displacement Transducer

Loading Effect
. n
w w
If the voltmeter is electronic in nature, and has high input impedance,
the loading effect will be negligible, with the ratio of Vo /Ei of Figure

w
1.1(c) being the same as Rx /R p . For a linear transducer, Rx /R p is the
same as the fractional value x , which is the ratio of the displacement
given to the contactor, to its full-scale value. Hence under no-load
conditions,
x = Rx = Vo
Rp Ei
For the same position of contactor, the output voltage will be lower if
RL , the resistance of voltmeter forming the load, is finite and this new
value of Vol, if taken to represent the displacement, is given by
Vol = xl
Ei
With the true value being x , the error is given by
error = xl − x
Representing R p /RL by m , the percentage error can be obtained as
100 ^xl - x h
= 6− mx ^1 − x h@100
xl
1.2.2 Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)
LVDT is a passive inductive transformer. It works on the principle of
variable-inductance.
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Chap 1 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Page 19


Construction of LVDT
Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3

Figure 3.2 shows the basic construction of an LVDT. The transformer


consists of a single primary winding P1 and two secondary windings S1
and S2 wound on a hollow cylindrical former. The secondary windings
have an equal number of turns and are identically placed on either side
of the primary windings. The primary winding is connected to an ac
source.

. in
. c o
d ia
n o
w.
w
Figure 3.2: Construction of LVDT

w A movable soft iron core slides within the hollow former and
therefore affects the magnetic coupling between the primary and the
two secondaries. The displacement to be measured is applied to an
arm attached to the soft iron core. The whole assembly is placed in
a stainless steel housing and the end lids provide electrostatic and
electromagnetic shielding. The frequency of the ac applied to the
primary winding ranges from 50 Hz to 20 kHz.

Operation of LVDT
Since the primary winding is excited by an ac source, it produces an
alternating magnetic field which in turn induces ac voltages in the two
secondary windings. In order to convert the output from S1 to S2 into
a single voltage signal, the two secondaries S1 and S2 are connected in
series opposition, as shown in Figure 3.3. Let the output voltage of the
secondary winding S1 is VS1 and that of secondary winding S2 is VS2 .
Hence the output voltage of the transducer is the difference of the two
voltages. i.e.
Vo = VS1 − VS2

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. in
Figure 3.3: Measurement of Translational Motion using LVDT

o
When the core slides within the hollow former, the output voltage Vo

. c
will also change. The amount of voltage change will be proportional to

ia
the amount of linear motion.

d
Advantages of LVDT

n o
1. Linearity: The output voltage of this transducer is practically

.
linear for displacement upto 5 mm.

w
2. High output: It gives a high output, and therefore intermediate

w
amplification devices are not required.
3. Infinite resolution: The change in output voltage is stepless. The

w effective resolution depends more on the test equipment than on


the transducer.
4. Ruggedness: These transducers can usually tolerate a high degree
of vibration and shock.
5. Less friction: There are no sliding contacts.
6. High sensitivity: The transducer possesses a sensitivity as high as
40 V/mm.
7. Low power consumption: Most LVDTs consume less than 1 W of
power.
8. Low hysteresis: This transducer has a low hysteresis, hence
repeatability is excellent under all conditions.

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Chap 1 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Page 21


Disadvantages of LVDT
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1. Large displacements are required for appreciable differential


output.
2. They are sensitive to stray magnetic fields.
3. The receiving instrument must be selected to operate on ac signals,
or a demodulator network must be used if a dc output is required.
4. The dynamic response is limited mechanically by the mass of the
core and electrically by the applied voltage.
5. Temperature also affects the transducer.

in
1.2.3 Capacitive Displacement Transducers

o .
The capacitive displacement transducer is fundamentally a proximity
transducer, in the sense that the movable plate or electrode may be

. c
the conducting surface of any object in the vicinity of the fixed plate.

ia
If the transducer has a solid insulating material of dielectric constant
ε , as shown in Figure 3.4(a), the capacitance is given by

o d
C 0 = ε 0 At
x0 + ε

. n
w w
w
Figure 3.4: Capacitive displacement transducer

If the air gap is decreased by Tx , the capacitance increases by C which


is given by
C 0 + TC = ε0A
x 0 − Tx + tε
So, the fractional change in capacitance is
TC = Tx N
C0 x 0 + t 1 − ^xNTx
+ th
0

where N is the sensitivity factor given as


1+ t
N = x0
1+ t
x0 ε

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1.3 Measurement of Translational Velocity

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Translational velocity cannot be measured directly and therefore must
be calculated indirectly by other means as described below.

1.3.1 Differentiation of Displacement Measurements


Differentiation of position measurements obtained from any of the
translational displacement transducers described in previous section
can be used to produce a translational velocity signal. Unfortunately,
the process of differentiation always amplifies noise in a measurement
system. Therefore, if this method has to be used, a low-noise instrument
such as a d.c. excited carbon film potentiometer or laser interferometer

in
should be chosen. In the case of potentiometers, a.c. excitation must

.
be avoided because of the problem that harmonics in the power supply

o
would cause.

1.3.2 Integration of the Output of an Accelerometer


. c
ia
Where an accelerometer is already included within a system, integration

d
of its output can be performed to yield a velocity signal. The process

o
of integration attenuates rather than amplifies measurement noise and

. n
this is therefore an acceptable technique.

1.4

w w
Measurement of Translational Acceleration

w
The only class of device available for measuring acceleration is the
accelerometer. Most forms of accelerometer consist of a mass suspended
by a spring and damper inside a housing, as shown in Figure 3.5.

Figure 3.5: Structure of an Accelerometer

The accelerometer is rigidly fastened to the body undergoing


acceleration. Any acceleration of the body causes a force, Fa , on the

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mass, M , given by
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Fa = Mxp
This force is opposed by the restraining effect, Fs , of a spring with
spring constant K , and the net result is that the mass is displaced by
a distance x from its starting position such that
Fs = Kx

In steady state, when the mass inside is accelerating at the same


rate as the case of the accelerometer, then we have
Fa = Fs
or Kx = Mxp
xp = Kx (3.1)

in
or
M

.
This is the equation of motion of a second order system, and in the

o
absence of damping, the output of the accelerometer would consist of

. c
non-decaying oscillations. A damper is therefore included within the

ia
instrument, which produces a damping force, Fd , proportional to the
velocity of the mass M given by

d
Fd = Bxo

o
This modifies the equation (3.1) to

. n
Kx + Bxo = Mxp

1.5

w w
Measurement of Rotational Displacement

w
Rotational displacement transducers measure the angular motion of
a body about some rotation axis. The various devices available for
measuring rotational displacements are described in following sections.
NOTE
Rotational transducers are important not only for measuring the rotation of bodies
such as shafts, but also as part of systems that measure translational displacement
by converting the translational motion to a rotary form.

1.5.1 Rotary Variable Differential Transformer


A Rotary Variable Differential Transformer (RVDT) is an
electromechanical transducer used for measuring angular displacement
and operates on the same principle as LVDT. It provides a variable ac
output voltage that is linearly proportional to the angular displacement
of its input shaft. When energized with a fixed ac source, the output
signal is linear within a specified range over the angular displacement.
Construction of RVDT
The RVDT is similar in construction to the LVDT, except that a cam-
shaped core replaces the core in the LVDT as shown in Figure 3.6.

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Most RVDTs are composed of a wound, laminated stator and a salient

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two-pole rotor (core). The stator, containing four slots, contains both
the primary winding and the two secondary windings. Some secondary
windings may also be connected together.

Figure 3.6: Construction of RVDT

. in
. c o
RVDTs utilize brushless, non-contacting technology to ensure long
life and reliable, repeatable position sensing with infinite resolution.

ia
Such reliable and repeatable performance assures accurate position
sensing under the most extreme operating conditions.
Operation of RVDT

o d
. n
Basic RVDT operation is provided by rotating an iron-core bearing
supported within a housed stator assembly. A fixed alternating current

w
excitation is applied to the primary stator coil that is electromagnetically

w
coupled to the secondary coils. This coupling is proportional to the

w
angle of the input shaft. The output pair is structured so that one
coil is in-phase with the excitation coil, and the second is 180c out-of-
phase with the excitation coil. Now, we consider the following cases to
understand the operation of RVDT:
 CASE I
When the rotor is in a position that directs the available flux equally
in both the in-phase and out-of-phase coils, the output voltages cancel
and result in a zero values signal. This is referred to as the null position.
 CASE II
If the core is turned anticlockwise, the flux linking with one winding
S1 , increases while the other S2 decreases. Hence the output can be
considered as a positive value.
 CASE III
If the core is turned in clockwise direction, the flux linking with
winding S1 reduces, while that linked with winding S2 increases, hence
producing an out of phase output that is in the opposite direction that
is a negative value.

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Chap 1 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Page 25


1.6 Measurement of Rotational velocity
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The main application of rotational velocity transducers is in speed


control systems. They also provide the usual means of measuring
translational velocities, which are transformed into rotational motions
for measurement purposes by suitable gearing. Many different
instruments and techniques are available for measuring rotational
velocity as presented below.

1.6.1 Digital Tachometers


Digital tachometers are usually non-contact instruments that sense
the passage of equally spaced marks on the surface of a rotating disc

in
or shaft. As each mark is sensed, a pulse is generated and input to an

.
electronic pulse counter. Instantaneous velocity can be calculated at

o
each instant of time that an output pulse occurs, using the scheme

c
shown in Figure 3.7. In this circuit, the pulses from the transducer gate

.
the train of pulses from a 1 MHz clock into a counter. Control logic

ia
resets the counter and updates the digital output value after receipt

d
of each pulse from the transducer. The measurement resolution of this

o
system is highest when the speed of rotation is low.

. n
w w
w

Figure 3.6: Scheme to Measure Instantaneous Angular Velocities

In digital tachometers, various types of sensor are used, such as optical,


inductive and magnetic ones.
Optical Tachometers
Digital tachometers with optical sensors are often known as optical
tachometers. Optical pulses can be generated by photoelectric
techniques Optical tachometers yield better accuracy than other forms
of digital tachometer but are not as reliable because dust and dirt can
block light paths.

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Induction Tachometers

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Induction tachometers are a form of digital tachometer that use
inductive sensing. They are widely used in the automotive industry
within anti-skid devices, anti-lock braking systems (ABS) and traction
control.
Magnetostricitive Tachometers
The rotating element in magnetostrictive tachometers has a very
simple design in the form of a toothed metal gearwheel. The sensor is
a solid-state, Hall-effect device that is placed between the gear wheel
and a permanent magnet. When an inter-tooth gap on the gear wheel
is adjacent to the sensor, the full magnetic field from the magnet passes

in
through it. Later, as a tooth approaches the sensor, the tooth diverts

.
some of the magnetic field, and so the field through the sensor is

o
reduced. This causes the sensor to produce an output voltage that is

. c
proportional to the rotational speed of the gear wheel.

ia
1.6.2 Analogue Tachometers

o d
Analogue tachometers are less accurate than digital tachometers but
are nevertheless still used successfully in many applications. The a.c.

. n
tachometer has an output approximately proportional to rotational

w
speed like, the d.c. tachogenerator. Mechanical structure of an analogue
tachometer takes the form of a two-phase induction motor, with two

w
stator windings and (usually) a drag-cup rotor, as shown in Figure 3.7.

Figure 3.7: Working of AC Tachometer

One of the stator windings is excited with an a.c. voltage and the
measurement signal is taken from the output voltage induced in the
second winding. The magnitude of this output voltage is zero when the
rotor is stationary, and otherwise proportional to the angular velocity
of the rotor. The direction of rotation is determined by the phase of
the output voltage, which switches by 180° as the direction reverses.
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Chap 1 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Page 27


Therefore, both the phase and magnitude of the output voltage have
Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3

to be measured.

1.6.3 Differentiation of Angular Displacement Measurements


Angular velocity measurements can be obtained by differentiating the
output signal from angular displacement transducers. Unfortunately,
the process of differentiation amplifies any noise in the measurement
signal.

1.6.4 Integration of the Output From an Accelerometer


In measurement systems that already contain an angular acceleration

in
transducer, it is possible to obtain a velocity measurement by

.
integrating the acceleration measurement signal. This produces a

o
signal of acceptable quality, as the process of integration attenuates

c
any measurement noise.

Measurement of rotational acceleration


ia .
d
1.7

o
Rotational accelerometers work on very similar principles to translational

n
motion accelerometers. They consist of a rotatable mass mounted

w.
inside a housing that is attached to the accelerating, rotating body.
Rotation of the mass is opposed by a torsional spring and damping.

w
Any acceleration of the housing causes a torque Jθp on the mass. This

w
torque is opposed by a backward torque due to the torsional spring and
in equilibrium
Jθp = Kθ
or θp = K θ
J
A damper is usually included in the systems to avoid undying oscillations
in the instrument. This adds an additional backward torque Bθo to the
system and the equation of motion becomes
Jθp = Bqo + Kq

1.8 Measurement of vibration

Vibrations are very commonly encountered in machinery operation,


and therefore measurement of the accelerations associated with
such vibrations is extremely important in industrial environments.
Vibrations normally consist of linear harmonic motion that can be
expressed mathematically as
X = X 0 sin (ωt)

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where X is the displacement from the equilibrium position at any

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general point in time, X 0 is the peak displacement from the equilibrium
position, and ω is the angular frequency of the oscillations. The velocity
v of the vibrating body can be obtained as
v = wX 0 cos (wt)
and expression for the acceleration can be given as
α =− w20 sin (wt)
It is apparent that the intensity of vibration can be measured in terms
of either displacement, velocity or acceleration. Acceleration is clearly
the best parameter to measure at high frequencies. However, because
displacements are large at low frequencies, it would seem that measuring
either displacement or velocity would be best at low frequencies. In

in
next section, we will learn the technique of vibration measurement.

1.8.1 Vibration Measurement

o .
. c
A vibration measurement system requires other elements, as shown

ia
in Figure 3.8, to translate the accelerometer output into a recorded

d
signal. The three other necessary elements are
1. Signal-conditioning element: It amplifies the relatively weak

o
output signal from the accelerometer and also transforms the

n
.
high output impedance of the accelerometer to a lower impedance

w
value.
2. Signal analyser: It converts the signal into the form required

w w
for output. The output parameter may be either displacement,
velocity or acceleration and this may be expresses as either the
peak value, r.m.s. value or average absolute values.
3. Signal recorder: It must be chosen very carefully to avoid
distortion of the vibration waveform.

Figure 3.8: Vibration Measurement System

1.8.2 Seismic Device


In these devices the base of the device or transducer is attached to
the object whose motion or vibration is to be measured, as shown in
Figure 3.9. Inside the transducer, is a mass m supported on a spring
of stiffness k and viscous damper, with damping coefficient c . The
motion of the mass relative to the frame or base, gives an indication of
the motion of the object and is the output of the instrument.

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. in
o
Figure 3.9: Seismic Device

. c
The acceleration response of seismic transducer is given by the equation,

ia
ω n2 z 0 = 1
A0 (1 − r ) + (2ξr) 2
2 2

where

o d
A 0 = ω2 x 0 , acceleration amplitude of the object
r = w/w n , frequency ratio

. n
ω n = k , undamped natural frequency
m

w w ξ = c , damping ratio
2 km

w
ω = circular frequency of motion of the moving object

1.8.3 Force Balance Type Seismic Device


These are similar to seismic devices except that there is no mechanical
spring used here and the restoring force is provided by a feedback
arrangement, as shown in Figure 3.10.
These types of motion measuring devices are used in inertial
navigation systems. It is possible to get higher accuracy and increased
stability as effects like hysteresis, non-linearity, temperature effects,
etc. associated with mechanical springs are absent here.

1.9 Shock

Shock describes a type of motion where a moving body is brought


suddenly to rest, often because of a collision. This is very common in
industrial situations and usually involves a body being dropped and
hitting the floor. An instrument having a very high-frequency response
is required for shock measurement, and for this reason, piezoelectric
crystal-based accelerometers are commonly used.
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. in
. c o
d ia
Figure 3.10: Force Balance Type Seismic Device

n o
.
 **********

w w
w

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Chap 1 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Page 31

 EXERCIS
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MCQ 1.1 An LVDT produces an output voltage of 2.6 V for displacement 0.4
mm. The sensitivity of LVDT is
(A) 0.15 mm/V
(B) 0.15 m/V

. in
(C) 6.5 V/mm

o
(D) 6.5 V/m

. c
ia
MCQ 1.2 The output of LVDT is 1.25 V at maximum displacement. At a load of

d
0.75 mΩ , the deviation of linearity is maximum and it is ! 0.0025 V.

o
The linearity at the given load is

n
(A) 0.5% (B) 0.025V

.
(C) 0.2%V (D) 1.25%

MCQ 1.3

w w
An LVDT has a secondary voltage of 5 V for a displacement of ! 12.5

w
mm. What is the output voltage for a displacement of 8 mm from its
central position ?
(A) 0.2 V
(B) 0.4 V
(C) 0.32 V
(D) 3.2 V

MCQ 1.4 In a linear voltage differential transformer (LVDT) the output voltage
is 1.8 V at maximum displacement. At a certain load the deviation
from linearity is maximum and it is ! 0.0045 V from a straight line
through the origin. The linearity at the given load is
(A) ! 25%
(B) ! 40%
(C) ! 0.25%
(D) ! 0.4%

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NAT 1.5 The output of an LVDT is connected to a 4 V voltmeter through

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an amplifier whose amplification factor is 500. An output of 1.8 mV
appears across the terminals of LVDT when the core moves through
a distance of 0.6 mm. If the millivoltmeter scale has 100 divisions
and the scale can be read to 14 of a division, then the resolution of
instrument will be

 ______ mm

MCQ 1.6 An LVDT is used for measuring the deflection of a bellows. The
sensitivity of LVDT is 40 V per mm. The bellows is deflected by 0.125

in
mm by a pressure of 0.8 # 106 N/m2 . The sensitivity of the LVDT in

.
V per N/m2 is

o
(A) 4 # 10-6

c
(B) 6.25 # 10-6
(C) 5 # 10-6
(D) 1.25 # 10-6
ia .
o d
. n
NAT 1.7 The output of an LVDT is connected to a 5V voltmeter through an

w
amplifier with a gain of 250. The voltmeter scale has 100 divisions
and the scale can be read upto 1/5th of a division. An output of 2

w
mV appears across the terminals of the LVDT, when core is displaced

w
through a distance of 0.5 mm. The resolution of instrument is

 ______ m

MCQ 1.8 The output of an LVDT is connected to a 5 V voltmeter through an


amplifier whose amplification factor is 250. An output of 2 mV appears
across the terminals of LVDT when the core moves through a distance
of 0.5 mm. The millivoltmeter scale has 100 divisions. The scale can
be read to 15 of a division. The resolution of the instrument in mm is
(A) 10-3 (B) 10-4
(C) 10-2 (D) None of these

NAT 1.9 An accelerometer has a seismic mass of 0.05 kg and a spring constant
of 3 # 103 N/m. Maximum mass displacement is ! 0.02 m (before the
mass hits the stop). The maximum measurable acceleration is

 ______

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NAT 1.10 A seismic instrument has a natural frequency of 4 Hz and a damping
Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3

ratio of 0.66. If the system is excited by a frequency 6 Hz, the error


due to the proximity of excited frequency with natural frequency of the
instrument will be

 ______ %

MCQ 1.11 A steel cantilever is 0.25 m long, 15 mm wide, and 3 mm thick. The
modulus of elasticity for steel is 200 GN/m2 . When a force of 22 N is
applied at the free end, the value of deflection at the end will be
(A) 16.975 (B) 9.21

in
(C) 0.0589 (D) 33.75

o .
. c
MCQ 1.12 A body is dropped from a height of 10 m and suffers a shock when it

ia
hits the ground. If the duration of the shock is 5 ms, the magnitude of
the shock will be (g is acceleration due to gravity)

d
(A) 7g

o
(B) 200g

. n
(C) 286g

w
(D) None of these

MCQ 1.13

w w
A variable reluctance type tachometer has 120 teeth on rotor. The
speed of the shaft on which the rotor is mounted is 1500 rpm. What
will be the frequency of the output pulses ?
(A) 25 pulse per second (B) 3000 pulses per second
(C) 2 pulses per second (D) None of these

MCQ 1.14 A toothed rotor tachometer is used with a digital counter for measuring
speed of rotation of the shaft on which the wheel is mounted. The
gating period is 103 µs and a reading of 0004 is obtained on the four
digit display. If the number of teeth on rotor is 150, then the speed of
shaft is
(A) 150
(B) 4000
(C) 1600
(D) 100

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NAT 1.15 The frequency of the flashes of a stroboscope is adjusted such that a

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disc with 20 points mounted on the shaft of the machine seems to be
at standstill. If the adjusted frequency of the flashes is 5000 per minute
and approximate speed of the machine is 765 rpm given by the other
method, then the correct speed of the machine is

 ______ rpm

MCQ 1.16 The speed of a 6-pole induction motor supplied at 50 Hz is measured


by a stroboscopic method. The neon lamp is supplied from the same
source to which the induction motor is connected. The stroboscopic

in
disc has six black and six white sectors. What will be the speed of the

.
induction motor when the sector appears to be moving at 50 rpm ?

o
(A) 1000 rpm

. c
(B) 50 rpm

ia
(C) 950 rpm
(D) 1050 rpm

o d
. n
NAT 1.17 An accelerometer has a seismic mass of 0.06 kg and a spring constant
of 4500 N/m. Maximum mass displacement is ! 0.025 m (before the

w
mass hits the top). The maximum measurable acceleration is

w
w
 ______ m/s2

MCQ 1.18 In an LVDT accelerometer the outputs are 0.4 mV/mm with a ! 25
mm core displacement. The spring constant is 300 N/m and the mass
of the core is 50g. What is sensitivity of the accelerometer ?
(A) 15 ms-2 /mV (B) 150 ms-2 /mV
(C) 0.66 ms-2 /mV (D) None of these

NAT 1.19 A variable reluctance type tachometer has 60 rotor teeth. The counter
records 3600 counts per second. The speed in rpm is

 ______

MCQ 1.20 An inductive pickoff operating from a 120 tooth wheel is used with a
digital frequency meter to measure the speed of rotation of the shaft
on which the wheel is mounted. The gating period is set to 10 4 µs  ,
and a reading of 0030 is obtained on the four digit display. If the
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Chap 1 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Page 35


2 3 4 5 6 7
available gating periods are 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 µs respectively,
Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3

what would be the optimum setting of gating period for making this
measurement ?
(A) 10 4 µs (B) 105 µs
(C) 106 µs (D)
102 µs

MCQ 1.21 While measuring speed of a steam turbine with stroboscope single line
images were observed for stroboscope setting of 3000, 4000 and 5230
rpm. What is the speed of the turbine ?
(A) 6000 rpm

in
(B) 700 rpm

.
(C) 12000 rpm

o
(D) 14000 rpm

. c
ia
MCQ 1.22 A disc mounted on the shaft of a machine has 12 pattern points. The

d
number of flashes projected on the disc by a stroboscope is 6000 in a

o
minute. If the disc appears to move forward in the direction of rotation

n
at 10 rpm, the speed of the disc is

.
(A) 500 rpm

w
(B) 490 rpm

w
(C) 510 rpm

w
(D) 5000 rpm

MCQ 1.23 A displacement transducer with a shaft stroke of 3.0 inch is applied
to the circuit shown in figure below. The total resistance of the
potentiometer is 5 kΩ . The applied voltage Vt is 5.0 V. When the wiper
is 0.9 inch from B , what will be the value of the output voltage ?
(A) 0.66 V
(B) 1500 V
(C) 1.5 V
(D) 66.6 V

NAT 1.24 A linear resistance potentiometer is 50 mm long and is uniformly


wound with a wire of total resistance 5000 Ω . Under normal conditions
the slider is at the centre of the potentiometer. When the resistance of
the potentiometer is 1850 Ω , the linear displacement will be

 ______ mm
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Page 36 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Chap 1
NAT 1.25 A linear resistance potentiometer is 50 mm long and is uniformly wound

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3


with a wire of total resistance 5, 000 Ω . Under normal conditions, the
slider is at the centre of the potentiometer. When the resistance of the
potentiometer, as measured by the Wheatstone bridge, is 1850 Ω , the
linear displacement is

 ______ mm

MCQ 1.26 A linear resistance potentiometer is 50 mm long and is uniformly


wound with a wire having a resistance of 10000 Ω . Under normal
conditions, the slider is at the centre of the potentiometer. For the

in
linear displacements x and y the resistance of the potentiometer as

.
measured by a Wheatstone bridge are respectively 3850 Ω and 7560 Ω

o
. Which of the following is/are correct ?

c
(A) x = 5.75 m
(B) y = 12.8 m

ia .
(C) Displacements x and y are in opposite direction
(D) All of the above

o d
NAT 1.27
. n
A resistive potential divider R1 R2 with a resistance of 5000 Ω and a

w w
shaft stroke of 125 mm is used in the arrangement shown in figure
below. Potentiometer R 3 R 4 has a resistance of 5000 Ω and ei = 5.0 V .

w
The initial position to be used as reference point is such that R1 = R2
i.e. the wiper is at midstroke. At the start of the test potentiometer
R 3 R 4 is adjusted so that the bridge is balanced and e 0 = 0 . Assuming
that the displacement being measured will move a maximum distance
of 12.5 mm towards A, the value of e 0 will be

 ______ Volt

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Chap 1 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Page 37


MCQ 1.28 A resistive transducer with a resistance of 5 kΩ and a shaft stroke of
Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3

3.0 cm is used in the arrangement shown below. Potentiometer R 3 -R 4


is also 5 k and Vt is 5.0 V. The initial position to be used as a reference
point is such that R1 = R2 (i.e. the shaft is at the centre) At the
start of the test, potentiometer R 3 -R 4 is adjusted so that the bridge is
balanced ^Ve = 0h. If we assume that the object being monitored moves
a maximum resistance of 0.5 cm towards A, then what will be the new
value of Vc ? (shaft distance is 5 cm)
(A) 0.5 V
(B) 2.5 V
(C) 3 V

in
(D) 5.5 V

 **********

o .
. c
d ia
n o
w.
w w

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Page 38 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Chap 1

 SOLUTION

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3


SOL 1.1 Correct option is (C).
Sensitivity is given by
RMS value of op voltage
S =
Displacement

in
= 2.6 = 6.5 V/mm

.

0. 4

. c o
ia
SOL 1.2 Correct option is (C).
Maximum deviation of linearity is

d
D max = 0.0025 V

o
V0 = 1.25 V

n
So, Linearity = D max # 100

.
v0

1.25

w
= 0.2%
w
= 0.0025

SOL 1.3 w
Correct option is (D).
s = 5 = 0.4 V/mm
12.5
So, the output voltage is
= 0.4 # 8 = 3.2 V

SOL 1.4 Correct option is (C).


The output voltage of LVDT at maximum displacement is
= 1.8 V
The deviation from a straight line through the origin is
= ! 0.0045 V
Hence, percentage linearity is
= ! 0.0045 # 100
1.8
= ! 0.25%

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Chap 1 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Page 39


SOL 1.5 Correct answer is 0.0067
Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3

The sensitivity of LVDT is


Output voltage
=
Displacement
= 1.8 = 3 mV/mm

0.6
ensitivity of measurement = (Amplification factor) # (sensitivity of
S
LVDT)
= 500 # 3 = 1500 mV/mm
Also, we have
1 scale division = 4 V = 40 mV
100

in
So, minimum voltage that can be read on the voltmeter is
= 1 # 40 = 10 mV
4

o .
. c
Hence, resolution of the instrument is
= 10 # b 1 l

ia

1500

d
= 0.0067 mm

n o
.
SOL 1.6 Correct option is (B)

w
We have LVDT sensitivity,

w
s = 40 V/mm
Output voltage for a deflection of 0.125 mm,

w
v out = 40 # 0.125 = 5 V
Hence the sensitivity of LVDT is
= v out = 5
p 0.8 # 106
= 6.25 # 10−6 V per N/m2

SOL 1.7 Correct answer is 0.01


The output voltage of LVDT is
Vout = 2 mV
and Displacement = 0.5 mm
So, the sensitivity of LVDT is
= Vout = 2 mV
Displacement 0.5 mm
= 4 mV/mm
Sensitivity of the entire set up is
= (Amplification factor) # (sensitivity of LVDT)
= 250 # 4 mV/mm
= 1000 mV/mm or 1 V/mm
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Page 40 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Chap 1
Again, full-scale of voltmeter is

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3


=5V
and number of divisions on voltmeter scale is
= 100
1 scale division = 5 = 0.05 V or 50 mV
100
Minimum voltage that can be read on voltmeter is
= 50 mV = 10 mV
5
Hence, resolution of instrument is
= 10 mV = 0.01 mm
1000 mV/mm

. in
o
SOL 1.8 Correct option is (A)

c
−3
output voltage
= 2 # 10

.
Sensitivity of LVDT =
displacement 0.5

ia
= 4 # 10−3 V/mm = 4 mV/mm

d
Sensitivity of instrument

o
= (amplification factor) # (sensitivity of LVDT)
= ^250h # ^4 # 10−3h = 1 V/mm

n



w. = 1000 mV/mm
1 scale division = 5 V = 50 mV
100

w
Minimum voltage that can be read on the voltmeter is

w = b 1 l # 50 = 1 mV
5
Hence, resolution of instrument is
= 1 #b 1 l
1000
= 1 # 10−3 mm

SOL 1.9 Correct answer is 1200.


Given natural frequency is
ω n = K
M
3
= 3 # 10 = 245 rad/s.

0.05
So, maximum acceleration is
am = ω2 xm
= ^245h2 # ^0.02h
= 1200 m/s2

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Chap 1 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Page 41


SOL 1.10 Correct answer is - 3.9 .
Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3

The ratio of output displacement to input displacement is given by


^x2 - x1hm u2
=
xm1 ^1 − u2h + ^2ζu h2
2

Now, normalized frequency is


u = 6 = 1.5
4
So, we get
^x2 - x1hm ^1.5h2
=
8^1 − 1.52h + ^2 # 0.66 # 1.5h2B2
xm1 2
1

= 0.961

in
Hence, percentage error is obtained as
= ^0.961 − 1h # 100% =− 3.9%

SOL 1.11 Correct option is (A).

. c o
ia
Moment of inertia of the cantilever is

d
M = 1 bt3
12

= 1 # ^0.15h # ^.003h3

n o
.
12

w
= 33.75 # 10−12 m2
So, deflection is obtained as

w
3
θ = FL

w
3EM
22 # ^0.25h3
=

3 # 200 # 109 # 33.75 # 10−12
= 16.975

SOL 1.12 Correct option is (C).


The equation of motion for a body falling under gravity gives the
following expression for the terminal velocity
v = 2gx
where x is the height through which the body falls. So the average
deceleration during the collision can be obtained as
α = v
t
where t is the time duration of the shock. Substituting the appropriate
numerical values into these expressions, we obtain
v = ^2 # 9.81 # 10h = 14.0 m/s
Hence, the magnitude of shock is
α = 14.0 = 2801 m/s = 286 g
0.005
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SOL 1.13 Correct option is (B).

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3


Given
Speed of shaft,
N = 1500 rpm
Number of teeth on rotor,
T = 120
So, frequency of output pulses is
f = N # T
60

= 1500 # 120

60
= 3000 pulses per second

. in
o
SOL 1.14 Correct option is (C).

. c
Given

ia
Digital counter reading = 0004
Gating period = 103 µs = 0.001 s

d
Number of teeth on rotor, T = 150

o
So, number of pulses per second is

n
Digital counter reading

.
f =
Gating period

w w = 0004 = 4000
0.001
Hence, rotational speed is

w
f
N = # 60
T
= 4000 # 60 = 1600

150

SOL 1.15 Correct answer is 750


Given
Number of points on the disk,
n = 20
Number of flashes per minute,
K = 5000
Prime speed of the machine,
N = K = 5000 = 250 rpm
n 20
But the apparent speed,
Na = 765 rpm
So, the multiplying factor is 3. Hence, the correct speed is
= N # 3 = 250 # 3 = 750 rpm

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Chap 1 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Page 43


SOL 1.16 Correct option is (C).
Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3

Given
Supply frequency,
f = 50 Hz
Number of poles on induction motor,
P = 6
So, synchronous speed of motor is
120f
Ns =
p

= 120 # 50 = 1000 rpm



6
Therefore, slip of induction motor is

in
s = RPM at which the sector appears to be rotating

.
= 50 rpm

o
Hence, speed of induction motor is

. c
N = Ns − s = 1000 − 50 = 950 rpm

SOL 1.17 Correct answer is 1875

d ia
o
Given

. n
Seismic mass, M = 0.06 kg
Spring constant, K = 4500 N/m

w
So, the natural angular velocity is

w
ω 0 = K
M

w= 4500 = 273.86 rad/s



0.06
Since, maximum mass displacement is
= 0.025 m
Hence, maximum acceleration is
= ω 20 # (Maximum mass displacement)
= ^273.86h2 # 0.025
= 1875 m/s2

SOL 1.18 Correct option is (A).


Given
Core mass, M = 50 g = 0.05 kg
Spring constant,
K = 300 N/m
So, natural angular frequency is
ω 0 = K = 300 = 77.46 rad/s
M 0.05

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Also, maximum mass displacement is

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A = 25 mm = 0.025 m
Therefore, maximum measurable acceleration is
= ω2 A
= ^77.46h2 # 0.025
= 150 m/s2
Hence, accelerometer sensitivity is obtained as
s = Maximum measurable acceleration
Maximum core displacement # output
= 150
25 # 0.4
= 15 ms−2 /mV

. in
o
SOL 1.19 Correct answer is 3600

c
pulses per second

.
Speed =
number of teeth

ia
= 3600 rps = 3600 rpm

d
60

SOL 1.20

n
Correct option is (C).
o
w.
The setting of the gating period for this measurement is 10 4 µs and this
gives a reading of 0030 on a four digit display. It is seen that out of

w
four digit places only two are utilized. For optimum setting of gating
period, all the four digits places should be utilized. This requires that

w
the gating time be increased by a factor 102 , i.e.
Optimum gating time setting = 10 4 # 102 = 106 µs

SOL 1.21 Correct option is (D).


For m different flashing rates f1 , f2 .......... fm , the speed of system is
given by
fm f1 ^m − 1h
^ fm − f1h
n =

Here, we have
fm = 5250 rpm
f1 = 3000 rpm
and m = 3
Hence, speed of steam turbine is
5250 # 3000 ^3 − 1h
^5250 − 3000h
=

= 14000 rpm

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Chap 1 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Page 45


SOL 1.22 Correct option is (C).
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Speed of machine when patterns appear stationary is


f
n = = 6000 = 500 rpm
m 12
When the patterns move in the direction of rotation at a speed of 10
rpm, the speed of machine in this case is
n = 500 + 10 = 510 rpm

SOL 1.23 Correct option is (C)


We draw the transducer circuit as

. in
. c o
d ia
n o
From the given circuit, we have

w.R2 = 0.9 in # 5 k = 9 # 5 k = 1500 Ω


3.0 in 30

w
So, we get
V0 = R2

w

Vt R1 + R 2
or V0 = R2 V
R1 + R 2 # t
Hence, V0 = 1500 # 5 V = 1500 = 1.5 V
5k 1k

SOL 1.24 Correct answer is 6.5 .


Total resistance = 5000 Ω
L = 50 mm
So, Rt = 5000 = 100 Ω
L 50
Resistance of normal position is
= 5000 = 2500 Ω
50
Change in resistance is
= 2500 − 1850 = 650 Ω
Hence, the displacement is
y = 650 = 6.5 mm
100

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SOL 1.25 Correct answer is 6.5 .

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3


Total resistance of the potentiometer wire is
Rt = 5, 000 Ω
Total length of the potentiometer wire is
L = 50 mm
Resistance per mm length of potentiometer wire,
Rt = 5000 = 100 Ω
L 50
Resistance of potentiometer at normal position is
= 5000 = 2500 Ω
2
Change in resistance of potentiometer from its normal position is

in
= 2500 − 1850 = 650 Ω

.
Hence, linear displacement is

o
y = 650 = 6.5 mm

c
100

SOL 1.26 Correct option is (D).

ia .
d
The resistance of the potentiometer at its normal position is

o
= 1000 = 5000 Ω

n
2

.
Resistance of potentiometer per unit length is

w
= 1000 = 200 Ω/mm
50

w
For first case, change of resistance from its normal position is

w
= 5000 − 3850 = 1150 Ω
So, displacement of wiper from its normal position is
x = 1150 = 5.75 mm
200
For second case, change of resistance from its normal position is
= 7569 − 5000 = 2560 Ω
So, displacement of wiper from its normal position is
y = 2560 = 12.80 mm
200
Since, one of the displacements represent a decrease and other represents
an increase in resistance of potentiometer from its value at the normal
position, the two displacements are in the opposite direction.

SOL 1.27 Correct answer is 0.5 .


Given
Total length of AB = 125 mm
Midpoint of AB = 62.5 mm from either A or B
If the wiper moves 12.5 inward towards A from midstroke, its distance

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Chap 1 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Page 47


from B becomes
Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3

= 62.5 + 12.5 = 75 mm
So, R2 = b 75 l # 5000 = 3000 Ω
125
Hence, output voltage is
e 0 = c R2 − R 4 m ei
R1 + R 2 R 3 + R 4
=;
5000 5000 E #
3000 − 2500 5 = 0. 5 V

SOL 1.28 Correct option is (A).

. in
. c o
d ia
n o
w.
If the wiper moves 0.5 cm towards A from the centre, it will have

w
moved 3 cm from B . So,
R2 = 3.0 # 5 k = 3 kΩ

w

5.0
Ve = VR2 − VR 4
= c R2 m # Vt − c R 4 m # Vt
R1 + R 2 R3 + R4
= b 3 k l # 5 V − b 2.5 k l # 5 V

5k 5k
= 3 V − 2.5 V = 0.5 V

 **********

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