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Google’s History

The Google company was officially launched in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin to market Google
Search, which has become the most widely used web-based search engine. Page and Brin, students at
Stanford University in California, developed a search algorithm – at first known as "BackRub" – in 1996.
The search engine soon proved successful and the expanding company moved several times, finally
settling at Mountain View in 2003. This marked a phase of rapid growth, with the company making its
initial public offering in 2004 and quickly becoming one of the world's largest media companies. The
company launched Google News in 2002, Gmail in 2004, Google Maps in 2005, Google Chrome in 2008,
and the social network known as Google+ in 2011, in addition to many other products. In 2015, Google
became the main subsidiary of the holding company, Alphabet Inc.

The search engine went through numerous updates in attempts to combat search engine optimization
abuse, provide dynamic updating of results, and make the indexing system rapid and flexible. Search
results started to be personalized in 2005, and later Google Suggest autocompletion was introduced.
From 2007 Universal Search provided all types of content, not just text content, in search results.

Google has engaged in partnerships with NASA, AOL, Sun Microsystems, News Corporation, Sky UK and
others. The company set up a charitable offshoot, Google.org, in 2005. Google was involved in a 2006
legal dispute in the US over a court order to disclose URLs and search strings, and has been the subject
of tax avoidance investigations in the UK.

The name Google is a variant of googol, chosen to suggest very large numbers.
Brand personality

Brand personality actually derives from consumer personality and consists of 5 key personality traits.
We talked about these in an earlier post on using Facebook to learn about consumer personalities. I’ve
repeated that information here for simplicity:

• Openness to experience – (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious). Appreciation for art,

emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity, and variety of experience. Openness reflects the degree of
intellectual curiosity, creativity and a preference for novelty and variety. Some disagreement remains
about how to interpret the openness factor, which is sometimes called “intellect” rather than openness
to experience.

• Conscientiousness – (efficient/organized vs. easy-going/careless). A tendency to show self-

discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement; planned rather than spontaneous behavior; organized,
and dependable.

• Extraversion – (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved). Energy, positive emotions, surgency,

assertiveness, sociability and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others, and

• Agreeableness – (friendly/compassionate vs. cold/unkind). A tendency to be compassionate and

cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others.

Neuroticism – (sensitive/nervous vs. secure/confident). The tendency to experience unpleasant

emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety, depression, or vulnerability.

• Neuroticism also refers to the degree of emotional stability and impulse control, and is
sometimes referred by its low pole – “emotional stability”.

Brands have personalities that look a lot like consumer personalities, but the archetypes from Millward
Brown’s graphic seem a better way to think about brand personality than the consumer groupings.

Millward Brown combines several personality traits to come up with their archetypes. For instance,
generous and caring combine to form the “Mother” personality. They then plot the archetypes along 2
axes — stability-change and well-being-challenge.

Personality of Brand
Target Market of Google Inc.

Nowadays almost all people use internet. In the world, 60% of total internet search is

owned by Google. Also Google has many other products or applications, all are running in

internet. Google marketing director Spanier has declared that everybody on the planet is their

target audience. So Google marketing strategy is not bound within a group of people or not

location specific. It is really very tough to get an idea to whom Google is actually focusing to

get a profitable return and competitive advantage.

The most popular and basic product of Google is its search engine. It is designed as a clean

simple and interference free search page, which attracts everybody to search their queries. The

simple interface provides an ease of search to the most internet illiterate people as well

irrespective of age group, location or gender. According to survey, users want to find out the

most relevant data also most of them do not know how to limit the information that is collected

by them by a website. Google has incorporated its new privacy policy, which can limit the data

collection about the users, with their consent. If we closely check the customer profile of Google

we can find out the below details.

Customer profile

Geographic dimensions

 Highly diverse users, as internet is a highly diverse tool.

 More than half of the Google search results are delivered outside of the United States.

 Google search results can be delivered in 80 different languages.

Demographic dimensions

Google is having highly diversified markets and users. In certain countries and regions

such as China, Crimea, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria Google has restricted its


Except these areas, according to surveys it has been found:

 Maximum popular users are under age 35

 55% of users are male.

 Majority Google users are upper middle class income structure.

 Users are generally of higher educated or technologically competitive.

 Most Google users are business minded professionals.

Psychographic Dimensions

It has been found people who are intelligent and educated need access to information from

any internet enabled devices anytime quickly are more Google users. They mostly have a busy

lifestyle from varying domains like residential family to students group or military personnel. It

also found 20% of Google users use Mac computers which denotes mostly middle upper or upper

income groups are associated in the Google customer base. Also Google users have highest (80%)

smartphone penetration which is far more than its competitors like Yahoo (58%) and Bing (65%).

From the data about typical Google users it can be assumed they prefer more innovative

customizable and privacy oriented internet experiences.

Organizational Customers

Google earns the revenue from its advertisers based on how many users click on those

advertisements in one word AdWords. Google also allow other website publishers to display

Google related ads using AdSense which generates revenue for the publishers and Google, both.

Google has taken part in Internet base businesses as well. Google business solution applications

are less expensive than other similar applications like Lotus Notes. From an overview of Google

annual report, it earns 89.86% of its total revenue from advertising and 70.08% from its website

We can also divide Google Market in Different Segments where different group of customers are

having distinctly similar needs for particular services.

Student Segment

Undergraduate (18-25) and graduate (23-30) students who are relatively young are tend

to find more information fast and efficiently in a more technological way, in which they are

accustomed to. This segment is more comfortable to social media, networking sites etc. This is a

bigger group who engages their time in Youtube or Google+. I think Google needs to improve

its social networking site Google+ as Facebook one of its nearest competitor in the zone of social

networking. Google+ is having 2.5 billion user accounts which are almost double of Facebook

users. But if we count the frequency of visiting there profile, Facebook is far before than

Google+. This segment uses the internet for leisure as well as for education. This segment has a

need for easily accessible documents like Google Docs to share, edit or submit documents and

other scholar works.

Entrepreneurial Enterprise Segment

Lots of new business may be entrepreneurial or corporations want an internet based,

hassle free way to conduct its operations that is cost effective. This segment needs to reach their

customers through personalized internet base advertisements (AdWords). This segment

understands the technological lifestyle and truly value efficiency. They need speed of

information sharing and real-time functionality. This is the most lucrative customer segment for

Google as; businesses tend to target Google due to its various types of users in different

segments and user traffic in different applications.

Income Group
We can also find two different segments in Google’s target market according to income

group. One is upper-middle or middle class families, usually of white collar, blue collar or hold

service industry jobs and having small families. They use Google products usually for leisure

purpose, communication or entertainment. They are the frequent internet users. This is a

technologically proficient segment and tends to more internet shopping and desire to having nice

products. It can be assumed this segment has the ability to keep up with latest technology and

new products. It seems fruitless to concentrate making efforts towards this segment given their

propensity to keep up with the hottest and newest trend.

The second is the low income group middle-aged family and live within calculated amount of

money. They are having less leisure, and use internet especially for communications and

sometimes for financial purposes. They have less ability to frequently update technological

devices. So when they make a big purchase usually strive for quality. This is a small segment in

Google internet traffic. They are usually not loyal to brand. Marketing in this segment may not

be an efficient use of Google resources as; the revenue depends on internet traffic. However,

when this segment makes a choice of Google products or services depending on widespread

availability, it may be infrequent and less impact on the company revenue.

Target Market

According to research and survey overall views of search engine performance are very

positive. Also most internet users say they do not know how to control the information that is

collected about them by a website. Only 65% of users change their browser settings to limit the

information that is collected. Whereas Google has implemented a new privacy policy in which

information about user’s behaviour can be collected while they are connected in search engine,
Google+, Gmail and Youtube. This may have a negative impact on Google’s marketing as this

may be a case of violation for individual’s privacy.

Google needs more focus on its market segments those have the ability to grow with the company

as it continues to develop products for more technologically sound future. I think the student

segment is the ideal market segment for Google to focus in. This segment is exposed to vast

technological advancement and able to update them with new technology, digital products and

services. Students are continuously plugged-in through internet, mobile phones or other digital

devices, which can be capitalized to create more Internet traffic for Google. By providing fast

information, speed and technological improvements in different applications, Google can gain

brand recognition and can ensure this segment will be loyal to the brand in future as well. Thus

the student market segment has the ability to become a gold mine for Google.


1. Admob Advertising platform for mobile phones

2. Adsense Serves ads on your website
3. Adwords Advertising tool to increase website traffic
4. Alerts Sends email notifi cations when there are new results (web pages,
5. newspaper articles, blogs, images, etc) for your chosen search term
6. Analytics Tool to analyse website statistics
7. Android Google's mobile operating system
8. Blogger Tool for creating and publishing blogs
9. Bookmarks Tool that allows you to access your browser bookmarks from any
10. computer/browser.
11. Books Search engine for full-text books
12. Calendar Online personal calender
13. Code Developer tools, APIs and resources
14. Cardboard Virtual reality (VR) platform which includes apps and cardboard head-
15. mounted viewers
16. Chrome Google's web browser
17. Chromebook Google’s laptop
18. Classroom Platform for teachers and students
19. Cloud Google’s cloud computing service
20. Crisis Map Maps for crisis situations showing emergency information relating to
21. weather, evacuation routes, shelter locations, power outages etc
22. (mainly U.S.)
23. Docs Platform for collaboratively creating and editing documents, spreadsheets,
24. and presentations, all in the browser.
25. Drawings Tool for creating diagrams and fl ow charts
26. Drive Online platform for storing and sharing documents
27. Earth Tool showing 3D views of the earth
28. Expeditions Virtual reality education tool
29. Finance Business information website
30. Forms Tool for creating forms and surveys
31. Gmail Google's email service
32. Google+
33. (Google Plus)
34. Google’s social network
35. Groups Group conversations through a web interface or e-mail.
36. Hangouts Chat messaging service with video and telephone capabilities
37. Image search Google's image search engine
38. Keep Note-taking application for mobile
39. Maps Map tool for directions and fi nding locations
40. News News aggregator provided and operated by Google
41. Nexus Google’s mobile phone
42. Person Finder Tool to help people fi nd each other after a natural or humanitarian disaster
43. Photos Cloud storage for photos, with automatic organisation tool built in
44. Play Google’s online app store
45. Public Alerts Alert system for natural disasters
46. Scholar Search engine for academic papers
47. Search Google’s search engine
48. Sheets Tool to create spreadsheets
49. Sites Tool to create websites and group wikis
50. Slides Tool to create presentations
51. Spaces Content-sharing app for small groups
52. Translate Tool that translates text, web pages, and fi les
53. Trends Shows how often a particular search term is entered relative to total search
54. volume, across the world.
55. Vault Archiving tool
56. Video Search Search engine for videos
57. Wallet For paying for Google’s online products and services
58. Youtube Online video platform

A brand promise in action - Google

From the very beginning, Google’s brand promise was to be the world’s number one source of
information. Everything they have done or plan to do is to achieve this promise for its customers, staff
and stakeholders.

So, what does it take to be the world’s number one source of information? Google identified very early
that to keep this promise, the information it returned on its first page – page one of a Google search –
had to be the most relevant, up-to-date and credible information available for the search terms used.

And every time Google changes its algorithm, it is based on maintaining this promise. So, if you think you
can cheat Google, just remember they are committed to you as a seeker of information. The best way to
get your website on page one, is then to ensure that the information on your website is the most
relevant, up-to-date and credible for the search terms your customers use.

One of the easiest ways to show Google that you’re relevant is to ensure that you have done your work
to find out what search terms your customers use to find you, and that your content, keywords and your
metatags are all consistent to your customers’ search terms. Don’t load your content with irrelevant key
words, or overload with too many keywords as both of these actions will send a red flag to Google that
you’re trying to cheat the algorithm, rather than actually be relevant.


In a world of websites that are often not touched for months (and sometimes years …) being up-to-date
means that your website is regularly posting new information. This says to Google that the business
behind the website is not only active, but is producing timely content.

How often is ‘regularly’? As a minimum, posting something new every two weeks is a good idea. And
one of the easiest ways to do this by posting a new blog every two weeks. For people who aren’t
comfortable with writing, this can seem onerous. But there are tools such as content plans and blogging
templates that can make the task a lot easier.

The other way Google now determines if a website is up-to-date is whether your website it mobile
responsive (and we know this one isn’t …yet …!). With a growing percentage of the population now
searching using mobile devices, it is much easier to access information from a mobile responsive site.
We know this can take a bit more organising, but if your website isn’t yet mobile responsive, make sure
it’s in your plans for this year.


The ‘credibility’ part of Google’s algorithm seems to be the one that gets changed the most to thwart
efforts to cheat the system. At a high level, credibility is determined by how many people actually find
your website worthy of a visit, and to share.

Links to your website are great, as long as they’re relevant. Having a link to a business consulting site
from a consumer gardening page is not really relevant. But having links to your website from key
referrers, industry sites, and social media are relevant. Whenever you post a new blog on your website,
make sure you share it to your social media pages with an introduction that entices people to click
through. You can share it more than once (say, once a week on different pages until you post another
blog), but don’t alienate your audience by making it all about you. The aim is to get click throughs!
So, what happens when Google changes its algorithm again? Keep going back to their brand promise,
and check that what you’re doing on and with your website shows it to be relevant, up-to-date and