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1e

GATE

INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING

Vol 3 of 5

►► Transducers, Mechanical Measurement and Industrial

Instrumentation

►► ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS

►► ANALYTICAL, OPTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION

R. K. Kanodia

Ashish Murolia

GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol 3 of 5

RK Kanodia and Ashish Murolia

Information contained in this book has been obtained by author, from sources believes

to be reliable. However, neither NODIA & COMPANY nor its author guarantee the

accuracy or completeness of any information herein, and NODIA & COMPANY nor

its author shall be responsible for any error, omissions, or damages arising out of

use of this information. This book is published with the understanding that NODIA

& COMPANY and its author are supplying information but are not attempting to

render engineering or other professional services.

MRP 570.00

B - 8, Dhanshree Ist, Central Spine, Vidyadhar Nagar, Jaipur - 302039

Ph : +91 - 141 - 2101150,

www.nodia.co.in

email : enquiry@nodia.co.in

To Our Parents

Preface

The objective of this study package is to develop in the GATE aspirants the ability

to solve GATE level problems of Instrumentation Engineering Paper. The highly

increased competition in GATE exam from last few years necessitate an in-depth

knowledge of the concepts for the GATE aspirants. There are lots of study packages

available for GATE Instrumentation Engineering, which includes the theory and

problem sets. But through this package our notion is to develop the problem solving

approach rather than just introducing the theory and problem set. This study

package fulfills all the requirements of a GATE aspirant to prepare for the exam.

is always recommended to refer other standard text books to clear doubts in a

typical problem. The study package is published in 5 different volumes that cover the

different subjects of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Paper. As the weightage of

General Aptitude and Engineering Mathematics in the Instrumentation Engineering

paper are 15 % each, and the subjects are very much wide in the syllabus; these

subjects are published in separate volumes to provide practice problem set on all

the important topics of the subjects. Rest three volumes cover the core subjects of

GATE Instrumentation Engineering.

In the very first volume of this study package, General Aptitude is introduced.

General aptitude is divided into two sections: verbal ability and numerical ability.

Some important rules of grammar is introduced at the starting of verbal ability

section, and then different types of verbal ability problems are given in separate

chapters. At the end of each chapter answers of the problems are described with

detailed theory and grammatical rule. The numerical ability part does not include

theory as it is expected from an engineering students that they are very well known

to the basic mathematical formulas of under 10th class. In numerical ability section,

the chapters are organized such as to cover all types of problems asked in previous

GATE papers. There is the detailed solutions available for each of the numerical

ability problems such that even an average student can clear his/her doubts easily.

chapter of Engineering Mathematics introduces a brief theory with problem solving

methodology and important formulas at the starting and then the problems are

given in a graded manner from basic to advance level. At last, the solutions are given

with a detailed description of formulas and concepts used to solve it.

Volumes 3, 4 and 5 include the core subjects of instrumentation. The subjects with

interrelated topics are taken in the same volume. Volume 3 includes the subjects:

Basics of Measurement Systems; Electrical & Electronic Measurement; Transducers,

Mechanical Measurement and Industrial Instrumentation; Analytical, Optical &

Biomedical Instrumentation. Volume 4 includes the subjects: Basics of Circuits,

Analog Electronics, Digital Electronics. Volume 5 includes the subjects: Signals &

Systems; Communication Systems; Control Systems and Process Control. For each of

the subjects, the chapters are organized in a manner to cover the complete syllabus

with a balanced number of problems on each topic. In starting of each chapter, a

brief theory is given that includes formula, problem solving methodology and some

important points to remember. There are enough number of problems to cover all

the varieties, and the problems are graded from basic to advance level such that a

GATE aspirant can easily understand concepts while solving problems. Each and

every problems are solved with a good description to avoid any confusion or doubt.

There are two types of problems being asked in GATE exam: MCQ (Multiple Choice

Questions) and NAT (Numerical Answer Type questions). Both type of problems

are given in this study package. Solutions are presented in a descriptive and step-by-

step manner. The diagrams in the book are clearly illustrated. Overall, a very simple

language is used throughout this study package to facilitate easy understanding of

the concepts.

We believe that each volume of GATE Study Package helps a student to learn

fundamental concepts and develop problem solving skills for a subject, which are key

essentials to crack GATE. Although we have put a vigorous effort in preparing this

book, some errors may have crept in. We shall appreciate and greatly acknowledge

all constructive comments, criticisms, and suggestions from the users of this book at

rajkumar.kanodia@gmail.com

Authors

Acknowledgements

We would like to express our sincere thanks to all the co-authors, editors, and

reviewers for their efforts in making this project successful. We would also like to

thank Team NODIA for providing professional support for this project through all

phases of its development. At last, we express our gratitude to God and our Family

for providing moral support and motivation.

Authors

Syllabus

Verbal Ability : English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups, instructions,

critical reasoning and verbal deduction.

Numerical Ability : Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and data

interpretation.

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and

minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes,

Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential

equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s

equations, initial and boundary value problems, solution of partial differential equations: variable

separable method.

Analysis of complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula,

Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem, solution of integrals.

Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode and

standard deviation, random variables, discrete and continuous distributions: normal, Poisson and

binomial distributions.

Numerical Methods: Matrix inversion, solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, iterative

methods forsolving differential equations, numerical integration, regression and correlation analysis.

Instrumentation Engineering

Voltage and current sources: independent, dependent, ideal and practical; v - i relationships of resistor,

inductor, mutual inductor and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC circuits with dc excitation.

Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power transfer

and reciprocity theorems.

Peak-, average- and rms values of ac quantities; apparent- active- nd reactive powers; phasor analysis,

impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, locus diagrams, realization of basic filters

with R, L and C elements.

One-port and two-port networks, driving point impedance and admittance, open-, and short circuit

parameters.

Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; Laplace, Fourier and z-transforms; transfer function,

frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems, impulse response of

systems; convolution, correlation. Discrete time system: impulse response, frequency response, pulse

transfer function; DFT and FFT; basics of IIR and FIR filters.

Feedback principles, signal flowgraphs, transient response, steady-state-errors, Bode plot, phase and

gain margins, Routh and Nyquist criteria, root loci, design of lead, lag and lead-lag compensators,

state-space representation of systems; time-delay systems; mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic

system components, synchro pair, servo and stepper motors, servo valves; on-off, P, P-I, P-I-D,

cascade, feedforward, and ratio controllers.

Characteristics and applications of diode, Zener diode, BJT and MOSFET; small signal analysis

of transistor circuits, feedback amplifiers. Characteristics of operational amplifiers; applications of

opamps: difference amplifier, adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, instrumentation amplifier,

precision rectifier, active filters and other circuits. Oscillators, signal generators, voltage controlled

oscillators and phase locked loop.

Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families: TTL and CMOS.

Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger, multi-vibrators, sequential circuits, flip-flops, shift

registers, timers and counters; sample-and-hold circuit, multiplexer, analog-to-digital (successive

approximation, integrating, flash and sigma- delta) and digital-to-analog converters (weighted R,

R-2R ladder and current steering logic). Characteristics of ADC and DAC (resolution, quantization,

significant bits, conversion/settling time); basics of number systems, 8-bit microprocessor and

microcontroller: applications, memory and input-output interfacing; basics of data acquisition systems.

Section 7: Measurements

SI units, systematic and random errors in measurement, expression of uncertainty -accuracy

and precision index, propagation of errors. PMMC, MI and dynamometer type instruments; dc

potentiometer; bridges for measurement of R, L and C, Q-meter. Measurement of voltage, current

and power in single and three phase circuits; ac and dc current probes; true rms meters, voltage and

current scaling, instrument transformers, timer/counter, time, phase and frequency measurements,

digital voltmeter, digital multimeter; oscilloscope, shielding and grounding.

Resistive-, capacitive-, inductive-, piezoelectric-, Hall effect sensors and associated signal conditioning

circuits; transducers for industrial instrumentation: displacement (linear and angular), velocity,

acceleration, force, torque, vibration, shock, pressure (including low pressure), flow (differential

pressure, variable area, electromagnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and open channel flow meters) temperature

(thermocouple, bolometer, RTD (3/4 wire), thermistor, pyrometer and semiconductor); liquid level,

pH, conductivity and viscosity measurement.

Amplitude-and frequency modulation and demodulation; Shannon’s sampling theorem, pulse code

modulation; frequency and time division multiplexing, amplitude- , phase-, frequency-, pulse shift

keying for digital modulation; optical sources and detectors: LED, laser, photo-diode, light dependent

resistor and their characteristics; interferometer: applications in metrology; basics of fiber optic

sensing.

**********

Contents

SYSTEMS

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Errors in Measurement 27

1 Characteristics of Measurement

2.2.1 Absolute Error 27

Systems

2.2.2 Relative Error 27

1.1 Introduction 3 2.2.3 Percentage Error 27

1.2 Measurement Methods 3 2.3 Limiting error 28

1.2.1 Direct Measurement Methods 4 2.3.1 Relative Limiting Error 28

1.2.2 Indirect Measurement Methods 4 2.3.2 Percentage Limiting Error 28

1.3 Measurement System 4 2.4 Types of Errors 29

1.4 Static characteristics of 2.4.1 Gross Errors 29

Measurement system 6 2.4.2 Systematic Errors 29

1.4.1 Accuracy 6 2.5 Random errors 30

1.4.2 Precision 6 2.5.1 Statistical Analysis of Measurements

1.4.3 Repeatability 7 Subject to Random Errors 30

1.4.4 Reproducibility 7 2.5.2 Gaussian Error Analysis 31

1.4.5 Tolerance 7

2.6 Combination of errors 33

1.4.6 Linearity 8

2.6.1 Sum of Two Quantities 33

1.4.7 Resolution 8

2.6.2 Difference of Two Quantities 33

1.4.8 Sensitivity 8

2.6.3 Product of two Components 33

1.4.9 Dead Zone 9

2.6.4 Quotient 34

1.4.10 Hysteresis Effect 9

2.6.5 Power of a Factor 34

1.4.11 Threshold 9

2.6.6 Composite Factors 34

1.4.12 Range 10

measurement systems 10

3.1 Introduction 55

1.5.1 Zero order instrument 10

1.5.2 First order instrument 10 3.2 Probability 55

1.5.3 Second order instrument 10 3.2.1 Joint Probability 55

3.2.2 Conditional Probability 56

3.2.3 Statistical Independence 56 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC

MEASUREMENTS

3.3 Random Variable 56

3.3.1 Discrete Random Variable 56

3.3.2 Continuous Random Variable 57 1 Electromechanical Indicating

Instrument

3.4 Transformation of random

variables 57 1.1 Introduction 3

1.2.1 Construction and Working 3

3.6 Statistical average of random

variable 59 1.3 dc ammeters 5

3.6.1 Mean or Expected Value 59 1.3.1 Shunt Resistor 5

3.6.2 Moments 59 1.3.2 Ayrton Shunt 6

3.6.3 Variance 60

1.4 dc voltmeter 6

3.6.4 Standard Deviation 60

1.4.1 Multiplier Resistor 6

3.6.5 Characteristic Function 60

1.4.2 Multirange Voltmeter 7

3.6.6 Joint Moments 60

3.6.7 Covariance 61 1.5 Ohmmeter 7

3.6.8 Correlation Coefficient 61 1.5.1 Series-Type Ohmmeter 7

1.5.2 Shunt-Type Ohmmeter 8

3.7 Some Important probability

distributions 61 1.6 Multimeter 8

3.7.1 Binomial Distribution 61

3.7.2 Poisson Distribution 62 2 Measurement Of Resistance

3.7.3 Gaussian Distribution 62 2.1 Introduction 29

3.7.4 Rayleigh Distribution 64

2.2 Ammeter-voltmeter Method 29

4 Curve Fitting 2.3 Ohmmeter Method 30

4.1 Introduction 91 2.4 Wheatstone Bridge Method 31

4.2 Methods of curve fitting 91

3 Measurement Of Inductance,

4.3 Fitting of A straight LIne 92 Capacitance

4.4 Fitting of a parabola 92 3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Measurement of inductance 45

3.2.1 Inductance Comparison Bridge 45

3.2.2 Maxwell Bridge 46

3.2.3 Hay Inductance Bridge 47

3.3.1 De-sauty’s Bridge 49

3.3.2 Schering Bridge 49 5.2.1 CRT Construction 105

5.2.2 Deflection System 106

3.4 Vector Impedance Meter 50

5.2.3 Focussing System 107

3.5 Q-Meter 51 5.2.4 Astigmatism 109

5.2.5 Time Base Generator 109

4 Electronic Instruments For 5.2.6 Synchronising Circuit 110

Measuring Basic Parameters 5.2.7 Blanking Circuit 111

4.1 Introduction 71 5.2.8 Delay Line 111

4.3.1 AC Electronic Voltmeter 72 Measurements 113

4.3.2 DC Electronic Voltmeter 75 5.4.1 Measurement of Voltage 114

5.4.2 Measurement of Current 114

4.4 Digital Electronic Voltmeter 77 5.4.3 Measurement of Frequency 114

4.4.1 Resolution and Sensitivity of DVM 5.4.4 Measurement of Phase Angle 118

77

4.4.2 Types of Digital Voltmeters 78

6 Waveform Analysers

4.5 Electronic Multimeter 80

6.1 Introduction 141

4.5.1 Analog Electronic Multimeter 80

4.5.2 Digital Electronic Multimeter 81 6.2 Signal Analysis Techniques 141

4.6.1 Bridge Method 82 6.3.1 Frequency-Selective wave Analyzer

142

4.6.2 Frequency Meter 83

6.3.2 Heterodyne Wave Analyzer 143

4.7 RF Power measurement 84

4.7.1 RF Power Measurement Using

6.4 Harmonic Distortion analyzer 144

Dummy Load 84 6.4.1 Tuned Circuit Harmonic Analyzer

145

4.7.2 Bolometer Bridge Method for RF

Power Measurement 85 6.4.2 Heterodyne Harmonic Analyzer 145

4.7.3 Calorimetric Method for RF Power 6.4.3 Fundamental Suppression

Measurement 86 Harmonic Distortion Analyzer 146

4.8.1 Grounding 86 6.5.1 Filter Bank Spectrum Analyzer 148

4.8.2 Shielding 89 6.5.2 Swept Superheterodyne Spectrum

Analyzer 149

5 Cathode Ray Oscilloscopes 6.5.3 Spectra of Different Signals 150

5.2 Basic CRO circuit 105

TRANSDUCERS, 2.2 Signal conditioning system 53

MECHANICAL MEASUREMENT

2.3 Input circuits 54

& INDUSTRIAL

2.3.1 Power supplies 55

INSTRUMENTATION

2.3.2 Constant Voltage Potentiometer

Circuit 55

1 Electrical Transducers 2.3.3 Constant Current Potentiometer

Circuit 56

1.1 Introduction 3 2.3.4 Constant Voltage Wheatstone

1.2 Classification of Electrical Bridge Circuit 57

Transducers 3 2.3.5 Constant Current Wheatstone

Bridge Circuit 57

1.2.1 Passive Transducers 3

1.2.2 Active Transducers 5 2.4 Amplifiers 58

2.4.1 Operational Amplifier 58

1.3 Resistive Transducer 5

2.4.2 Instrumentation Amplifier 60

1.3.1 Resistance Thermometers 7

2.4.3 Chopper Amplifier 61

1.3.2 Resistive Displacement

Transducers 7 2.5 Filters 61

1.3.3 Strain Gauge 7 2.5.1 Low pass RC filter 61

1.4 Inductive Transducers 10 2.5.2 High-pass RC filter 62

1.4.1 Operating Principle of Inductive 2.5.3 Active Filter 62

Transducers 10

1.4.2 Differential Transducers 11 3 Measurement Of Translational And

Rotational Motion

1.5 Capacitive Transducer 11

1.5.1 Operating Principle of Capacitive 3.1 Introduction 81

Transducers 11

3.2 Measurement of Translational

1.5.2 Capacitive Thickness Transducer 13

displacement 81

1.5.3 Capacitive Displacement

3.2.1 Resistive Potentiometer 81

Transducers 14

3.2.2 Linear Variable Differential

1.6 Piezoelectric Transducer 14 Transformer (LVDT) 82

1.6.1 Measurement of Force Using 3.2.3 Capacitive Displacement

Piezoelectric Transducer 14 Transducers 85

1.6.2 Equivalent Circuit of a

3.3 Measurement of Translational

Piezoelectric Transducer 15

Velocity 86

1.6.3 Loading Effect on Piezoelectric

Transducer 16 3.3.1 Differentiation of Displacement

Measurements 86

3.3.2 Integration of the Output of an

2 Signal Conditioning For Electrical

Accelerometer 86

Transducer

3.4 Measurement of Translational

2.1 Introduction 53

Acceleration 86

3.5 Measurement of Rotational 4.4.3 Absorption dynamometer 119

Displacement 87

3.5.1 Rotary Variable Differential 5 Temperature Measurement

Transformer 87

5.1 Introduction 145

3.6 Measurement of Rotational

velocity 89 5.2 Resistance devices 145

3.6.1 Digital Tachometers 89 5.2.1 Resistance Thermometers 145

3.6.2 Analogue Tachometers 90 5.2.2 Thermistors 147

3.6.3 Differentiation of Angular 5.3 Thermocouple 149

Displacement Measurements 91

5.3.1 Multiple Junction Thermocouple

3.6.4 Integration of the Output From an Circuit 149

Accelerometer 91

5.4 Non-electrical methods of

3.7 Measurement of rotational

temperature measurement 150

acceleration 91

5.4.1 Bimetallic Thermometers 150

3.8 Measurement of vibration 91 5.4.2 Liquid-in-glass Thermometer 151

3.8.1 Vibration Measurement 92 5.4.3 Pressure Thermometer 151

3.8.2 Seismic Device 92

5.5 Radiation methods of

3.8.3 Force Balance Type Seismic

temperature measurement 152

Device 93

5.5.1 Total Radiation Pyrometer 152

3.9 Shock 93 5.5.2 Selective radiation pyrometer 152

Measurement

6.1 Introduction 173

4.1 Introduction 113

6.2 Important terms used in pressure

4.2 Mass measurement 113 measurement 173

4.2.1 Column Type Load Cell 113

6.3 Classification of pressure

4.2.2 Cantilever Beam Type Load Cell 114

measuring systems 173

4.2.3 Intelligent Load Cell 115

6.4 Manometers 174

4.3 Force measurement 115

6.4.1 U-tube Manometer 174

4.3.1

Balance

115

6.4.2 Cistern Manometer 175

4.3.2 Hydraulic Load Cells 115

6.4.3 Inclined Tube Manometer 175

4.3.3 Pneumatic Load Cell 116

6.4.4 Micromanometer 176

4.3.4 Measurement of Force Using

Accelerometers 116 6.5 Bourdon Tube pressure Gauge 176

6.5.1 C-type Bourdon Tube Pressure

4.4 Torque measurement 117

Gauge 177

4.4.1 Transmission Dynamometers 117

6.5.2 Twisted Bourdon Tube 177

4.4.2 Driving Type Dynamometer 118

6.6 Diaphragm pressure gauge 178 ANALYTICAL, OPTICAL

& BIOMEDICAL

6.7 Bellow pressure gauge 179

INSTRUMENTATION

6.8 Pirani Gauge 179

6.9 Thermocouple gauge 180 1 Analytical Instrumentation

6.10 Ionization gauge 180 1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Elements of analytical

7 Flow Measurement

instrument 3

7.1 Introduction 193

1.3 Mass Spectrometer 4

7.2 Flow measurement 193 1.3.1 Operating Principle 4

7.2.1 Differential Pressure Flowmeter 193 1.3.2 Components of Mass Spectrometer

7.2.2 Variable Area Flowmeter 196 5

7.2.3 Turbine Flowmeter 197 1.3.3 Types of Mass Spectrometers 7

7.2.4 Ultrasonic Flowmeter 198

1.4 Ultraviolet and visible

7.2.5 Electromagnetic Flowmeter 201 spectrometry 9

7.2.6 Laser Doppler Flowmeter 202 1.4.1 Absorption Instruments 9

7.3 Level measurement 203 1.4.2 Operating Principle of UV-Vis

7.3.1 Dipsticks 203 Absorption Spectrometer 10

Absorption Spectrometer 10

7.3.3 Displacer System 205

7.3.4 Capacitive Devices 205 1.5 Infrared Spectroscopy 11

7.3.5 Indirect Level Measurement 206 1.5.1 Basic Components of Infrared

Spectrophotometers 11

7.4 Measurement of ph values 206 1.5.2 Types of Infrared

7.4.1 pH Probe 207 Spectrophotometers 11

7.4.2 Practical Range of pH Measurement

207 1.6 X-Ray Spectrometry 12

7.4.3 Voltage Output of pH Probe 208 1.6.1 X-Ray Generating Equipment 13

1.6.2 Collimator 13

7.5 Measurement of viscosity 208 1.6.3 Monochromator 13

7.5.1 Viscosity Measurement by Placing

1.6.4 X-Ray Detector 14

Liquid between Parallel Plates 209

7.5.2 Rotating Concentric Cylinder 1.7 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Method 209 spectroscopy 14

7.5.3 Industrial Viscosimeter 210 1.7.1 Construction of NMR Spectrometer

14

7.6 Measurement of humidity 210

1.7.2 Types of NMR Spectrometers 14

7.6.1 Electrical Hygrometer 211

7.6.2 Psychrometer 211

2 Optical Sources And Detectors

7.6.3 Dew Point Meter 211

2.1 Introduction 29 3.3.1 Total Internal Reflection 56

2.2 Optical Phenomenon 29 3.3.2 Critical Angle 57

2.2.1 Refraction and Refractive Index 29 3.3.3 Acceptance Angle 57

2.2.2 Reflection, Absorption and 3.3.4 Numerical Aperture 57

Transmittance 29

3.4 Fiber optic sensors 58

2.3 Photometry 30 3.4.1 Pure Fibre Sensros 58

2.3.1 Point Sources and Extended 3.4.2 Remote Optic Sensors 58

Sources 30

3.5 Fiber optic detectors 58

2.3.2 Solid Angle 31

2.3.3 Luminous Flux 31

4 Biomedical Instrumentation

2.3.4 Luminous Intensity 31

2.3.5 Luminance 31 4.1 Introduction 67

instrumentation 67

2.5 Laws of Illumination 32

4.2.1 Physiological System of Body 67

2.6 Optical Sources 32 4.2.2 Sources of Biomedical Signals 70

2.6.1 Sunlight 33 4.2.3 Basic Medical Instrumentation

2.6.2 Incandescent Sources 33 System 72

2.6.3 Fluorescent Sources 33 4.3 Biomedical recorders 73

2.6.4 Light Emitting Diode 33 4.3.1 Electrocardiograph (ECG) 73

2.6.5 LASER 33 4.3.2 Electroencephalograph (EEG) 74

2.7 Optical Detectors 34 4.3.3 Electromyograph (EMG) 76

2.7.1 Photo-emissive Cells 34 4.4 Clinical Measurement 77

2.7.2 Semiconductor Photoelectric 4.4.1 Measurement of Heart Rate 77

Transducers 35

4.4.2 Measurement of Pulse Rate 78

2.8 Interferometers 37 4.4.3 Blood Pressure Measurement 79

2.8.1 Construction and Working of 4.4.4 Measurements of Temperature 81

Michelson’s Interferometer 37 4.4.5 Measurements of Respiration Rate

2.8.2 Formation of Interference Fringes 37 81

2.8.3 Measurement with Michelson’s

4.5 Ultrasonic imaging systems 81

Interferometer 38

4.5.1 Physics of Ultrasonic Waves 82

4.5.2 Medical Ultrasound 83

3 Fiber Optics

4.5.3 Characteristic of Real Time

3.1 Introduction 55 Ultrasonic Imaging Systems 83

4.5.4 Requirements of Real Time

3.2 Optical fibers 55

Ultrasonic Imaging Systems 83

3.3 Operating principle of optical 4.5.5 Biological Effects of Ultrasound 83

fibers 56

4.6 X-Ray Computed tomography 84

4.6.1 Gantry Geometry 84

4.6.2 Patient Dose in CT Scanners 84

**********

CHAPTER 1

Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion

1.1 Introduction

as well as rotational displacements. In this chapter, we will deal with

the electrical transducers that is used to measure the translational and

rotational motion. Following topics are covered in the chapter:

•• Measurement of translational displacement using resistive

potentiometer, LVDT, capacitive displacement transducer

•• Different methods of measurement of translational velocity and

acceleration

•• Measurement of rotational displacement using RVDT

•• Different methods of measurement of rotational velocity and

acceleration

•• Digital and analogue tachometers

•• Vibration and shock measurement

the motion of a body in a straight line between two points. Many

different types of translational displacement transducer exist and these,

along with their relative merits and characteristics, are discussed in the

following sections.

Figure 3.1 shows the different types of potentiometer circuits. Circuit

(a) provides dc output currents of range 4–20 mA or any other desired

range; Circuit (c) is the usual variable potential divider, also known

as single-ended potentiometer circuit, Circuit (d) is a push-pull

potentiometer circuit. Circuits (b) and (d) develop bipolar outputs for

bidirectional motion about the central point.

GATE STUDY PACKAGE INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING

Set of 5 Books by NODIA Publication

Page 18 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Chap 1

. in

. c o

d ia

o

Figure 3.1: Different Circuits of Resistance Displacement Transducer

Loading Effect

. n

w w

If the voltmeter is electronic in nature, and has high input impedance,

the loading effect will be negligible, with the ratio of Vo /Ei of Figure

w

1.1(c) being the same as Rx /R p . For a linear transducer, Rx /R p is the

same as the fractional value x , which is the ratio of the displacement

given to the contactor, to its full-scale value. Hence under no-load

conditions,

x = Rx = Vo

Rp Ei

For the same position of contactor, the output voltage will be lower if

RL , the resistance of voltmeter forming the load, is finite and this new

value of Vol, if taken to represent the displacement, is given by

Vol = xl

Ei

With the true value being x , the error is given by

error = xl − x

Representing R p /RL by m , the percentage error can be obtained as

100 ^xl - x h

= 6− mx ^1 − x h@100

xl

1.2.2 Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)

LVDT is a passive inductive transformer. It works on the principle of

variable-inductance.

Buy Online: shop.nodia.co.in

*Shipping Free* *Maximum Discount*

SALIENT FEATURES

* Brief Theory * Methodology * Important Points *

*MCQ * Numerical Answer Type Questions * Memory Based Questions * Detailed Solution for Each and Every Problem*

Construction of LVDT

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3

consists of a single primary winding P1 and two secondary windings S1

and S2 wound on a hollow cylindrical former. The secondary windings

have an equal number of turns and are identically placed on either side

of the primary windings. The primary winding is connected to an ac

source.

. in

. c o

d ia

n o

w.

w

Figure 3.2: Construction of LVDT

w A movable soft iron core slides within the hollow former and

therefore affects the magnetic coupling between the primary and the

two secondaries. The displacement to be measured is applied to an

arm attached to the soft iron core. The whole assembly is placed in

a stainless steel housing and the end lids provide electrostatic and

electromagnetic shielding. The frequency of the ac applied to the

primary winding ranges from 50 Hz to 20 kHz.

Operation of LVDT

Since the primary winding is excited by an ac source, it produces an

alternating magnetic field which in turn induces ac voltages in the two

secondary windings. In order to convert the output from S1 to S2 into

a single voltage signal, the two secondaries S1 and S2 are connected in

series opposition, as shown in Figure 3.3. Let the output voltage of the

secondary winding S1 is VS1 and that of secondary winding S2 is VS2 .

Hence the output voltage of the transducer is the difference of the two

voltages. i.e.

Vo = VS1 − VS2

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. in

Figure 3.3: Measurement of Translational Motion using LVDT

o

When the core slides within the hollow former, the output voltage Vo

. c

will also change. The amount of voltage change will be proportional to

ia

the amount of linear motion.

d

Advantages of LVDT

n o

1. Linearity: The output voltage of this transducer is practically

.

linear for displacement upto 5 mm.

w

2. High output: It gives a high output, and therefore intermediate

w

amplification devices are not required.

3. Infinite resolution: The change in output voltage is stepless. The

the transducer.

4. Ruggedness: These transducers can usually tolerate a high degree

of vibration and shock.

5. Less friction: There are no sliding contacts.

6. High sensitivity: The transducer possesses a sensitivity as high as

40 V/mm.

7. Low power consumption: Most LVDTs consume less than 1 W of

power.

8. Low hysteresis: This transducer has a low hysteresis, hence

repeatability is excellent under all conditions.

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Disadvantages of LVDT

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output.

2. They are sensitive to stray magnetic fields.

3. The receiving instrument must be selected to operate on ac signals,

or a demodulator network must be used if a dc output is required.

4. The dynamic response is limited mechanically by the mass of the

core and electrically by the applied voltage.

5. Temperature also affects the transducer.

in

1.2.3 Capacitive Displacement Transducers

o .

The capacitive displacement transducer is fundamentally a proximity

transducer, in the sense that the movable plate or electrode may be

. c

the conducting surface of any object in the vicinity of the fixed plate.

ia

If the transducer has a solid insulating material of dielectric constant

ε , as shown in Figure 3.4(a), the capacitance is given by

o d

C 0 = ε 0 At

x0 + ε

. n

w w

w

Figure 3.4: Capacitive displacement transducer

is given by

C 0 + TC = ε0A

x 0 − Tx + tε

So, the fractional change in capacitance is

TC = Tx N

C0 x 0 + t 1 − ^xNTx

+ th

0

1+ t

N = x0

1+ t

x0 ε

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1.3 Measurement of Translational Velocity

Translational velocity cannot be measured directly and therefore must

be calculated indirectly by other means as described below.

Differentiation of position measurements obtained from any of the

translational displacement transducers described in previous section

can be used to produce a translational velocity signal. Unfortunately,

the process of differentiation always amplifies noise in a measurement

system. Therefore, if this method has to be used, a low-noise instrument

such as a d.c. excited carbon film potentiometer or laser interferometer

in

should be chosen. In the case of potentiometers, a.c. excitation must

.

be avoided because of the problem that harmonics in the power supply

o

would cause.

. c

ia

Where an accelerometer is already included within a system, integration

d

of its output can be performed to yield a velocity signal. The process

o

of integration attenuates rather than amplifies measurement noise and

. n

this is therefore an acceptable technique.

1.4

w w

Measurement of Translational Acceleration

w

The only class of device available for measuring acceleration is the

accelerometer. Most forms of accelerometer consist of a mass suspended

by a spring and damper inside a housing, as shown in Figure 3.5.

acceleration. Any acceleration of the body causes a force, Fa , on the

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mass, M , given by

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Fa = Mxp

This force is opposed by the restraining effect, Fs , of a spring with

spring constant K , and the net result is that the mass is displaced by

a distance x from its starting position such that

Fs = Kx

rate as the case of the accelerometer, then we have

Fa = Fs

or Kx = Mxp

xp = Kx (3.1)

in

or

M

.

This is the equation of motion of a second order system, and in the

o

absence of damping, the output of the accelerometer would consist of

. c

non-decaying oscillations. A damper is therefore included within the

ia

instrument, which produces a damping force, Fd , proportional to the

velocity of the mass M given by

d

Fd = Bxo

o

This modifies the equation (3.1) to

. n

Kx + Bxo = Mxp

1.5

w w

Measurement of Rotational Displacement

w

Rotational displacement transducers measure the angular motion of

a body about some rotation axis. The various devices available for

measuring rotational displacements are described in following sections.

NOTE

Rotational transducers are important not only for measuring the rotation of bodies

such as shafts, but also as part of systems that measure translational displacement

by converting the translational motion to a rotary form.

A Rotary Variable Differential Transformer (RVDT) is an

electromechanical transducer used for measuring angular displacement

and operates on the same principle as LVDT. It provides a variable ac

output voltage that is linearly proportional to the angular displacement

of its input shaft. When energized with a fixed ac source, the output

signal is linear within a specified range over the angular displacement.

Construction of RVDT

The RVDT is similar in construction to the LVDT, except that a cam-

shaped core replaces the core in the LVDT as shown in Figure 3.6.

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Most RVDTs are composed of a wound, laminated stator and a salient

two-pole rotor (core). The stator, containing four slots, contains both

the primary winding and the two secondary windings. Some secondary

windings may also be connected together.

. in

. c o

RVDTs utilize brushless, non-contacting technology to ensure long

life and reliable, repeatable position sensing with infinite resolution.

ia

Such reliable and repeatable performance assures accurate position

sensing under the most extreme operating conditions.

Operation of RVDT

o d

. n

Basic RVDT operation is provided by rotating an iron-core bearing

supported within a housed stator assembly. A fixed alternating current

w

excitation is applied to the primary stator coil that is electromagnetically

w

coupled to the secondary coils. This coupling is proportional to the

w

angle of the input shaft. The output pair is structured so that one

coil is in-phase with the excitation coil, and the second is 180c out-of-

phase with the excitation coil. Now, we consider the following cases to

understand the operation of RVDT:

CASE I

When the rotor is in a position that directs the available flux equally

in both the in-phase and out-of-phase coils, the output voltages cancel

and result in a zero values signal. This is referred to as the null position.

CASE II

If the core is turned anticlockwise, the flux linking with one winding

S1 , increases while the other S2 decreases. Hence the output can be

considered as a positive value.

CASE III

If the core is turned in clockwise direction, the flux linking with

winding S1 reduces, while that linked with winding S2 increases, hence

producing an out of phase output that is in the opposite direction that

is a negative value.

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1.6 Measurement of Rotational velocity

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control systems. They also provide the usual means of measuring

translational velocities, which are transformed into rotational motions

for measurement purposes by suitable gearing. Many different

instruments and techniques are available for measuring rotational

velocity as presented below.

Digital tachometers are usually non-contact instruments that sense

the passage of equally spaced marks on the surface of a rotating disc

in

or shaft. As each mark is sensed, a pulse is generated and input to an

.

electronic pulse counter. Instantaneous velocity can be calculated at

o

each instant of time that an output pulse occurs, using the scheme

c

shown in Figure 3.7. In this circuit, the pulses from the transducer gate

.

the train of pulses from a 1 MHz clock into a counter. Control logic

ia

resets the counter and updates the digital output value after receipt

d

of each pulse from the transducer. The measurement resolution of this

o

system is highest when the speed of rotation is low.

. n

w w

w

inductive and magnetic ones.

Optical Tachometers

Digital tachometers with optical sensors are often known as optical

tachometers. Optical pulses can be generated by photoelectric

techniques Optical tachometers yield better accuracy than other forms

of digital tachometer but are not as reliable because dust and dirt can

block light paths.

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Induction Tachometers

Induction tachometers are a form of digital tachometer that use

inductive sensing. They are widely used in the automotive industry

within anti-skid devices, anti-lock braking systems (ABS) and traction

control.

Magnetostricitive Tachometers

The rotating element in magnetostrictive tachometers has a very

simple design in the form of a toothed metal gearwheel. The sensor is

a solid-state, Hall-effect device that is placed between the gear wheel

and a permanent magnet. When an inter-tooth gap on the gear wheel

is adjacent to the sensor, the full magnetic field from the magnet passes

in

through it. Later, as a tooth approaches the sensor, the tooth diverts

.

some of the magnetic field, and so the field through the sensor is

o

reduced. This causes the sensor to produce an output voltage that is

. c

proportional to the rotational speed of the gear wheel.

ia

1.6.2 Analogue Tachometers

o d

Analogue tachometers are less accurate than digital tachometers but

are nevertheless still used successfully in many applications. The a.c.

. n

tachometer has an output approximately proportional to rotational

w

speed like, the d.c. tachogenerator. Mechanical structure of an analogue

tachometer takes the form of a two-phase induction motor, with two

w

stator windings and (usually) a drag-cup rotor, as shown in Figure 3.7.

One of the stator windings is excited with an a.c. voltage and the

measurement signal is taken from the output voltage induced in the

second winding. The magnitude of this output voltage is zero when the

rotor is stationary, and otherwise proportional to the angular velocity

of the rotor. The direction of rotation is determined by the phase of

the output voltage, which switches by 180° as the direction reverses.

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Therefore, both the phase and magnitude of the output voltage have

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to be measured.

Angular velocity measurements can be obtained by differentiating the

output signal from angular displacement transducers. Unfortunately,

the process of differentiation amplifies any noise in the measurement

signal.

In measurement systems that already contain an angular acceleration

in

transducer, it is possible to obtain a velocity measurement by

.

integrating the acceleration measurement signal. This produces a

o

signal of acceptable quality, as the process of integration attenuates

c

any measurement noise.

ia .

d

1.7

o

Rotational accelerometers work on very similar principles to translational

n

motion accelerometers. They consist of a rotatable mass mounted

w.

inside a housing that is attached to the accelerating, rotating body.

Rotation of the mass is opposed by a torsional spring and damping.

w

Any acceleration of the housing causes a torque Jθp on the mass. This

w

torque is opposed by a backward torque due to the torsional spring and

in equilibrium

Jθp = Kθ

or θp = K θ

J

A damper is usually included in the systems to avoid undying oscillations

in the instrument. This adds an additional backward torque Bθo to the

system and the equation of motion becomes

Jθp = Bqo + Kq

and therefore measurement of the accelerations associated with

such vibrations is extremely important in industrial environments.

Vibrations normally consist of linear harmonic motion that can be

expressed mathematically as

X = X 0 sin (ωt)

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where X is the displacement from the equilibrium position at any

general point in time, X 0 is the peak displacement from the equilibrium

position, and ω is the angular frequency of the oscillations. The velocity

v of the vibrating body can be obtained as

v = wX 0 cos (wt)

and expression for the acceleration can be given as

α =− w20 sin (wt)

It is apparent that the intensity of vibration can be measured in terms

of either displacement, velocity or acceleration. Acceleration is clearly

the best parameter to measure at high frequencies. However, because

displacements are large at low frequencies, it would seem that measuring

either displacement or velocity would be best at low frequencies. In

in

next section, we will learn the technique of vibration measurement.

o .

. c

A vibration measurement system requires other elements, as shown

ia

in Figure 3.8, to translate the accelerometer output into a recorded

d

signal. The three other necessary elements are

1. Signal-conditioning element: It amplifies the relatively weak

o

output signal from the accelerometer and also transforms the

n

.

high output impedance of the accelerometer to a lower impedance

w

value.

2. Signal analyser: It converts the signal into the form required

w w

for output. The output parameter may be either displacement,

velocity or acceleration and this may be expresses as either the

peak value, r.m.s. value or average absolute values.

3. Signal recorder: It must be chosen very carefully to avoid

distortion of the vibration waveform.

In these devices the base of the device or transducer is attached to

the object whose motion or vibration is to be measured, as shown in

Figure 3.9. Inside the transducer, is a mass m supported on a spring

of stiffness k and viscous damper, with damping coefficient c . The

motion of the mass relative to the frame or base, gives an indication of

the motion of the object and is the output of the instrument.

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. in

o

Figure 3.9: Seismic Device

. c

The acceleration response of seismic transducer is given by the equation,

ia

ω n2 z 0 = 1

A0 (1 − r ) + (2ξr) 2

2 2

where

o d

A 0 = ω2 x 0 , acceleration amplitude of the object

r = w/w n , frequency ratio

. n

ω n = k , undamped natural frequency

m

w w ξ = c , damping ratio

2 km

w

ω = circular frequency of motion of the moving object

These are similar to seismic devices except that there is no mechanical

spring used here and the restoring force is provided by a feedback

arrangement, as shown in Figure 3.10.

These types of motion measuring devices are used in inertial

navigation systems. It is possible to get higher accuracy and increased

stability as effects like hysteresis, non-linearity, temperature effects,

etc. associated with mechanical springs are absent here.

1.9 Shock

suddenly to rest, often because of a collision. This is very common in

industrial situations and usually involves a body being dropped and

hitting the floor. An instrument having a very high-frequency response

is required for shock measurement, and for this reason, piezoelectric

crystal-based accelerometers are commonly used.

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. in

. c o

d ia

Figure 3.10: Force Balance Type Seismic Device

n o

.

**********

w w

w

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EXERCIS

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3

MCQ 1.1 An LVDT produces an output voltage of 2.6 V for displacement 0.4

mm. The sensitivity of LVDT is

(A) 0.15 mm/V

(B) 0.15 m/V

. in

(C) 6.5 V/mm

o

(D) 6.5 V/m

. c

ia

MCQ 1.2 The output of LVDT is 1.25 V at maximum displacement. At a load of

d

0.75 mΩ , the deviation of linearity is maximum and it is ! 0.0025 V.

o

The linearity at the given load is

n

(A) 0.5% (B) 0.025V

.

(C) 0.2%V (D) 1.25%

MCQ 1.3

w w

An LVDT has a secondary voltage of 5 V for a displacement of ! 12.5

w

mm. What is the output voltage for a displacement of 8 mm from its

central position ?

(A) 0.2 V

(B) 0.4 V

(C) 0.32 V

(D) 3.2 V

MCQ 1.4 In a linear voltage differential transformer (LVDT) the output voltage

is 1.8 V at maximum displacement. At a certain load the deviation

from linearity is maximum and it is ! 0.0045 V from a straight line

through the origin. The linearity at the given load is

(A) ! 25%

(B) ! 40%

(C) ! 0.25%

(D) ! 0.4%

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NAT 1.5 The output of an LVDT is connected to a 4 V voltmeter through

an amplifier whose amplification factor is 500. An output of 1.8 mV

appears across the terminals of LVDT when the core moves through

a distance of 0.6 mm. If the millivoltmeter scale has 100 divisions

and the scale can be read to 14 of a division, then the resolution of

instrument will be

______ mm

MCQ 1.6 An LVDT is used for measuring the deflection of a bellows. The

sensitivity of LVDT is 40 V per mm. The bellows is deflected by 0.125

in

mm by a pressure of 0.8 # 106 N/m2 . The sensitivity of the LVDT in

.

V per N/m2 is

o

(A) 4 # 10-6

c

(B) 6.25 # 10-6

(C) 5 # 10-6

(D) 1.25 # 10-6

ia .

o d

. n

NAT 1.7 The output of an LVDT is connected to a 5V voltmeter through an

w

amplifier with a gain of 250. The voltmeter scale has 100 divisions

and the scale can be read upto 1/5th of a division. An output of 2

w

mV appears across the terminals of the LVDT, when core is displaced

w

through a distance of 0.5 mm. The resolution of instrument is

______ m

amplifier whose amplification factor is 250. An output of 2 mV appears

across the terminals of LVDT when the core moves through a distance

of 0.5 mm. The millivoltmeter scale has 100 divisions. The scale can

be read to 15 of a division. The resolution of the instrument in mm is

(A) 10-3 (B) 10-4

(C) 10-2 (D) None of these

NAT 1.9 An accelerometer has a seismic mass of 0.05 kg and a spring constant

of 3 # 103 N/m. Maximum mass displacement is ! 0.02 m (before the

mass hits the stop). The maximum measurable acceleration is

______

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NAT 1.10 A seismic instrument has a natural frequency of 4 Hz and a damping

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due to the proximity of excited frequency with natural frequency of the

instrument will be

______ %

MCQ 1.11 A steel cantilever is 0.25 m long, 15 mm wide, and 3 mm thick. The

modulus of elasticity for steel is 200 GN/m2 . When a force of 22 N is

applied at the free end, the value of deflection at the end will be

(A) 16.975 (B) 9.21

in

(C) 0.0589 (D) 33.75

o .

. c

MCQ 1.12 A body is dropped from a height of 10 m and suffers a shock when it

ia

hits the ground. If the duration of the shock is 5 ms, the magnitude of

the shock will be (g is acceleration due to gravity)

d

(A) 7g

o

(B) 200g

. n

(C) 286g

w

(D) None of these

MCQ 1.13

w w

A variable reluctance type tachometer has 120 teeth on rotor. The

speed of the shaft on which the rotor is mounted is 1500 rpm. What

will be the frequency of the output pulses ?

(A) 25 pulse per second (B) 3000 pulses per second

(C) 2 pulses per second (D) None of these

MCQ 1.14 A toothed rotor tachometer is used with a digital counter for measuring

speed of rotation of the shaft on which the wheel is mounted. The

gating period is 103 µs and a reading of 0004 is obtained on the four

digit display. If the number of teeth on rotor is 150, then the speed of

shaft is

(A) 150

(B) 4000

(C) 1600

(D) 100

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NAT 1.15 The frequency of the flashes of a stroboscope is adjusted such that a

disc with 20 points mounted on the shaft of the machine seems to be

at standstill. If the adjusted frequency of the flashes is 5000 per minute

and approximate speed of the machine is 765 rpm given by the other

method, then the correct speed of the machine is

______ rpm

by a stroboscopic method. The neon lamp is supplied from the same

source to which the induction motor is connected. The stroboscopic

in

disc has six black and six white sectors. What will be the speed of the

.

induction motor when the sector appears to be moving at 50 rpm ?

o

(A) 1000 rpm

. c

(B) 50 rpm

ia

(C) 950 rpm

(D) 1050 rpm

o d

. n

NAT 1.17 An accelerometer has a seismic mass of 0.06 kg and a spring constant

of 4500 N/m. Maximum mass displacement is ! 0.025 m (before the

w

mass hits the top). The maximum measurable acceleration is

w

w

______ m/s2

MCQ 1.18 In an LVDT accelerometer the outputs are 0.4 mV/mm with a ! 25

mm core displacement. The spring constant is 300 N/m and the mass

of the core is 50g. What is sensitivity of the accelerometer ?

(A) 15 ms-2 /mV (B) 150 ms-2 /mV

(C) 0.66 ms-2 /mV (D) None of these

NAT 1.19 A variable reluctance type tachometer has 60 rotor teeth. The counter

records 3600 counts per second. The speed in rpm is

______

MCQ 1.20 An inductive pickoff operating from a 120 tooth wheel is used with a

digital frequency meter to measure the speed of rotation of the shaft

on which the wheel is mounted. The gating period is set to 10 4 µs ,

and a reading of 0030 is obtained on the four digit display. If the

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2 3 4 5 6 7

available gating periods are 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 µs respectively,

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what would be the optimum setting of gating period for making this

measurement ?

(A) 10 4 µs (B) 105 µs

(C) 106 µs (D)

102 µs

MCQ 1.21 While measuring speed of a steam turbine with stroboscope single line

images were observed for stroboscope setting of 3000, 4000 and 5230

rpm. What is the speed of the turbine ?

(A) 6000 rpm

in

(B) 700 rpm

.

(C) 12000 rpm

o

(D) 14000 rpm

. c

ia

MCQ 1.22 A disc mounted on the shaft of a machine has 12 pattern points. The

d

number of flashes projected on the disc by a stroboscope is 6000 in a

o

minute. If the disc appears to move forward in the direction of rotation

n

at 10 rpm, the speed of the disc is

.

(A) 500 rpm

w

(B) 490 rpm

w

(C) 510 rpm

w

(D) 5000 rpm

MCQ 1.23 A displacement transducer with a shaft stroke of 3.0 inch is applied

to the circuit shown in figure below. The total resistance of the

potentiometer is 5 kΩ . The applied voltage Vt is 5.0 V. When the wiper

is 0.9 inch from B , what will be the value of the output voltage ?

(A) 0.66 V

(B) 1500 V

(C) 1.5 V

(D) 66.6 V

wound with a wire of total resistance 5000 Ω . Under normal conditions

the slider is at the centre of the potentiometer. When the resistance of

the potentiometer is 1850 Ω , the linear displacement will be

______ mm

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NAT 1.25 A linear resistance potentiometer is 50 mm long and is uniformly wound

with a wire of total resistance 5, 000 Ω . Under normal conditions, the

slider is at the centre of the potentiometer. When the resistance of the

potentiometer, as measured by the Wheatstone bridge, is 1850 Ω , the

linear displacement is

______ mm

wound with a wire having a resistance of 10000 Ω . Under normal

conditions, the slider is at the centre of the potentiometer. For the

in

linear displacements x and y the resistance of the potentiometer as

.

measured by a Wheatstone bridge are respectively 3850 Ω and 7560 Ω

o

. Which of the following is/are correct ?

c

(A) x = 5.75 m

(B) y = 12.8 m

ia .

(C) Displacements x and y are in opposite direction

(D) All of the above

o d

NAT 1.27

. n

A resistive potential divider R1 R2 with a resistance of 5000 Ω and a

w w

shaft stroke of 125 mm is used in the arrangement shown in figure

below. Potentiometer R 3 R 4 has a resistance of 5000 Ω and ei = 5.0 V .

w

The initial position to be used as reference point is such that R1 = R2

i.e. the wiper is at midstroke. At the start of the test potentiometer

R 3 R 4 is adjusted so that the bridge is balanced and e 0 = 0 . Assuming

that the displacement being measured will move a maximum distance

of 12.5 mm towards A, the value of e 0 will be

______ Volt

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MCQ 1.28 A resistive transducer with a resistance of 5 kΩ and a shaft stroke of

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3

is also 5 k and Vt is 5.0 V. The initial position to be used as a reference

point is such that R1 = R2 (i.e. the shaft is at the centre) At the

start of the test, potentiometer R 3 -R 4 is adjusted so that the bridge is

balanced ^Ve = 0h. If we assume that the object being monitored moves

a maximum resistance of 0.5 cm towards A, then what will be the new

value of Vc ? (shaft distance is 5 cm)

(A) 0.5 V

(B) 2.5 V

(C) 3 V

in

(D) 5.5 V

**********

o .

. c

d ia

n o

w.

w w

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SOLUTION

SOL 1.1 Correct option is (C).

Sensitivity is given by

RMS value of op voltage

S =

Displacement

in

= 2.6 = 6.5 V/mm

.

0. 4

. c o

ia

SOL 1.2 Correct option is (C).

Maximum deviation of linearity is

d

D max = 0.0025 V

o

V0 = 1.25 V

n

So, Linearity = D max # 100

.

v0

1.25

w

= 0.2%

w

= 0.0025

SOL 1.3 w

Correct option is (D).

s = 5 = 0.4 V/mm

12.5

So, the output voltage is

= 0.4 # 8 = 3.2 V

The output voltage of LVDT at maximum displacement is

= 1.8 V

The deviation from a straight line through the origin is

= ! 0.0045 V

Hence, percentage linearity is

= ! 0.0045 # 100

1.8

= ! 0.25%

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SOL 1.5 Correct answer is 0.0067

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3

Output voltage

=

Displacement

= 1.8 = 3 mV/mm

0.6

ensitivity of measurement = (Amplification factor) # (sensitivity of

S

LVDT)

= 500 # 3 = 1500 mV/mm

Also, we have

1 scale division = 4 V = 40 mV

100

in

So, minimum voltage that can be read on the voltmeter is

= 1 # 40 = 10 mV

4

o .

. c

Hence, resolution of the instrument is

= 10 # b 1 l

ia

1500

d

= 0.0067 mm

n o

.

SOL 1.6 Correct option is (B)

w

We have LVDT sensitivity,

w

s = 40 V/mm

Output voltage for a deflection of 0.125 mm,

w

v out = 40 # 0.125 = 5 V

Hence the sensitivity of LVDT is

= v out = 5

p 0.8 # 106

= 6.25 # 10−6 V per N/m2

The output voltage of LVDT is

Vout = 2 mV

and Displacement = 0.5 mm

So, the sensitivity of LVDT is

= Vout = 2 mV

Displacement 0.5 mm

= 4 mV/mm

Sensitivity of the entire set up is

= (Amplification factor) # (sensitivity of LVDT)

= 250 # 4 mV/mm

= 1000 mV/mm or 1 V/mm

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Page 40 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Chap 1

Again, full-scale of voltmeter is

=5V

and number of divisions on voltmeter scale is

= 100

1 scale division = 5 = 0.05 V or 50 mV

100

Minimum voltage that can be read on voltmeter is

= 50 mV = 10 mV

5

Hence, resolution of instrument is

= 10 mV = 0.01 mm

1000 mV/mm

. in

o

SOL 1.8 Correct option is (A)

c

−3

output voltage

= 2 # 10

.

Sensitivity of LVDT =

displacement 0.5

ia

= 4 # 10−3 V/mm = 4 mV/mm

d

Sensitivity of instrument

o

= (amplification factor) # (sensitivity of LVDT)

= ^250h # ^4 # 10−3h = 1 V/mm

n

w. = 1000 mV/mm

1 scale division = 5 V = 50 mV

100

w

Minimum voltage that can be read on the voltmeter is

w = b 1 l # 50 = 1 mV

5

Hence, resolution of instrument is

= 1 #b 1 l

1000

= 1 # 10−3 mm

Given natural frequency is

ω n = K

M

3

= 3 # 10 = 245 rad/s.

0.05

So, maximum acceleration is

am = ω2 xm

= ^245h2 # ^0.02h

= 1200 m/s2

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SOL 1.10 Correct answer is - 3.9 .

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3

^x2 - x1hm u2

=

xm1 ^1 − u2h + ^2ζu h2

2

u = 6 = 1.5

4

So, we get

^x2 - x1hm ^1.5h2

=

8^1 − 1.52h + ^2 # 0.66 # 1.5h2B2

xm1 2

1

= 0.961

in

Hence, percentage error is obtained as

= ^0.961 − 1h # 100% =− 3.9%

. c o

ia

Moment of inertia of the cantilever is

d

M = 1 bt3

12

= 1 # ^0.15h # ^.003h3

n o

.

12

w

= 33.75 # 10−12 m2

So, deflection is obtained as

w

3

θ = FL

w

3EM

22 # ^0.25h3

=

3 # 200 # 109 # 33.75 # 10−12

= 16.975

The equation of motion for a body falling under gravity gives the

following expression for the terminal velocity

v = 2gx

where x is the height through which the body falls. So the average

deceleration during the collision can be obtained as

α = v

t

where t is the time duration of the shock. Substituting the appropriate

numerical values into these expressions, we obtain

v = ^2 # 9.81 # 10h = 14.0 m/s

Hence, the magnitude of shock is

α = 14.0 = 2801 m/s = 286 g

0.005

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Page 42 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Chap 1

SOL 1.13 Correct option is (B).

Given

Speed of shaft,

N = 1500 rpm

Number of teeth on rotor,

T = 120

So, frequency of output pulses is

f = N # T

60

= 1500 # 120

60

= 3000 pulses per second

. in

o

SOL 1.14 Correct option is (C).

. c

Given

ia

Digital counter reading = 0004

Gating period = 103 µs = 0.001 s

d

Number of teeth on rotor, T = 150

o

So, number of pulses per second is

n

Digital counter reading

.

f =

Gating period

w w = 0004 = 4000

0.001

Hence, rotational speed is

w

f

N = # 60

T

= 4000 # 60 = 1600

150

Given

Number of points on the disk,

n = 20

Number of flashes per minute,

K = 5000

Prime speed of the machine,

N = K = 5000 = 250 rpm

n 20

But the apparent speed,

Na = 765 rpm

So, the multiplying factor is 3. Hence, the correct speed is

= N # 3 = 250 # 3 = 750 rpm

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SOL 1.16 Correct option is (C).

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3

Given

Supply frequency,

f = 50 Hz

Number of poles on induction motor,

P = 6

So, synchronous speed of motor is

120f

Ns =

p

6

Therefore, slip of induction motor is

in

s = RPM at which the sector appears to be rotating

.

= 50 rpm

o

Hence, speed of induction motor is

. c

N = Ns − s = 1000 − 50 = 950 rpm

d ia

o

Given

. n

Seismic mass, M = 0.06 kg

Spring constant, K = 4500 N/m

w

So, the natural angular velocity is

w

ω 0 = K

M

0.06

Since, maximum mass displacement is

= 0.025 m

Hence, maximum acceleration is

= ω 20 # (Maximum mass displacement)

= ^273.86h2 # 0.025

= 1875 m/s2

Given

Core mass, M = 50 g = 0.05 kg

Spring constant,

K = 300 N/m

So, natural angular frequency is

ω 0 = K = 300 = 77.46 rad/s

M 0.05

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Page 44 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Chap 1

Also, maximum mass displacement is

A = 25 mm = 0.025 m

Therefore, maximum measurable acceleration is

= ω2 A

= ^77.46h2 # 0.025

= 150 m/s2

Hence, accelerometer sensitivity is obtained as

s = Maximum measurable acceleration

Maximum core displacement # output

= 150

25 # 0.4

= 15 ms−2 /mV

. in

o

SOL 1.19 Correct answer is 3600

c

pulses per second

.

Speed =

number of teeth

ia

= 3600 rps = 3600 rpm

d

60

SOL 1.20

n

Correct option is (C).

o

w.

The setting of the gating period for this measurement is 10 4 µs and this

gives a reading of 0030 on a four digit display. It is seen that out of

w

four digit places only two are utilized. For optimum setting of gating

period, all the four digits places should be utilized. This requires that

w

the gating time be increased by a factor 102 , i.e.

Optimum gating time setting = 10 4 # 102 = 106 µs

For m different flashing rates f1 , f2 .......... fm , the speed of system is

given by

fm f1 ^m − 1h

^ fm − f1h

n =

Here, we have

fm = 5250 rpm

f1 = 3000 rpm

and m = 3

Hence, speed of steam turbine is

5250 # 3000 ^3 − 1h

^5250 − 3000h

=

= 14000 rpm

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SOL 1.22 Correct option is (C).

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3

f

n = = 6000 = 500 rpm

m 12

When the patterns move in the direction of rotation at a speed of 10

rpm, the speed of machine in this case is

n = 500 + 10 = 510 rpm

We draw the transducer circuit as

. in

. c o

d ia

n o

From the given circuit, we have

3.0 in 30

w

So, we get

V0 = R2

w

Vt R1 + R 2

or V0 = R2 V

R1 + R 2 # t

Hence, V0 = 1500 # 5 V = 1500 = 1.5 V

5k 1k

Total resistance = 5000 Ω

L = 50 mm

So, Rt = 5000 = 100 Ω

L 50

Resistance of normal position is

= 5000 = 2500 Ω

50

Change in resistance is

= 2500 − 1850 = 650 Ω

Hence, the displacement is

y = 650 = 6.5 mm

100

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Page 46 Measurement of Translational and Rotational Motion Chap 1

SOL 1.25 Correct answer is 6.5 .

Total resistance of the potentiometer wire is

Rt = 5, 000 Ω

Total length of the potentiometer wire is

L = 50 mm

Resistance per mm length of potentiometer wire,

Rt = 5000 = 100 Ω

L 50

Resistance of potentiometer at normal position is

= 5000 = 2500 Ω

2

Change in resistance of potentiometer from its normal position is

in

= 2500 − 1850 = 650 Ω

.

Hence, linear displacement is

o

y = 650 = 6.5 mm

c

100

ia .

d

The resistance of the potentiometer at its normal position is

o

= 1000 = 5000 Ω

n

2

.

Resistance of potentiometer per unit length is

w

= 1000 = 200 Ω/mm

50

w

For first case, change of resistance from its normal position is

w

= 5000 − 3850 = 1150 Ω

So, displacement of wiper from its normal position is

x = 1150 = 5.75 mm

200

For second case, change of resistance from its normal position is

= 7569 − 5000 = 2560 Ω

So, displacement of wiper from its normal position is

y = 2560 = 12.80 mm

200

Since, one of the displacements represent a decrease and other represents

an increase in resistance of potentiometer from its value at the normal

position, the two displacements are in the opposite direction.

Given

Total length of AB = 125 mm

Midpoint of AB = 62.5 mm from either A or B

If the wiper moves 12.5 inward towards A from midstroke, its distance

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from B becomes

Sample Chapter of GATE Instrumentation Engineering Vol- 3

= 62.5 + 12.5 = 75 mm

So, R2 = b 75 l # 5000 = 3000 Ω

125

Hence, output voltage is

e 0 = c R2 − R 4 m ei

R1 + R 2 R 3 + R 4

=;

5000 5000 E #

3000 − 2500 5 = 0. 5 V

. in

. c o

d ia

n o

w.

If the wiper moves 0.5 cm towards A from the centre, it will have

w

moved 3 cm from B . So,

R2 = 3.0 # 5 k = 3 kΩ

w

5.0

Ve = VR2 − VR 4

= c R2 m # Vt − c R 4 m # Vt

R1 + R 2 R3 + R4

= b 3 k l # 5 V − b 2.5 k l # 5 V

5k 5k

= 3 V − 2.5 V = 0.5 V

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