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12/21/2009

OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION
HEAT EXCHANGER
Coupled to • Opportunities for Energy Conservation
• Need and Scope for Green Technologies
REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING
• Applications of Engine Exhaust Heat, Super Heat Recovery Water Heater and Heat Pumps
 How much heat can be recovered?
Some of the Developments at HPL_IITB
• Salient Features of the Novel Patented Technologies
 Matrix Heat Recovery Unit & Tube-Tube Heat Exchanger
• Various Issues Relevant to Design and Integration of Heat Pumps
 Systems need to be custom designed and optimized

• Case Studies along with Economics for SHR_WH


 60 TR R22 Chiller, 270 TR R717 Refrigeration System, 8.3 TR R22 Ductable Split AC
• Case Studies along with Economics for Heat Pumps
Milind V Rane, PhD  48 kWh R22 Multi-Utility Heat Pump Solution Heater, 1.2 TR R22 Ground Water Coupled Air Conditioner, 10
kWh R22 Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater for Tall Buildings
Professor and Energy Technology Consultant
Heat Pump Laboratory, HPL_IITB • Brief Review of Various Energy Efficient Technologies Developed at HPL_IITB
 Hybrid air conditioning system, solar air heaters, solar adsorption cold store, shipboard cold store
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076 INDIA
• Conclusions
Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION NEED AND SCOPE FOR GREEN TECHNOLOGIES
in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

• Co-Generating Cold and Hot Utilities • Improve Life Cycle Cost


 Super heat recovery water or process fluid heaters  Lower operating cost due to higher overall energy efficiency
 Absorption, adsorption and vapour compression heat pumps  Peak demand for domestic water heating can be reduced by over 95%
 Co-production of multiple utilities using a single system helps reduce space, initial cost
• Engine Exhaust Driven Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System and maintenance
 Truck refrigeration systems, bus air conditioning, shipboard cooling system • Energy Conservation
 Trigeneration systems using gensets and gas turbines  Co or tri-generation of cold, hot, dehumidification utilities and potable water
• Condenser Heat Driven Liquid Desiccant based Dehumidifiers  Super heat recovery with chiller COP and/or capacity improvement
 Preheating of boiler feed water, which is free if primary useful effect is cooling and vice
• Advanced Heat and Mass Transfer Equipment versa
 Air to air heat recovery • Environmental Friendly
 Absorption, adsorption and vapour compression cycle performance improvement  Co-production of multiple utilities helps improve cooling capacities/COP and reduce
refrigerant charge
• Alternate Energy Driven Systems  Thermal pollution reduced by gainfully recovering heat rejection from the engine
 Solar air conditioner, refrigerator and multi-utility generators exhaust and condenser in air cooled or water cooled mode
 Biogas and biomass to serve as backup  CO2 emissions reduced

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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MATRIX HEAT RECOVERY UNIT MATRIX HEAT RECOVERY UNITS


Compact Boilers Along Side the Silencers for 2 x 1000 kVA DG Sets
Applications: Heating Air / Water / Thermic Fluid, Generating Steam / NH3/H2O Solution / Liquid Desiccants
Patented Design with Gas and Heat Recovery Fluid both Pass through Tubes
Heat Sources: Engines & Gensets Exhaust Diesel / Gas / FO / Biogas, Turbines Exhaust Gas / Biogas
Over 48 Units are Installed on Engines Ranging from 165 kVA to 6 MW

• Simple Design: gases pass through straight tubes without fins


• Modular Design with Wide Selection Range: 50 to 500 kW
• Larger Heat Recovery Units with Multiple Modules: no upper limit

• High Heat Transfer Coefficients: 25 to 75 W/m2.K


• Low Gas Side Pressure Drops: 75 to 150 mm H2O

• On Line Continuous Cleaning: options available


• Low Fouling: flue gas velocity optimised to prevent fouling
• Compact Design: 1/3 the size of conventional smoke tube designs
• Low Cost: 20 to 25% lower than that of conventional designs
• Quick Steaming: within 5 to 10 minutes from cold start

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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MATRIX HEAT RECOVERY UNITS MATRIX HEAT RECOVERY UNITS


Some Applications and Heat Sources Impact on Fuel Usage and Economic Benefits

Applications
Impact on Fuel Usage
• Water Heating: up to 90 C (unpressurised) and up to 180 C (pressurised)
• Steam Generation: up to 20 bar • Diesel Gensets
 Up to 25% increase in overall energy recovery
• Thermic Fluid Heating: up to 330 C
• Furnace Oil Heating: up to 130 C • Gas/Biogas Turbine Exhaust
• Ammonia-Water Generator: up to 25 bar  45 to 60% of LCV of the fuel can be recovered in the form of usable heat
• Liquid Desiccant Regenerator: up to 150 C
Economic Benefits
• Air Heating/Preheating: up to 230 C
• Low Exchanger Cost:
Heat Sources  Heat recovery units may have lower initial cost compared to oil fired systems

• Engine/Diesel Generator Exhaust: 300 to 660°C • Low Installation Charges


 Built-in by-pass can be provided as an option to reduce on-site duct work
• Boiler/Furnace Exhaust: 210 to 660°C
• Gas/Biogas Turbine Exhaust: 450 to 630°C • Low Payback Periods
 Usually in the range of 30 to 90 days

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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MATRIX HEAT RECOVERY UNIT GAS TURBINE EXHAUST HEAT RECOVERY UNIT
Compact Thermic Fluid Heater for 7.5 MW Turbomac Gas Turbine
1250 kVA DG Exhaust Boiler
Application: Heating Thermic Fluid

Exhaust Flow Rate 26.23 kg/s

Temperatures In / Out
Exhaust 484 / 424 C
Thermic Fluid 220 / 250 C

Heat Duty 1.72 MW

Pressure Drop
Exhaust < 60 mm H2O
Thermic Fluid < 1 bar

Size (excluding duct work)


Length 1000 mm
Width 2750 mm
Height 1400 mm

Weight 1400 kg

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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PATENTS VASVIK AWARDS FOR INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH 2005


Total Number 14 Matrix Heat Recovery Units and Heat Recovery form RAC Systems
• Indian Patents Filed
 Total Number 14
(11 Granted + 2 defended/awaiting grant + 1 being examined)

• PCT Applications Filed


 Total Number 7
(2 PCT Applications are cognate of 3 Indian Patent Applications each, 5 others covering 1
Indian Patent Application each)

• US Patent Application Filed


 Total Number 1
(1 US Patent is a cognate of 6 Indian Patent Applications)

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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SUPER HEAT RECOVERY WATER HEATER SUPERHEAT RECOVERY HEAT EXCHANGERS


Generate Cold and Hot Utilities Simultaneously using SHR_WH Impact on Fuel Usage and Economic Benefits

Impact on Fuel/Electric Usage


Condenser Desuperheater
Hot W ater upto 60 C
• Chiller/Refrigeration System: up to 20% Increase in COP and 5 to 15% Reduction in Electric
for R22 Chillers Usage

• Water Heater/Steam Generator: 100% Fuel Saving


Rejected to
Cooling Electric
Expansion W ater Supply
Economic Benefits
Device • Low Exchanger Cost: Heat Recovery Units may have Lower Initial Cost Compared to Oil
Fired Systems

• Low Maintenance Charges: Online, quick, chemical descaling is possible, while the
Cold chiller/refrigeration system is in operation
Utility

Evaporator Subcooler Isolation Valves


• Low Payback Periods: Usually in the Range of 3 to 12 month (without accounting for 80%
depreciation in the first year)

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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SUPER HEAT RECOVERY WATER HEATER TUBE-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER


Patented Design
Generate Cold and Hot Utilities Simultaneously using SHR_WH Used to Generate Cold and Hot Utilities Simultaneously in SHR_WH or MU_HP

Features of Tube_Tube Heat Exchangers (TT_HE)


Condenser Desuperheater
Hot Water upto • Novel Modular Design: Vented tube-tube design, starting with 0.5 TR module with increments
75 C for R717 of 1 and 5 TR, no upper limit for chiller or refrigeration system capacity
Systems

• Safe Integration in to the System: Vented design ensures no mixing of refrigerant and water,
SHR_WH can be isolated while chiller is on line
Oil
Rejected to Separator
Cooling for an Electric • Simple to Retrofit: Only the tube/pipe between compressor and condenser is tapped into to
Expansion Water Supply
Ammonia install the SHR_WH
Device System
• High Heat Transfer Coefficients: Novel tubular exchangers optimized for high heat transfer
coefficients at low pressure drops on water/refrigerant sides

Cold
• Material of Construction: Wide choice of MOC, optimized based on the application, SS 316L,
Utility SS 316, SS 304L, Mild Steel, Carbon Steel, Copper
Evaporator Isolation Valves • Easy to Maintain: Can be cleaned in place using Chemical Descaling Fluids while keeping the
chiller/refrigeration system online

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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SUPER HEAT RECOVERY WATER HEATER TUBE-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS


Generate Cold and Hot Utilities Simultaneously using SHR_WH Sectional View of 1-1 TT_HE Module

Condenser Desuperheater Part of tube,


Hot Water upto 60 C TB M Tube
act as fin
for R22 Chillers

Rejected to
Cooling Electric 
Expansion Water Supply
Device

Cold wg
Utility

Evaporator Subcooler Isolation Valves

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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SHR_WH FOR HOTEL FARIYAZ, COLABA 60 TR R22 WCC HEAT RECOVERY WATER HEATER
Operating for Over Eight Years without a Single Service Call
Free Water Heating 12,000 to 24,000 lpd, from 30 C to 60 C, Chiller Power Saving ~20%, Capacity Increase ~30% Generate Cold and Hot Utilities Simultaneously using SHR_WH or HP
Features of Tube_Tube Heat Exchangers, TT_HE:

• Novel Modular Design: Vented tube-tube design, starting with 0.5 TR module with increments
of 1 and 5 TR, no upper limit for chiller capacity

• Safe Integration in to the System: Vented design ensures no mixing of refrigerant and water,
SHR_WH can be isolated while chiller is on line

• Simple to Retrofit: Only the tube/pipe between compressor and condenser is tapped into to
install the SHR_WH

SHRWH • High Heat Transfer Coefficients: Novel tubular exchangers optimized for high heat transfer
coefficients at low pressure drops on water/refrigerant sides

• Material of Construction: Wide choice of MOC, optimized based on the application, SS 316L,
SS 316, SS 304L, Mild Steel, Carbon Steel, Copper

• Easy to Maintain: Can be cleaned in place using Chemical Descaling Fluids while keeping the
chiller/refrigeration system online

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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HEAT RECOVERY WATER HEATER CO-GENERATION USING HR_WH


Generate Cold and Hot Utilities Simultaneously using SHR_WH and HP How much Energy can be Recovered?

Features of Tube_Tube Heat Exchangers (TT_HE): Super Heat Recovery from Air or Water Cooled
• R22 Chillers 10 to 15% of TCD
• Heats Tap Water to 60 C: 500 to 870 litre/h water heated from a 60 TR R22 based reciprocating
chillers  Heating tap water to 50 to 65 C 40 to 60 kW/100 TR
• R717 Refrigeration System 12 to 18% of TCD
• Heats Tap Water to 75 C: 720 to 1700 litre/h water heated from a 135 TR Ammonia (R717)  Heating tap water to 50 to 75 C 60 to 100 kW/100 TR
refrigeration system used in typical dairy application

• Heats Oil up to 90 C: 720 to 1700 litre/h water heated from a 15 TR R22 based air cooled Total Condenser Heat Recovery from Water Cooled
ductable split air conditioner in automotive industry • R22 and R717 Cold Store Refrigeration Systems 90 to 95% of TCD
• Instant Supply of Hot Water: Start hot water recovery within five minutes  Heating tap water to 45 to 50 C 330 to 390 kW/100 TR

• Energy Saving: 100% of fuel used for water heating is saved and 5 to 15% of electrical power Total Condenser Heat Recovery from Air Cooled
is saved due to improved Cooling COP of the chiller/refrigeration system
• R22 and R717 Heat Pump Chillers 90o 95% of TCD
• Increased Cooling Capacity: 5 to 20% increase in cooling/refrigeration capacity for a given  Heating tap water to 50 to 60 C 330 to 390 kW/100 TR
compressor

• Attractive Payback: Typically 3 to 6 month for SHR_WH and 6 to 18 month for HP

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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CASE STUDY CASE STUDY


Super Heat Recovery Water Heater at Hotel in Mumbai (Fariyas, Colaba) Super Heat Recovery Water Heater at Hotel in Mumbai (Fariyas, Colaba)

• Chiller Capacity 60 TR (211.2 kWc ) • Chiller Capacity 60 TR (211.2 kWc )


R22 York Reciprocating Compressor R22 York Reciprocating Compressor

• Temperature of Water, In/Out 30/60 C


• Temperature of Refrigerant, In/Out 95/63 C SHRWH is installed in co-current mode

• Total Capital Cost of Retrofit Installation Rs 3 Lakh


• Temperature of Water, In/Out 30/60 C Includes installation and commissioning, taxes, etc
SHRWH is installed in co-current mode
• Saving in HSD for Operating the Boiler 81 l HSD/day
Site Data
• Hot Water Flow Rate 870 l/h
• Cost of HSD Saved Rs 2,916/day
@ 36 Rs/l x 81 l/d = Rs2,916/d
• Heat Duty of SHR_WH, Qh 30 kWh
30 kWh / [(60 - 30) C x 4.18 kJ/kg.C] = 870 L/h water heating • Annual Savings in HSD Cost Rs 8.4 Lakh
Assuming 360 d/yr and 80% occupancy Rs 2,916/d x 360 d/yr x 0.8 occupancy = Rs 8.4 Lakh

• Hour of Operation of WW MU_HP 22.7 h/day


@ 81 l/d / 3.57 l/h = 22.3 h/d • Simple Payback Considering 80% Depreciation in the First Year ~3 month
Rs 3 Lakh x (1 – 0.8 x 0.35) / Rs 8.4 Lakh/yr = Rs 2.16 Lakh / Rs 8.4 Lakh/yr = 3.09 month
Note: Increased cooling capacity is not taken credit for, this will make payback even more attractive
• Saving of High Speed Diesel, HSD, for Operating the Boiler 3.57 l/h
30 kWh / (40337 kJ/l x 75% / 3600 s) @ CV 40337 kJ/l, boiler eff 75% & Rs 36 /l HSD
• Reduction in CO2 Emissions ~550 tonne since 2002
Assuming 2.82 kg CO2/L HSD Consumed
• Saving in HSD for Operating the Boiler 81 l HSD/day CO2 Emission Reduction = 81 L HSD /d x 2.82 kg CO2/L HSD @ 360 d/yr x 0.8occopancy = 66 T/yr
Site Data CO2 Emission Reduction is increased by another 4 T/yr due to20% improvement in cooling COP

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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CASE STUDY SHR_WH FOR McDI 8.3 TR R22 AC_DSAC


SHR_WH along with Grundfos Water Pump: Before and After Installation in the ODU
Super Heat Recovery Water Heater at Worli, Dairy
Free Water Heating 240 lph, Water Heated from 27 C to 60 C, AC Power Saving 12 to 15.6%

• Refrigeration System Capacity 270 TR (950 kWc )


 R717 Kirloskar Reciprocating Compressor
• Temperature of Refrigerant, In/Out 115/60 C
• Temperature of Water, In/Out 25/70 C
 SHRWH is installed in counter-current mode

• Hot Water Flowrate 70,000 l/day


• Fuel Saving Expected 390 l FO/day

• Annual Savings based on cost in 2004 Rs 23 Lakh/yr

• Reduction in CO2 Emissions 330 tonne/year


• Simple Payback 6 month
 Without accounting for electricity saving due to improved COP
 Without accounting for 100% depreciation

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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MULTI-UTILITY HEAT PUMPS: MU_HP


VARIOUS TYPES OF HEAT PUMPS
Generate Multiple Cold and Hot Utilities Simultaneously

• Vapour Compression: Electric Motor or Direct Engine Coupled Novel 4 in 1 Heat Pumps
 Heating only
• Novel Design: 4 in 1 unit with provision for air conditioning, water heating, potable water
 Heating in winter and cooling and dehumidification in summer/monsoon
cooling and cloth drying
 Simultaneous cooling and heating
 Multi-utility generator for simultaneously catering to air-conditioning, water heating and • Integrated System: Includes tap water heater and potable water cooler
potable water chilling • 24 hour Supply of Hot and Cold Water: Storage required
• Simple to Operate: Simply turn on the hot or chilled water tap to draw water
• Absorption and Adsorption: Waste Heat or Solar Driven or Biogas/Biomass Fired
• Chills Potable Water to 18 C: 0.5 L/min or 30 L/h
 Co or tri-generation of cold, hot and/or dehumidification utilities
 Solar refrigerator cum water heater
• Heats Tap Water to 45 C: 3 to 4.5 L/min or 180 to 270 L/h in a 1.5 TR AC
 Solar cold store cum dryer
 Biogas fired cold store cum dryer • Low Operating Costs: 60 to 70% reduction in operating costs
 Solar cold store cum dryer with biogas backup • Lower Initial Cost: Compared to the conventional air conditioner + electric water heater + water
 Shipboard fish chilling system using engine exhaust heat cooler
 Tractor cabin air conditioner using hot water from engine • Compact Design: Same footprint as that of Window or Split Air Conditioner
• Maintenance Free: Operating for over 8 year at Prof Rane’s Residence in IITB

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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MULTI-UTILITY HEAT PUMP MULTI-UTILITY HEAT PUMPS


4 in 1 Residential Unit can Simultaneously Cater to Some Examples
Air Conditioning, Water Heating, Potable Water Cooling and Cloth Drying with Utilities that can be Co-Generated
Air to Air
Excess Heat Used for Cloth Drying
or Rejected to Ambient Air • Cold Utility: comfort air conditioning, cold store operation
Tap Water Heated
between 45 to 55 C • Hot Utility: heating air for drying of clothes, agro products, regeneration of desiccants, etc
Air to Water
• Cold Utility: comfort air conditioning, cold store operation
• Hot Utility: heating water, direct heating of process fluids like cleaning solutions in industrial washing
machines, drying agro products, regeneration of desiccants to cater to latent load, etc
Condenser
Water to Water
• Cold Utility: comfort air conditioning, precooling of fresh fruits, vegetables or flowers, direct process fluid
Expansion Electric cooling in chemical, pharmaceutical and food processing industry
Device Supply
Hermatic • Hot Utility: heating water, direct heating of process fluids like cleaning solutions in industrial washing
Compressor machines, drying agro products, regeneration of desiccants to cater to latent load, etc
Evaporator Water to Air
• Cold Utility: comfort air conditioning, precooling of fresh fruits, vegetables or flowers, direct process fluid
cooling in chemical, pharmaceutical and food processing industry
Potable Water
Cooled between • Hot Utility: space air heating, heating air for drying of clothes, agro products, regeneration of desiccants,
15 to 20 C etc
Others: Ground Coupled, Radiant Cooling and/or Heating Panel Coupled, Partial Recovery of Heat in the
Conditioned form of Super Heat Recovery, etc
Room Air

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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MULTI-UTILITY HEAT PUMPS ISSUES RELAVENT TO DESIGN


Some Applications Application Engineering is Very Important
with Utilities that can be Co-Generated Systems Need to be Custom Designed and Optimized

Residential Segment: Individual Homes, Bungalows, Housing Societies, etc • Design Should be Arrived at After Giving Due Consideration to
• Cold Utility: comfort air conditioning and potable water cooling  Variation in Load Patterns: design cooling, heating and/or drying dehumidification loads
• Hot Utility: heating water for bathing, dishwashing, washing machine input, cloth drying, etc  Specific Process Requirements: mode of heat recovery, in the form of potable hot water,
boiler feed water, direct heating of process fluids or sea water for desalination, regeneration
Commercial Segment: Restaurants, Hotels, Health Clubs, Hospitals, etc of liquid desiccant
• Cold Utility: comfort air conditioning and potable water cooling  Water Quality: passage dimensions
• Hot Utility: heating water for bathing, sanitation, liquid desiccant regeneration, potable water  Concept and Culture of Maintenance: reflects on water passage dimension
generation, etc  Choice of Wetted Material: Tube MOC has to be appropriately selected and wall thickness
is to be determined based on corrosion characteristics and expected life
Industrial Segment: Dairy, Pharmaceutical, Textile, Food Processing and Cold Stores, Automobile, etc
• Cold Utility: air conditioning, direct process fluid cooling and potable water cooling • Variables that Play an Important Role in Design Optimization
• Hot Utility: direct process fluid heating, boiler feed water preheating, drying, liquid desiccant  Pressure Drop on Refrigerant Side: affects size, weight and cost; specially capacity of the
regeneration, effluent concentration, etc chiller/refrigeration unit may reduce if not designed properly
 Refrigerant Velocities: oil return and heat transfer coefficients
Note: Multiple Hot and/or Cold Utilities can be Simultaneously Co-Generated  Water Velocities: fouling, heat transfer coefficients and pumping costs

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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12/21/2009

AIR & WATER TO WATER MULTI-UTILITY HEAT PUMP AIR WATER to WATER - MULTI-UTILITY HEAT PUMP
Energy Efficient Heating for M&M Kandivili
Heat Duty 33 kW, Power Input 11 kW, Heater Power Saving 60 to 70%, Solution Heated up to 55 C
for Washing Machine Coolant Heating on a Industrial Washing M/c
Bonus Utilities Generated: Cooling of Shop Floor and Potable Chilled Water 300 lph at 18 C

Condenser

Synclean
So luti on Heated
to 5 5 C Electric
Ex pansion Su pply
Device

Evapo rator
Su bcooler

Po table Water
Cooled to 18 C
Air Co nditio nin g

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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PERFORMANCE OF 48 kWh AWW MU_HP PERFORMANCE OF 48 kWh AWW MU_HP


Utilities Produced and Power Consumed Simple Payback
for Simultaneous Water Heating, Potable Water Cooling and Air Cooling for Simultaneous Water Heating, Potable Water Cooling and Air Cooling
• Utilities Produced by AWW MU_HP ESH MU_HP • Heat Duty of AWW MU_HP, Qh 48 kWh
for Cleaning Solution In/Out temperature is 50 / 55 C
 Synclean Solution Heating from 50 to 55 C 75 kW 48 kW
 Air Conditioning 8.5 TR (30 kWc) • Bonus Cooling Duty of AWW MU_HP, Qc 8.5 TR (30 kWc)
 Potable Water Cooling 4.1 kW
• Cost of Electrical Power Used to Operate Cleaning Solution Heaters Rs 2,550/day
• Power Consumed ESH MU_HP 75 kW x ( 2 h + 8 h x 60% duty cycle ) x 5 Rs/kWh = (150 + 360) kWh/d x 5 Rs/kWh = 510 kWh/d x 5 Rs/d = Rs 2550 /d

 Electric Solution Heater, ESH 75 kW • Cost of Electrical Power for AWW MU_HP Rs 1,000/day
(18 +1 ) kW x ( 3 h + 8 h x 94% duty cycle ) x 5 Rs/kWh = (57 + 143) kWh/d x 5 Rs/kWh = 200 kWh/d x 5 Rs/d = Rs 1000 /d
2 h preheating @ 100% duty and 8 h @ 60% duty cycle

 AWW Multi Utility Heat Pump, MU_HP 18 kW • Saving in Operating Cost Rs 1,550/day
 Solution Pumps 1 kW • Annual Savings in Operating Cost Rs 4.65 Lakh
3 h preheating @ 100% duty and 8 h @ 94% duty cycle
Rs 1550/d x 300 d/yr operation = Rs 4.65 Lakh
• Total Power Consumption 510 kWh/day 200 kWh/day
• Total Capital Cost of AWW MU_HP Installation Rs 10 Lakh
• Reduction in Power Consumption 61% Includes application engineering, piping, installation and commissioning, taxes, etc

• Total Operating Cost 2550 Rs/day 1000 Rs/day • Simple Payback 18.6 month
@ 5 Rs/kWh
Considering 80% Depreciation in the First Year: Rs 10 Lakh x (1 – 0.8 x 0.35) / Rs 4.65 Lakh = Rs 7.2 Lakh / Rs 4.65 Lakh
• Saving in Operating Cost 1550 Rs/day Savings due to bonus utilities generated, if accounted, will lead to a payback of about 12 month for One Shift Operation

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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12/21/2009

PERFORMANCE OF 48 kWh AWW MU_HP AIR & WATER TO WATER MULTI-UTILITY HEAT PUMP
CO2 Emission Reduction
Energy Efficient Process Fluid Heating and Simultaneous AC and Water Cooling
for Simultaneous Water Heating, Potable Water Cooling and Air Cooling for Small Scale Industries and Agro Processing Units

• Simple Payback 18.6 month Heating Duty 36 kWh


Considering 80% Depreciation in the First Year: Rs 10 Lakh x (1 – 0.8 x 0.35) / Rs 4.65 Lakh = Rs 7.2 Lakh / Rs 4.65 Lakh
Savings due to bonus utilities generated, if accounted, will lead to a payback of about 12 month for One Shift Operation
Water Heating from 50 to 55 C

• Net Saving in Power Consumption 310 kWh/day Power Input 12 kWe

• CO2 Emission Reduction 74.8 tonneCO2/yr Heater Power


Assuming 0.804 kg CO2/kWH Electricity Consumed
CO2 Emission Reduction = 310 kWh/d x 0.804 kg CO2 = 249.2 kg CO2/d @ 300 d/yr = 74.75 tonne/yr
Saving 60 to 70%

• CO2 Emission Reduction if Cold Utilities are Also Accounted 90 tonne CO2/yr Bonus Utility
Additional CO2 Emission Reduction due to Bonus Cold Utility = (30 kWc/COPc 5 ) x ( 3 h + 8 h x 94% duty cycle ) x 0.804 kg CO2 Generated
= (6 x 10.52) kWh/d x 0.804 kg CO2 = 63.1 kWh/d x 0.804 kg CO2 = 50.75 kg CO2 /d @ 300 d/yr = 15.2 tonne/yr
Chilled Water 4.2 kWc
Water Chilled from 12 to 7 C
• Peak Electrical Demand is Reduced from 75 kW to 19 kW 75%
Air Cooling 19.8 to 24 kWc
Indoor Temperature 27 to 18 C

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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12/21/2009

CASE STUDY 3rd BRY-AIR AWARDS FOR EXCELLANCE IN HVAC&R 2007-08


Multi-Utility Heat Pump Installation: Cost Benefit Analysis Multi-Utility Heat Pumps Won the Runner-Up Trophy in the Product Category
36 kW Heating along with Air Conditioning and Potable Water Chilling
• Total Capital Cost of MU_HP Installation Rs 10.00 Lakh
 Multi-Utility Heat Pump Rs 8.10 Lakh
 Estimated Solution Pump, Plumbing, Installation, etc Rs 1.4 Lakh
 Consultancy on MU_HP Integration Rs 0.5 Lakh
• Saving in Operating Cost Rs 1440/day
• Annual Savings in Operating Cost Rs 5.26 Lakh

1 MW Heating can be Catered to with 28 MU_HPs


• Total Capital Cost of MU_HP Installation for 1 MW Heating Rs 2.78 Crore
• Capital Cost of 1 MW Conventional Power Plant Rs 4.00 Crore

• Annual Savings in Operating Cost Rs 1.47 Crore

• Simple Payback for MU_HP Installation < 1.5 year


Without accounting for the initial investment required for the equipment needed for generating cold utilities, the cost of
operating the cold utility generators and initial investment required for additional conventional power plant
SHR_WHs will be even more attractive because of lower initial cost per kW heating and no power consumption

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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WATER TO WATER MULTI-UTILITY HEAT PUMP AIR & WATER TO WATER MULTI-UTILITY HEAT PUMP
Energy Efficient Process Fluid Heating and Simultaneous AC and Water Cooling
Energy Efficient Water Heating and Simultaneous Water Chilling for Hotels
for Small Scale Industries and Agro Processing Units

Heating Duty 55 kWh Heating Duty 18 kWh


Water Heating from 27 to 60 C Water Heating from 48 to 60 C

Power Input 15 kWe Power Input 6 kWe

Heater Power
Heater Power
Saving 60 to 70%
Saving 60 to 70%
Bonus Utility
Generated
Bonus Utility Chilled Water 4.2 kWc
Generated Water Chilled from 12 to 7 C
Chilled Water 43 kWc
Water Chilled from 12 to 7 C Air Cooling 7.8 to 12 kWc
Indoor Temperature 27 to 18 C

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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12/21/2009

GROUND WATER COOLED AIR CONDITIONERS GROUND WATER COUPLED AIR CONDITIONERS
1 TR GWC_AC for IIM Ahmedabad
1 TR GWC_AC for IIM Ahmedabad
Cooling Duty Increase 26% , COP Increase 43% , Water 28.5 to 34.6oC @ 780 lph
• Novel Condenser Design
 Uses patented Tube-Tube Heat Exchanger (TT_HE) as Ground Water Cooled Condenser
• Design Specifications for Energy Efficient Room Air Conditioner
 Nominal cooling capacity 3.5 kWc (1 TR)
 Room Temperature Specified / Recommended 24 / 27 C
 Supplemented by ceiling fan at low speed if required
 Ground water supply 780 L/h @ 27 C
• Low Operating Costs compared to Conventional Window Air Conditioner (WAC)
 Electric power consumption reduced by 15 to 20%
 Increase cooling capacity 25 to 30%
 Increased cooling Coefficient of Performance, COPc 45 to 60%
• Compact Design
 Currently size as conventional Window/Split Air Conditioner (W&SAC)
 Future unit of GWC_AC can be more compact as compared to W&SAC

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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MULTI-UTILITY HEAT PUMP WITH CONTACTING DEVICE CONCLUSIONS


Energy Efficient Air Conditioning using Novel Evaporative Condensation at McDonalds
AC Duty 2 4 TR, Power Input 1.1 kWe/TR, Power Saving 25 to 30%, Water Heated up to 55 C
Bonus Utilities Generated: AC of Kitchen, Water Heated 500 lph at 55 C and Potable Chilled Water 300 lph at 18 C
Energy Conservation in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Systems

• Increasing Energy Costs and Raising Concern for Environment Heightens the Need to Go for
Energy Conservation

• SHR_WH and MU_HP can Enable Recovery of Heat from Chillers / Refrigeration Systems
 Generating hot water, steam or desalinating sea water
 Regenerating liquid desiccant for drying and dehumidification
 Payback Periods for Novel Patented SHR_WHs range between 3 to 6 month
 Payback Periods for Heat Pumps range between 3 to 18 month
• Novel Patented Tube-Tube Heat Exchangers (TT_HE) are Very Reliable
 Double Wall Vented Design no worries about cross contamination
 More Reliable than the conventional condensers and chillers

• Engine Exhaust Heat based Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Systems are Viable

• Solar and Biogas Fired Multi-Utility Heat Pumps will be Techno-Commercially Viable in
Near Future

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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12/21/2009

AIR CONDITIONING USING PLASTIC PANEL PLASTIC SOLAR AIR HEATER


Cost Rs 4,100/m 2, Weight 5 to 7 kg/m 2, Air In/Out 29 / 90 to 104 C
Coupled with a Water to Water Heat Pump (WW_HP)
Heat Duty 0.45 to 0.72 kW/m2, Air Flow 390 lpm/m2 Efficiency 60 to 65%, Isolation 0.75 to 1.2 kW/m2
• Cost of a 1 TR Panel
 Rs 500, 1/10th the cost of conventional FCU

• Dual Use
 Can be used for heating and cooling

• Reduces Air Conditioning Costs


 Effective dehumidification using 7 to 17oC
chilled water
 Very low chilled water side pressure drop,
<0.1m H2O
 Spot cooling can help reduce cooling load
 18’ L x 15’ W x 12’ H room is conditioned using
1 TR Heat Pump

• Low Noise
 Indoor panel is an all plastic unit without a fan,
existing ceiling fan can be used

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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12/21/2009

EVACUUATED GLASS TUBE SOLAR AIR HEATER SOLAR AIR CONDITIONER INSTALLED
Fixed Parabolic Reflector: Cost Rs 5,000/m 2, Weight 5 to 7 kg/m 2 AT VISHWAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, AMRAVATI
Air In/Out 29/150 to 298 C, Heat Duty 0.3 to 0.375 Air Flow 100 kW/m2, lpm/m2, Efficiency 40 to 60% AC Duty 15 TR, Potable Water Chilled to 15 C
Isolation 0.75 to 1.2 kW/m2

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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12/21/2009

AMMONIA ABSORPTION CHILLER ADSORPTION REFRIGERATION MODULE


using Heat from the Engine Cooling Water of a 125 kVA DG Simple Reliable System is Viable for Waste Heat Recovery

• Chiller Specifications • Activated Carbon / Ammonia based Modular Cooling


 10 TR water chiller, 12 to 7 C
 Hot water temperature, 90 to 84 C • Operation
 Evaporatively cooled condenser and absorber  Intermittent with single set of module/s
• Cost of 10 TR Heat Pump  Continuous with multiple sets of module/s operating out of
 Rs 3 to 6 Lakh, depending on hot water temperature phase with each other
 Rs 25,000 to 40,000/TR for large systems > 100 TR • Cooling Capacity Depend on Size of Module
• Coefficient of Performance
 Few watts to several TR capacity is possible with multiple
 Cooling COP in the range of 0.63 to 0.72 modules
• Benefits
• Reliable Operation
 Reduced CO2 emissions and peak demand
 Module is operational for over 10 year without replacing
 Compact size with low ammonia inventory
activated carbon
 Ability to use low grade heat
• Features
 Leak free ammonia system is demonstrated
 HPL_IITB module is operating satisfactorily for over 10 year without
 Size 2 m L x 1,2 m W x 2.7 m H
recharging ammonia
 4 x 0.25 kW fans, 2.25 kW solution pump and 0.75 kW
water pump • Applications
 Exhaust fired refrigeration, solar refrigerators, etc.
Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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12/21/2009

SCS USING WASTE HEAT SCS USING WASTE HEAT


Schematic Diagram 1 TR Test Unit Photograph of 1 TR Test Unit
• Cooling Down to -20 C

12 2WV 31 30 33 32
PG
13 14 • Low Refrigerant Charge 3 to 5 kg NH3/TR
COND LVHE PRV TV • Low Initial Cost 30 to 40%
15 16 Notations
18 17 MSA Module set A Lower than conventional dedicated engine driven VCS
MSB Module set B
EGDVi Exhaust gas diverter valve inlet
19 6 6 EGDVo Exhaust gas diverter valve
outlet
• Compact Design 0.5 to 0.75 m3/TR
MSB
Thi Triangular header inlet
TWVB THo MCF MCF THi
Tho
MCF
Triangular header outlet
Module cooling fans
• Condenser 38oC
TWVA Three way valve A Sea water cooled
Air EGDVi TWVB Three way valve B
11 20
PG
2WV
Pressure gauge
Two way valve
• Sea Water Chilled to 0 to 3 C
3 COND Condenser
5 5 5 LVHE Liquid vapour heat exchanger
4 PRV Pressure reducing valve • Annual Saving
TV Throttling valve
TWVA EGDVO
EVP Evaporator  Cost of ice Rs 1.13 to 7.2 lakh
MTR Electric Motor
CB Centrifugal Blower  Cost of fuel Rs 3.71 lakh
MSA
10 Flow Circuits • Reduced CO2 Emissions
1_2_3_4 Hot air flow
5_6 Cooling air flow  Due to reduced ice payload 30 tonne/year
10 to 20 Refrigerant flow
CB 30_31 Water flow in condenser  Due to saved electricity 13.4 tonne/year
32_33 Water flow in evaporator
VM in ice production
MTR 1 2
• Environment Friendly Natural Refrigerant

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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HYBRID AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM LIQUID DESICCANT BASED DRYER


Cooling Using VCS and Dehumidification Using Liquid Desiccant Regenerator for a 120 kg/h Paper Tray Dryer

Novel Contacting Device in ICD and OCD • Modular Liquid Desiccant (LD) Regenerator
Large surface density  20 Novel Contacting Devices integrated to operate
 465 to 600 m2/m3 in parallel
ICD
No carryover of LD • Energy Saving
Low pressure drop  Expected to save 30% heat compared to
 5 to 10 mm H2O conventional hot air based drying
OCD Features and Advantages • Low Parasitic Power
Increase in Cooling Capacity  Low air side pressure drop of 5 to 10 mm H2O
 20 to 40% for a given compressor  Motor power for rotating contacting disk 5 W per
Energy Saving tray or less than 1/8 hp per rack
 30 to 60% compared to conventional • Possibility of Integration with Various Heat Sources
practice like
Modular Design  Boiler, engine, gas turbine exhaust streams
 2 to 50 kW cooling capacity  Flat plate solar collectors as well as evacuated glass
Low Initial Cost tube solar collectors
 compared to conventional solid or liquid  Condensers of air cooled refrigeration and air
desiccant based systems conditioning unit

Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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BAKERY EXHAUST HEAT RECOVERY ONGOING PROJECTS


Steam Generator for Maintaining High Humidity in the Baking Oven for HUL Energy Conservation in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Systems

• Modular Exhaust Heat Recovery Steam Generator • Solar Refrigerator cum Water Heater
 Steam generation rate 15 kg/h
 Insulation 50 mm • Shipboard Cold Store using Engine Exhaust Heat
 Includes provision for online soot cleaning
• Solar Cold Store for Potatoes
• Compact Size
 One half the size and weight of conventional • Solar Cold Store cum Dryer for Fish
shell and tube based system
• Liquid Desiccant based Solar Multi-Utility Heat Pump
• Low Gas Side Pressure drop < 50 mm H2O

• Pump is Not Required • Pulsating Heat Pipes for Electronic Cooling


 Overhead tank water is used for steam
generation
• Automatic Operation
 Water flow is float controlled
 Online soot blowing is timer controled
Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL Presented by Prof M V Rane at the Workshop on Efficiency and Load Shifting Opportunities in HVAC at NSE, Mumbai, INDIA CONFIDENTIAL
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