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ABSTRACT of concern to all European citizens. In the

More “green” power provided by new system, large numbers of small and
Distributed Generation will enter into the medium sized generators and energy
electricity network in the near future. In storage elements are interconnected
order to control the power flow and to through a fully interactive intelligent
ensure proper and secure operation of electricity network. In order to reach this
this future grid, with an increased level goal, the entire architecture of the
of the renewable power, new power electricity network must be redesigned
electronic converters for grid connection and the information and communication
of renewable sources will be needed. technologies (ICT) will be the key factor
These power converters must be able to [2]. New features added by ICT and ICT-
provide intelligent power management based applications such as universal
as well as ancillary services. This paper connectivity, services over internet and
presents the overall structure and the web, distributed intelligence, advanced
control aspects of an advanced power fault handling, intelligent load shedding
converter for universal and flexible etc will transform the existing electrical
power management in the future grid into a smart one. Among the
electricity network. different architectures of the future
INTRODUCTION systems three conceptual models are of
The establishment of a new paradigm for interest [1]: Micro-grids, an “Internet”
electricity networks in Europe in which model and Active Networks supported by
there is large-scale integration of ICT. A possible layout of such an active
distributed energy resources is major network is shown in Fig. 1. Distributed
element of the key strategic objective of Generation (DG) will increase the number
the EU to secure a supply of energy that of power input nodes and will provide a
is clean sustainable and economical [1]. bidirectional power flow through the
The impact of this will be to reduce network.
dependence on fossil fuels and reduce
climate change and pollution, which are
New power electronics systems will to interconnection requirements of
control this power flow and also will Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and in
provide flexible DG interfaces to the most of the cases these requirements
network. The work presented in this reflects the penetration of renewable
paper is part of a research project sources into the electrical network or a
(UNIFLEX-PM) supported by the European future development is prepared with
Community under the 6th Framework these demands. Among all kind of
Program with focus on the development renewable sources only wind power and
of key enabling technologies to reach the PV installations have specific
DG objectives. The main objectives in requirements. Recently, specific
this project are to research and interconnection requirements for
experimentally verify new, modular Combined Heat and Power plants with
power conversion architecture for power ratings of 1.5 MW or more were
universal application in the Future issued in Denmark [4] with the main
European Electricity Network. target in increasing the control
possibilities of these small units from the
system operator point of view. The
renewable sources in the Great Britain’s
transmission grid code can be identified
under different names e.g. DC
Converters, Power Park Modules, Non-
synchronous generating units, etc. The
interconnection requirements in this case
are addressed to power control ability,
voltage quality and fault ride-through
capabilities [5]. However, for connection
of embedded generators below a certain
power level e.g. 30 MW the Distribution
System Operators (DSO) in particular
Fig. 1. Possible architecture of an active regions shall be contacted .Different
network with distributed/on-site DSOs exist in Germany and the general
generation and fully integrated network rules for interconnection at the DS level
management. are defined in [6]. It can be noticed that
The target is to establish technology that there are no specific requirements for
provides lower cost power electronics to renewable energy sources. Moreover in
network architects and owners and Germany the generating units in the
facilitates the connection of a broader MV/LV distribution systems “are usually
range of distributed generation sources not utilized for the provision of system
[3]. services” [6].
First this paper will make a review of the A document detailing the minimal
existing European grid codes for interconnection requirements for wind
renewable systems with focus on MV and turbines has been published officially in
HV levels. Then, the general structure of October 2006 in Spain [7]. This document
the UNIFLEX-PM system as well as the addressed just two topics namely fault
control issues related with its subsystems ride-through capabilities and reactive
will be presented. power/voltage control during the fault
and it applies to all operators connected
INTERCONNECTION REQUIREMENTS to the main transmission grid. However
FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES according with [13] “REE is considering
Few European countries have at this including wind plant connected” at the
moment dedicated grid codes addressed distribution system level. On the other
hand in Spain the PV systems have turbine concepts e.g. active stall wind
interconnection requirements for turbine with directly grid connected
voltages up to 1kV defined in [8]. squirrel-cage induction generator.
However in this case the PV systems However, the Doubly Fed Induction
shall not provide system services. Generator-based wind turbines will inject
Special interconnection requirements for just the rated current of the partial scale
wind power addressed specifically at power converter placed in the rotor
both MV and HV levels are issued in circuit, which is 20%-
Denmark [9], [10] and Ireland [11], [12]. 30% from the generator’s rated power.
Examining these various grid codes it can Moving to the wind farm level any wind
be noticed that the requirements for turbine concept can meet this
wind power cover a wide range of requirement if the wind farm is
voltage levels from medium voltage to connected through a Voltage Source
very high voltage while the connection Converter based DC-Link Transmission
demands for PV installations have focus System to the electrical network. In order
only on the low voltage level particularly to cope with the network stability issues
in low voltage distribution networks all grid codes require the curtailment of
(domestic applications). The the produced power and other control
requirements are also different for these signals available for System Operators
two renewable systems. PV systems have (SO) [3]. However, the ability of
specific demands regarding power controlling the produced power based on
quality and safety and protection the SO demands is currently provided
functions e.g. response to abnormal only by large wind farms. In future a
utility conditions, direct current injection major challenge will be to make this
and grounding. On the other hand, the feature available also to small units. An
grid codes for wind power address issues increased level of renewable power into
that make the wind farms operate as a the electrical network will determine
conventional power plant into the interconnection requirements for all
electrical network. These requirements renewable sources similar with those for
have focus on power controllability, wind power. Therefore, any renewable
power quality, fault ride-through system will have to fulfill the grid codes
capability and grid support during without major changes in the control
network disturbances. According to algorithms as well as in the hardware
several references e.g. [13] in some of structure. Thus, a universal and flexible
the cases these requirements are power converter is the key element in
onerous. grid
All considered grid codes require fault integration of the renewable sources.
ride-through The system comprises of a renewable
capabilities for wind turbines. Voltage energy source
profiles are given specifying the depth of connected to an AC/DC power converter
the voltage dip and the clearance time as to a common DC bus-bar. Since the only
well [3]. However, in some of the grid renewable source able to support
codes the calculation of the voltage bidirectional power flow is the PEM fuel
during all types of unsymmetrical faults cell, this power converter must be able to
is very well defined e.g. Ireland, while support just a unidirectional power flow.
others do not define clearly this A storage system is also connected to
procedure. Germany and Spain requires the DC bus-bar. The structure of the
grid support during faults by reactive power converter in this case depends on
current injection up to 100% from the the type of the storage element. It can
rated current [7]. This demand is difficult be an AC to DC conversion stage or just a
to be achieved by some of the wind DC to DC one. The grid connection is
made through a power converter which power converter for the field winding.
can also have a modular approach. The permanent magnet generator is used
in direct driven wind turbines and two
UNIFLEX-PM SYSTEM conversion stages are required. First an
The main target of the UNIFLEX-PM AC/DC power stage based onvoltage
system is to provide a universal and source power converter will assure the
flexible power electronic interface for variable speed operation then a DC/DC
grid connection of RES including storage power stage will keep the DC-link voltage
facilities. A possible structure of the fixed on the common DC-bus. Finally, the
UNIFLEX-PM system is shown in Fig. 2. squirrel-cage induction generator is using
a fully controlled power converter
without any additional power stages. In
each case generators with multiple stator
windings can be used and thus the
efficiency is increased at low power
production. In most of the biomass
Combined Heat and Power plants an
electrical system similar with that from
wind turbines can be used. A PV source
will require a DC to DC conversion stage
as well as a fuel cell system.
In all cases the control of the generator
side converter has as main goal to
The power rating of the system is around
optimize the maximum power extraction
5 MW (e.g. 1 MW/module) with a rated
and to assure the optimum operation
voltage in the PCC of 10-20 kV. This
point of the generator.
voltage level is very common in most of
the distribution systems in the European
Energy Storage System
countries. However, using a transformer
Energy Storage Systems are in a
with high voltage on the primary side a
continuous development and new
connection to the transmission system is
improvements in cost, efficiency, control
algorithms, etc. is added constantly.
Each technology has advantages and
Renewable Source System
drawbacks and choosing a particular
Basically any renewable source can be
technology implies several factors e.g.
used in this system. However, the
renewable energy source and the
structure of the generator side converter
corresponding power conversion
as well as its control will be determined
topology; grid connection requirements;
by this source. In wind applications the
overall cost of generation and storage;
power converter and its control are
environmental and social aspects. Some
determined by the generator type. The
storage technologies are constrained by
general structure of the UNIFLEX-PM
environmental or safety considerations.
system can be used in a full scale power
Solenoidal configurations for
converter based wind turbine. Therefore,
Superconducting Magnetic Energy
mainly three generators types can be
Storage produces external magnetic field
used in this case namely synchronous
and an exclusion zone around the units is
generator with field winding, permanent
required. Lead acid batteries require
magnet generator and squirrel cage
planning of handling and transport of the
induction generator. The synchronous
generator will require a diode bridge
while Compressed Air Energy Storage
rectifier and an additional fully controlled
requires a suitable site for the reservoir.
Thus, the energy storage technology services such as voltage control and
must be chosen in agreement with the black-start capability must be provided. A
renewable energy source and basically paralleled structure will improve the
the following issues must be taken into overall efficiency of the system and will
account: also improve its redundancy. Voltage and
current measurement for each phase in
• Functionality of the energy storage the Point of Common Coupling (PCC)
system versus must be available for the converter
time response. In order to compensate control. A hardware protection for power
for loadlevelling policies a medium term switches e.g. high-speed fuses as well a
storage capacity is needed while power software protection can be used. The
quality issues will require a very short control algorithm of the grid interface
term storage capacity. must be able to handle unsymmetrical
• Area or volume of the storage faults, to inject full reactive current
system compared with RES. during grid faults and to operate both in
Some of the storage technologies grid connected- and islanding mode. The
require a relative large area or volume structure of this control shall include
therefore the selection of advanced Phase Locked Loop structures
the storage technology must take this in order to cope with unsymmetrical and
aspect into unbalanced voltages, fast current control
account. in each phase and advanced control
• Decoupling of the storage capacity techniques for active/reactive power e.g.
and power rating. injection of negative sequence of the
Some storage technologies e.g. voltage The steady state performances
advanced batteries like REDOX can offer are given mainly by the switching
this feature and can make the entire frequency and flicker content of the
system much more flexible. produced power. Voltage quality
• Relatively long life time ca. 20 years parameters e.g. harmonic compatibility
which is typical for example for most of levels, Total Harmonic Distortion, etc.
the wind turbines. shall meet the requirements from EN
• Low Maintenance. 61000-2-4 standard. Flicker emission can
The structure of the storage side power be improved by using the storage
converter is related to the type of the system.
storage technology used. This power
converter shall be able to support a
bidirectional power flow. Its control has Overall Control and Energy
focus on optimizing the Management
storage/extraction of energy in the The entire control of the UNIFLEX-PM
storage element. system comprises basically two levels of
control namely the control associated
Grid Interface with each subsystem and the overall
The grid side converter is the key control including the energy
element in respect with the management. The overall control shall
interconnection of the UNIFLEX-PM include the several modules/functions.
system to the electrical network. It shall Power/frequency control including
be able to transfer the renewable power primary control shall provide the
to the grid, to meet the grid code balancing of the instantaneous power
requirements and to keep the system consumption and the production in the
connected over a wide range of whole area as well as the secondary
operating conditions e.g. faults, island control for balancing the power
operation, etc. Moreover, ancillary production and demand within the
regional zones. The power production management of the renewable sources
shall follow the power setpoint imposed including storage technologies as well as
by the Distribution System Operator system services. Currently, all existing
(DSO) and Transmission System Operator solutions are addressed to particular
(TSO). Voltage control is controlling the technologies and a universal and flexible
voltage in the whole area. This control power converter is needed. This paper
shall follow the system operator presents the structure and the related
demands for reactive power. Moreover control of such a power converter. This
the control must be able to regulate the power converter has a modular
voltage in islanding mode. Advanced grid architecture based on Medium Frequency
monitoring techniques e.g. detection of transformer isolation modules
islanding and estimation of the distance incorporating advanced magnetic and
to fault must be included. The detection insulating materials. This modular
of islanding is used to change the approach leads to high reliability and low
priorities in controlling the frequency and cost. Connection at different voltage
the voltage in the PCC while the levels and powers is made possible by
estimation of the distance to fault can be series/parallel connection of modules.
used to change the control strategy This power conversion system can
during faults. For example when a fault is connect different sources and/or loads
detected near the PCC the grid interface including energy storage with different
cannot provide grid support while the characteristics and power flow
distance to the fault is relatively large requirements. Advanced control
the grid interface can inject 100% strategies to control the local converter
reactive current. Short term and medium energy storage and energy flow together
term estimation of the power production with global control to manage the
based on meteorological data e.g. wind interaction with the grid/loads/storage
prediction, solar irradiation, etc. can be elements are also included.
used in spot market as well as by the
DSO/TSO for balancing the system.
Energy management with the main
target in optimizing the power production REFERENCES
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