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Combustion

Optimisation for Optimal


Performance
Emerging Market Requirements

1. Higher Availability & Reliability


2. Highest Plant efficiency
3. Lower Heat Rate
4. Minimum Auxiliary Power Consumption
5. Ability to operate under adverse grid conditions /
fluctuation in demand
6. Minimum emission of Pollutants
Measures to improve Plant Efficiency

Boiler side:

1. Minimum flue gas temperature at AH outlet


2. Minimum excess air at AH outlet
3. Minimum un-burnt Carbon loss
4. Minimum RH spray
5. Minimum SH spray
6. Reduced Auxiliary Power Consumption
Measures to improve Plant Efficiency …

Turbine side measures

1. Higher steam parameters


( MS Pressure & SHO/RHO Steam Temp)
2. Increasing feed water temperature with
Enhanced Regenerative feed heating
3. Improvement in condenser vacuum
PLANT EFFICIENCY & HEAT RATE

482.8 Mkcal/hr 420 Mkcal/hr 180.6 Mkcal/hr 172 Mkcal/hr

boiler 210
T
MW 200 MW
120.7 t/h auxpower 10 MW
4000 kcal/kg

87.0 % 2000 kcal/kwhr 43.0 %

2299 kcal/kwhr 37.4%

2414 kcal/kwhr 35.6 %


Heat Balance for Steam Process

Energy Input
Feed Water Steam @ Pressure
P1
Usefull
Energy Input Steam Process Energy
Air & Fuel Output
P1

Energy Energy Energy


Loss Loss Loss
Flue Blow Down Due to Piping
Gas Water Friction Loss
Equipment etc.

Energy Output = Energy Input - Losses


Proximate to Ultimate Conversion

Proximate Data (As fired) Sample


Total Moisture M % 8.00
Ash A % 42.60
VOLATILE MATTER VM % 21.60
FIXED CARBON FC % 27.80
GCV GCV Kcal/Kg 3800.00

Proximate Analysis (On M & Ash Free basis)


VM (M & Ash Free) VM' % 43.72
FC ( M & Ash Free) FC' % 56.28
VM'=VM*100/(100-M-A)

Ultimate Analysis (On M & Ash Free basis)


Carbon C' % 79.43
C' = FC' + 0.9*(VM'-18)
Hydrogen H' % 5.41
H' = VM' * {7.35 / (VM'+10) - 0.013}
Sulphur S' % 1.00
Nitrogen N' % 1.58
N' = 2.1 - 0.012*VM'
Oxygen O' % 12.58
O' = 100 - (C' + H' + S' + N')

Ultimate Analysis
Carbon C % 39.24
Hydrogen H % 2.67
Sulphur S % 0.49
Nitrogen N % 0.78
Oxygen O % 6.22
C = C' * (100 - M - A) / 100
Moisture % 8.00
Ash % 42.60
100.00
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
C – 12.01, H – 1.008, S – 32.066, OX – 16
IN AIR, OXYGEN IS 20.95 % BY VOLUME & 23.2 % BY WEIGHT

C + O2 = CO2
12.O1 + 32 = 44.01
1 + 32/12.01 FOR 1 GM OF CARBON, 02 REQUIRED = 32 / 12.01 = 2.667
FOR C GM OF CARBON, 02 REQUIRED = 32 / 12.01 C = 2.667 C

SIMILARLY,
2H2 + O2 = 2H2O
4.032 + 32
1 + 32/4.032 FOR 1 GM OF HYDROGEN, 02 REQUIRED = 32 / 4.032 = 7.937
FOR H GM OF HYDROGEN, 02 REQUIRED = 32 / 4.032 H = 7.937 H

S + 02 = SO2
32.066 + 32
1 + 32/32.066 FOR 1 GM OF SULPHUR, 02 REQUIRED = 32 / 32.066 = 0.996
FOR S GM OF SULPHUR, 02 REQUIRED = 32 / 32.066 S = 0.996

TOTAL OXYGEN REQUIRED = 2.664 C + 7.937 H + 0.996 S – OX


TOTAL AIR REQUIRED = (2.664 C + 7.937 H + 0.996 S – OX) / 23.2 (BY WEIGHT)
(FOR 1 GM OF COAL)
STOICHIOMETRIC AIR
EXCESS AIR
BOILER EFFICIENCY TEST
METHODS:
Direct Method
In-direct Method
Codes Being followed:
ASME PTC 4 – 1998 (ASME PTC 4.1)
BS EN 12952-15:2003 (earlier BS 2885)
IS 8753 / 1977 (withdrawn)
DIN 1942
ISO R 889 / 1968
DIRECT METHOD
Efficiency = Output / Input
= Heat absorbed by working fluid * 100
(Heat in Fuel + Heat Credits)
Heat Credits
Heat in entering air
Heat in Atomizing steam
Sensible heat in fuel
Pulverizer power
Boiler Circulating water pump power
Heat supplied by moisture in entering air
DIRECT METHOD
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
1. Based on the definition 1. Flows (Feed water & Fuel) of
Efficiency. Should be measured very
accurately.
2. Very less no of readings. 2. Less accuracy.
3. Capacity and output data 3. Identifying and correction
also can be checked. to the losses area is not
possible.
4. Does not provide for
corrections of test results
to Standards or Guarentee
conditions.
INDIRECT METHOD (HEAT LOSS METHOD)
Efficiency = 100 – (Heat Losses * 100)
(Heat in Fuel + Heat Credits)
Heat Losses
Unburnt carbon loss
Dry gas loss
Fuel hydrogen loss
Fuel moisture loss
Air moisture loss
Carbon mono oxide loss
Radiation and convection loss
Sensible heat loss in fly ash
Sensible heat loss in bottom ash
Mill reject loss
Heat credits (As Negative Loss)
INDIRECT METHOD
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
1. Accuracy is more. 1. More no of readings.
2. Identifying the losses & correction 2. Capacity and output data can
to the losses area is possible. not be checked.
3. The primary measurements (Fuel, 3. Some losses are practically
FG analysis & Temp) can be immeasurable and value
measured very accurately. must be estimated.
4. The resulting efficiency usually has
lower uncertainty because the measured
quantities (Losses) represents only a
small fraction of the total energy.
5. The effects of fairly substantial errors in
secondary measurement and estimated
values are minimal.
6. Permits corrections of test results to
standards or Guarantee condition.
Probable measurement errors and resulting errors in efficiency
calculation by Direct method:
Measurement Measurement error Error in Effy
Calibrated Flow Nozzle ±0.55 ± 0.55
Coal Scales ± 0.25 ± 0.25
HHV (Coal) ± 0.50 ± 0.50
(Oil & Gas) ± 0.35 ± 0.35
Reheat flow (By Calculation) ± 0.60 ± 0.10
SH Outlet Temperature ± 0.25 ± 0.15
RH In / Out Temperature ± 0.25 ± 0.10
FW Temperature ± 0.25 ± 0.10
SH Outlet Pressure ± 1.00 ± 0.00
RH In/Out Pressure ± 0.50 ± 0.00
Probable measurement errors and resulting errors in efficiency
calculation by Heat Loss Method:
Measurement Measurement error Error in Effy
HHV (Coal) ± 0.50 ± 0.03
(Oil & Gas) ± 0.35 ± 0.02
Orsat Analysis ± 3.00 ± 0.30
Exit Gas Temperature ± 0.50 ± 0.02
Inlet Air Temperature ± 0.50 ± 0.00
Ultimate Analysis
Carbon ± 1.00 ± 0.10
Hydrogen ± 1.00 ± 0.10
Moisture ± 1.00 ± 0.00
Boiler Efficiency Calculation – Direct Method (Input/Output
Method)
Efficiency, E = Ho/Hi*100
Where,

Heat Input, Hi = CF * GCV*1000


Heat Output, Ho = {Qf*(Hs – Hf) + Qr*(Hro – Hri)}*1000
Where,
CF – CoalFlow; Qf – FW Flow quantity
Hs – SH Outlet Enthalpy; Hf – FW Enthalpy
Qr – RH Flow; Hro - RH Outlet Enthalpy
Hri - RH inlet Enthalpy
APH Performance (Code: ASME PTC 4.3)
APH Leakage in %, AL = (Wg – Wgi)*100 / Wgi
= (CO2_in – CO2_out)*90 / CO2_out OR = (O2_out – O2_in)*100 / (21 – O2_out)
TgNL = AL / 100 * CpA / CpG*(Tgo – Ta) + Tgo
Gas side efficiency, Ef_G = (Tgi – TgNL)*100 / (Tgi – Ta)
X Ratio, XR = (Tgi – TgNL) / (Tao – Ta)
Tgc = {Tac*(Tgi – Tgo) + Tgi*(Tgo – Ta)} / (Tgi – Ta)
Where
Tgi & Tgo – Gas temperature entering & leaving APH
Ta & Tao – Air temperature entering & leaving APH
Tac – Design air temperature entering APH
TgNL – Calculated Gas temperature leaving APH corrected for No air leakage
Tgc – Corrected gas temp leaving APH for deviation from design entering air temp
CpA & CpG – Mean Specific heat of air and gas
Wgi & Wg – Quantity of wet gas entering & leaving APH
NOx Conversion:

NOx (in Kg/GJ) = NOx (in PPM) * 0.718 / 1000 * (21 – O2ref) / (21 – O2)
Performance Calculations
1. SH Spray Flow = FW Flow*(h_SHBS – h_SHAS) / (h_SHBS–h_SHSW)
2. RH Spray Flow = RH Flow*(h_RHBS – h_RHAS) / (h_RHAS–h_RHSW)
3. FC = SH Flow*(h_SH-h_FW) + RH Flow*(h_Rho-h_Rhi)*100
GCV*Efficiency
4. Excess Air = (O2i-COi/2)*100 / {0.2683*N2i-(O2i-COi/2)} or
O2/(20.9-O2)
Where,
FC – Fuel consumption
h_SHBS – Enthalpy at SH before spray
h_SHAS – Enthalpy at SH after spray
h_SHSW – Enthalpy of SH spray water
RH flow calculation
Reheater Flow, Qr = Qs – Qgl – Qex + Qrs
Where,
Qs – SH Flow; Qgl – Turbine gland leak flow
Qrs – RH spray flow; Qex – HP Heater 6 Extraction quantity

Qex = Qfw*(Hfwo – Hfwi) / (Hex – Hd)


Where,
Qfw – FW flow
Hfwi – Feed water HP heater 6 inlet Enthalpy
Hfwo – Feed water HP heater 6 outlet Enthalpy
Hex – HP heater 6 Extraction Enthalpy.
Hd – HP heater 6 Drain Enthalpy.
TYPICAL HEAT LOSS
UNIT DADRI SING EID
MW 200 500 16
CARBON LOSS 0.827 0.364 0.52
DRY GAS LOSS 4.325 4.847 5.320
FUEL H2 LOSS 3.609 3.520 6.57
FUEL MOISTURE 2.129 2.814 15.99
LOSS
OTHER LOSSES 1.001 0.726 0.44
TOTAL LOSS 11.711 12.071 28.84
FUEL COAL COAL BAGASSE
Summary of losses in a boiler
controllable
L1 Dry gas loss % 5.542
L3 Combustible loss % 1.453
L8 Carbon monoxide loss % 0.065
L7 Mill reject loss % 0.049
7.109
un -controllable
L2 Moisture loss % 6.523
L5 Radiation loss % 0.270
L4 Air moisture loss % 0.200
L6 Sensible heat of ash % 0.415
7.408

L Total % 14.517

E Efficiency % 85.483
100 - L
1. UNBURNT CARBON LOSS

Ash in coal A % 43.96

% Carbon in fly ash Cf % 0.56


Distribution of fly ash Df % 80
Combustibles in fly ash Uf Kg / kg coal 0.00198
Uf = Df/100 * A/100 * Cf / (100 - Cf)

% Carbon in bottom ash Cb % 3.26


Distribution of bottom ash Db % 20
Combustibles in bottom ash Ub Kg / kg coal 0.00296
Ub = Db/100 * A/100 * Cb / (100 - Cb)
Total combustibles U Kg / kg coal 0.00494
U = Uf + Ub
CV of Carbon CVc Kcal / kg 8077.8
GCV of coal Gcv Kcal / kg 3627.84

Unburnt carbon loss L_UC % 1.1


L_UC = U * CVc * 100 / Gcv
2. DRY GAS LOSS
Carbon in coal C % 34.32
Sulphur in coal S % 0.43
Total combustibles U Kg / kg coal 0.00494
Specific heat of gas Cp KJ / kg mol / °C 30.6
FG temp. at AH outlet Tg °C 138
Ref. air temp. Ta °C 43
CO2 % at AH outlet CO2_out % 14.5
CO % at AH outlet CO_out % 0.025
GCV of coal Gcv Kcal / kg 3627.84
Weight of dry gas per Kg of Wd Kg / kg mol 0.19466
"as fired fuel"
( C + S / 2.67 - 100 * U )
12 * (CO2_out + CO_out)
Sensible heat of dry gas Sh KJ / kg coal 565.86
Sh = Wd * Cp * (Tg - Ta)

Dry Gas loss L_G % 3.726


L_G = Sh * 100 / Gcv / 4.186
3. LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE IN FUEL

Total moisture in fuel M % 8


FG temp. at AH outlet Tg °C 138
Ref. air temp. Ta °C 43
GCV of coal Gcv Kcal / kg 3627.84
Sensible heat of water vapour Sw KJ / kg 2578.84
SW = 1.88 * (Tg - 25) + 2442 + 4.2 * (25 - Ta)

Loss due to moisture in fuel L_M % 1.358


L_M = M * Sw / Gcv / 4.186

4. LOSS DUE TO HYDROGEN IN FUEL

Hydrogen in coal H % 1.96

Loss due to hydrogen in fuel L_H % 2.997


L_H = 9 * H * Sw / Gcv / 4.186
5. LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE IN AIR

Carbon in coal C % 34.32


Hydrogen in coal H % 1.96
Sulphur in coal S % 0.43
Oxygen in coal O % 6.02
GCV of coal Gcv Kcal/kg 3627.84
Ambient temp. (dry) Td °C 40
Ambient temp. (wet) Tw % 32
Wt. of moisture Mwv Kg/kg air 0.0273
(from psychrometric chart)
Ref. air temp. Ta °C 43
FG temp. at AH outlet Tg °C 138
O2 % at AH outlet O2_out % 4.6
CO2 % at AH outlet CO2_out % 14.5
CO % at AH outlet CO_out % 0.025
N2 % at AH outlet N2_out % 80.84
N2_out = 100 - (O2_out + CO2_out + CO_out)
Stoichiometric air Sa Kg / kg coal 4.3702
Sa = (2.664*C + 7.937*H + 0.996*S - O) / 23.2
Excess air Ea % 26.743
Ea = (O2_out - CO_out/2) / [0.2682*N2_out - (O2_out - CO_out/2)] * 100
Total moisture in air Ma Kg / kg 0.1512
Ma = Sa * Ea * Mwv

Loss due to moisture in air L_mA % 0.178


L_mA = Ma * 1.88 * (Tg - Ta) * 100 / Gcv / 4.186
6. CARBON MONOXIDE LOSS
CV of carbon monoxide CVco Kcal/kg 2415
Gross CV Gcv Kcal/kg 3627.84
Combustibles U Kg/kg of coal 0.00494

Loss due to carbon monoxide L_co % 0.108

L_co =CO_o*7*CVco*(C-100U)/3/(CO2_o+CO_o)/Gcv

7. RADIATION LOSS

Loss due to surface L_ß % 0.22


radiation and convection
(as per prediction based on ABMA curve)
8. LOSS DUE TO SENSIBLE HEAT IN FLY ASH
Temperature of fly ash Tg °C 138
Ref. air temp. Ta °C 43
Specific heat of fly ash Cpf Kcal / kg / °C 0.16
Ash in coal A % 43.96
Distribution of fly ash Df % 80
GCV of coal Gcv Kcal / kg 3627.84

Loss due to sensible heat in fly ash L_f % 0.147


L_f = A/100 * Df/100 * Cpf * (Tg - Ta) * 100 / Gcv

9. LOSS DUE TO SENSIBLE HEAT IN BOTTOM ASH

Temperature of bottom ash above ambient Tb °C 1000


Specific heat of bottom ash Cpb Kcal / kg / °C 0.16
Ash in coal A % 43.96
Distribution of bottom ash Db % 20
GCV of coal Gcv Kcal / kg 3627.84

Loss due to sensible heat in bottom ash L_b % 0.371


L_b = A/100 * Db/100 * Cpb * Tb * 100 / Gcv
Heat Credits:
The heat credits are generally the other heat inputs then
through / from the fuel. (e.g. Heat due to shaft power of
pulverisers, Fans, etc. which are coming inside the system
boundary)
10. HEAT CREDIT

Total Mill power MP Kw 2475


Total PA Fan power Kw 956.25
Total coal flow Cflo T/hr 100.9
GCV of coal Gcv Kcal/kg 3627.84
Kw-hr / kg of fuel KwKg Kw-hr/kg 0.034006
KwKg = MP / Cflo / 1000

Heat credit (Heat Equivalent of Power) H_cr % -0.806


(as negative loss)
H_cr = KwKg * 859.86 * 100 / Gcv
Various Boiler Losses
By Gas Dry Gas Loss
Loss due to Moisture in Gas
Due to Fuel Moisture
Due to moisture formed by H2 in fuel
Due to air moisture
By Ash Unburnt carbon Loss
Sensible heat loss in Fly ash
Sensible heat loss in Bottom ash
Other Loss Carbon mono oxide Loss
Radiation Loss
Heat loss through Mill rejects
Heat Credit
Factors Influencing Various Losses
Loss Factor

Dry Gas Loss Flue Gas Temperature


Excess Air Level In Flue Gas
Fuel Analysis

Loss Due To Moisture Formed Hydrogen Content In Fuel


From hydrogen in Fuel Flue Gas Temperature
Fuel Analysis

Loss Due To Fuel Moisture Moisture Content In Fuel


Flue Gas Temperature

Loss Due To Air Moisture Humidity Of Combustion Air


Excess Air Level
Flue Gas Temperature

Radiation & Convection Loss Insulation Of Boiler

Mill Rejet Loss Reject Rate


CV Of Reject

Unburnt Carbon Loss In Ash Unburnt Carbon In Fly / Bottom Ash


Fuel Analysis

Sensible Heat Loss In Ash Ash Temperature


Factors affecting Unburnt Carbon Loss
a) Design Factors
Type of fuel preparation system
Burner and Burning System
Residence time

b) Fuel Characteristics
Heating Value
Proximate Analysis
Ultimate Analysis

c) Operational facors
Coal Particle Size
Excess air
Primary air to coal ratio
Distribution of Secondary air
Burner Tilt
Air Temperature
METHODS OF REDUCTION OF
UNBURNT CARBON LOSS
• Good burner maintenance
• Ensuring consistent mill fineness
• Proper secondary air adjustment
• Reducing primary air to the minimum most possible
• Cutout oil support at higher loads where coal flame is stable as
oil preferentially deplete o2 in the area and reduces ‘o2 ‘ for coal
particles to burn
• Check coal property and tune combustion
• Keep boiler heat transfer surface clean so that losses can be
reduced thus reducing the coal input
UNBURNT CARBON LOSS
CAUTION
IT ALSO DEPENDS ON
• COAL PROPERTIES LIKE VOLATILE
MATTER AND FIXED CARBON TO
VOLATILE MATTER RATIO.
• FURNACE SIZE
• TYPE OF MILL AND FIRING SYSTEM
• SUPPLEMENTRY FUEL FIRING LIKE
BFG GAS ,COG GAS or COREX GAS
Factors Affecting Dry Gas Loss

1 Coal
Moisture
Carbon
Gross CV

2 Air temperature entering AH


Ambient
SCAPH

3 Gas temperature
AH leakage
AH entering air temperature
AH entering gas temperature
Boiler load
FW temperature
X ratio of AH
Tempering air
Air ingress

4 Gas quantity
Excess air
AH leakage
METHODS OF REDUCTION
OF DRY GAS LOSS
- CORRECT EXCESS AIR
- HIGH MILL OUTLET TEMP.
- ARRESTING AIR INGRESS
- AIR HEATER PERFORMANCE
- CLEAN SURFACES
- SEAL/COOLING/PURGE
AIR QTY. JUST REQD.
Flue Gas Temperature Reduction
methods
• Operate the boiler at correct excess air
(Usually 20 % for coal)
• Cleanliness of boiler surfaces
• Good combustion of fuel
• Reduction of tempering air to mill.
• Reduction in air ingress
• Cleaning of air heater surfaces and proper
heating elements
Capacity Reduction in a Boiler

Fuel input
Low cv coal
Milling capacity
Grinding capacity
Drying capacity
Carrying capacity
Drive capacity
Draught system
ID fan limitations
Pressure drops high
AH choking
Chimney back pressure high
High volume
AH leakages
Duct leakages
High gas temperatures
Worn out impellers

Metal temperatures high


High spray requirements
Fouling of surfaces
Correction of Efficiency to Standard / Guaranteed
Condition
Correction of Efficiency are done for Variation in
Following Factors
GCV of Fuel
H2 in Fuel
Total Moisture in Fuel
Ambient temperature and
Humidity of air
Optimization of Boiler Efficiency
a) HHV  All Losses 
b) FG APH out Temp  Dry gas, Sensible heat in Ash, H2, Fuel
and Air Moisture Loss 
c) Excess air  Dry gas & Air Moisture Loss 
Unburnt carbon loss 
d) Fuel Moisture  Fuel Moisture Loss 
e) Air Moisture  Air Moisture Loss 
f) H2 in Fuel  H2 Loss 
g) Mill reject rate or GCV  Mill reject Loss 
Hence Major parameters to be looked into for Better Efficiency are
1. FG Temp
2. Excess air Level
3. Mill reject rate and
4. Unburnt carbon in ash
Control / Optimization of other parameters (i.e GCV, H2, Fuel moisture and Air Moisture) are
not possible.
Boiler Losses - operator controllable
Efficiency
Dry gas Loss
Excess air
Exit gas temperature
Air ingress
Fouling
Tempering air
Tramp air
Carbon loss
Excess air
Air regime
Mill fine ness
Effect of boiler parameters
on thermal cycle

SH outlet pressure

SH outlet temperature

RH outlet temperature

RH spray

SH spray

Blowdown

Auxiliary Steam
Effect on Plant Heat Rate
Due to Boiler Parametars

For a 500 MW unit


kcal/hr
10 ° C drop in MS temperature 9.6

10 ° C drop in RH outlet temperature 6.6

1 % increase in RH pr. drop 3


(% of inlet pr.)

Decrease in throttle pressure by 1 bar 1.2

SH spray increase by 1 % 0.6

RH spray increase by 1 % 6
BOILER AUXILIARIES
- INDUCED DRAFT FAN
- FORCED DRAFT FAN
- PULVERIZER / MILLS
- PRIMARY AIR FAN
- SEAL/PURGE/COOLING/
IGNITOR AIR FAN
- LUBRICATION OIL SYSTEMS
FAN POWER
FAN POWER = VOLUME * HEAD / 102 / FAN EFFY / MOTOR EFFY

VOLUME = MASS / DENSITY

DENSITY AT T °C = DENSITY AT 0 °C * 273 / (273 + T)

i.e. DENSITY DECREASES WITH TEMP. INCREASE, SO VOLUME


INCREASES WITH INCREASE IN TEMP.

HEAD IS DEPENDENT ON PRESSURE DROP.

PRESSURE DROP IS PROPORTIONAL TO VOLUME


MAJOR REASONS OF INCREASE IN
AUXILIARY POWER CONSUMPTION ARE

• OPERATION OF UNIT WITH HIGHER


EXCESS AIR
• AIR INGRESS IN BOILER
• AIR HEATER LEAKAGE
• HIGHER PA FAN OUTLET PRESSURE
• COAL PULVERIZATION TOO FINE
• PLUGGAGE IN LINE
FACTORS AFFECTING AUXILIARY POW ER

ID FANS
AH LEAK
GAS TEMPERATURE
DUCT LEAKAGES
EXCESS AIR
LOAD/ PLANT HEAT RATE
DRAUGHT LOSS
AH CHOKING
FD FANS
AH LEAK
W IND BOX PR.
EXCESS AIR
LOAD/ PLANT HEAT RATE
PRESSURE LOSS
AH CHOKING
SCAPH CHOKING
PA FANS
AH LEAKAGE
PA HEADER PR.
MILL AIR FLOW
PRESSURE LOSS
AH CHOKING
MILL
COAL QTY.
GCV
LOAD/ PLANT HEAT RATE
COAL
MOISTURE
HGI
COAL FINENESS
MILL CONDITION
SOURCES OF AIR INGRESS
(MEMBRANE WALL BOILER)

• FURNACE ROOF
• EXPANSION JOINTS
• AIR HEATERS
• DUCTS
• ESP HOPPERS
• PEEP HOLES
• MANHOLES
• FURNACE BOTTOM
Major reasons for increase in APC
Tubular air heater Cleaning of tubes
Replace damaged tubes
Proper distribution of gas and air

Rotary air heaters Proper baskets


Cleanliness of baskets
Proper seal setting

Higher PA outlet pressure Increases air heater leakage resulting in higher ID fan
loading
Increases PA fan power consumption
Maintain adequate pressure

Excess mill fineness Reduces mill capacity


Increases mill wear
Increase mill and PA fan power
May not improve combustion
METHODS TO REDUCE AUXILIARY POWER

- OPERATE UNIT AT CORRECT AIR FLOW


- AIR INGRESS REDUCTION
- AIR HEATER MAINTENANCE
- OPTIMUM FAN OPERATION
- RUN MINIMUM NO. OF MILLS REQD
- PULVERIZER TO OPERATE AT CORRECT
AIR FLOW AND PULVERIZED COAL
FINENESS
- IMMEDIATELY ATTEND FUEL, AIR,
WATER AND STEAM LEAKAGES
Sl.No Description Symbol Unit
1 Turbine Heat rate THR Kcal/KWHr 2000 2000 2000
2 Boiler Efficiency BE % 86 87 88
3 Change in Boiler Efficiency CBE % -1 0 1
4 Plant Heat rate PHR Kcal/KWHr 2325.58 2298.85 2272.73
(PHR = THR / BE *100)
5 Change in plant heat rate CPHR Kcal/KWHr -26.73 0.00 26.12
For 200MW Unit with 75% PLF
6 Units generated per year UG KWHr 1314000000 1314000000 1314000000
(UG = 200*24*365*0.75*1000)
7 Heat required per year HR Kcal 3.05581E+12 3.0207E+12 2.9864E+12
(HR=UG*PHR)
For coal of 4000 Kcal/Kg
8 Coal qty required CQ Tonnes 763953.4884 755172.414 746590.909
(CQ = HR / 4000 / 1000)
For coal cost of Rs.1000 / Ton
9 Total cost of coal CC Rs 763953488.4 755172414 746590909
(CC = CQ * 1000)
10 Change in cost CIC Rs -8781074.58 8581504.70
11 Change in cost per Unit Heat rate CICHR Rs 328500 328500
(CICHR = CIC / CPHR)
12 Change in cost per Unit Efficiency CICE Rs -8781074.579 8581504.7
(CICE = CIC / CBE)
13 Unit cost of power CP Rs 0.5814 0.5747 0.5682
(CP = CC / UG)
For 1 KW Auxiliary Power
14 Units lost per year UL 8760 8760 8760
(UL = 1*24*365)
15 Cost per year C 5093 5034 4977
(C = UL*CP)
For better performance

Boiler to be operated at the rated parameters:


• MS & RH steam pressure and temp.
• Rated Feed water temperature
• Minimum / nil spray in SH and RH
• Lower exit gas temperature

Boiler Efficiency = 100 – losses


losses are to be minimum possible
Power Plant Operation And
Performance Optimisation
Objectives

• Safety Of Personnel And Equipments

• To Protect Equipments from Failures

• To Produce Steam At The Required Parameters


And Quality

• To Achieve Optimum Efficiency And Economy


During Operation
Combustion stoichiometry
• Fuel –oxidiser /air ratio is just sufficient to oxidize all fuel
completely is called as stochiometrically or chemically
correct, theoretically required.
• Other forms of expression
– Fuel air mixture with Less air/oxidiser than theoritically
required is called as rich mixture
– Fuel air mixture with more air/oxidiser than theoritically
required is called as lean mixture
• Equivalence ratio
– It is the ratio of fuel to oxidiser/air by weight in a given
case to that at stoichiometric ratio of fuel to oxidiser
Spraying Parts of Inside Mix Tip for Steam or Air
Atomization
Spraying Parts of Straight Mechanical Oil Gun
Spraying Parts of Steam Atomizing Oil Gun External
Mix Tip
COMBUSTION
DETERIORATION OF COAL QUALITY AVAILABLE FOR
POWER GENERATION OVER THE PERIOD
1970’s 1989’s 1990’s & after
PROXIMATE ANALYSIS
FIXED CARBON % 36.5 32.4 25.0
VOLATILE MATTER % 25.5 21.6 18.0
MOISTURE % 10.0 16.0 12.0
ASH % 28.0 30.0 45.0
HHV kcal/kg 4750 4050 3000
HGI 50 50 50
Factors Affecting Furnace Stability /
Combustion

• Raw Coal Feeding System


• Pulverised Coal Fineness
• Pulverised Coal Distribution
• PA Flow
• PA Pressure
• Coal Quality etc.
Factors Affecting Furnace Stability /
Combustion (Cont)

• Mill Inlet / Outlet Temperature


• Total Air
• SADC
• SA Temperature
• Burner Nozzle Condition
• Burner Nozzle Position
Problems in combustion of high ash coals

• Slagging
• Explosion
• Erosion ( Metal wastage )
• NOx formation
• High temperature corrosion
• Low temperature corrosion
Ash Properties & Behaviour
• Slagging & fouling propensity of coals
– Ash fusion temperature
– Various laboratory ash composition ratios
• Iron : calcium
• Silica : alumina
• Base : acid
– Sodium-in-ash content
– Total alkali metal content in laboratory ash
• Segregation of ash during pulversing & its
properties
Pulverised Coal Combustion In
Tangentially Fired Boiler
Pulverised Coal Combustion In Tangentially Fired
Boiler
• Suspension firing of pulverised coal
– Preferred method of combustion in Utility boilers
– For approximately three-quarters of a century

• Carbon burn out in pulverised coal combustion in tangentially fired boilers depends
– Coal properties
• FC/VM
• Particle size
• Oxygen
• Calorific value of the coal
• Reactivity
• Ash content
– Are highly inter-related
Tangential Firing System
Arrangement
(Joseph. G. Singer, 1981 )
Tangential Firing System Corner
Windbox Arrangement
Flame In Tangential Firing
(Joseph. G. Singer, 1981 )
COMBUSTION OPTIMISATION
Measurements in Boiler for Combustion
Optimisation
• Air Flow
• Air Temperature
• Fuel Flow
• Fuel Distribution
• Flame Temperature Profile
• Flame Quality
• Gas Temperature at Furnace Outlet
• Gas Temperature at Boiler Outlet
• Pollutants in Flue Gas
Combustion optimisation
• Indian high ash coals result in high
primary air requirements -primary
Combustion Dilution
• Sec. Air distribution at required elevation
is very important
• Avoid / reduce all unwanted sec. Air at
any location
• And divert them to other needy elevation.
Combustion optimisation (Cont)

• Keep mill air flow just above settling velocity.


Do pitot traverse to check primary air flow.
Keep reducing primary air - settling start.
Slight furnace disturbance starts. Increase by
primary air 1-2 t/hr
• Keep total air flow - 20% excess air @ eco out
• Close all fuel air dampers if VM less than 20 -
22% Look flame front - decide for higher VM
coal
• Keep wind box pr. 100 - 150 mm - better
distribution Across elevation.
Combustion optimisation (Cont)

• Wind Box Damper Setting for Completion of


Combustion and Bottom Ash Collection
• Increase LRSB Operation for Fouling Type
Ash in Coal And Exit Gas Temp. Control
• Change in SH Spray Pattern Due to Change in
Radiation Heat Transfer Because of Change
Combustion Completion Elevation.
• Check PC Analysis on Roslin-Rammler Chart
Wind Box Damper Setting for Completion of Combustion
and to reduce unburnt in bottom / fly Ash Collection

• Keep opening of AA damper (Manual Damper) in the range of 40 – 50 %


always irrespective of the mills in service. Do not close it
• Almost Close the FAD of the operating elevation for the VM is less than 20 %
(Every 1% VM increase, open FAD by 2-3% approx.)
• Close the FAD & AAD of non-working elevation always.
• Keep Wind box pressure around 80 – 100 mmWC.
• To get better flame intensity and stability, optimum windbox Dp and reducing
the opening of FAD is suggested.
• Check and ensure the same position of SADC’s elevation wise in all the
corners. Ensure to get equal Wind box Dp in left and right side.
• Opening of OFA/top AAD of non working EL. – Depends on

• Unburnt in fly ash
• SH&RH Temp/spray
Combustion optimisation (Cont)

Wall Blower Optimisation


• Change in SH spray without change
in other parameters indicates
furnace deposit increase
• SH spray increase above a particular
level (to be determined for each
boiler) operate wall blowers
Combustion optimisation (Cont)

 Operate All 88 Blowers


See The Effect On SH Spray
Wall Blow Each Row - Study Effect
Watch SH Spray Drop & Regain Time
Interval Between Blowers
Interval Between Blowers To Be Constant
Repeat Each Row Independently
 Repeat 2 Adjacent Rows
 Repeat 2 Alternate Rows
 Repeat Blowers In Front & Rear And L & R
Separately And Study The Effect On SH Flow
Combustion optimisation (Cont)

 Top Mill Combination Wall Blow Row 3 & 4 Once In 4 - 6


Hours Time Interval. Check With Field Data.
 Before A Planned Shut Down Do Not Wall Blow For 16 - 24
Hours And Take A Photo Of All Walls From Top Good For
Soot Blower Optimisation
 Check Need For 5th Row Addition
 Use LRSB To Reduce Exit Gas Temp. Normally Not A
Problem In Indian High Ash Coals.
 +50 Mesh Mainly Contributes For Bottom Ash %.
 +100% Also For Agglomerating Type Of Ash In Coal
 Removal Of Deposits, From Areas Of Higher Deposit, More
Frequently Keep Bottom Ash Quantity Low.
Due to deposits,
different heat
Pattern, Nature release rates of
Deposits and Rate of fuels and fly ash
Boiler Water formed on Deposition vary dust loading – net
Wall surfaces the heat along with the furnace heat
exposed to dust transfer zones of absorption varies
laden flue gases surface furnaces dynamically

Net Absorption Higher ……. Furnace Net Absorption Lower ……. Furnace
Outlet Gas Temperature and SH/ RH Outlet Gas Temperature goes up,
Steam Temperature fall short of Design increasing SH/RH Sprays and increased
Value. metal temperatures and higher NOx
levels

Maintain Furnace Heat Absorption optimally – Key to maintain efficient Boiler


Performance and to keep SH/RH steam temperatures and sprays under control
Benefits Of Smart Wall
Blowing System
Improved Boiler Heat Rate
Less Wall Blowing Steam Usage
Lesser SH / RH Sprays
Ensures Continuous Maintenance Of Net
Furncae Heat Absorption At Optimum Level
Reduction In Tube Erosion Due To Selective
& Need Based Wall Blowing
BENEFITS OF SMART WALL BLOWING
SYSTEM (Cont)

Lower Peak Furnace Gas Temperature


Improved Creep Life – Prevention Of
Metal Temperature Excursions Limits
Lesser Thermal NOx
Sudden Fall Of Lumps Of Ash And
Damage Of Ash Hopper Is Avoided
Pressure Waves Due To Steam
Formation In Ash Hopper Is Avoided
Fuel Distribution
• Fuel distribution from the pulveriser is
very important
• Depends upon the resistance of each fuel
pipe
• It is necessary to equalise this to the
condition that the flow is  5 %
• This is done by flow measurement in each
pipe and deciding to insert orifices
Combustion optimisation (Cont)

• For high reactive coal - if achieving SH temp is


a problem
– Keep AA &HH as bottom and top air open & keep
lower wind Box pressure 50 - 75 mmwc
• If bottom ash % comb. Is increasing
– Check +50 mesh - keep around 1%
– Open AA to 50%
• Up to 10% BA comb. Is ok
CASE STUDIES
Case Study-1
• Problem:
• Heavy clinkering build up upto S-panel /Bottom of burner reported
from many boilers

• Investigations:
• Poor mill fineness (50% through 200 mesh)
• Non-working of SADC as per control
• Poor coal quality – usage of ground stock
• Non- working of wall blowers
• Improper evacuation of bottom ash
• Solution:After taking above corrective actions no further problems
faced.
Case Study-2
• Problem: Frequent choking of coal pipe
• Investigations: Clean air flow test
• Checking of orifice
• Calibration of coal flow/air flow -check
• Foreign material entrapped in classifier (
cloth)

• Solution: Problem resolved after removal of


foreign material from classifier.

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