Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 111

CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

INDEX
HEAT
S.NO. CONTENT DETAILS PAGE NO.
1. Synopsis-1 & Worksheet -1 01 - 08
2. Synopsis-2 & Worksheet -2 09 - 16
3. KEY,HINTS AND SOLUTIONS 17 - 20

OPTICS
REFLECTION OF LIGHT BY DIFFERENT SURFACES
S.NO. CONTENT DETAILS PAGE NO.
4. Synopsis-1 & Worksheet -1 23 - 34
5. Synopsis-2 & Worksheet -2 35 - 46

REFRACTION OF LIGHT AT CURVED SURFACES


6. Synopsis-1 & Worksheet -1 46 - 54
7. Synopsis-2 & Worksheet -2 55 - 60
8. Synopsis-3 & Worksheet -3 61 - 64
9. Synopsis-4 & Worksheet -4 65 - 69
10. Synopsis-5 & Worksheet -5 70 - 78

REFRACTION OF LIGHT AT CURVED SURFACES


11. Synopsis-1 & Worksheet -1 78 - 90
12. Synopsis-2 & Worksheet -2 90 - 95
HUMAN EYE AND COLOURFUL WORLD
13. Synopsis-1 & Worksheet -1 95 - 102
14. KEY,HINTS AND SOLUTIONS 103 - 108

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. i


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

HEAT

CONTENTS
Introduction to Heat and
Temperature
Factors affecting Heat energy
Principle of Calorimetry
Change of state
Latent Heat of fusion & vapourisation

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 1


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
HEAT_SYNOPSIS-1
Introduction to Heat and Temperature
1. ‘Hot’ and ‘Cold’ are relative terms.
2. Heat is a form of energy.
3. When heat energy flows out of your body you get the feeling of ‘coldness’ and
when heat energy enters your body you get a feeling of ‘hotness’.
4. When iron and wooden pieces are kept in the fridge for the same period of time.
When touched, we feel that the metal piece is colder than the wooden piece.
It means that more heat energy flows out of your body when you touch the metal
piece as compared to the wooden piece.
In other words, the ‘degree of coldness’ of the metal piece is greater than that of
the wooden piece.
5. The conventional definition of temperature is “the degree of hotness or cold-
ness”.
6. When two bodies are placed in thermal contact, heat energy will be transferred
from the ‘hotter’ body to the ‘colder’ body.
This transfer of heat energy is continued till both bodies attain same degree of
hotness (or) coldness.
At this stage, we say that the bodies have achieved ‘thermal equilibrium’.
7. The state of thermal equilibrium denotes a state of a body where it neither
receives nor gives out net heat energy.
8. We know that bodies in contact achieve thermal equilibrium due to transfer of
heat energy.
9. “Heat is a form of energy in transist that is transferred from body at higher
temperature to body at lower temperature.”
10. The thermometer reading at thermal equilibrium state gives the “temperature”.
11. ‘Temperature’ is a measure of thermal equilibrium.
12. If two different systems, A and B in thermal contact, are in thermal equilibrium
individually with another system C (thermal contact with A and B), then the
systems A and B be in thermal equilibrium with each other.
13. The SI unit of heat is Joule (J) and CGS unit of heat is calorie (cal).
14. The amount of heat required to increase the temperature of 1gram of water by
10C is called calorie.
15. 1cal = 4.186 joules
16. The SI unit of temperature is Kelvin (K). It can also be expressed as degree
Celsius ( 0C).
17. 00C = 273K
18. Temperature in Kelvin =273 + Temperature in Celsius
19. Temperature measured in Kelvin scale is called absolute temperature.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 2


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
20. Bodies possess kinetic energy when they are in the motion.
21. The temperature of a body is an indicator of the average kinetic energy of mol-
ecule of that body.
22. “The average kinetic energy of the molecules is directly proportional to the abso-
lute temperature”
23. Heat is the energy that is transferred from hotter to colder body.
24. Temperature is a quantity that decides which body is hotter and which is colder.
25. Temperature decides direction of heat (energy) flow, whereas heat is the energy
that flows.
26. The rise in temperature depends on the amount of heat, mass and nature of the
material.
Factors influencing the quantity of heat :
When a cold body is heated, it absorbs heat and its temperature rises, but when a
hot body is cooled, it gives out heat and its temperature falls. It has been found that
the heat absorbed (or given out) by a body is directly proportional to
(i) mass of the body i.e., Q  m --------------- (i)
(ii) change in temperature of the body i.e., Q  (T2 – T1) --------------- (ii)
(iii) the nature of the material of the body.
combining (i) and (ii), we get, Q  m  t [ where  t = T2 – T1]
 Q = m.C.  t ---------------- (iii)
Where C is constant called specific heat of the body and its value depends on the
nature of the material of the body.
 Heat absorbed (or given out) = mass × specific heat × change in temperature.
Note : The above formula should be used whenever there is a rise (or fall) in
temperature).
Specific heat capacity or specific heat :
As Q = m.C.  t. If m = 1 unit ;  t = 1°C then Q = C, hence specific heat is the amount
of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of the substance through 1°C
or 1K.
Mathematically,
quantity of heat Q
Specific heat = C
mass of the substance × change in temperature m. t
[ as Q = m.C. t ]
Note :
1. Of all known substances water has the highest specific heat capacity. It can
absorb a lot of heat without its temperature going up very much. It also cools down
slower than other substances, as it has to lose more heat to cool down.
2. Because of its high specific heat capacity, water is used as a coolant in
automobile radiators. It is also used in hot water bottles as it cools down slowly.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 3


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Units of specific heat :
S.I. unit of specific heat = J kg –1 K–1
CGS unit of specific heat is cal g –1 °C–1
Since 1cal = 4.18 J therefore 1 cal g –1 °C–1 = 4180 J kg –1 K–1
Note :Water is a liquid having highest specific heat capacity i.e.,4180 J kg –1K–1.
Heat capacity or Thermal capacity :
Heat capacity of a body is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of the (whole) body through 1°C or 1K.
Heat capacity = heat required to rise the temperature of the body through 1°C

amount of heat Q Q
Mathematically, heat capacity = = H = m × C.
Rise in temperature t t
Hence Thermal Capacity = mass × specific heat.
Units of heat capacity :
S.I. unit of heat capacity is J K –1 CGS unit of heat capacity is cal °C –1
Note : i) Thermal capacity depends on mass of the substance whereas specific heat
does not depend upon the mass of the substance.
ii) Thermal capacity and Water equivalent are numerically same. Only difference
lies in their units. The unit of water equivalent is gram.
LAW OF MIXTURES (OR) PRINCIPLE OF CALORIMETRY
If two liquids at different temperatures are mixed together, the heat lost by hot
body is equal to the heat gained by the cold body ( provided no heat is lost to the
surroundings). This is called law of mixture.

 When three substances of different masses m1, m2 and m3 specific heats s1, s2, s3
and at different temperatures 1 , 2 , and 3 respectively are mixed, then the

m1s11  m2 s22  m3s33


resultant temperature is  =
m1s1  m2 s2  m3 s3

 If two substances of specific heats s1 , s2 having masses m1 , m2 are mixed at the

m1s1  m2 s2
same temperature, effective specific heat of the mixture is s 
m1  m2

 When “x” gram of steam is mixed with “y” gram of ice, the resultant temperature
80(8 x  y )
is t  .
( x  y)

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 4


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
HEAT_WORKSHEET-1
1. Calorimetry is the measurement of
1) heat 2) temperature 3) force 4) mass
2. The amount of heat required to raise the temperarue of unit mass of a substance
through 1°C is called
1) latent heat 2) Specific heat 3) Heat 4) Heat capacity
3. The mathematical expression for specific heat “S”

Q Q Q m
1) 2) 3) 4) t
m t m.t Q
4. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of given mass of a substance
through 1°C is called
1) Heat capacity 2) Thermal capacity 3) Specific heat 4) both (1) and (2)
5. The relation between heat capacity ‘Q’ and specific heat ‘S’ is

m S
1) Q = m.S 2) Q  3) Q  4) Q  m  S
S m
6. The C.G.S unit of specific heat is
1) cal g °C–1 2) cal g–1 °C–1 3) cal g–1 °C 4) cal–1 g °C
7. S.I unit of thermal capacity is
1) JK 2) JK–1 3) cal K 4) cal °C
8. Same amount of heat is supplied to two liquids A and B. The liquid A shows a
greater rise in temperature. What can you say about the heat capacity of A as
compared to that of B ?
1) Heat capacity of A is less than that of B
2) Heat capacity of A is grater than that of B
3) Heat capacity of B is less than that of B
9. The substance with the highest specific heat capacity is
1) Mercury 2)Gold 3)Tungsten 4)Water
10. The ratio of thermal capacity per unit volume in terms of densities and specific
heats is
1) 2d1s1 = d2s2 2) d1s1 = 2d2s2 3) d2s1 = d1s2 4) d1s1 = d2s2
11. If two substances of masses m1, m2 specific heats s1, s2 at initial temperature 1
and 2 are mixed then final temperature of mixture is (no heat losses)

m1s11  m2s 22 m1s1  m2s2 m1s11  m2s 22 m1s1  m2s2
1) 2) 3) 4)
m1s1  m2s 2 m1  m2 m1s1  m2s 2 m1  m2

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 5


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
12. If two liquids of specific heats s1,s2 having masses m1,m2 are mixed at the same
temperature, effective specific heat of the mixture (s) is
m1s1  m2s2 m2s1  m1s2 m1s1  m2s2 m2s1  m1s2
1) m1  m2 2) m1  m2 3) m1  m2 4) m1  m2
JEE MAINS
Single Correct Choice Type:
1. The densities of two substances are in the ratio 5 : 6 and their specific heats are
in the ratio 3 : 5. Then ratio of their thermal capacities per unit volume is
1) 1 : 2 2) 2 : 1 3) 1 : 4 4) 4 : 1
2. The thermal capacity of 100g lead shot is (specific heat of lead is 0.03 cal/g/ 0C)
1) 3 cal/0C 2) 30 cal/0C 3) 300 cal/0C 4) 0.3 cal/0C
3. Two spheres of copper of diameters 10cm and 20 cm will have thermal capacities
in the ratio

1 1 1 1
1) 2) 3) 4)
8 2 4 6
4. Two liquids A and B of equal volumes have their specific heats in the ratio 2 : 3. If
they have same thermal capacity, then the ratio of their densities is
1) 1 : 1 2) 2 : 3 3) 3 : 2 4) 5 : 6
0 0
5. Two liquids A and B are at 30 C and 20 C respectively. When they are mixed in
equal masses the temperture of the mixture is found to be 26 0C. The ratio of
specific heat is
1) 4 : 3 2) 3 : 4 3) 2 : 3 4) 3 : 2
6. A solid object P of mass 200 gm placed in contact with a source supplying heat at
a constant rate, undergoes a rise in temperature of 200°C in 40s. Another solid
object Q of mass 300 gm needs 20s for a 50°C rise in temperature. Find the ratio
of their specific heats.
5 3 7 3
1) 2) 3) 4)
4 4 4 2
7. The quantity of heat which can rise the temperature of x gm of a substance
through t1°C can rise the temperature of y gm of water through t2°C is same.
The ratio of specific heats of the substances is
1) yt1/xt2 2) xt2/yt1 3) yt2/xt1 4) xt1/yt2
8. Two liquids of masses M1 and M2 and specific heats S1 and S2
respectively are mixed. The specific heat of the mixture is

M 1S1  M 2 S2 M 1S1  M 2 S2 2  M1 S1  M 2 S 2  M 1S1  M 2 S2


1) 2) 2 M  M 3) 4)
M1  M 2  1 2 M1  M 2 M1  M 2
9. The heat energy required to vapourise 5kg of water at 373 K is
1) 2700 K.cal 2) 1000 K.cal 3) 27 K.cal 4) 270 K.cal

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 6


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
10. Two liquids A and B are at temperatures of 750C and 1500C respectively. Their
masses are in the ratio of 2 : 3 and specific heats are in the ratio 3 : 4. The
resultant temperature of the mixture, when the above liquids, are mixed (Neglect
the water equivalent of container ) is
1) 1250C 2) 1000C 3) 500C 4) 1500C
11. Three liquids with masses m1 , m2 , m3 are thoroughly mixed. If their specific heats
are s1 , s2 , s3 and their temperatures 1 , 2 , 3 respectively, the temperature of the
mixture is
s11  s2 2  s33 m1 s11  m2 s2 2  m3 s33
1) 2)
m1 s1  m2 s2  m3 s3 m1s1  m2 s2  m3 s3
m1 s11  m2 s2 2  m3 s33 m11  m2 2  m33
3) 4)
m11  m2 2  m33 s11  s2 2  s33
12. Three liquids A,B and C of masses 400gm, 600 gm and 800 gm are at 300c, 400c and
500c respectively. When A and B are mixed resultant temperature is 360C when B
and C are mixed resultant temperature is 440C Then ratio of their specific heats are
1) 2:1:1 2) 3:2:1 3) 2:2:1 4) 1:4:9
0
13. 50g of copper is heated to increase its temperature by 10 C. If the same quantity
of heat is given to 10 g of water, the rise in its temperature is
(Specific heat of copper = 420J/kg/0C Specific heat of water = 4200J/kg/0C
1) 50C 2) 60C 3) 70C 4) 80C
14. A liquid of mass ‘m’ and specific heat ‘S’ is at a temperature ‘2t’. If another liquid
of thermal capacity 1.5 times, at a temperature of t/3 is added to it, the resultant
temperature will be
4 t 2
1) t 2) t 3) 4) t
3 2 3
15. Boiling water at 1000C and cold water at t0C are mixed in the ratio 1:3 and the
resultant maximum temperature was 370C. Assuming no heat losses, the value
of ‘t’ is
1) 40C 2) 90C 3) 120C 4) 160C
JEE ADVANCED
Multi Correct Choice Type:
16. If a waterfall 200m high and Specific heat of water = 4200 J kg–1 ºC–1, then
1) The difference in temperature between the water at the top and bottom of a
waterfall 0.467ºC
2) The difference in temperature between the water at the top and bottom of a
waterfall 0.467K
3) The difference in temperature between the water at the top and bottom of a
waterfall 1.467ºC
4) The difference in temperature between the water at the top and bottom of a
waterfall 373.467K

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 7


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Reasoning Type:
17. Statement I : Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of water
through 1ºC is 1 kilocalorie
Statement II : By definition, 1 calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of 1 gram of water through 1ºC
1) Both Statements are true, Statement - II is the correct explanation of
Statement - I.
2) Both Statements are true, Statement - II is not correct explanation of
Statement - I.
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.
Comprehension Type:
The mass of water in grams which would require the same amount of heat to
raise its temperature through 1 0C as the body when heated through the same
temperature is called water equivalent. In C.G.S system, thermal capacity and
Q dQ
water equivalent are numerically equal. Thermal capacity = m s = or
 d
18. 30 K cal of heat is required to raise the temperature of 15 kg of substance from
200C to 400C then thermal capacity of the substance is
1) 1.5 Kcal 0C-1 2) 3 Kcal 0C-1 3) 2 K cal 0C-1 4) 4 Kcal 0C-1
19. There is a cuboid of dimensions l × b × h and thermal capacity K units. On
doubling all the dimensions of the cuboid , the thermal capacity becomes _____
units.
1) 4K 2) 6K 3) 3K 4) 8K
20. Two spheres of radii in the ratio 2 : 3 have specific heats in the ratio 3 : 4. Their
densities are in the ratio 4 : 5. Their water equivalents are in the ratio
1) 2 : 5 2) 4 : 15 3) 8 : 45 4) 45 : 8
Matrix Match Type:
21. Column-I Column-II
a) thermal capacity 1) J kg–1K–1
b) specific heat capacity 2) MºL2T–2K–1
c) water equivalent 3) JK–1
d) heat capacity 4) ML2T–2K–1
5) kg
Integer Answer Type:
22. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a mass M kg of water by
T°C is 1260 J. Then the heat required to raise the temperature of an equal mass
of iron by the same amount T°C________ J. [Specific heat of water and iron are
4200 J/kg/K and 480 J/kg/K respectively]

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 8


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
HEAT_SYNOPSIS-2
CHANGE OF STATE:
Matter can exist in three physical states viz, solid, liquid and vapour (or gaseous)
states. The physical state of a substance can be changed by heating or cooling.
Change of substance from one physical state to another is called change of state.
For example, water can exist in three different physical states: solid (ice), liquid
(water), and gas (water vapour). Ice (solid) can be converted into water (liquid) and
water can be converted into vapours (steam) by heating. On the other hand, water
vapours when cooled give water (liquid), which on further cooling gives ice (solid).
The transformation of various physical states of water may be described as follows.

heat
Ice 
cool

 
heat
Water 
cool

 Steam  water vapours 
(solid) (gas )

Note : During a change of state, the temperature remains constant.


Terms associated with change of state :
(i) Fusion or Melting:
Definition : The process during which a solid changes to liquid state at some fixed
temperature by the absorption of heat energy (or heating) is called fusion or melting.
Example: Conversion of ice into water is fusion.
fusion
Ice   water
 melting  
 solid   liquid 
Melting point : The fixed temperature at which a solid substance gets converted into
a liquid is called its fusion point or melting point.
Example: The melting point of ice is 0 0C.
(ii) Vaporization or Boiling:
Definition : The process during which a liquid on heating changes to vapour state
at some fixed temperature is called vaporization or boiling.
Example:Conversion of water into steam is vaporization.
vaporization
Water 
 boiling   steam
 liquid   gas 
Boiling point : The fixed temperature at which a liquid gets converted into vapour
state is called its vaporization point or boiling point.
Example: The boiling point of water is 100 0C.
(iii) Condensation or Liquefaction:
Definition : The process during which vapours on cooling change into liquid state
at some fixed temperature is called condensation.
Example:Conversion of steam into water is condensation.
condensation
steam 
 cooling   water
 gas   liquid 
Condensation point : The fixed temperature at which the vapour state of substance
gets converted into liquid state is called its condensation point or liquefaction
point.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 9


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
(iv) Freezing or Solidification:

Definition: The process during which a liquid changes to solid state at some fixed
temperature with the liberation of heat energy (or cooling) is called solidification
or freezing.

Example: Conversion of water into ice is solidification.

freezing
water 
 solidification  ice
 liquid   solid 

Freezing point : The fixed temperature at which a liquid substance gets converted
into a solid is called its freezing point.

(v) Evaporation and sublimation:

The conversion of a liquid into vapour, at temperatures below the boiling point is
called evaporation.

A few substances change directly from solid to gas on heating and gas to solid on
cooling. This process is called sublimation and such substances are called
sublimates. Iodine, camphor, ammonium chloride and naphthalene are some
examples of sublimates.

Diagram for change of state:

sublimation

melting vapourisation
solid liquid gas
Freezing condensation
KEY POINTS

It must be remembered that solidification point and melting point have same
numerical value.

For example, if melting point of ice is 0°C, then solidification point of water is also
0°C. The only difference is that during melting the heat energy is absorbed, whereas
during solidification, the heat energy is liberated.

Similarly the numerical value of the boiling point and liquefaction point is the same.
For example, if the boiling point of water is 100°C, then liquefaction point of steam
is also 100°C.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 10


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Whenever a substance undergoes a change in state, whether from solid to liquid
or from liquid to gas, it absorbs some quantity of heat without any rise of
temperature. This heat is called latent heat. The word ‘latent’ means ‘hidden’ since
there is no rise of temperature as the heat is being absorbed, the name ‘latent heat’
is assigned to it.
Latent heat:
The amount of heat needed to change the state of a given substance without any
change in its temperature is called the latent heat.
We know that more is the mass(m) of the substance is the quantity of heat(Q)
required, i.e., Q  m or Q = mL where L is the latent heat of substance.
Q J
Unit of Latent heat: We know Q = mL  L    Jkg 1 .
m kg
Hence the S.I. unit of latent heat is Jkg –1.
Similarly the CGS unit of latent heat is cal g –1.
Types of Latent heat:
Depending upon the nature of the process, there are two kinds of specific latent
heat.
(1) The specific latent heat of fusion.
(2) The specific latent heat of vapourisation.
Specific Latent heat of fusion (Lf) :
Specific latent heat of fusion of a substance is the quantity of heat required to
convert unit mass of the substance from solid to liquid state without change of
temperature.
Example: The specific latent heat of fusion of ice is 80cal/g. This statement means
that for 1gram of ice at 0 oC to convert to water at 0 oC amount of heat required is
80cal.
Specific latent heat of vapourisation: Specific latent heat of vapourisation of a
substance is the quantity of heat required to convert unit mass of the substance
from liquid to vapour state without changing of temperature.
Example: The specific latent heat of vapourisation of water is 540cal/g. This
statement means that for 1gram of water at 100 oC to convert to steam at 100 oC
amount of heat required is 540cal.
Change of state sequence :
The amount of Heat is required to convert m grams of ice at –100C to m grams of
steam at 1000C is

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 11


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

Total heat required Q  Q1  Q2  Q3  Q4

Determination of melting - point of wax : Take some solid wax in

a beaker (B) and arrange a thermometer so that the bulb is in contact with wax
as shown in figure. Heat the beaker slowly by a candle or Bunsen burner. Note
the thermometer(T) reading at every 1/2 minute interval. Initially the temperature
of the solid wax increases. When its temperature raises to a certain value it
begins to melt. On further heating temperature remains constant until whole of
the solid wax is completely converted into the liquid state. This constant
temperature is called the melting point of the substance i.e. wax.

Determination of Melting point and


Boiling - point of wax
B-Beaker, T-Thermometer

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 12


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
HEAT_WORKSHEET-2
1. Process during which a solid changes to liquid state at some fixed
temperature by the absorption of heat energy (as heating) is called
1) freezing 2) fusion 3) liquefaction 4) condensation
2. The fixed temperature at which the vapour state of substance gets converted into
liquid state is called
1) fusion point 2) melting point
3) liquefaction point 4) boiling print
3. The fixed temperature at which a liquid substances gets converted into a solid is
called its
1) freezing point 2) fusion point
3) liquefaction point 4) condensation point
4. The process due to which a gaseous form of a substance, changes to liquid state
without any fall in temperature is called
1) liquefaction 2) freezing 3) vaporisation 4) fusion
5. The heat energy required to change a solid at its melting point into liquid state
without any rise in temperature is called
1) latent heat of vaporisation 2) specific heat capacity
3) latent heat of fusion 4) thermal capacity
6. The heat energy required to change a liquid at its boiling point into gaseous state
without any rise in temprature is called
1) latent heat of vaporisation 2) specific heat capacity
3) latent heat of fusion 4) thermal capacity
7. C.G.S unit specific latent heat of fusion is
1) Cal g–1 2) J kg–1 3) N m 4) m/s
8. S.I unit of specific latent heat of vaporisation is
1) Jg–1 2) Jkg–1 3) Nm 4) m/s2
9. There is 1 gram of steam and 1g of water at 100°C, then
1) steam contains more heat energy
2) water contains more heat energy
3) both steam and water contains same energy
4) None of these
10. The amount of heat needed to change from ice to water at 0ºC is 80 cal. Find the
mass of the substance taken (Lice = 80 cal/g)
1) 1000g 2) 1 g 3) 80 g 4) 40g
11. How much heat is required to convert 1 gm of ice at 0ºC to water at 0ºC (Lice = 80
cal/g)
1
1) 160 cal 2) 80 cal 3) 540 cal 4) cal
80
Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 13
CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
12. What will be the amount of heat required to convert 50g of ice at 0ºC to water at
0ºC ?
1) 400 cal 2) 4000 cal 3) 3000 cal 4) 300 cal
13. What amount of ice that can be melted by 4000 cal of heat ? Latent heat of fusion
of ice = 80 cal/g.
1) 20g 2) 30g 3) 50g 4) 40g
14. Calculate the amount of ice that will be melted by a heat of 16.8×10 5J. Latent
heat of fusion of ice is 3.36×105 J/kg.
1) 2 kg 2) 5 kg 3) 3 kg 4) 4 kg

JEE MAINS
Single Correct Choice Type:
1. When an unknown amount of water at 70°C is added to 175g of water at 30°C, the
equilibrium temperature becomes 42°C. Find the mass of water added.
1) 10 g 2) 25 g 3) 75 g 4) 100 g
2. 5kg of water at 80°C is taken in a bucket of negligible heat capacity, 15kg of water
at 20°C is added to it. What is the temperature of the mixture?
1) 45 0C 2) 65 0C 3) 85 0C 4) 35 0C
3. 10kg of hot water in a bucket at 70°C is cooled for taking a bath adding to it 20kg
water at 20°C. What is the temperature of the mixture? (Neglect the thermal
capacity of the bucket)
1) 30.67 0C 2) 36.67 0C 3) 60.67 0C 4) 46.67 0C
4. What amount of ice that can be melted by 4000 calories of heat ? (latent heat of
fusion of ice = 80 cal g –1)
1) 20g 2) 30g 3) 50g 4) 40g
5. Calculate the amount of heat required to convert 5 gm of ice at 0ºC to vapour at
100ºC. [ L ice = 80 cal/gm, L steam = 540 cal/gm, Swater = 1 cal/gm/ºC]
1) 7200 cal 2) 500 cal 3) 3600 cal 4) 400 cal
6. The amount of heat required to convert 10gm of ice at – 5ºC to water at 75ºC is
[Latent heat of fusion of ice = 80 cal/gm latent heat of vapourisation of water =
540 cal/gm, specific heat of water = 1 cal /gm/ºC and specific heat of ice = 0.5
cal/gm/ºC]
1) 1575 cal 2) 1557 cal 3) 1755 cal 4) 5175 cal
7. If 10g of the ice at 0 C is mixed with 10g of water at 10 0C, then the final
0

temperature of the mixture will be


1) 50C 2) 00C 3) 100 K 4) 400C11.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 14


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
8. One gram of water at 800C is mixed with one gram of ice at 00C. The resultant
temperature is
1) 1000C 2) 00C 3) 800C 4) 400C
9. 540 g of ice at 00C is mixed with 540 g of water at 800C, the final temperature of
the mixture in 0C will be
1) 40 2) 79.9 3) 0 4) 80
10. One gram of ice at 00C is added to 5 grams of water at 100C. If the latent heat of
ice be 80 cal/g, then the final temperature of the mixture is :
1) 50C 2) 00C 3) -50C 4) 200C
11. 1gm of ice at 00C is converted to steam at 1000C the amount of heat required will
be ( LSteam  536 cal / g )
1) 756 cal 2) 12000 cal 3) 716 cal 4) 450 cal
JEE ADVANCED
Multi Correct Choice Type:

12. Wh en m gm of water at 10 0C is mixed with m gm of ice at 0 0C, which of the


following statements are false:

1) the temperature of the system will be given by the equation m×80 + m×1×
(T - 0) = m × 1 × (10 – T)

2) whole of ice will melt and temperature will be more than 0 0C but lesser
than 100C

3) whole of the ice will melt and temperature will be 00C.

4) whole of the ice will not melt and temperature will be 00C.
Reasoning Type:
13. Statement I : If 2 kg of steam at 100 0C condenses into water at 40 0C the
energy evolved in calories is 1200 Kcal.
Statement II : Heat evolved in the above case is given by mL +m 
1) Both Statements are true, Statement - II is the correct explanation of
Statement - I.
2) Both Statements are true, Statement - II is not correct explanation of
Statement - I.
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 15


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Comprehension Type:
Amount of heat energy required to melt 1 kg of ice at 0° C to form water at 0° C is
called specific latent heat of fusion.

14. What will be the amount of heat required to convert 50g of ice at 0°C to water at
0°C ?

1) 400 cal 2) 4000 cal 3) 3000 cal 4) 300 cal

15. What amount of ice that can be melted by 4000 calories of heat? Latent heat of
fusion of ice = 80 cal g –1

1) 20 g 2) 30 g 3) 50 g 4) 40 g

16. Calculate the amount of ice that will be melted by a heat of 16.8 × 105 J. Latent heat
of fusion of ice is 3.36 × 105 J/kg

1) 2 kg 2) 5 kg 3) 3 kg 4) 4 kg

Matrix Match Type:

17. Column-I Column-II

a) S.I. unit of latent heat 1) JKg-1

b) C.G.S. unit of latent heat 2) Cal.g-1

quantity of heat required(Q)


c) Formula for latent heat(L) = 3)
mass(m)

d) Definition of latent heat 4) amount of heat needed to change the


state of a given substance without
any change in its temperature.

5) meter/sec

**********

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 16


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

HEAT WORKSHEET-1_KEY

1. 1 2. 2 3. 3 4. 4 5. 1 6.2 7. 2
8. 1 9. 4 10. 4 11. 3 12. 1
JEE MAINS AND ADVANCED:
1. 1 2. 1 3. 1 4. 3 5. 4 6. 2
7. 3 8. 1 9. 1 10. 1 11. 2 12. 3
13. 1 14. 2 15. 4 16. 1,2 17. 1 18. 1
19. 4 20. 3 21. a-3; b-1; c-5; d-3,4 22. 144
HINTS AND SOLUTIONS:
3
m1s1 / V1 ds 5 3 1 m1 r1 1 H1 m1 1
1.  1 1    3. = 3= ; = =
m2s 2 / V2 d2s 2 6 5 2 m2 r2 8 H2 m2 8
1 v2 s2 s2
4. m1s1 = m2s2 , v 1 p 1 s1 = v 2 p 2 s2 ;  2 = v1s1 = s1

s A  T  B
5. ms A  T  A  msB  T  B ; 
sB  T  A

Heat
6. ource supplying heat at a constant rate 
rate

Heat Q
i.e.,  constant (or)  K (or) Q = Kt
time t
Object P Object Q

mP  200gm mQ  300gm

t P  200C tQ  50C

SP
tP  40s tQ  20s ?
SQ

Kt
Given condition: Q = Kt  mSt  Kt  S
mt

SP K  tP m q  t Q SP 3
    
SQ mP  tP K  tQ SQ 4

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 17


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
7. m1s1t1  m2 s2t2

m1 s1  m2 s2
8. s
m1  m2
9. Q= mxL
(150  t ) mA S A 2 3
10. mASA (t-75) = mBSB (150 - t)  (t  75) = m  S = 
B B 3 4
225
 300 - 2t = t - 75  3t = 225  t = = 750C
3
m2 s1t  m2 s2t  m3 s3t
11.   m1s11  m2 s2 2  m3 s33 

13. msc  dT  msw  dT


14. heat lost = heat gained

15. m1 s1  T1  m2 s 2 T2


16. Potential energy of water at height h is Q = mgh = m × 9.8 × 200 = 1960 × mJ
This potential energy is converted into heat. If T is the rise in temperature of
Q 1960  m
water, then, Q  mcT or T    0.467º C
mc m  4200
d 30kcal
18. Thermal capacity = ms    1.5kcal
 20
TC2 2l  2b  2h
19. 
TC1 l bh = 8
21. Thermal capacity = Vds water equivalent of first sphere, W1 = V1d2s2

3
w v d s r3 d s  2  4  3  8
 1  1  1  1  13  1  1 
w 2 v2 d2 s 2 r2 d 2 s2  33 5 4 45
22. Water Iron
m1 = M kg m2 = M kg

t1  TC t 2  TC

Q1  1260J Q2  ?

S1 = 4200 J/kg/K S2 = 480 J/kg/K

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 18


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
We know, Q  mSt (m,  are constant)

Q2 S2 Q2 480 480  1260


 QS     Q2   144 J.
Q1 S1 1260 4200 4200
HEAT WORKSHEET-2_KEY
1. 2 2. 3 3. 1 4. 1 5. 3
6. 1 7. 1 8. 2 9. 1 10. 2
11. 2 12. 2 13. 3 14. 2
JEE MAINS AND ADVANCED:
1. 3 2. 4 3. 2 4. 3 5. 3 6. 1
7. 2 8. 2 9. 3 10. 2 11. 3 12. 1,2,3
13. 1 14. 2 15. 3 16. 2 17. a-1; b-2; c-3; d-4
HINTS AND SOLUTIONS:
1. Suppose m gram of water at 70°C is added. Then

Heat lost by water at 70°C = m × C × (70 – 42) = m × C × 28

Heat gained by water at 30°C = 175 × C × (42 – 30) = 175 × C × 12

As Heat lost = Heat gained  m × C × 28 = 175 × C × 12

175  12
or m  75g .
28

2. Hot water, mh = 5kg, Th = 80°C Cold water, mc = 15kg, Tc = 20°C, T = ?

If the temperature of mixture is T Heat lost by hot water = 5 × C × (80 – T)

Heat gained by cold water = 15 × C × (T – 20)

According to the principle of calorimetry, Heat lost = Heat gained

5 × C × (80 – T) = 15 × C × (T – 20)  80 – T = 3 (T – 20) T = 35°C

3. m (hot water) = 10kg, T (hot water) = 70°C m (cold water) = 20kg

T (cold water) = 20°C T (final) = ?

Using the formula Q = mC  t

We get heat lost by hot water = 10 × C × (70 – Tf)

Where Tf is the final temperature

Heat gained by cold water = 20 × C × (Tf – 20)

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 19


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Using the principle of calorimetry Heat lost = Heat gained

We get 10 × C × (70 – Tf) = 20 × C × (Tf – 20)  700 – 10Tf = 20Tf – 400

or 30 Tf = 1100 Tf = 36.67°C

5. Q  mL ice  ms water t  mL steam

Q= 50 × 80 +500 + 5 × 540 = 400 + 500 + 2700 = 3600 cal

7.  m  L    m  s  t1   m  s  t2
8. Heat lost = Heat gained

9. msT1  msT2

10. Heat required to completely melt 1gm of ice = 80 cal

But heat lost by water = 5 110 cal= 50 cal. Final Temp. of mixture = 00C

11. Q = mL+mc(100-0)+mLs = 80+100+536= 716 cal.

**********

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 20


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

MEMO GRAPH

Light

Ray optics Wave optics

Reflection Interference polarization


Refraction

Diffraction
Reflection Reflection
at plane at curved
surface surface

Refraction Refraction Refraction


at plane through at spherical
surface Prism surface
Concave Convex Spherical
mirror mirror mirror

Convex Concave Spherical


Snell’s Lateral sphrical sphrical lenses
law Shift refracting refracting
surface surface

Dispersion
Colours Optical
Convex Concave
Instruments
lenses lenses
Angular Dispersive
dispersion power

Primary Secondary Human eye Microscope Telescope


colours colours

Simple Compound

Astronomical Terristrial

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 21


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

KNOW YOUR SCIENTIST


James Clerk Maxwell (1831 - 1879)
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879)
was a Scottish physicist and mathematician. His most
prominent achievement was formulating classical
electromagnetic theory. This united all previously unrelated
observations, experiments and equations of electricity,
magnetism and even optics into a consistent theory.
Maxwell's equations demonstrated that electricity,
magnetism and even light are all manifestations of the same
phen omen on , n amely the electromagn etic field.
Subsequently, all other classic laws or equations of these
disciplines became simplified cases of Maxwell's equations.
Maxwell's achievements concerning electromagnetism have
been called the "second great unification in physics", after the
first one realised by Isaac Newton. He was the first cousin of
James Clerk
Maxwell (1831 - 1879) notable 19th century artist Jemima Blackburn.

CHRISTIAAN HUYGENS (1629 - 1695)


He was a Dutch Phycisist, astronomer and mathematician.
He was the founder of the wave theory of light. Using his
theory he explained reflection, refraction of light and double
refraction exhibited by mineral calcite crystals. He was the
first to analyse circular and simple harmonic motions and
designed and built improved clocks and telescopes.
He discovered the true geometry of the rings of planet saturn.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 22


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

REFLECTION OF LIGHT BY DIFFERENT


SURFACES
SYNOPSIS-1
Reflection of light: When a beam of light is incident on a surface, a part of it is returned
back into the same medium. The part of light which is returned back into the same
medium is called the reflected light.
The remaining part of light is absorbed if the surface on which the incident light
strikes is opaque or it is partly transmitted and partly absorbed if the surface is
transparent.
Reflection: The return of light into the same medium after striking a surface is called
reflection.
Reflection of light is the process which enables us to see different objects around
us. Luminous bodies are directly seen, but non luminous objects are seen only
because they reflect the light incident on them which on entering into our eyes,
make them visible.
Regular Reflection: Reflection of light is of two kinds depending on the nature of the
reflecting surface–regular reflection and diffused or irregular reflection.
When the reflecting surface is very well polished and smooth, the light that falls
on it is regularly reflected. This phenomenon is known as regular refection.
Note: Regular reflection takes place on highly polished on smooth surfaces
Ex: Plane mirror
Irregular Reflection: If the reflecting surface is irregular, the rays of light that fall
on it are scattered in all directions. This is called irregular or diffused reflection.
Note: Irregular reflection takes place on rough surfaces
Ex: Wall, wood, paper, cinema screen, ground glass etc.
Laws of Reflection: The reflection at a surface obeys the following two laws, which are
called the laws of reflection.
N
A B
NORMAL

AY
IN

R
C

D
ID

TE
EN

C
LE
T

i r REF
RA
Y

M O M1
Reflection at a plane
surface
1. The angle of incidence ‘i’ is equal to the angle of reflection r (i.e.  i   r) . In
figure  AON =  BON.
For a ray incident normally on a surface,  i = 0 0, therefore  r = 0 0. Thus,
a ray of light incident normally on a surface is reflected back along the same
path.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 23


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
2. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence,
lie on the same plane.
Formula for the angle of deviation due to reflection:
In the figure angle of incidence = i; Angle of deviation = d =?
N
A B

i r
M M1
O d

C
Consider the straight line AOC, i + r +d = 180 0
i.e the sum of angle of incidence, angle of reflection and angle of deviation is 180 0
 d = 180 – (i + r) = 180 – (i + i) (  i=r) =180 – 2i
Therefore, for an angle of incidence i, the angle of deviation is equal to
180 – 2i =   2i
Note: The deviation produced by n reflections from two plane mirrors inclined at
an angle  is given by D = n(180 –  ) = 360 - 2  , where n is even.
Image: When the rays of light, diverging from a point, after reflection or refraction,
either actually meet at some other point, or appear to meet at some other point,
then that point is called image of the object.
N
A B
NORMAL

Y
RA
IN
C

D
ID

TE
E
N

C
T

LE
RA

ir
EF
Y

M O M1
Reflection at a plane surface
Types of images:
a) Virtual Image: When the rays of light, diverging from a point, after reflection
or refraction, appear to diverge from another point, then the image so formed is
called virtual image
Ex: Image of our face in a plane mirror. Virtual images cannot be formed on a screen.
virtual images are always erect upright. The path of the rays forming a virtual
image is shown by dotted lines
b) Real Image: When the rays of light, diverging from a point, after reflection or
refraction actually converge at some other point then that point is real image of
the object.
Ex: Motion and still pictures projected on the screen in a cinema hall are real images.
Real images are always inverted (upside down). Real images and the path of the
rays which form them are shown by continuous lines.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 24


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Characteristics of an image formed by a plane mirror:
1. The image is formed behind the mirror and has the same size as the object
2. The image is laterally inverted.
3. The image is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front of it.
4. The image is virtual. It cannot be received on a screen.
5. The image is erect.
Mirrors: A smooth, highly polished reflecting surface is called a mirror. One surface
of the mirror is made opaque by silvering followed by a thin coat of red lead oxide
paint.
There are two types of mirrors.
Plane mirrors: A highly polished plane surface is called a plane mirror.
Spherical mirrors: A mirror in which the reflecting surface is curved is called a
spherical mirror.

reflecting
surface reflecting
surface

a. Plane mirror b. Spherical mirror


In spherical mirrors the polished reflecting surface is a part of a hollow sphere of
glass. Depending upon the nature of the reflecting surface of the mirror, spherical
mirrors are of two types.
Different types of spherical mirrors:
Concave mirror: A spherical mirror whose inner hollow surface is the reflecting
surface is called a concave mirror.
Convex mirror: A spherical mirror whose outer surface is the reflecting surface is
called a convex mirror.
reflecting surface reflecting surface

opaque outer
surface opaque inner
hollow glass surface
hollow glass
sphere
sphere

a. Concave mirror b. Convex mirror


Different types of spherical mirrors

Terms related to spherical mirrors:


Aperture: The width (distance) of the spherical mirror from which reflection can
take place is called its aperture. It is denoted by MM
Pole: The centre of a spherical mirror is called its pole. It is denoted by P.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 25


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Centre of curvature: The geometric centre of the hollow sphere of which the
spherical mirror is a part is called the centre of curvature of the spherical mirror.
It is denoted by C.
Radius of curvature: The radius of the hollow sphere of which the spherical mirror
is a part is called the radius of curvature of the spherical mirror. In other words,
the distance between the pole and centre of curvature of the spherical mirror (P3)
is called its radius of curvature. It is denoted by r.
Convex mirror
Concave mirror
r r

Principle axis
Principle axis
C P P C

(a) (b)
Principal axis: The straight line passing through the centre of curvature and the
pole of a spherical mirror is called its principal axis (PX).
Focus: If a beam of light parallel to the principal axis falls on a concave mirror, all
the rays after reflection meet at a point. This point is called the focus (F) of the
concave mirror.
If a beam of light parallel to the principal axis falls on a convex mirror, all the
rays after reflection diverge. If the reflected rays are extended backwards, they
appear to come from a point on the principal axis. This point is called the focus of
the convex mirror.
M M

principal F P focus
axis P

focus

M' M'
Focal length Focal length
focal length
Focal length: The distance between the pole (P) and focus (F) is called the focal
length (f). It is denoted by f.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 26


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CONCAVE MIRROR AND CONVEX MIRROR

CONCAVE MIRROR CONVEX MIRROR

Reflection takes place at the concave Reflection takes place at the convex
surface (or bent in surface) surface (or bulging out surface)

A parallel beam of light falling on this A parallel beam of light falling on this
mirror converges at a point after reflection mirror appears to diverge from a point
after reflection
It is a converging mirror It is a diverging mirror

It has a real focus It has a virtual focus

Concave Mirror As Converging Mirror: Consider two rays of light AB and DE


travelling parallel to the principal axis of a concave mirror, meeting the surface of
mirror at point B and E respectively. C is the centre of curvature of the mirror. Join
CB and CE . CB and CE are perpendiculars to the surface of mirror at points B and
E, because any line drawn from the centre of a sphere to its circumference is always
at right angles to the circumference.

Thus,  ABC and  DEC are the angles of incidence. Applying laws of reflection,
make  CBF and  CEF, such that the reflected rays meet at point F on the
principal axis. Then, point F is the principal focus.

It is found that all the rays coming parallel to principal axis meet at point ‘F. In a
way the rays converge at a single point. Thus, concave mirror acts as a converging
mirror.

A B
i
al
rm r
No
P
C F
Nor
mal r
i
D E

Conclusion:
1. Any ray of light travelling parallel to the principal axis of a concave mirror, after
reflection passes through the principal focus of the mirror.
2. A ray of light which first passes through principal focus, after reflection, will
travel parallel to the principal axis of a concave mirror.
3. A ray of light which first passes through the centre of a curvature of concave
mirror, after reflection, will retrace its path. It is because the ray strikes the
mirror surface at right angles.
Convex Mirror As Diverging Mirror: Consider a convex mirror, having centre of

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 27


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
curvature at point C, such that AB and ED are the two rays of light, travelling
parallel to the principal axis, meeting the mirror surface at points B and D
respectively. Join CB and CD and produce them forward to G and L respectively
such that BG and DL act as normals at the points of incidence B and D respectively.
Draw reflected rays BK and DH, such that the angle of incidence is equal to the
angle of reflection. Produce BK and DH backward. It is seen that these rays meet
the principal axis at point F. This point is called principal focus of the convex mirror.
K
i G
r
A
l B
a
rm
No P
C N F
orm
al
i B
D rL
H
It is found that all rays coming parallel to principal axis, after reflection, appear to
meet at point F. In other words, the reflected rays appear to diverge out from point
F. Hence, convex mirror is called a diverging mirror.
Conclusion:
1. Any ray of light travelling parallel to principal axis of a convex mirror, after
reflection appears to diverge from the principal focus of the convex mirror.
2. Any ray of light which travels along principal focus of a convex mirror, after
reflection from it, will travel parallel to the principal axis.
3. Any ray of light which travels along centre of curvature of a convex mirror, after
reflection from it, retraces its path. It is because, it strikes the mirror at an
angle of 90 0.
Relation between focal length (f) and radius of curvature (R):
Consider a spherical mirror, such that ‘C’ is its centre of curvature. AB is a ray of
light, incident at point B and is travelling parallel to principal axis. After reflection
this ray is reflected along BD, cutting principal axis at point F (In case of convex
mirror BD is produced backwar4), which is the principal focus of spherical mirror.
D
A B
r i
i
r
B A
2 1
P
P C F
1
C F
R
R
D Concave mirror
Convex mirror
(a) (b)
For convex mirror: (Figure – 1)
i  r (By the laws of reflection)

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 28


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
But, i  1 (Pair of corresponding angles)
and, r  2 (Pair of vertically opposite angle)
 1  2
 CF = BF ––––– (i)
If the point B is very close to the point P, i.e., the linear aperture of the mirror is very
small then;
BF = PF ––––(ii)
Comparing (i) and (ii); CF = PF, where PF =f
Also, PC = CF + PF  PC = PF + PF ( PF = CF)
R
 PC = 2PF  R = 2f or f 
2
For concave mirror: (Figure – 2)
i  r (By the laws of reflection)
But, i  1 (Pair of alternate angles)
 1  r
Now, In CFB
, 1  r  CF = FB
If the point B is very close to the point P, i.e., the linear aperture of the mirror is very
small then ; FB = PF.
CF = PF, where PF = f
Also PC = CF + PF  PC = PF + PF
 R=f+f (  PF = CF)
R
R  2 f or f 
2
Thus, we can say that focal length of spherical mirror is half of its radius of
curvature
(or)
Principal focus of a spherical mirror lies midway, between the pole and centre of
curvature of that mirror.

FASCINATING FACT

If you look at the shadows of leaves during a solar eclipse, you will see images of the
eclipsing sun projected onto the ground. Why are these images made? Are they
present all the time or just during an eclipse?
The images are pinhole images made by the tiny holes in the leaves. They are
always present during the but are usually lost in the overall glare of light. During an
eclipse that glare is reduced somewhat

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 29


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

RLD_WORKSHEET-1
Conceptual and Understanding questions

1. Highly polished surface which reflects almost whole of the light incident upon it
is called
1) glass 2) spherical glass 3) mirror 4) plane glass
2. Which of the following represents plane mirror?

1) 2) 3) 4)

3. Which of the following mirror have bent reflecting surface inside ?


1) plane mirror 2) concave mirror 3) convex mirror 4) Both (2) and (3)
4. Which of the following represents concave mirror?

1) 2) 3) 4)

5. Which of the following mirror have bulging-out reflecting surface ?


1) plane mirror 2) concave mirror 3) convex mirror 4) can’t say
6. Which of the following represents convex mirror?

1) 2) 3) 4)

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 30


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

r
7.

C P
X

From the above figure ‘P’ is called


1) pole 2) focus 3) centre of curvature 4) focal length
8. From the above figure (Q.No. 7) ‘C’ is called
1) principal axis 2) focus 3) radius of curvature 4) centre of curvature
9. From the above figure (Q.No. 7) ‘ R’ is called
1) principal axis 2) focus 3) radius of curvature 4) centre of curvature
10. From the above figure (Q.No. 7) the straight line XCP is called
1) principal axis 2) focus 3) radius of curvature 4) centre of curvature

F
P
11.

M'

From the above figure ‘F’ is called


1) principal axis 2) focus
3) radius of curvature 4) centre of curvature
12. From the above figure (Q.No. 11) the distance between ‘F’ and ‘P’ is called
1) principal axis 2) focus 3) radius of curvature 4) focal length
13. f = R/2 is valid
1) for convex mirrors but not for concave mirrors
2) for concave mirrors but not for convex mirrors
3) for both convex and concave mirrors
4) neither for convex mirrors nor for conave mirrors

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 31


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
JEE MAINS
Single Correct Choice Type:
1. Light is
1) Visible and also makes objects visible on which it falls
2) Invisible but makes objects visible on which it falls
3) Invisible but becomes visible when it falls on an object
4) Sometimes visible and sometimes invisible but it always makes objects visible
on which it falls
2. A material through which light energy passes wholly (or) partially is called
1) Luminous body 2) Transparent medium
3) Non luminous body 4) Optical medium
3. Light travels in
1) Straight lines 2) Curved lines
3) Sometimes in straight lines sometimes in curved lines 4) Can’t say
4. The centre of curvature of a _______mirror is in fornt of it
1) Convex 2) concave 3) Both (1) and (2) 4) plane
5. Angle of incidence is equal to angle of reflection.
If the angle between the mirror and the incident ray is 40 0, the angle of reflection
(r) is
1) 400 2) 800 3) 500 4) 1000
6. The width (distance) of the spherical mirror from which reflection can take place
is called its
1) Aperture 2) Pole 3) Focus 4) Focal length
7. If the radius of curvature of the convex mirror is 0.2cm then focal length is
1) 0.2cm 2) 0.1cm 3) 0.4cm 4) 0.8cm
8. Distance between pole(P) and Force (F) called the ________
1) Radius of curvature 2) Focal length
3) Aperture 4) Centre of curvalure
9. The relation between focal lenghtr (F) and Radius of curvature (R) is ____
1) R=F 2) R=2F 3) R =3F 4) F=2R
10. The geometric centre of the hollow sphere of which the spherical mirror is a
part is called the ____________ of the spherical mirror.
1) Aperture 2) Pole
3) Centre of curvature 4) Radius of curvature
11. If Radius of curvature of a spherical mirror is 20 m. Then its focal lenght is ___
1) 2 m 2) 10 m 3) 20 m 4) 200 m

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 32


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
12. If the focal length of convex mirror is doubled then radius of curvature is
1) Doubled 2) Remains unchanged
3) Quadrupled 4) Half
13. If the radius of curvature of the convex mirror is 100cm. Then Focal lenght is _
1) 0.2cm 2) 50cm 3) 500 cm 4) 100 cm
14. Any ray of light which travels along Principle axis of a convex mirror, after
reflection from it will travel
1) Perpendicular to principal axis 2) Parallel to principle axis
3) Appears to diverge 4) None of these
JEE ADVANCED
Multi Correct Choice Type:
15. Choose the correct option (s) for a concave mirror
1) Converging mirror 2) Diverging mirror
3) Real focus 4) Virtual focus
16. If radius of curvature of a spherical mirror is 2m. then its focal length is
1) 2m 2) 1m 3) 100cm 4) 200cm
17. Choose the correct relation
f
1) f = R/2 2) R = 2f 3) R  2f 4) R 
2
18. Choose the correct statements :
1) Any ray of light travelling parallel to the principle axis of a concave mirror,
after reflection passes through the principal focus of the mirror.
2) A ray of light which first passes through principal focus, after reflection, will
travel parallel to the principal axis of a concave mirror.
3) A ray of light which first passes through the centre of a curvature of concave
mirror, after reflection, will retrace its path. It is because the ray strike the
mirror surface at right angled.
4) A ray of light which first passes through principal focus, after reflection, will
travel perpendicular to the principal axis of a concave mirror.
Statement Type
19. Statement I : Concave mirror has a real focus
Statement II : Convex mirror has a virtual focus
1) Both Statements I and II are true.
2) Both Statements I and II are false.
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 33


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
20. Statement - I :If focal length of a given spherical mirror is 10 cm, then radius of
curvature is 20 cm.
Statement - II : The reaction between focal length (f) and radius of curvature (R) is
R = f/2
1) Both Statements I and II are true.
2) Both Statements I and II are false.
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.
21. Statement - I : The geometric centre of the hollow sphere of which the spherical
mirror is a part is called the centre of curvature of the spherical mirror.
Statement - II : The radius of the hollow sphere of which the spherical mirror is a
part is called the radius of curvature of the spherical mirror.
1) Both Statements I and II are true.
2) Both Statements I and II are false.
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.
Comprehension Type: Relation between focal length (f) and radius of curvature (R)
R
is f  .
2
22. If the radius of curvature of convex mirror is 1m, what is its focal length?
1) 1m 2) ½ m 3) 2m 4) 3m
23. A concave mirror has a focal length of 20 cm. Its radius of curvature is
1) 20 cm 2) 10 cm 3) 40 cm 4) infinite
24. Focal length of a concave mirror is ‘x’. The sum of the focal length and radius of
curvature of the mirror will be
1) x 2) 2x 3) 3x 4) 4x
Matrix Match Type:
25. If f is the focal length and R is radius of curvature of a spherical mirror, match
the following.
Column - I Column - II
a) f = 60 cm 1) R = 160 cm
b) f = 20 cm 2) R = 40 cm
c) f = 80 cm 3) R = 80 cm
d) f = 40 cm 4) R = 60 cm
5) R = 120 cm
Note: f is focal length, R is radius of curvature.
Integer Answer Type:
26. If radius of curvature is 20cm ,then the focal length of the spherical mirror
is____cm.
27. If radius of curvature of a spherical mirror is 4 m, then its focal length is __m.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 34


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

RLD_SYNOPSIS-2
Formation of different types of images by a concave mirror:

Case – I :
Image formed when the object is placed between the pole (P) and the focus (F)
of the mirror
M
A'
E
A
D

p
C F B B'
object image (virtual
eye x (between erect and magnified)
P and f)
(concave
mirror)
M'
Position of object between P and F

Position: Behind the mirror, Nature: Virtual and erect


Size: larger than the size of the object (magnifie4)
Case – II:
Image formed when the object is placed at the focus (F) of the mirror
E
A
D

B F
C F
Image at infinity
(real, inverted and
highly magnified)
Position of the object : at F concave mirror
Position: At infinity, Nature : Real and inverted
Size: Highly magnified,
Case – III:
Image formed when the object is placed between the focus (F) and the

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 35


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
centre of curvature (3)

E
Image(real,
inverted, A
D
magnified)
B' C B P
F
object
(between
F and C)
A'
concave mirror
Position of the object : at F and C

Position: Beyond the centre of curvature


Nature: Real and inverted
Size: Larger than the object (magnifie4)
Case – IV:
Image formed when the object is placed at the centre of curvature (3) of the
mirror
M

A
D
object
CB P
Image B' F
(real, inverted
and same size
as the object) A' E

Position of the M'


concave
object : at C mirror
Position: At the centre of curvature
Nature: Real and inverted
Size: Same size as the object
Case – V:
Image formed when the object is placed beyond the centre of curvature (3)
of the mirror

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 36


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

A D

B'
B C F
object A'
(beyond C) image (real,
inverted
diminished) E
M' concave
Position of the object: beyond C mirror

Position: Between the focus and the centre of curvature


Nature: Real and inverted
Size: Smaller than the object (diminishe4)
Case – VI:
Image formed when the object is at infinity

A
two rays from the D
top point A of a distance
object AB
A
B'
C F
A'
Image(at focus,
real, inverted,
highly diminished)
Object at infinite

Position: At the focus (F)


Nature: Real and inverted
Size: Highly diminished

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 37


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Images formed by a concave mirror for different positions of the object
Nature and size of
Position of the object Position of the image
the image

Real, inverted and very


At infinity At the focus (F)
small (highly diminished)

Beyond the centre of Between the focus(F) Real, inverted and


curvature (C) and centre of curvature(C) diminished

At the centre of At the centre of Real, inverted, same size


curvature (C) curvature (C) as the object

Between the centre


Beyond the centre Real, inverted, bigger
of curvature (C) and
of curvature (C) than the object(magnified)
focus(F)

Real, inverted and


At the focus (F) At infinity
enlarged (highly magnified)

Between the focus Virtual, erect and enlarged


(F) and Pole (P) Behind the mirror (magnified)

Images formed by a convex mirror for different positions of the object


Nature and size of
Position of the object Position of the image
the image

Between the focus(F) Behind the mirror Virtual, erect and


and infinity between P and F diminished

Behind the mirror at a


At the focus(F) Virtual, erect and
distance of f/2 from the
diminished
pole

Between the focus(F) Behind the mirror Virtual, erect and


and the pole (P) between P and F diminished

Behind the mirror at Virtual, erect and highly


At infinity
the focus (F) diminished (point size)

Mirror Formula – Relation Between Focal Length, Object Distance And Image
Distance of Mirror:
Definition: The equation relating the object distance, the image distance and focal
length of the mirror is called the mirror formula.
Mirror formula : The distance of an object fromt he pole of a mirror is known as
object distance. Object

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 38


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
distance is denotee by the letter u. The distance of image from the pole of a mirror
is known as image distance. Image distance is denoted by the letter ‘u’. The
distance of focus from the pole of a mirror is known as focal length. Focal length is
denoted by the letter f. There is a relationship between the object distance, image
distance and focal length of a spherical mirror (concave mirror or convex mirror).
This relationship is given by the mirror formula :
A formula which gives the relationship between image distance (v), object distance
(u) and focal length (f) of a spherical mirror is known as the mirror formula. The
mirror formula can be written as :
1 1 1
 
Im age dis tan ce Object dis tan ce Focal length

1 1 
or v  u  f

Where v = distance of image from mirror


u = distance of object from mirror
and f = focal length of the mirror
The mirror formula has the three values in it. If any two values are known, the third
value can be calculated. The known values should be put in this formula with their
proper signs but no sigh should be given to the unknown value to be calculated. Its
proper sign will come by itself by calculations. The proper signs of the known values
of u, v or f can be found by using New Cartesian Sign Convention for spherical
mirrors.
KEY POINT : Mirror formula is same for both concave and convex mirror
Linear Magnification:
The size of image formed by a spherical mirror depends on the position of the object
from the mirror.The image formed by a spherical mirror can be bigger than the
object, equal to the object or smaller than the object.The size of the image relative
to the object is given by linear magnification.
Definition: The ratio of height of image to the height of object is known as linear
magnification.
height of image(h2 )
Formula : Magnification (m ) 
height of object (h1 )

 h2 
For a virtual image h2 is positive and h1 is also positive, so the magnification  h 
 1
of a virtual (and erect) image is always positive. In other words, if the magnification
has a plus sign, then the image is virtual and erect. For a real image, h2 is negative

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 39


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
 h2 
h1 is positive, so the magnification  h  for a real (and inverted) image is always
 1
negative. In other words, if the magnification has a minus sign, then the image is
real and inverted.
Since a concave mirror can produce virtual images as well as real images, the
magnification produced by a concave mirror can be either positive or negative. A
convex mirror, however, forms only virtual images, so the magnification produced
by a convex mirror is always positive.
If we know the height (or size) of the object and that of the image, then we can
calculate the magnification by using the formula give above. Many times, however,
we do not know their heights, so we will now write another formula for calculating
the magnification produced by a spherical mirror in terms of “object distance” and
“image distance”.
The linear magnification produced by a mirror is equal to the ratio of the image
distance to the object distance, with a minus sign. That is,

Image dis tance v


Magnification  or m  
Object dis tan ce u
where m = magnification
v = image distance
and u = object distance
Thus, if we know the image distance v and the object distance u, then the
magnification m can be calculated.
So, now we have two formulae for calculating the magnification :

h2 v
m and m  
h1 u
We will use these two formulae to solve numerical problems. We can also combine
these two formula to get another formula:

h2 v

h1 u
Sign convention for spherical mirrors :
This sign convention for a concave and a convex mirror are shown below in the table
direction of
Concave mirror direction of Convex mirror
light ray
O O light ray

C object F P F object F P F C

negative distances positive distances negative distances positive distances

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 40


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Sign convention for spherical mirror

These days New Cartesian Sign Convention is used for measuring the various
distance in the ray-diagrams of spherical mirrors (concave mirrors and convex
mirros). According to the New Cartesian sign convention.
i) All the distance are measured from pole of te mirror as origin.
ii) Distances measured in the same direction as that of incident light are taken as
positive.
iii) Distances measured against the direction of incident light are taken as
negative.
iv) Distance measured upward and perpendicular to the principal axis are taken as
positive.
v) Distance measured downward and perpendicular to the principal axis are taken
as negative.

Direction of
incident light

(Left to right)

Object is placed on P
left side of the mirror

Against the direction In the direction


of incident light of incident light

Negative distance Positive distance

The New Cartesian Sign Convention for mirrors is shown in figure. The object is
always placed on the left side of the mirror (as shown in figure) so that the
direction of incident is from left to right. Since the incident light always goes from
left to right, all the distances measured from the pole (P) of mirror to the right side
will be consdered positive (because they will be in the same direction as the
incident ligh). On the other hand, all the distance measured from (P) of mirror to
the left side will be negative (because they are measured against the direction of
incident light)
Key point :
If an image is formed behind a concave mirror (to the rigt side), the image distance
(v) is positive but if the image is formed in front of the mirror (on the left side), then
the image distance will be negative.
The image distance (v) for a convex mirror will be always positive.
The focal length of a concave mirror is considered negative
The focal length of a convex mirror is positive

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 41


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
The height of an object is always considered positive.
If an image is formed above the principal axis, its height is taken as positive and
if an image is formed below the principal axis, then its height is taken as negative.
The height of all virtual and erect images is considered positive.
The height of all the real and inverted image is taken as negative.
Conclusions from the sign Convention
For concave mirror For convex mirror

Distance of the object u is negative Distance of the object u is negative

Distance of the real image v is negative Distance of the virtual image v is positive

Distance of the virtual image v is positive Focal length f is positive

Focal length f is negative Radius of curvature R is positive

Radius of curvature R is negative Height of the object O is positive


Height of the virtual (erect)
Height of the object O is positive I is positive
image
Height of the inverted (real)
I is negative
image
Height of the erect (virtual)
I is positive
image

STRANGE PHYSICS FACT

Why is the moon red during a lunar eclipse - that is, when the moon is in the earth’s
shadow?
Even though the moon is in the earth’s shadow, sunlight can still illminate it if the
sunlight is refracted into the shadow area by passing though the earth’s atmosphere on
the edges of the earth. However, such refraction removes the blue end of the visible
spectrum for the same reason that the sky is blue and leaves only the red end of the
spectrum. Hence, the sunlight that is refracted sufficiently to illuminate the moon is red.
The same color subtraction is responsible for the red skies during sunrises and sunsets.

RLD - WORKSHEET-2
1. Name the kind of the mirror used to obtain a real and enlarged image
1) Concave 2) Convex 3) Plane 4) Both 2 and 3
2. Name the kind of the mirror used to obtain a virtual and enlarged image
1) Concave 2) Convex 3) Plane 4) Both 2 and 3
3. Name the kind of the mirror used to obtain a virtual and diminished image
1) Concave 2) Convex 3) Plane 4) Both 2 and 3

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 42


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
4. Name the kind of the mirror used to obtain a real and diminished image
1) Concave 2) Convex 3) Plane 4) Both 2 and 3
5. The centre of curvature of a ________ mirror is in front of it
1) convex 2) concave 3) both (1) & (2) 4) plane
6. If the image distance is ‘x’, object distance is ‘y’ then the linear magnification
produced by a mirror is
x y
1) 2) 3) xy 4) x 2 y 2
y x
JEE MAINS
Single Correct Choice Type:
1. When the object is in between the centre of curvature (C) and focus (F) of a
concave mirror the position of the image is_____
1) At focus 2) At the centre of curvature (C)
3) At infinity 4) Beyond the center of curvature
2. A virtual image larger than the object can be produced by
1) Convex mirror 2) Concave mirror
3) Both (1) and (2) 4) Neither (1) nor (2)
3. The image formed by a concave mirror when the object is placed between the
pole and the focus is
1) Virtual, erect and magnified 2) Virtual, erect and diminished
2) Real, inverted and magnified 3) Real, inverted and diminished
4. The object distance u, image distance v and focal length f for a spherical mirror are
related as
1 1 1 1 1 1
1)   2)   3) v – u = f 4) v + u = f
v u f u v f
5. The Ratio of height of the image to the height of the object is known as __
1) Mirror formula 2) Linear magnafication
3) Areal magnification 4) Both 1 and 2
6. The position and size of image formed when an object of size 1cm is placed at a
distance of 15 cm from a concave mirror of focal length 10 cm is
1) –30 cm , real and inverted 2) –20 cm virtual and inverted
3) –40 cm, real and inverted 4) –25 cm virtual and enlarged
7. One of the following does not apply to a concave mirror. This is
1) Focal length is negative
2) Image distance can be positive or negative
3) Image distance is always positive
4) Height of image can be positive or negative

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 43


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
8. An object is placed at a distance of 20 cm before a concave mirror. A real images
is obtained at a distance of 40 cm from the mirror. Calculate the focal length of
the mirror
1) 16.3 2) –13.3 3)14.3 4) –17.3
9. A candle is held at 10cm from the concave mirror of focal length 20cm. Then the
position its image is
1) 20cm 2) 40cm 3) 30cm 4) 10cm
10. A concave mirror of focal length 30 cm is placed at a distance of 90 cm from the
wall. How far from the wall should an object be placed so as to get its real image
on the wall?
1) 40 cm 2) 22.5 cm 3) 35 cm 4)30 cm
11. A dentist uses a small concave mirror of focal length 3.0 cm and holds it at a
distance of 2cm from the tooth. What is the magnification of the image ?
1) 5 2) 2 3) 3 4) 6
12. A concave mirror of focal length 10 cm is kept in front of an object at a distance of
50 cm from it. If the object is 1.0 cm high, what will be the size of the image ?
1) 1.25 cm 2) 2.25 cm 3) 0.25 cm 4) 3.25 cm
13. What is the nature of the image formed by a concave mirror if the magnification
produced by the mirror is +3?
1) Virtual 2) Erect 3) Real 4) Bothe (1) and (2)
14. According to New Cartesian Sign Convention:
1) Focal length of concave mirror is positive and that of convex mirror is negative
2) Focal length of both concave and convex mirrors is positive
3) Focal length of both concave and convex mirrors is negative.
4) Focal length of concave mirror is negative and the of convex mirror is positive
JEE ADVANCED
Multi Correct Choice Type:
15. Choose the correct option (s) for the image formed when a object is placed at the
focus of a convex mirror.
1) Erect 2) Virtual 3) Diminished 4) Highly dimnished
16. When the object is at focus of a concave mirror the nature of the image is
1) Real 2) Inverted
3) Bigger than object 4) Same size of the object
17. Choose the correct statement(symbols have their meanings).
1) For a real image ‘m’ is negative 2) For a real image ’m’ is positive
3) For a virtual image ‘m’ is negative 4) For a virtual image ‘m’ is positive

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 44


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
18. If u = –20cm , v = –15 cm , h1= height of the object = 1 cm, then
1) Image is formed at 60 cm from the mirror 2) Magnification is –3 cm
3) Image is inverted 4) Image will be on the same side as the object
Reasoning Type:
19. Statement I: Virtual and erect image is formed when the object is placed
between the pole (P) and the focus (F) of the concave mirror.
Statement II : When the object is placed between the pole (P) and the focus (F) of
the concave mirror then image is formed behind the mirror.
1) Both Statements I and II are true.
2) Both Statements I and II are false.
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.
20. Statement A: The image formed by a convex mirror is always virtual.
Statement B: The image formed by a concave mirror is always real.
1) Both the statements are true 2) Both the statements are false
3) Only statement ‘A’ is true 4) Only statement ‘B’ is true
Comprehension Type:
The object distance ‘u’, image distance ‘v’ and focal length ‘f’ for a spherical
1 1 1
mirror are related as  
u v f
21. A candle is held at 10 cm from the concave mirror of focal length 50 cm. What is
the position of its image?
1) 12.5 cm behind the mirror 2) 10.2 cm behind the mirror
3) 9.2 cm behind the mirror 4) 11.5 cm behind the mirror
22. An object is placed at a distance of 10 cm from the pole of a concave mirror. Its
image is formed at 6 cm from its pole. Then the focal length of the mirror.
1) – 3.75 cm 2) – 5.75 cm 3) – 6.75 cm 4) – 4.75 cm
23. A 1.2 cm long pin is placed perpendicular to the principle axis of a convex mirror
of focal length 12 cm , at a distance of 8 cm from it. The location of image is at
1) 4.8 cm 2) 12 cm 3) 6 cm 4) 10 cm
Matrix Match Type:
24. Images formed by a concave mirror for different positions of the object. Then
Column - I Column - II
(position of the object) (nature and size of image)
a) At infinity 1) Real
b) At centre of curvature 2) Inverted
c) Between focus F and pole P 3) Same size
d) Beyond the centre of curvature(C) 4) Virtual and Erect

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 45


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
25. Match the following
Column - I Column - II
a) A real and enlarged image i) Concave
b) A virtual and enlarged image ii) Convex
c) A virtual and diminished image
d) a real and diminished image
1) a – i, b – i, c – ii, d – i 2) a – i, b – i, c – i, d – i
3) a – ii, b – ii, c – ii, d – ii 4) a – ii, b – ii, c – i, d – ii
Integer Answer Type:
26. Magnification produced by plane mirror is________
27. A concave mirror of focal length 30 cm is placed at a distance of 90 cm from the
wall. How far from the wall should an object be placed so as to get its real image
on the wall is ________ cm.
28. An object 5cm high is placed at a distance of 10cm from a convex mirror of radius
of curvature 30cm. then the image distance is_________cm.
REFRACTION OF LIGHT AT PLANE SURFACES
SYNOPSIS-1
. Refraction of light : We know that light travels in a straight line path. This is
true as long as the light rays are travelling in the same medium having the same
density throughout. If, however, the light rays are made to go from one transparent
medium, to another transparent medium the light rays change their direction
(or ben4) at the boundary separating two media. For example, when light rays
travelling in air go into another medium say glass they change their direction (or
ben4) on entering the glass medium.
Thus, the bending of the ray of light when it travels from one medium to
another is called refraction of light.
Optically rarer medium and optically denser medium:
A transparent substance in which light travels is known as a medium. Air, glass,
water, alcohol, etc. are all examples of different media. Different media are said
to have different optical densities. The speed of light depends on the optical
density of the medium. Therefore, light travels with different speeds in different
media having different optical densities. For examples, the speed of light in air is
3 × 108 m/s, where as that in glass is 2 × 108 m/s and in water it is 2.25 × 108 m/
s. It is clear from these values that the speed of light is more in air but less in
water and least in glass. A medium in which the speed of light is more is known
as an optically rarer medium. Air is an optically rarer medium as compared to
glass and water. A medium in which the speed of light is less is known as an
optically denser medium. Glass is an optically denser medium than air and water.
Consider once again the speed of light in air, water and glass. For example, the
speed of light in water (2.25 × 108m/s) is less than that in air (3 × 108 m/s) but
more than that in glass (2 × 108 m/s). So, water is optically denser than air, but
it is optically rarer than glass.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 46


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
The optical density of a medium is not the same as its mass density. For example,
turpentine is optically more dense than water as it has a greater refracting
effect on light, but has a lower mass density than water.
Cause for refraction of light: When a ray of light changes its medium, the
basic change that occurs is the change in its wavelength. This change in the
wavelength leads to the change in its velocity and the change in velocity is
responsible for its deviation; and hence, refraction takes place.
Rules for the deviation of the rays in another optical medium:
1. When a ray of light travels from a rarer medium to a denser medium, it bends
towards the normal
At the point of incidence
N
incident
ray
normal
Air (rarer i
medium) O

refracted
r
ray
Glass
(denser
medium)

N'
Thus, when a ray of light goes from air (rarer medium) into glass (denser medium),
it bends towards the normal (at the point of incidence). In this case, the angle of
refraction (r) is smaller than the angle of incidence (i), i.e., i  r .
2. When a ray of light travels from a denser medium to a rarer medium, it bends
away from the normal
At the point of incidence
N

Normal
GLASS
(denser
Incident i medium)
ray
Air r
(rarer medium)

Refracted
ray
N'
Thus, when a ray of light goes from glass (denser medium) into air (rarer medium),

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 47


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
it bends away from the normal (at the point of incidence). In this case, the angle
of refraction (r) is greater than the angle of incidence (i), i.e., i  r .

3. If the incident ray falls normally (or perpendicularly) on the surface of a glass
slab, then there is no bending of the ray of light and it goes straight
N

incident
Air(rarer
ray
medium)
90º

GLASS
(denser
Refracted medium)
ray

N'
Since the incident ray goes along the normal to the surface, the angle of incidence
in this case is zero (0°) and the angle of refraction is also zero (0°), i.e.,
i  r and i  r  0 .
Note:
1. When light travels from one medium to another, the frequency of light does not
change. However, the velocity and the wavelength of light change.
2. When a ray of light passes from rarer to denser medium it bends towards the
normal and r  i .  Angle of deviation d= i-r
3. When a ray of light passes from denser to rarer medium, it bends away from the
normal and r  i . Angle of deviation d=r-i
4. A ray of light travelling along the normal passes undeflected.
Terms related to refraction:
(i) Transparent surface: The plane surface which refracts light, is called transparent
surface. In diagram XY is the section of a plane transparent surface.
(ii) Point of incidence: The point on transparent surface, where the ray of light
meets it, is called point of incidence. In diagram Q is the point of incidence.
(iii) Normal: Perpendicular drawn on the transparent surface at the point of incidence,
is called normal. In diagram, N1 QN2 is the normal on surface XY.
(iv) Incident ray: The ray of light which strikes the transparent surface at the point
of incidence, is called incident ray. In diagram, PQ is the incident ray.
(v) Refracted ray: The ray of light which travels from the point of incidence into the
other medium, is called refracted ray. In diagram, QR is the refracted ray.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 48


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
(vi) Angle of incidence: The angle between the incident ray and the normal on the
transparent surface at the point of incidence, is called the angle of incidence. It
is represented by the symbol i. In diagram, angle PQN1 is the angle of incidence.

(vii) Angle of refraction: The angle between the refracted ray and the normal on the
transparent surface at the point of incidence is called angle of refraction. It is
represented by the symbol r. In diagram angle RQN2 is the angle of refraction.

N1
P

NORMAL
IN
C
ID
i

E
N
T
RA
Y
X Y
Q

RE
FR
A
r

CT
Plane Transparent

ED
RA
surface N2

Y
R
Laws of refraction of light:

First law: The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal at the point of
incidence all lie in the same plane.

Second law: For a given pair of media, the ratio of the sine of the angle of
incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is constant.

sin i
Mathematically,    a constant 
sin r

This relation is also called Snell’s law. The constant  is called refractive index
of second medium with respect to first medium.

incident ray normal incident ray normal

i
Air i
Glass
Glass
r Air
r

Refracted rays
Refracted rays

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 49


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
RLP- WORKSHEET-1
1 . Different media are said to have __________ optical densities.
1) Same 2) Different 3) Same & different 4) All of the above
2. When a ray of light travels from a rarer medium to a denser medium. Trace out
the correct diagram [all symbols have their usual meaning]

air I air I

1) r 2) r
glass glass

glass I glass I

3) r 4) r

air air

3. When a ray of light travels from a denser medium to a rarer medium trace out
the correct diagram [All symbols have their usual meaning]

air I air I

1) r 2) r
glass glass

glass I

33) r 4)
air

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 50


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
4. If the incident ray falls normally on the surface of a glass slab, then trace out
the correct diagram.

air
900 air
900

1) glass 2)
glass

air air
900 900

3) 4)
glass glass

5. When a ray of light passes from rarer to denser medium then (i  0)


1) r  i 2) r  i 3) r   i 4) r  0
6. When a ray of light passes from denser to rarer medium then
1) r  i 2) r  i 3) r   i 4) r  0
7. If speed of light in air is 3×10 m/s, speed of light in water is 2.25×108 m/s then
8

1) Air is optically denser than water 2) Water is optically denser than air
3) Water is optically rarer than air 4) Can’t say from the given data
8. Duration of day time is greater than night time due to this property of light
1) Refraction 2) Reflection 3) Diffraction 4) Scattering
9. The bending of the ray of light it travels from one medium to another medium is
called _______
1) Refraction 2) Reflection 3) Diffraction 4) scattering
JEE MAINS
Single Correct Choice Type:
1. Snell’s law is   ______________

sin i sin r sin i


1) 2) 3) 4) All of these
sin r sin i sin f
2. A ray of light falls normally on glass slab. What is the angle of refraction?
1) 0° 2) 90° 3) 180° 4) 45°
3. The speed of light in water is
1) 2 × 108 m/s 2) 2.25 × 108 m/s 3) 3 × 108 m/s 4) 330m/s

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 51


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
4. If a light ray does not undergo refraction at a boundary between two media the
angle of incidence is
1) 0° 2) 45° 3) 60° 4) 90°
5. Due to atmosphere refraction _____
1) The stars twinkle
2) The sun is seen before the actual sunrise and still seen after the sun set
3)The sun appears bigger during sunset (or) sunrise
4) All the above
6. 10. When a ray of light passes from rarer to denser medium then ( i  0 )
1) r  i 2) r  i 3) r  i 4) none of these
7. The speed of light in air is __________
1) 2  108 m / s 2) 2.25  108 m / s 3) 3  108 m / s 4) 4  108 m / s
8. The main cause of decrease in intensity of light on refraction_________
1) Scattering of light
2) Passing of light from meadium to another medium
3) Total internal reflection
4) Partial reflection and partial obsortion
9. Choose the correct statement given below:
1) The speed of light is more in water but less in air and least in glass.
2) The speed of light is more in air but less in glass and least in water.
3) The speed of light is more in water but less in glass and least in air.
4) The speed of light is more in air but less in water and least in glass.
10. When light travels from denser medium to rarer medium
1) Refracted ray bends towards normal 2) Refracted ray bends away from normal
3) Ray undeviated from path. 4) We cannot identified the ray.
11. When light travels from rarer medium to denser medium
1) Refracted ray bends towards normal 2) Refracted ray bends away from normal
3) Ray undeviated from path. 4) We cannot identified the ray.

sin i
12. =constant, the value of constant depends upon
sin r
a) Pair of media b) Colour of incident light
c) Wave length d) Refracting nature of material
1) only on a 2) only on b 3) only on a, d 4) a, b, c, d

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 52


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Refractive index of water is 1.33. (speed of light in air = 3 ×10 8 m/s)
13. If the speed of red light is denoted by Vr and the speed for violet light by Vv . Then
in vaccum.
1) Vr  Vv 2) Vr  Vv 3) Vr  Vv 4) both 1 & 3
14. A ray of light incident on a refracting surface. If the angle of incidence 60o and
the angle of refraction is 45o , then angle of deviation is
1) 30o 2) 90o 3) 15o 4) 0 o
JEE ADVANCED
Multi Correct Choice Type:
15. When ray of light passes from one medium to another, which of the following
change
1) Wavelength 2) Frequency 3) Velocity 4) Intensity
16. The speed of light in air is
1) 2 × 108 m/s 2) 2.25 × 107 m/s 3) 3×108 m/s 4) 3×1010 cm/s
17. When a ray of light passes from denser to rarer medium
1) r  i 2) r  i 3) i  r 4) i  r
18. If light travels through any other medium it is slowed down. The extent of
slowing depend upon.
1) Optical density of the medium 2) Wavelength of light
3) Frequency changes 4) Speed of light
Reasoning Type:
19. Statement I: When a ray of light travels from optically denser medium at an
optically rarer medium obliquely then it bends towards the normal
Statement II: The angle between the incident ray and the emergent ray is called
angle of deviation
1) Both Statements are true
2) Both Statements are false
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.
Comprehension Type:
sin i
Refractive Index  
sin r
20. What is the unit of refractive index?
1) Degrees 2) Radians 3) No units 4) None of these
21. What does ‘i’ represent here?
1) Initial speed 2) Angle of incidence
3) Angle of reflection 4) Angle of refraction

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 53


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
22. What does ’r’ represent here?
1) Angle of reflection 2) Angle of incidence
3) Radians of curvature 4) Angle of refraction
Consider a ray of light passing from air to medium as shown.

i=45º air

d
r=30º

23. The angle of deviation ‘d’ is


1) 45o 2) 0 o 3) 15o 4) 75o
24. The refractive index of medium is
1
1) 2) 2 3) 2 2 4.1
2
25. The velocity of light in the medium is

3 3
1)  108 m/s 2)  108 m /s 3) 3  108 m /s 4) 2  108 m /s
2 2
Matrix Match Type:
26. Column - I Column - II
a) When light ray travels from a rarer 1) Angle of deviation
medium to denser medium, it bends
b) When light travels from a denser to 2) Away from the normal
rarer medium, it bends
c) The angle between incident ray & 3) Angle of refraction
emerged ray is called
d) The angle made by refracted ray 4) Towards the normal
with normal is called
27. Column - I Column - II
a) refractive index of a medium 1) velocity of light in vaccum/ its velocity
medium
b) Snell’s Law 2) wave length of light in vaccum/medium
c) Angle of deviation 3) 1 sin i  2 sin r
d) refractive index of glass w.r.t water 4) i  r
5) w g

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 54


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

RLP_SYNOPSIS-2
Refraction and speed of light:
The velocity of light in different mediums is different. For example,
velocity of light in air = 3 × 108 m/s ; velocity of light in water = 2.25 × 108 m/s
velocity of light in glass = 2.0 × 108 m/s
Thus, light travels at a lower speed in glass and water than in air. So, we can say
that water is optically denser than air, or air is optically rarer than water. Similarly,
glass is optically denser than air, or air is optically rarer than glass.
A ray of light travelling from an optically rarer medium (such as air) to an optically
denser medium (such as water) slows down and bends towards the normal.

incident normal
ray
rarer
medium
(air) i

denser r
medium refracted
(water) ray

Refraction through water


A ray of light travelling from an optically denser medium (such as water) to an
optically rarer medium (such as air) speeds up and bends away from the normal.
The extent to which bending of light takes place is expressed in terms of the
refractive index. It is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to that
in the medium. It is represented by the Greek letter  (mu)
speed of light in vacuum

speed of light in the medium

normal

rarer refracted
medium (air) ray

r
denser i
medium
(water)
incident
ray

Refraction through air

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 55


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
The speed of light in air is almost equal to that in vacuum. Therefore, for all
practical purpose, we take the speed of light in vacuum to be the same as in air.
Since, refractive index is a ratio, therefore, it has no units.
speed of light in air
 (for water)  1.33 
speed of light in water
1 3
It implies that the speed of light in water is or times its speed in air.
1.33 4

REFRACTIVE INDEX OF SOME MATERIALS WITH RESPECT TO VACUUM

MATERIAL REFRACTIVE INDEX


Air 1.0003
Water 1.33
Kerosene 1.44
Alcohol 1.36
Diamond 2.42

Principle of reversibility of light:


Consider a ray of light incident on a plane refracting surface. Let the light ray
pass from medium 1 to medium 2. If the angle of incidence is 1 and the angle of
refraction is  2 , then

B
2
(2) N
(1)
1
A

1Sin1   2 Sin 2 ________ (1) and the ray follows the path An and then NB.
Let us now reverse the direction of the incident ray. Let the ray now pass from
medium 2 to medium 1. Further more, let it come along the line BN making an
angle  2 with the normal. Then the angle the refracted ray makes is given by:

B
2
(2) N
(1)
3
A

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 56


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

 2 Sin 2  1Sin 3 ________ (2)

From (1) and (2) 1 = 3 ,which means the ray passes along NA.
Thus when the direction of light ray is reversed, the ray simply retraces its
path. This statement is called the “PRINCIPLE OF REVERSIBILITY” of path of
light.
Refraction through a parallel slab/block:
Normal
A

i1
B

r1 d
t Medium b N
(glass) i2
Y
Medium a B
1 C
air
r2

a Sin i1 b Sin i2
Air to Glass : b  Glass to Air : a 
Sin r1 ––––––– (1) Sin r2 ––––––– (2)
Multiplying (1) and (2), we get,

a Sin i1 Sin i2 1 1 Sin i1 Sin i2


 b b  a   But we know,
a
b  b
 b a  b  
Sin r1 Sin r2 a a Sin r1 Sin r2

Sin i1
Since the slab is parallel sided  i2 = r1.   1  Sin i1  Sin r2  i1  r2
Sin r2
Conclusion:
The ray of light will leave the at which it entered the glass slab on the opposite
side. However, it gets laterally displace (i.e., A ray of light incident obliquely on a
parallel sided glass slab emerges out parallel to the incident ray).quely on a
parallel sided glass slab emerges out parallel to the incident ray).
RLP- WORK SHEET-2
1. The speed of light depends on the _______
1) Optical density 2) density 3) intensity 4) focal length
2. The velocity of light in glass is _________
1) 2  108 m / s 2) 3  108 m / s 3) 2.5  108 m / s 4) 3.5  108 m / s

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 57


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
3. The velocity of light in water is __________
1) 2  108 m / s 2) 2.25  108 m / s 3) 3  108 m / s 4) 2.5  108 m / s
4. Water is optically _______ medium than air.
1) Denser 2) Rare 3) Compound 4) Both 1 & 2
5. When the direction of light ray is reversed and retraces its path is called
___________
1) Refraction 2) Reflection 3) Reversibilitiy 4) Deviation
6. Refractive index of diamond with respect to vacuum is _________
1)1.33 2) 1.44 3) 1.36 4) 2.42
7. Which of the following is optically denser __________
1) Glass 2) Water 3) Air 4) Diamond
8. Twinkling of star due to ________
1)Reflection 2) Atmospheric Refraction 3) Dispersion 4)TIR
JEE MAINS
Single Correct Choice Type:
1. The refractive index of the water is
1) 2.42 2) 1.33 3) 1.44 4) 1.36
2. If Vc is the speed of light in vacuum and Vm is the speed of light in a given
medium, then refractive index of medium is
Vm+1
1) Vm/Vc 2) Vc/Vm 3) 4) none of these
Vc
3
3. If the refractive index of glass w.r.t. air is then refractive index of air w.r.t
2
glass is
1 2 3
1) 2) 3) 4) None
2 3 2
4. Absolute refractive index of a material depends upon
1) nature of material
2) nature, wavelength and size of material
3) density, temperature, wavelength of material
4) nature, temperature, wavelength of material

5. sin i =constant, the value of constant depends upon


sin r
a) pair of media b) colour of incident light c) wave length
d) refracting nature of material
1) only on a 2) only on b 3) only on a, d 4) a, b, c, d

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 58


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
6. A beam of light passes from air into a substance X. If the angle of incidence be
45° and the angle of refraction be 30°, calculate the refractive index of the
substance X (Given: sin30° = 0.50, sin45° = 0.707).

1) 1.414 2) 2.414 3) 3.414 4) 0.414


7. The refractive indices of glass and water are 3/2 and 4/3 respectively. The
refractive index of glass with respect to water is
1) 2 2) 8/9 3) 9/8 4) 5/3

8. If “C” is the velocity of light in free space, the time taken by light to travel a
distance x in medium of refractive index  is given by
c x
1) xc 2) x 3) 4)
c x c
0
9. The angle of incidence in air for a ray of light is 40 . If ray travels through water
4
of refractive index . Then angle of refraction is
3

(Hint : Sin 400 = 0.6427, Sin 28.820 = 0.4820)

1) 28.820 2) 270 3) 200 4) 300

10. The velocity of light in air is 3 × 108 m/s velocity of light in diamond of refractive
index 2.5 is

1) 1.2 × 108 m/s 2) 2.2 × 108 m/s 3) 3.2 × 108 m/s 4) 4.2 × 108 m/s

11. A ray of light goes from a medium of refractive index  1 to a medium of


refractive index  2 . The angle of incidence is i and the angle of refraction is r.
Then, sin i/sin r is equal to

1 2
1) 1 2)  2 3)  4) 
2 1

12. The refractive indicses of kerosene, turpentine and water are 1.44, 1.47 and
1.33, respectively. In which of these materials does light travel fastest?
1) Kerosene 2) Turpentine
3) Water 4) In all media light travels with same speed
13. Time taken by sun light to pass through a window of thickness 4 mm with
refractive index 1.5 is [speed of light in vaccum =
3 x 108 m/s]
1) 2 x 10 -3s 2) 2 x 10 5s 3) 2 x 10 -11s 4) 2 x 10 -5s

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 59


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
JEE ADVANCED
Multi Correct Choice Type:
14. Refractive index of a medium
speed of light in vaccum sin e of angle of incidence
1) 2)
Speed of light medium sin e of angle of refraction

speed of light in medium 1


3) 4)
Speed of light in vaccum Speed of light in vaccum
Reasoning Type:
15. Statement I: Light ray bends towards the normal when it travels from water in
to glass
Statement II: Glass is optically rarer than water
1) Both Statements are true
2) Both Statements are false
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.
Comprehension Type:

velocity of light in vacuucm sin i


Refractive index of a medium is given by   or  
velocity of light in medium sin r
16. The refractive index of material is 1.33. If velocity of light in vacuum is 3 × 10 ms–1,
8

find the velocity of light in the material.


1) 3 × 108ms–1 2) 2 × 108ms–1 3) 2.25 × 108ms–1 4) 3.5 × 108ms–1
17. The angle of incidence in air for a ray of light is 450 . If ray travels through
medium ‘X< of refractive index 2, the angle of refraction is
1) 300 2) 150 3) 600 4) 450
Matrix Match Type:
18. Column - I Column - II
9
a) A ray of light enters in to optically 1)
8
denser medium from rarer medium
b) Material with highest refractive index 2) Bends towards normal
c) A ray of light enters in to optically
rarer medium from denser medium 3) Diamond
d) The refractive index of water and glass
4
with respect to air are
3
3
and respectively. the refractive
2
index of glass with respect to water is 4) Bends away from normal

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 60


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
RLP_SYNOPSIS-3
Real depth and Apparent depth :
The object is placed in a denser medium and the eye in rarer medium. (  a  b )
C D

Med b r
A
B

Med a i
r N1
1
P

P(object)

PB Re al depth
 b a  1

P B appearent depth
Real depth  (the actual depth at which object is situated)
appearent depth  The depth at which image of the object is formed when
viewed from to surface.
Apparent shift = PP1= (PB-P12) = Real depth – App. depth
R.D  1  R.D R.D 
 R.D   R.D 1       A.D  
    A.D  
 If the observer (eye) is in rarer medium and the object is in denser medium;
RD
then   or RD =  AD or RD>AD or AD<RD.
AD
 Apparent shift   RD  AD   AD  AD  AD    1
So, to a bird, the fish appears to be nearer than its actual depth.
If the observer is in denser medium and the object is in rarer medium, then
AD
 or AD =  RD or AD>RD.
RD
So, to a fish, the bird appears to be higher than its actual height.
# The R.I. of water w.r.t air is 4/3. ( a  w =4/3).
An object placed at the bottom of a tank of depth ‘t’ will have an upward dis-
 1  t  Re al depth
placement ( or app.shift ) x  t  1  
 4 /3  4

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 61


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

RLP_WORKSHEET-3
1.
If the observer is in rarer medium and object is in denser medium,
then  is give by __________

R.D A.D
1) 2) 3) R.D- A.D 4) R.D  A.D
A.D R.D
2. If the observer is in rarer medium and object is in denser medium, the
apparent shift is given by _________

R.D A.D
1) R.D + A.D 2)R.D - A.D 3) 4)
A.D R.D
3. If the observer is in denser medium and object is in rarer medium, then  is
give by __________

R.D A.D
1) 2) 3)   A.D  R.D 4) None of these
A.D R.D
4. An object is placed at the bottom of a tank of depth ‘t’ will have an upward
displacement (or apparent shift) x  ______

t t t t
1) 2) 3) 4)
2 3 6 4
5. To a bird flying an sky, the fish in water appears ________ then its actual depth
1) Nearer 2) Greater 3) Same 4) None of these

JEE MAINS
Single Correct Choice Type:
1. A fish is looking at a 1m highest plant at the edge of the pond. Then its actual
height as seen by fish is
1) Taller 2) Shorter 3) Same 4) We can’t say
2. An object placed in one medium when seen from other medium, appears shifted.
The magnitude of shift depends upon
1) The refractive index of one medium w.r.t other medium
2) The absolute refractive indices of the two media
3) Real depth of the object
4) All the above
3. The floor of a water tank appears at a depth of 2.5m. If the refractive index of
water is 1.33, find the actual depth of water.
1) 3.35m 2) 3.75m 3) 3.325m 4) 3.05m

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 62


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
4. A hunter desires of shoot a fish whose image could be seen through clear water.
His aim should be ___
1) Above the apparent image of fish
2) Below the apparent image of fish
3) In the line of sight of fish
4) Parallel to the surface of water
5. The depth of a tank filled with water appears 3/4 of its actual depth. What
optical phenomenon is responsible for above observation ?
1) Reflection 2) Refraction
3) Principle of reversibility of light 4) None of these
6. As seen from above the apparent depth of a liquid in a vessel is 15cm, when its
real depth is 20cm. Find the refractive index of the liquid.
1) 1.02 2) 1.33 3) 1.43 4) 1.46
7. A bird is flying at a height of 2.4 m above the surface of water and a fish is in the
water at a depth of 1.2 m. The apparent distance of the fish to the bird is
 4
 water  
 3
1) 3.0 m 2) 3.3 m 3) 4.0 m 4) 4.4 m
8. A postage stamp placed under a glass, appears raised by 8 mm. If refractive
index of glass is 1.5, calculate the actual thickness of glass slab
1) 24 mm 2) 22 mm 3) 12 mm 4) 20 cm
9. A coin is placed at a depth of 15cm in a beaker containing water. The refractive
index of water is 4/3. Calculate height through which image of coin is raised.
1) 3.75cm 2) 3.5cm 3) 4cm 4) 2.75cm
10. A bird is flying at a height of 3.6 m above the surface of water and a fish is in the
4
water at a depth of 1.2 m. The apparent height of bird to the fish is   water  
 3
1) 3.9 m 2) 4.5 m 3) 5.2 m 4) 6.0 m
11. A vessel is filled with two different liquids which do not mix. One liquid is 40cm.
deep and has refractive index 1.6, the other is 30cm deep and has refractive
index 1.5. What is the apparent depth of the vessel when viewed normally?
1) 20cm 2) 30cm 3) 40cm 4) 45cm
12. A glass block 3.0 cm thick is placed over a stamp. Calculate the height through
which image of stamp is raised. Refractive index of glass is 1.54.
1) 1.06 cm 2) 2.06 cm 3) 3.06 cm 4) 4.06 cm

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 63


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
JEE ADVANCED
Multi Correct Choice Type:
13. Mark the correct options.
1) An object placed in one transparent denser medium and observed from other
transparent rarer medium appears to be shifted from its original position.
2) To a bird flying in air a fish in water appears to be nearer than its actual
depth.
3) To a fish in water, a bird flying in air appears to be higher than its actual
height.
4) Apparent shift depends on the refractive index of one transparent medium
w.r.t the refractive index of the other medium.
Reasoning Type:
14. Statement I : Due to refraction of light stars appears twinkling in the Sky.
Statement II : Due to reflection of light stars appears twinkling in the Sky.
1) Both Statements are true
2) Both Statements are false
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.
15. Statement I : When a ray of light enters a glass slab from air its wave length
decreases
Statement II : A ray of light incident obliquely on a parallel sided glass slab
emerges out parallel to the incident ray is know as lateral
displacement.
1) Both Statements are true, Statement - II is the correct explanation of
Statement - I.
2) Both Statements are true, Statement - II is not correct explanation of
Statement - I.
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.
Comprehension Type:
A tank is filled with water to a height of 12.5 cm. The apparent depth of a needle,
lying at the bottom of the tank, measured by a microscope is 9.4 cm.
16. What is the refractive index of water?
1) 1.63 2) 1.33 3) 1.53 4) 1.73
17. If water is replaced by a liquid of refractive index 1.63 up to the same height.
Find the apparent depth of new liquid?
1) 1.63 cm 2) 1.33 cm 3) 7.67 cm 4) 1.73 cm
18. By what distance would the microscope have to be moved to focus on the needle
again?
1) 1.63cm 2) 1.33 cm 3) 7.67 cm 4) 1.73 cm

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 64


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

RLP_SYNOPSIS-4

Critical angle and Total internal reflection:


Air
Y 1 (rarer med)
A B1
Surface
90 E
F D
Z A B C
a b c i r

O water
(object) (denser med.)
(light source)
(i) From the above fig; it is clear that as angle of incidence (a,2) in denser medium
increases, the angle of refraction also increases.
(ii) At a particular angle of incidence ‘C’ in the denser medium, the angle of refrac-
tion is 90° and the ray grazes along the surface.
(iii) On further increasing the angle of incidence, no light passes into the rarer
medium but the entire light is reflected back into the denser medium. (This
phenomenon is called Total Internal Reflection ( TIR)).
Definition:
Critical angle is that angle of incidence in denser medium, for which the angle
of refraction in the rarer medium is 90°.
# When a ray of light travelling in a denser medium is incident at the surface of a
rarer medium such that the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle
for the pair of media; the ray is reflected back into the denser medium. This
phenomenon is called Total internal reflection.
• If i  C then refraction takes place.

• If i  C then ray grazes along the surface


• If i  C then there is no refraction of light but total internal reflection takes
place.
During TIR; no light is refracted or transmitted or absorbed by the surface of
separation. The entire (i.e., 100 %) incident light is reflected back into the denser
medium.
Conditions for total internal Reflection:
1. Light must travel from a DENSER medium to RARER medium.
2. The angle of incidence should be greater than the critical angle for the given pair
of media. ( i  3 )

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 65


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Relation between Refractive index and Critical angle:
(air)
Rarer med.
90
B D

C
water
A (Denser
med.)

rarer
Sin 90 1
From figure: med denser    Sin 90  1
med Sin C Sin C

1 1 1
Ex:  glass
= 1.5 C = ?    SinC  SinC    1.5  0.67

–1
 Sin C = 0.67  C = Sin (0.67)  42°. Hence, Critical angle for glass is 42°
Similarly, Critical angle for water is 48° and Critical angle for diamond is 24°.

RLP_WORKSHEET-4

1. In what conditions refraction takes place ?


1) i  c 2) i  c 3) i  c 4)  i  o
2. In what conditions ray grazes along the surface?
1) i  c 2) i  c 3) i  c 4) i  o
3. In what condition’s total internal reflection takes place.
1) i  c 2) i  c 3) i  c 4) c  o
4. In total internal reflection light must travel from a _______ medium to _____
medium.
1) Denser,rarer 2) Rarer,denser 3) Rarer,rarer 4) Denser,denser
5. Total internal reflection is possible when a ray of light passes from
1) air into water 2) air into glass
3) glass into water 4) water into glass
6. Mirage and looming are due to
1) reflection 2) refraction
3) diffraction 4) total internal reflection
7. Glittering of diamond is due to
1) total internal reflection 2) reflection
3) refraction 4) interference

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 66


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
JEE MAINS
Single Correct Choice Type:
1. Mirages are due to
1) Refraction of light 2) Total internal reflection of light
3) Dispersion of light 4) Scattering of light
2. Total internal reflection occurs when:
1) No light is allowed to enter or leave a medium
2) The light travels from a rarer to a denser medium at an angle of incidence
greater than the critical angle.
3) The light travels from a denser to a rarer medium
4) The light travels from a denser to a rarer medium at an angle of incidence
greater than the critical angle.
3. Critical angle for diamond is
1) 48° 2) 24° 3) 42° 4) 12°
4. A ball coated with lamp black put in a glass tank contining water appears silverly
white due to ___
1) Refraction 2) Diffraction
3) Interference 4) Total internal reflection
5. The refractive index of a medium is 2. The critical angle for the medium is

1) sin1 1/3 2) sin1  2 /3  3) sin1 1/2 4) sin1  3 /2


6. The velocity of light in air is 3 x 108 m s-1 and the velocity of light in a medium is
2 x 108 m s-1 . The critical angle for the pair is Sin-1
1) 2/3 2) 1/2 3) 1/3 4) 3/2
7. Calculate the critical angle for light passing from glass (  a = 1.65) to water (  w =1.33)
1) 530 2) 63.70 3) 53.70 4) 500
8. The critical angle of a medium w.r.t. to vacuum is 30 0, velocity of light in this
medium in m/s is
1) 3 × 108 2) 6 × 108 3)1.5 × 108 4) 2 × 10
8

9.The refractive index of glass is 3/2. What is the critical angle for glass-air
surface?
(sin 42° = 2/3)
1) 40° 2) 42° 3) 35° 4) 60°
10. Critical angles of two different media are 45O and 60O respectively. The ratio of
velocities of light in those two media is
1) 2 : 3 2) 3: 2 3) 2: 3 4) 2 : 3

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 67


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
11. A light ray is incident from a denser medium on the boundary separating it from
a rarer medium at an angle of incidence equal to the critical angle. What is the
angle of refraction for the ray?
1) 90° 2) 45° 3) 60° 4) 50°
12. As temperature of medium increases, the critical angle ________
1) Increases 2) Decreases
3) Remains 4) First increases then decrease
JEE ADVANCED
Multi Correct Choice Type:
13. Choose the correct statements:
1) In normal reflection a part of incident light is only absorbed
2) In normal reflection total incident light is reflected.
3) In total internal reflection a part of incident light is absorbed.
4) In toal internal reflection total incident light is reflected.
4
14. The refractive Index of a medium is , the critical angle for the medium is __
5

1 5  4
1 1 9
1) sin  3) sin  4) sin 
1
 2) sin 1.25   
 4 5 8
Reasoning Type:
15. Statement I: Critical angle is the angle of incidence in denser medium for which
the angle of refraction becomes 90° in rarer medium.

-1  1 
Statement II: Critical angle C = sin  
µ
1) Both Statements are true
2) Both Statements are false
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.
16. Statement I: Critical angle is the angle of incidence in denser medium for which
the angle of refraction becomes 90° in rarer medium.
Statement II: When light travels from denser to rarer medium if the angle of
incidence is grater than the critical angle, the light undergoes
total internal reflection.
1) Both Statements are true
2) Both Statements are false
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 68


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
17. Statement I:
If angle of incidence is less than critical angle refraction taken
place.
Statement II: If angle of incidence is greater than critical angle refraction does
not takes place.
1) Both Statements are true
2) Both Statements are false
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.
Comprehension Type:
The angle of incidence in denser medium for which the angle of refraction
becomes 90°in rarer medium is called “critical angle( θ )” critical angle
-1  1 
c = sin   . Where  refractive index
µ
18. Find the critical angle of a denser medium of a refractive index 1.65 for its
interface with air?
1) sin–1(0.7) 2) sin–1(0.6) 3) sin–1(1.2) 4) sin–1(1.6)
5
19. What is the critical angle of a denser medium of a refractive index   for its
3
interface with air?

1  2  1  5  1  3 
1) sin   2) sin   3) sin   4) sin1  5 
5 3 5
20. The refractive index of water is 1.33. Its critical angle is how much?

1  1 
1) sin–1(1.33) 2) sin   3) sin–1(3.75) 4) sin–1(1.4)
 1.33 
Matrix Match Type:
21. Column-I Column-II
1
a) Critical angle 1)  
sinC
b) Total internal reflection 2) Application of total internal
reflection
c) Optical fibres 3) The angle of incidence in the denser
medium must be grater than the
critical angle.
d) Relation between refractive index (  ) 4) Light must travel from denser
and critical angle(C) medium to rarer medium
Integer Answer Type:
1
22. The refractive index of a medium is . The critical angle for the medium is
8
sin 1 (___).

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 69


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
RLP_SYNOPSIS-5
Refraction through PRISM: A transparent medium, bound by two or three plane
surfaces, inclined to each other is called a prism.
P R

Refracting edge
Refracting edge Q
A A C
Angle of Refracting face
prims A
S B
U
(a)
(b) T
The plane surface PQST and PSUR are called refracting faces. The two refracting
faced meet at the line PS and is called the refracting edge. A is the angle fo the
prism. Any plane such as ABC which is perpendicular to PS is called a principal
plane as shown in figure (b). The surface QRUT is the base of prism
Principal section of the Prism: A section of prism normal to the refracting edge
is called Principal section of the prism.
A
ce

Refracting angle
fa

Re
ur

fra
gs

ct
in

in
ct

g
fra

su
rfa
Re

Base
ec

B C
Refractive index of theprism :
Consider the principal plane BAC of a glass prism, of refracting angle A. PQ is the
incident ray and i1 is the angle of incidence, QR is the refracted ray and r1 is the
angle of refraction. Let n be the refractive index of the material of the prism.
A
T

E d
Q
i1 R
r1 r2 i2

P D s
B C
sin i1
 ---------- (1)
sin r1
The refracted ray strikes the face AC at the angle r2 and emerges out at an angle
i2 as shwon in above figure. RS is the emergent ray. For the refaction at the
second surface.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 70


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
sin i2
 ----------- (2)
sin r2
The angle between the incident ray produced and the emergent ray is called
the angle of deviation d.
Let the two normals at Q and R meet at D.
In the quadrilateral AQDR, AQD  ARD  90
 A  QDR  180 ----------- (3)
In triangle QDR, r1 + r2 + QDR  180  --------- (4)

From (3) and (4), A  r1  r2


From the triangle QER, the angle of deviation TES  
  EQR  ERQ = deviation produced at Q + deviation at R
 = (i1 – r1) + (i2 – r2) = i1 + i2 – (r1 + r2);  = i1 + i2 – A. so A +  = i1 + i2.
This means the sum of angle of incidence i1 and angle of emergence i2 is equal to
the sum of angle of deviation and the angle of the prism.
Angle of deviation


 min

i1 i i2
Angle of incidence
The variation of angle of deviation  with angle of incidence i is as shown in
above figure. The graph shows that the same deviation occurs for two values of i.
For a given prims and for a given colour of light the angle  depens only on i. As
i increases,  first decreases, reaches a minimum value min and then increases,
min is called the angle of minimum deviaiton. The smallest value of the angle of
deviation for a given prims and for a given colour of light, is called the angle of
minimum deviation. At minimum deviation, the ray passes symetrically through
the prism. The ray QR is parallel to the base BC. Then the angle of emergence i2
equals angle of incidence i 1. It, therefore, follows that when the deviation is
minimum. r1 = r2 = r (say)
A
From equation (5) A = r1 + r2 = 2r, r  . and i1 = i2 = i (say)
2
A  min sin i1 sin i2 sin i
From equation (6) A  min  2i , i  2
,  
sin r1 sin r2 sin r

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 71


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

 A  min 
sin  
Substituting the values of i and r,    2 
A
sin
2
[Note : Let the minimum deviation be denoted by D then the refractive index =

 A  D
sin  
  2 
A 
sin
2 

[Suppose the prism is surrounded by a medium of refractive index  1. If the

 A  min 
sin  
2  2 
refractive index of the material of the prism is  2 then, 

1
A
sin
2
Special Cases : i) When the angle of incidence i 1 = 0°, the ray is incident on the
prism along the normal (i.e., normal incidence). The angle of refraction r1 = 0,
Then A  r1  r2  r2
Angle of deviation  = i1 + i2 – (r1 + r2) = i2 – r2
where r2 = A and i2 = sin–1(  sinA)

If r2   (critical angle), then i2  90o  Then emerging light ray just grazes the
surface.

i1 i2
i2  

(a) (b)

ii) When the angle of incidence is nearly equal to 90°,


i.e., i = 90°, r1   (critical angle) i2 = 90°r2 = 
Then A = r1 + r2 =     2
From these two cases we conclude that when the angle of the prism exceeds
twice the critical angle of the material of the prism with respect to the surrounding
medium, there will be no emergent ray. Thus 2 is called limitting angle of
prism.
For grazing incidence (i1 = 90°), r1   (the critical angle).

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 72


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

Then angle of deviation    i1  i2    r1  r2    90  i2   A

where i2 = sin-1[  sin  A    ]. This result is applicable only if r2   or A  2 .


Otherwise there will be no emergent ray from the second face of the prism.
Refraction through a small angled prism : If the angle of the prism is less than 6° or
0.1 radian, it is called a small angled prism.

Consider a ray falling almost normally in air on a prism of small angle A, (see
figure) then i 1 is small and so r1 is also small. For small angles, sini 1 = i1 (in
radian) and also sinr2 = r2.
sin i1 i1 sin i2 i2
  ;  Also    ; i2  r2 and A = r1 + r2
sin r1 r1 i1 = r1 sin r2 r2
The angle of deviation d = i1+ i2 – A =  r1 +  r2 – A =  (r1 + r2 )– A =  A – A=(  -1)A
For a small angled prims, the angle of deviation does not depend on the angle of
incidence, provided i1 is small.
Dispersion of Light:
We have already seen that the refractive index depends on the material and
colour of light. For a given material, the refractive index for violet colour is the
greatest and for red colour the refractive index is the least of all colours of light.
We have also seen that for a prism as refractive index increases the angle of
minimum deviation also increases.
When white light is incident on a prism the different colours of the white light
are deviated through different angles. The deviation of violet colour is the
largest of all the colours of white light. The deviation of red colour is the least.
The deviation of the other colour is between the deviations of red violet colours.
This seperates the different colours of white light with violet and red colours at
the extreme which is called dispersion.
Dispersion: It is the seperation of white light into its constituent colours.
Spectrum: When light undergoes dispersion the band of colours obtained is called
spectrum.
The band of colours obtained with white light is violet, indigo, blue, green,
yellow, orange and red (VIBGYOR).

Red

Yellow

Violet

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 73


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

RLP_WORKSHEET - 5

1. As angle of incidence on the first face of a prism increases, then the angle of
deviation of emergent ray
1) increases 2) decreases
3) first increases then decreases 4) first decreases then increases
2. A ray of light incident normally on first face of prism and the emergent ray
grazes the second surface. If ‘A’ is angle of the prism and C is its critical angle
then the correct choice is
1) A<C 2) A>C 3) A=C 4) A  C
3. A ray of light incident normally on the first face of a prism of refracting angle’A’
and critical angle’C’. The ray emerges from the second face of the prism when
the following condition satisfies
1) C>A 2) C<A 3) C  A 4) C  A
4. Consider the following statements A and B and identify the correct choice
A) For a given value of angle of incidence, the angle of deviation produced by a
prism increases with increasing of refractive index of the prism
B) Angle of deviation produced by a thin prism is independent of angle of incidence
1) A is true and B is false 2) A is false and B is true
3) A and B are true 4) A and B are false
5. If the critical angle for the medium of a prism is C and the angle of the prism is
A, then there will be no emergent ray when
1) A<2C 2) A= 2C 3) A>2C 4) A=C/2
6. When a ray of light is refracted by a prism such that the angle of deviation is
minimum, then
1) the angle of emergence is equal to the angle of incidence
2) the angle of emergence is greater than the angle of incidence
3) the angle of emergence is smaller than the angle of incidence
4) the sum of the angle of incidence and the angle of emergence is equal to 90 0
7. When white light enters a prism, its gets splits into its constituent colours. This
is due to;
1) high density of prism material
2) because  is different for different wavelength
3) diffraction of light
4) interference of light

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 74


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
8. An equilateral prism is placed on a horizontal surface. A ray PQ is incident onto
it. For minimum deviation

1) PQ is horizontal 2) QR is horizontal
3) RS is horizontal 4) Any one will be horizontal
9. The path of a refracted ray of light in a prism is parallel to the base of the prism
only when the
1) light is of a particular wavelength
2) ray is incident normally at one face
3) ray undergoes minimum deviation
4) prism is made of a particular type of glass
10. For total internal reflection to take place, the angle of incidence i and the
refractive index  of the medium must satisfy; the inequality
1 1
1)  2)  3) sin i <  4) sin i > 
sin i sin i
11. If a small angled prism, made of glass is immersed in a liquid of refractive index
1 and a ray of light is made incident on it, then
1) its deviation will be zero 2) it will suffer total reflection
3) the emergent ray is bent towards the edge of the prism
4) the emergent ray is bent towards the base of prism
12. A prism produces a minimum deviation  in a light beam. If three such prisms
are combined, the minimum deviation produced will be
1) 4 2) 2 3)  4) 0
13. Recognize the prism (s) among the given figures.

1) b and c 2) c, a and b 3) only b 4) a, b, c, and d

14. In a thin prism of glass  a


 g  1.5  , the relation between the angle of minimum
deviations  m and angle of refraction r is

r r
1)  m  r 2)  m  3)  m  2r 4)  m 
2 2

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 75


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
JEE MAINS
Single Correct Choice Type:
15. If t h e an gle of a pr ism is 6 0 0 and angle of minimum deviation is 40 0, then the
angle of refraction in the prism will be
0
1) 300 2) 450 3) 500 4) 20
16. A given ray of light suffers minimum deviation in an equilateral prism P. Additional
prisms Q and R of identical shape and of the same material as P are now added
as shown in the figure. The ray will suffer

1) greater deviation 2) no deviation


3) same deviation as before 4) total internal reflection
17. A thin prism of 4 angle gives a deviation of 2.40.The value of refractive index of
0

the material of the prism is


1) 1.6 2) 1.7 3) 1.8 4) 1.9
18. The refractive index of the substance of an equilateral prism is 3 , then the
angle of minimum deviation of the prism will be
1) 300 2) 450 3) 600 4) 750

7
19. For a prism, A = 600 ,  = . Then the minimum possible angle of incidence, so
3
that the light ray is refracted from the second surface.
1) 300 2) 600 3) 900 4) 400
20. What is the angle of the prism from the graph of angle of deviation d versus angle
of incidence i as shown in the figure

1) 300 2) 600 3) 900 4) 500


21. A ray of light is incident normally on one of the faces of a prism of apex angle 30 0
and refractive index 2 . The angle of deviation of the ray is ........... degree
1) 300 2) 600 3) 150 4) 900

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 76


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
JEE ADVANCED
Multi Correct Choice Type:
22. At the angle of minimum deviation condition of an equilateral prism
1) incident and emergent angles are equal
2) the angle of refraction r1 and r2 are equal
3) refractive ray is parallel to base of the prism
4) deviated angle is equal to incident angle
Reasoning Type:
23. Statement I: If we alter the angle of incidence ,a stage comes,when for a
particular angle of incidence,the angle of deviation is minimum.This position is
called minimum deviation position.
Statement II: The angle between two given refracting surfaces is called angle of
prism[A].
1) Both Statements are true
2) Both Statements are false
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.
Comprehension Type:
ABC is right angled prism. A ray (1) is incident on the face AB along the normal
Another ray (2) is incident on the face AB such that it emerges normally from
the face AC. then

30º
(1)

(2)
B C

24. The minimum value of refractive index of the material of the prism for which the
ray (1) under goes total internal reflection on the face AC is
1) 1 2) 2 3) 5 4) 2
25. The angle of incidence of the ray (2) on the face AB is
1) 00 2) 450 3) 300 4) 900
26. The deviation suffered by the light ray (2) is
1) 600 2) 450 3) 300 4) 900

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 77


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Matrix Match Type:
27.
A
T

E d
Q
i1 R
r1 r2 i2

P D s
B C

In Case of the prism


Column-I Column-II

a) for normal incidence 1) i1  90 , r1  c, A  r2  c

b) for normal emergence 2) i1  r1  0; A  r2;D  i2  A  I2  r2

c) for grazing incidence 3) i2  r2  0; A  r1;D  i1  r1

d) for grazing emergence 4) i2  90 ; r2  c; A  r1  c

5) D  (i1  90 )  A

REFRACTION OF LIGHT AT CURVED SURFACES


RLC_SYNOPSIS-1
REFRACTION AT SPHERICAL SURFACE:
Refraction from Rarer to Denser Medium at a Convex Spherical Refracting Surface
Two cases arise. The image formed may be real or virtual.
Let us discuss the case of Real image : Let a spherical refracting surface XY
separate a rarer medium of refractive index 1 from a denser medium of
refractive index 2 . Suppose the surface is convex towards rarer medium side.
Let P be the pole, C be the centre of curvature and R = PC be the radius of
curvature of this surface.

A
i
r

O p M C I
Rarer (1) Denser (2)

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 78


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Consider a point object O lying on the principal axis of the surface.
A ray of light starting from O and incident normally on the surface XY along OP
passes straight. Another ray of light incident on XY along OA at i is refracted
along AL at r , bending towards the normal CAN. The two refracted rays actually
meet at I, which is the real image of O.
From A, draw AM  OI. Let AOM   AIM   and ACM  
As external angle of a triangle is equal to sum of internal opposite angles, therefore,
in IAC r     , r    
Similarly, in OAC , i     --------- (1)

2 sin i i
 
According to Snell’s law,
1 sin r r -------- (2) ( angles are small)

 1i  2r

Using (1), we get, 1       2     

As angles ,  and  are small, using  = l/r, we get

 AM AM   AM AM 
 1     2    ------- (3)
 MO MC   MC MI 
As aperture of the spherical surface is small, M is close to P. Therefore,
MO  PQ, MI  PI, MC  PC

 1 1   1 1 1 2  2  1
From (3), 1     2   ;    ---------- (4)
 PO PC   PC PI  PO PI PC
Using new cartesian sign conventions, we put PO = –U, PI = + v, PC = R
1  2  2  1
  ------- (5) This is the required relation.
u v R
LENS:
Thin Lenses :
A lens is a piece of transparent, optical material bounded by two refracting
surfaces which are usually spherical, or one surface being spherical and the
other plane.
The simplest lens has two spherical surfaces close enough together that we can
neglect the distance between them ( the thickness of the lens); we call this a
thin lens . If you wear eye glasses or contact lenses while reading, you are
viewing these words through a pair of thin lenses.
Types of lenses
Lenses are two types convex or converging (in air) lens and concave or diverging(in
air) lens.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 79


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Convex or converging lens
A convex lens is thicker in the middle and thinner at the edges. In other words,
a convex lens bulges out at the centre. A convex lens may be of the following
three types.

a. b. c.
a) Biconvex b) plano-convex c) concavo-conved
Concave or diverging lens
A concave lens is thinner in the middle and thicker at the edges. In other words,
a concave lens is bent inwards or depressed at the centre. A concave lens may be
of three types as shown in figure.

a. b. c.
a) Biconcave b) plano-concave c) concavo-concave
Converging action of convex lenses a parallel Beam of light:
A convex lens is one which converges a parallel beam of light after refraction
through it.

Converging lens

Diverging action of concave lens on parallel beam of light:


A concave lens is one which diverges a parallel beam of light after refraction through it.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 80


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
General terms used for lenses:

Centre of curvature: The centre of the imaginary glass sphere of which the lens
is a part, is called centre of curvature. C1 and C2 are the centres of curvature.
E
Principle
Convex axis
lens

X C1 o Y
C2

F
Principal Axis: An imaginary line joining the centres of curvature of the two
spheres, of which lens is a part is called principal axis. XY is the principal axis
passing through centres of curvature C1 and C2 as illustrated in fig.
E
Concave Principle
lens axis

o C2 Y
X C1 g1g

F
Optical centre: A point within the lens, where a line drawn through the diameter
of lens meets principal axis, is called optical centre.
It is denoted by letter O. Any ray of light which passes through optical centre, does
not suffer any refraction. It means, the ray will pass straight without changing its
path.
Principal focus for convex lens: It is a point on the principal axis of a convex
lens, where parallel beam of light rays, travelling parallel to principal axis, after
passing through the lens actually meet. It is denoted by letter F.
Principal focus for concave lens: It is a point on the principal axis of a concave
lens, from where parallel beam of light rays, travelling parallel to principal axis,
after passing through the lens, appear to come.
It is denoted by letter F.
Focal length: The distance between principal focus and optical centre is called
focal length.
It is denoted by letter F.
2F denotes double the distance of focal length. It corresponds to radius of curvature
of the sphere of which lens is a part.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 81


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Aperture: The effective diameter of the lens through which refraction takes
place is called aperture of lens. EF is the aperture of lens.
Real image: When the rays of light diverging from a point, after reflection or
refraction actually converge at some other point, then the image so formed is
called real image.
Characteristics of real image
1. Real image is always inverted
2. Real image can be taken on a screen.
3. Real image may be magnified or diminished or be same size as the object.
Virtual image: When the rays of light diverging from a point, after reflection or
refraction, appear to diverge from some other point, then the image so formed is
called virtual image.
Characteristics of virtual image
1. Virtual image is always erect.
2. Virtual image cannot be taken on screen.
3. Virtual image may be magnified or diminished or be same size as the object.

Images formed by a Convex lens for various positions of the object

POSITION OF POSITION OF NATURE OF SIZE OF THE


THE OBJECT THE IMAGE THE IMAGE IMAGE
1. Between O On the same side of the lens, virtual and erect Enlarged
and F1 behind the object
2. At focus F1 At infinity, on the other side Real and Highly
of the lens inverted enlarged
3. Between F1 Beyond 2F2, on the other side Real and Enlarged
and 2F1 of the lens inverted
4. At 2F1 At 2F2, on the other side of Real and same size
the lens inverted
5. Beyond 2F1 Between F2 and 2F2 on the Real and Diminished
other side of the lens inverted
6. At infinity
(incident rays At F2, on the other side of the Real and Highly
are parallel to
lens inverted diminished
the principal
axis)
7. At infinity
(incident rays In the focal plane, on the Real and Highly
are not parallel other side of the lens inverted diminished
to the principal
axis)

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 82


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Images formed by a concave lens for various positions of the object:
POSITION OF POSITION OF NATURE OF SIZE OF THE
THE OBJECT THE IMAGE THE IMAGE IMAGE
1. At infinity (when the At focus on the same point size
rays coming from the side of the lens as the Virtual and erect (highly
object are parallel to object diminished)
the principal axis)
2. At infinity (when the
parallel rays coming On the focal plane, on
from the object are the same side of the highly
Virtual and erect
not parallel to the lens as the object diminished
principal axis)
3. Any where between Between focus and the
infinity and the optical centre, on the Virtual and erect diminished
optical centre same side of te lens.

Lens formula:
The equation relating the object distance, the image distance and the focal length,
is called the lens formula.

1 1 1
 
v u f

1 100
Power of lens is P  (f in metre)  (f in cm)
f f

S.I unit of Power is dioptre

Magnification produced by lenses:

The size of the image formed by a lens depends on the position of the object from
the lens. For example, we have seen that if the object is placed beyond 2F1, the
image formed by a convex lens is diminished and if the object is placed between
F1 and the optical centre, an enlarged image is formed. The linear magnification
is the ratio ofthe height of the image to the height of the object i.e.,

Height of the image image dis tance v


Magnification  Height of the object  object dis tance  m  

If the magnification ‘m’ has a positive value, the image is virtual and erect. On
the other hand, if the magnification ‘m’ has a negative value, the image is real
v2
and inverted. Now areal magnification of lens is ma 
u2

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 83


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

v
Note: For mirrors, m   . It is so because for an inverted image v is negative in
u
case of mirrors while it is positive in case of lenses.
Cartesian Sign Convention:
These days New Cartesian Sign Convention is used for measuring the various
distances during the formation of images by lenses (convex lenses and concave
lenses). According to the New Cartesian Sign Convention:
1. Object should be taken on the left side to the lens.
2. All distances are measured from the optical centre of the lenses.
3. The distances measured in the direction of the incident light are taken as positive
whereas the distances measured against the direction of the incident light are
taken as negative.
4. The distances measured upwards and perpendicular to the principal axis are
taken as positive whereas the distances measured downwards and perpendicular
to the principal axis are taken as negative.
direction of convex lens
A incident ray

positive
object
O
B
negative

negative positive
distance distance
Cartesian sign convention
On the basis of the New Cartesian Sign Convention, the focal length of a convex
lens is considered as power is also given the same sign as focal length positive
and the focal length of a concave lens is considered as negative.
Power of a lens:
When a beam of light passes through a lens, it gets deviated from its path. A lens
which can produce more deviation is said to be of more power.
The power of a lens is a measure of deviation produced in the path of rays,
passing through it.
A lens of short focal length deviates the rays more, while a lens of large focal
length deviates the rays less. Hence, power of a lens is expressed (or measure4)
in terms of the reciprocal of focal length.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 84


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

Definition: Power of a lens is defined as the reciprocal of the focal length of


the lens, expressed in metre.

1 100
Let f = focal length of the lens power  f  in m  power  f  in cm 

Unit of the power of a lens:

The S.I unit of the power of a lens is dioptre, which is denoted by the letter D.

Note:

1. One dioptre is the power of a lens whose focal length is one metre.

2. The power of a lens can be measured directly by using an instrument called


dioptremetre. It is used by opticians to measure the power of spectacle lenses.

3. A convex lens has a positive focal length. So, the power of a convex lens is
considered to be positive and is written as +D. A concave lens has a negative
focal length, so the power of a concave lens is considered to be negative and is
denoted as –D.

Power of a combination of lenses:

If a number of lenses are placed in close contact with each other, then the power
of the combination of lens is equal to the algebric sum of the powers of individual
lenses. Thus, if two lenses of powers P1 and P2 are placed in contact with each
other, then their resultant power P is given by the algebric sum of the individual
powers P1 and P2 of the two lenses. i.e., P = P1 + P2

For example: If a convex lens of power +5 D and a concave lens of power –12D are
placed in contact with each other, then their resultant power will be,

P = P1 + P2 P = +5D + (–12)D P = 5D – 12D P = –7D

This shows that a combination of a convex lens of power +5D and a concave lens
of power –12D has a resultant power of –7D. So, this combination of convex lens
and concave lens behaves like a concave lens (of power –7D).

In optical instruments like camera, microscopes, telescopes, etc. a number of a


lenses are combined together to increase the sharpness of the image.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 85


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
RLC-WORKSHEET-1

1. The formula governing refraction form rarer to denser medium is


1  2  2  1  2 1  2  1
1)    2)   
v u R v u R
1 1 1   2 1  2  2  1
3)    4)   
u v R u v R
2. Which of the following represents biconvex lens?

1) 2) 3) 4)

3. Which of the following represents plano-covex lens?

1) 2) 3) 4)

4. Which of the following represents concavo-conved lens?

1) 2) 3) 4)

5. Which of the following represents biconcave lens?

1) 2) 3) 4)

6. Which of the following represents plano-concave lens?

1) 2) 3) 4)

7. If x is the focal length of the lens then the power of the lens is
1 1
1) 2) x 3) 4) x2
x x2

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 86


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
8. If height of the image is ‘L’ and height of the object is ‘K’ then the linear mag-
nification produced by lens is

L K L
1) 2) L.K. 3) 4)
K2 L K
9. A lens converges rays of light. The lens is
1) Plane 2) Prism 3) Concave 4) Convex

JEE MAINS
Single Correct Choice Type:
1. A spherical convex surface of radius of curvature R separates air (  a= 1) from

glass  a  g  1.5 . The centre of curvature is in the glass. A point object P placed in
air is found to have a real image Q in the glass. The line PQ cuts the surface
at a point O and PO = OQ. The distance PO is equal to
1) 5R 2) 3R 3) 2R 4) 1.5 R
2. A converging lens has a focal length of 20cm. If an object is placed 40cm away
from the lens, where is the location of the image and what is the nature?
1) 40 cm 2) 20 cm 3) 60 cm 4) 80 cm
3. A concave lens has a focal length of 25cm. Its power in diopter is
1) -4 2) +4 3) 2.5 4) –2.5
4. Two lenses of power +6D and –2D are placed in contact. The power of the
combination will be
1) – 12 D 2) + 4D 3) – 4D 4) 3D
5. Two lens of powers –1.5D and +2.75D are kept in contact. Find the focal length of
the combination.
1) 0.2m 2) 0.03m 3) 1.6m 4) 0.83m
6. The image of an object formed by a lens is of the same as the object. If the image
is formed at a distance of 40 cm, find the focal length of the lens. Also find the
power of the lens. AT what distance from lens is the object placed?
1) 40 cm from the lens 2) 50 cm from the lens
3) 60 cm from the lens 4) 70 cm from the lens
7. An object is placed on the principal axis of a concave lens at a distance of 20 cm
from it. If the focal length of the lens is also 20 cm. find the location of the image.
1) 20 cm left of the lens 2) 10 cm left of the lens
3) –20 cm left of the lens 4) 40 cm right of the lens

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 87


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
JEE ADVANCED
Multi Correct Choice Type:
8. The image of an object, situated between the focal point and the point at double
the focal length, formed by a convex lens is
1) Real and lies on the other side of the lens behind double the focal length
2) Virtual and lies on the same side of the lens as the object
3) Inverted
4) Enlarged
Reasoning Type:
9. Statement - I: The effective diameter of the lens through which refraction takes
place is called aperture of lens
Statement - II: The distance between principal focus and optical centre is called
focal length.
1) Both Statements are true
2) Both Statements are false
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.
10. Statement I: Virtual image is always erect and cannot be taken on the screen.
Statement II: Virtual image may be magnified or diminished or be same size as
the object.
1) Both Statements are true
2) Both Statements are false
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.
11. Statement I: Focal length of a combination of same type of lenses in contact it
always less than at the focal length of any of the lenses.
Statement II: The power of the combination of lenses of focal lengths f1 and f 2

1 1 1
in contact is given by p  p1  p2 i.e.,  
f f1 f 2
1) Both Statements are true
2) Both Statements are false
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.
Comprehension Type:
Lens is a transparent refracting medium bounded by two refracting surfaces
atleast one is spherical. A lens may have two spherical surfaces or one spherical
and other plane. Lens is of two types one is convex lens and the other concave
lens.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 88


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
12. For a concave lens when object is placed at infinity then the position of the
image is
1) At focus 2) Between F and 2F 3) At 2F 4) Beyond 2F
13. For a convex lens when object is placed between F and 2F then the position of
the image is
1) At focus 2) Between F and 2F 3) At 2F 4) Beyond 2F
14. For a convex lens when object is placed at F then the position of the image is
1) Infinity 2) Between F and 2F 3) At 2F 4) Beyond 2F
An object is placed on the principal axis of a concave lens at a distance of 20 cm
from it, and focal length is also 20 cm, then
15. focal length of the lens is
1) 20 cm 2) – 20 cm 3) 10 cm 4) –10 cm
16. By convention the object distance is
1) positive 2) negative 3) Both (1) & (2) 4) Neither (1) nor (2)
17. Location of the image is
1) At a distance 10 cm from the lens.
2) At a distance 20 cm from the lens.
3) At a distance 30 cm from the lens.
4) At a distance 40 cm from the lens.
Two thin lenses of focal length f1 and f2 are in contact and coaxial. It’s power is
1 1 1 1 1 f f
same as power of a single lens given by    p   p  1 2
f f1 f 2 f1 f 2 f1 f 2
18. A convex lens of focal length x and a concave lens of focal length ‘y’ are placed in
contact. The focal length of the combination is ______

xy xy
1) x + y 2) (x – y) 3) 4)
yx x y
19. In the above problem the power of the combination

x y yx
1) x + y 2) (x – y) 3) 4)
xy xy
20. A convex lens of focal length 40 cm. is in contact with a concave lens of focal
length 25 cm. The power of the combination is
1) –1.5 D 2) –6.5 D 3) +6.5 D 4) +6.67 D

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 89


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Matrix Match Type:
21. Column-I Column-II

1
a) Formula for Power of converging lens of focal length ‘x’ 1)
y
b) Formula for Power of diverging lens of focal length ‘y’ 2) Positive
c) Power of combination two convex lenses 3) Negative

1
d) Power of combination of two concave lenses 4)
x
22. Column - I Column - II
a) convergent action 1) convex lens
b) divergent action 2) concave lens
c) virtual image only
d) real and virtual image
23. Column - I Column - II
a) Convex lens, u < f 1) virtual, enlarged image
b) concave lens, u >f 2) Real, diminished image
c) convex lens, f < u < 2f 3) virtual, diminished image
d) concave lens u<f 4) real, enlarged image.
Integer Answer Type:
24. If the power of lens is 1.5 D then focal length of the lens is______cm.
RLC_SYNOPSIS-2
Lens Maker’s Formula: Lens Makers’ formuala is a relation that connects focal length
of a lens to radii curvature of the two surfaces of the lens and refractive index of
the material of the lens.
It is useful to design lenses of desired focal length using suitable material and
surfaces of suitable radii of curvature.
In derivting this formula, we use new cartesian sign conventions :
1) All distances are measure from the optical centre of the lens.
2) All thedistances measured in the direction of incidence of light are taken as
positive, whereas all the distances measured in a direction opposite to the
direction of incidence of light are taken as negative.
3) For a convex lens, f is positive and for a concave lens, f is negative, as is clear.
The assumptions made in the derivation are :
1) The lens is thin so that distances measured from the poles of its surface can be
taken as equal to the distances from the optical centre of the lens.
2) The aperture of the lens is small.
3) The object consists only of a point lying on the prinicpal axis of the lens.
4) The incident ray and refracted ray make small angles with the principal axis of
the lens.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 90


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Let us discuss the case of Convex lens : A convex lens is made up of two convex
spherical refracting surfaces. The final image is formed after two refractions. In
below figure P 1, P 2 are the poles, C1, C2 are the centres of curvature of two
surfaces of a thin convex lens XY with optical centre at C. Let 2 be the refractive
index of the material of the lens and 1 be the refractive index of the rarer
medium around the lens.
X

1 1

o P1 C P2 C I I1
C2 1
R2 R1
v
1
Y
Consider a point object O lying onthe principal axis of the lens. A ray of light
starting from O and incident normally on the surface XP 1Y along OP 1 passes
straight. Another ray incident on XP1Y along OA is refracted along AB. If the lens
mateiral wer continuous and there were no boundary/second surface XP 2Y of
the lens, the refracted ray AB would go straight meeting the first refracted ray
at I1. Therefore I1 would have been a real image of O formed after refraction at
XP 1Y.

If CI1  P1I1  v1 and CC1  P1C1  R1 ; CO  P1O  u ,

1 2   1
then from (5),   2 --------- (1)
 u v1 R1
Actually, then lens material is not continuous. Therefore, the refracted ray AB
suffers further refraction at B and emerges along BI, meeting actually the principal
axis at I. Therefore, I is the final real image of O, formed after refraction through
the convex lens.
For refraction at the second surface XP 2Y, we can regard I 1 as a virtual
object, whose real image is formed at I.

Therfore, u  CI1  P2I1  v1 ,

Let CI  P2I  v
Let R2 be radius of curvature of second surface of the lens.
As refraction is now taking place from denser to rarer medium, therefore, we get
2 1 1  2 2  1
   ------- (2)
v1 v R2 R 2

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 91


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

1 1  1 1 
Adding (1) and (2), we get    2  1    
u v  R1 R 2 

1 1   1 1  1 1  2  1 1 
or 1      2  1     or     1    ------- (3)
v u  R1 R 2  v u  1   R1 R 2 

2
Put   = refractive index of material of the lens with respect to surrounding
1
medium.
when object on the left of lens is at  , image is formed at the principal focus of
the lens.
 when u   , v = f = focal length of the lens.

1 1  1 1  1  1 1 
From (3),      1    or     1    ------- (4)
f   R1 R 2  f  R1 R 2 
This is the lens maker’s formula. The same formula is applicable for concave
lens.

RLC-WORKSHEET-2
1. The lens maker’s formula for convex or concave lens is

 1 1   1 1 
1) f     1    2) f  1      
 R1 R 2   R1 R 2 

1  1 1  1  1 1 
3)     1    4)  1      
f  R1 R 2  f  R1 R 2 
2. The equation relating the object distance, the image distance and the focal length
is called
1) lens maker’s formula 2) lens formula
3) fresnels formula 4) Newton’s law
3. A spherical air bubble in water will act as
1) A convex lens 2) A concave lens
3) Plane glass plate 4) Plano-concave lens
4. If a convex lens is dipped in a liqued whose refractive index is equal to the index
of the lens, then lens act like a
1) Concave lens 2) Plane parallel glass
3) Plano convex lens 4) Plano concave lens

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 92


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
5. Consider the following statements A and B
A) A plano-convex lens behaves as convergent lens irrespective of radius of
curvature of convex surface
B) The focal length of a glass plate is zero
1) A is true and B is false 2) A is false and B is true
3) A and B are true 4) A and B are false
6. A lens that has convex surface at one side and concave surface at another side
behaves as
a) convergent lens when the radius of curvature of convex surface is greater
than that of concave surface
b) divergent lens when the radius of curvature of concave surface is greater than
that of convex surface
c) convergent lens when the radius of curvature of convex surface is less than
that of concave
d) divergent lens when the radius of curvature of concave surface less than that
of convex surface
1) a, b are true 2) a, d are true 3) c,d are true 4) b,c are true
7. A lens has convex surface one side and concave surface another side. If the
radius of curvature of convex and concave are equal to R each. If  is refractive
index of lens then its focal length is
2R R
1) 2) 2    1 3) zero 4) infinite
 1
JEE MAINS
Single Correct Choice Type:
8. A biconvex lens has radii of curvature 20cm each. If the refractive index of the
material of the lens is 1.5. Its focal length is
1) 20cm 2) 10cm 3) 30cm 4) 15cm
9. A convex lens of focal length 24cm    1.5  is totally immersed in water    1.33  .
then its focal length in water.
1) 100cm 2) 94 cm 3) 92cm 4) 120cm
4
10. A thin liquid convex lens is formed in glass. Refractive index of liquid is and
3
3
that of glass is . If ‘f’ is the focal length of the liquid lens in air, then its focal
2
length and nature in glass is

1) f, convex 2) f, concave 3) 2f, concave 4) 3f, concave


11. A double convex lens of focal length 6 cm is made of glass of  =1.5 the radius of
one surface which is double that of other surface will be
1) 9cm 2) 4.5 cm 3) 6 cm 4) 15 cm

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 93


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
12. A double convex lens of focal length 30 cm is made of glass of R.I. 1.6. When it is
immersed in a liquid, the focal length is found to be 90 cm. The R.I. of the liquid is
1) 1.33 2) 1.5 3) 1.4 4) 1.42
13. The focal length of a lens are in the ratio 13:8 when it is immersed in two
different liquids of refractive indices 1.3 and 1.2 respectively. The refractive
index of the material of the lens is
1) 1.25 2) 1.56 3) 1.5 4) 0.5
JEE ADVANCED
Reasoning Type:
14. Statement I : A concave mirror and covex lens both have the same focal length
in air. When they are submerged in water, they willstill have the same focal
length
Statement II : The refractive index of water is greater than the refractive index
of air.
1) Both Statements are true
2) Both Statements are false
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.
Comprehension Type:

As shown in figure a spherical air lens of radii R1  R 2  10cm is cut in a glass


   1.5  cylinder. A liquid of refractive index 2 is filled in the air cavity.

 1=1.5  =1  1=1.5  1=1.5  =2

 1=1.5

15. The focal length of the air lens is


1) 15 cm 2) – 15 cm 3) 25 cm 4) – 25 cm
16. The air lens in glass behaves as
1) divergent lens 2) convergent lens 3) plano convex lens 4) bi convex lens
17. The focal length of the liquid lens in glass
1) 3.5cm 2) – 3.75 cm 3) 15 cm 4) – 15 cm

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 94


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Matrix Match Type:
18. Column-I Column-II

1 1 1 
a)     1    1) plano convex
f  R1 R 2 

1 1
b)     1   2) plano concave
f R 

1 1
c)      1 3) bi concave lens
f R

1 1 1 
d)      1    4) equi convex lens
f  R1 R 2 
5) biconvex lens

HUMAN EYE AND COLOURFUL WORLD


SYNOPSIS-1
The human eye: (A Living Lens)
Our eyes enable us to see the beautiful world around us. The most important
part of our eyes is a convex lens inside it that is made of living cells.
The human eye is like a camera having a lens on one side and a sensitive screen
called the retina on the other.
The essential parts of a human eye are shown in figure.
1. Sclerotic: It is the outermost converging of the eye ball. It is made of white tough
fibrous tissues. Its function is to house and protect vital internal parts of eye.
2. Cornea: It is the front bulging part of the eye. It is made of transparent tissues.
Its function is to act as a window to world. i.e., to allow the light to enter in the
eye ball.
3. Choroid: It is a grey membrane attached to the sclerotic from the inner side. Its
function is to darken the eye from inside and, hence, prevent any internal
reflection.
4. Optic Nerve: It is a bundle of approximately 70,000 nerves originating from brain
and entering eye ball from behind. Its function is to carry optical message (visual
messages) to the brain.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 95


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Crystalline lens
Sclerotic
Choroid
Retina
Cornea
Yellow spot
Iris
Optic nerve
Pupil
Aqueous
humour
Ciliary
muscles Blind spot
Human eye
5. Retina: The optic nerve on entering the ball, spreads like a canopy, such that
each nerve and attaches itself to the choroid. The nerve endings form a hemi-
spherical screen called retina. These nerve endings on the retina are sensitive
to visible light. On the retina are two important areas which we will discuss
separately. The function of retina is to receive the optical image of the object and
then convert it to optical pulses. These pulses are then sent to the brain through
optic nerve.
6. Yellow spot: It is a small area facing the eye lens. It has high concentration of
nerve endings and is slightly raised as well as slightly yellow in colour. Its function
is to very clear image by sending a large number of optical pulses to brain.
7. Blind spot: It is a region on the retina, where the optic nerve enters the eye ball.
It has no nerve endings and hence, is insensitive to the light. It does not seem to
have any function. Any image formed on this spot is not visible.
8. Crystalline lens: It is a double convex lens made of transparent tissues. It is
held in position by a ring of muscles, commonly called ciliary muscles. Its function
is to focus the images of different objects clearly on the retina.
9. Ciliary muscles: It is a ring of muscles which holds the crystalline lens in position.
When these muscles relax, they increase the focal length of the crystalline lens
and vice versa. Its function is to alter the focal length of crystalline lens so that
the images of the objects, situated at different distances, are clearly focussed on
the retina.
10. Iris: It is a circular diaphragm suspended in front of the crystalline lens. It has a
tiny hole in the middle and is commonly called pupil. It has tiny muscles arranged
radially around the pupil. These muscles can increase or decrease the diameter
of the pupil. The iris is heavily pigmented. The colour of eyes depends upon
colour of pigment. The function of iris is to control the amount of light entering in
eye. This is done by increasing or decreasing the diameter of pupil.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 96


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
11. Vitreous humour: It is a dense jelly like fluid, slightly grey in colour, filling the
part of eye between crystalline lens and retinna. Its function is (i) to prevent the
eye ball from collapsing due to change in atmospheric pressure (ii) in focussing
the rays clearly on the retina.
12. Aqueous humour: It is a watery, saline fluid, filling the part of the eye between
the cornea and the crystalline lens. Its function is (i) to prevent front part of the
eye ball from collapsing with the change in atmospheric pressure (ii) to keep the
cornea moist.
Accommodation of Eye (or) Focussing of an Eye :
Definition: The ability of an eye to focus the distant objects as well as the nearby
objects on the retina by changing the focal length (or converging power) of its
lens is called ‘focusing of an eye’ or accommodation. (OR)
The ability of the human eye to change the focal length of the eye lens and to
obtain the image of any object on the retina irrespective of its distance from the
eye, is called the power of accommodation of the eye.
Distance of distinct vision: Distance of distinict vision is the distance of object
from the eye such that the eye can see that object, clearly, without any deformation
being produced in the lens.

Distance of distinct vision for a normal eye is 25cm. That is why, while reading a
book we keep it nearly at a distance of 25cm from our eye.

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 97


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Note: 1. The least distance from which the normal eye can see clearly without any
strain is called least distance of distinct vision. Its value is 25cm far normal eye.
2. The far-off distance of distinct vision for normal eye is infinity.
Defects of vision and their correction:
The ability to see is called vision. It is also called eyesight. Vision is known as
drishti in Hindi. Sometimes the eye of a person cannot focus the image of an
object on the retina properly. In such cases the vision of a person becomes blurred
and cannot see either the distant objects or nearby objects (or both) clearly and
comfortably. The person is said to have a defect of vision. the defects of vision are
also known as defects of eye.
The major defects of vision are
1. Long - sightedness (hypermetropia)
2. Short - sightedness (myopia)
The mirror defects of vision are
1) Presbyopia 2) Astigmatism 3) Phorias 4) Colour blindness
Long-sightedness or Hypermetropia: This defect is a born defect.
Definition: If a person is suffering from long-sightedness or hypermetropia, he
can see far-off objects clearly, but cannot see nearby objects clearly. A persons
sees a far-off objects clearly because image is formed on the retina.

Reason: It is so because the image of near objects is formed behind the retina.
Causes:
1) The eye lens may be thinner (less converging) then the normal eye lens.
2) The eye ball may be oval, due to oval shape, distance between lens and retina
becomes less than that for normal eye.
Remedy (correction): Long-sightedness or hypermetropia is corrected by using
spectacles with convex lenses.

near by object O image

a. eye with hypermetropia

N O image

b. Correction of Hypermetropia
Hypermetropia and its correction

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 98


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Explanation: When a convex lens is placed in front of the eyes, the rays coming from
the nearby object O appear to be coming from N which is the near point of the
defective eye. The rays are shown by dotted lines. Thus, by using a convex lens,
the object placed at N appears to be at near point O and the image is formed at
the retina. So the person is able to see the nearby object clearly.
Short sightedness or myopia: This defect is a born defect.
Definition: If a person is suffering from short - sightedness or myopia, he can see
nearby objects clearly, but cannot see far-off objects clearly.
A person can see a nearby object clearly because the image is formed on the
retina.

Reason:It is so because the image of distant objects is formed in front of the retina.
Causes:
1. The lens may be thicker (more converging) than the normal eye lens.
2. The eye ball may be elongated, due to elongation, distance between lens and
retina becomes more than that for normal eye.
Remedy (correction): Short sightedness or myopia can be corrected by using spectacles
with concave lenses.
Parallel rays from a
distance object
O
far off object image

a. Eye with myopia

Concave lens

O F image

b. correction of myopia
Myopia and its correction

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 99


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
Explanation: When a concave lens is placed in front of the eyes, the ray coming from
a far-of object are diverged by the concave lens and appear to be coming from the
eye’s own far point F (as shown in dotted lines). Thus, by using a concave lens
the object at infinity O appears to be at far point F and the image is formed at the
retina.
Presbyopia: It is a combination of myopia and hypermetropia and is caused at old age.
Cause: Persbyopia power of accommodation of the eye due to old age.
Remedy: It is remedied by using concave lens for distinct objects and convex lens for
near objects.
Astigmatism: With this defect, the eye cannot see objects in vertical and horizontal
planes clearly simultaneously.
Cause: This is due to the irregular curvature of cornea.
Remedy: It is remedied by using cylindrical lenses.
Phorias: It is defect in the orientation of the two eyes with respect to each other. This
defect results in production of cross eyes and causes headache and eye strain.
Cause: The defect is due to the lack of balance among the muscles which hold the
eyes in their axes.
Remedy: This defect can be cured by putting prismatic lenses before the eye.
Colour blindness: It is a defect of eye by which eye is unable to give response to a
particular colour. A man suffering from colour blindness, say for green colour
will recognise a green paper as black one.
Cause: This defect arises when a particular retinal cone fails to respond to the colour.
Remedy: This defect is not curable at all.
WORKSHEET - 1

1. The ability to see is called vision. It is also called


1) eye sight 2) lens 3) blind ness 4) mirror
2. Short sightedness or myopia can be corrected by using spectacles with
1) Convex mirror 2) Convex lens 3) Concave mirror 4) Concave lens
3. Colour blindness is
1) Curable 2) Not curable 3) both (1) and (2) 4) None
4. Astigmatism is remedied by using
1) Spherical lenses 2) Cylindrical lenses
3) Plano convex lenses 4) Plano concave lenses
5. The far off distance of distinct vision for normal eye is
1) 25 cm 2) less than 25 cm 3) zero 4) Infinity
6. The least distance from which the normal eye can see clearly with out any strain
is
1) 25 cm 2) less than 25 cm 3) zero 4) Infinity

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 100


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
7. Long - Sightedness or hypermetropia is corrected by using spectacles with
1) Concave mirror 2) Convex lenses 3) Concave lens 4) Convex mirror
JEE MAINS
Single Correct Choice Type:
1. For a person suffering from a combination of astigmatism and myopia the type of
glasses, that must be used to correct vision is
1) Plano convex 2) Plano concave 3) Plano spherical 4) Sphero cylindrical
2. Far sighted people who have lost their spectacles can still read a book by looking
through a small hole in a sheet of paper, this is because
1) in doing so the focal length of the eye is effectively increased
2) in doing so the focal length of the eye effectively increased
3) in doing so the distance of the object increased
4) the pin hole produces an image of letters at a longer distance
3. Colour blindness can be cured by using
1) concave lens 2) convex lens 3) spherical lens 4) not curable at all
4. Myopia is due to
1) Elongation of eye ball 2) Irregular change in focal length
3) Shortening of eye ball 4) Older age
5. The hyper metropia is a
1) Short-sight defect 2) Long sight defect
3) Bad vision due to old age 4) None of these
6. In the case of hyper metropia
1) the image of a near object is formed behind the retina
2) the image of a distant object is formed infront of the retina
3) a concave lens should be used for correction
4) a bifocal lens should be used for correction
7. The image of an object formed on the retina of the eye is
1) virtual and inverted 2) virtual and erect
3) real and erect 4) real and inverted
8. Myopia occurs due to
1) Increase in the focal length of eye lens
2) Decrease in the distance between retina and lens
3) Decrease in focal length of eye lens
4) Increase in the distance between retina and lens
9. The ability of eye to focus on both near and far objects is called
1) Presbyopia 2) Myopia
3) Hypermetropia 4) Power of accommodation
10. Loss of the eye to focus on both far and near objects with advancing age is
1) Astigmatism 2) Presbyopia
3) Myopia 4) Hypermetropia

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 101


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
11. Near and far points of healthy human eye respectively are
1) 0 and 25 cm 2) 0 and infinity
3) 25cm and 100 cm 4) 25 cm and infinity
12. A normal eye is not able to see objects closer than 25 cm because
1) The focal length of the eye is 25 cm
2) The distance of the retina from the eye-lens is 25 cm
3) The eye is not able to decrease the distance between the eye lens and retina
beyond a limit
4) The eye is not able to decrease the focal length beyond a limit.
JEE ADVANCED
Comprehension Type:
There are two defects in vision , short sightedness and long sightedness; and
1 1 1 1
focal length of the lens used is given by   and power p=
f u v f
13. The far point of a myopia person is 80cm in front of the eye. The focal length of the
lens which he has to use to correct the defect?
1) –80cm 2) 80cm 3) 60cm 4) -60cm
14. The near point of a hypermetropia eye is 1m. The power of the lens used to
correct the defect?
1) +5 dipoters 2) -6 dipoters 3) +3 dipoters 4) –3 dipoters .
15. A person needs a lens of power, -5.5 dipoters for correcting his distant vision. The
focal length of the lens required for correcting is
1) 28cm 2) 38cm 3) 48cm 4) 18cm
Reasoning Type:
16. Statement I : Human eye acts as a convex lens.
Statement II : The image formed on the retina is real, inverted and diminished.
1) Both Statements are true
2) Both Statements are false
3) Statement - I is true, Statement - II is false.
4) Statement - I is false, Statement - II is true.
Multi Correct Choice Type:
17. In this defect, objects are not scanned distinctly,
1) Myopia 2) hypermetropia
3) short sightedness 4) far sightedness

**********

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 102


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

REFLECTION OF LIGHT BY DIFFERENT


SURFACES
WORK SHEET-1- KEY

CUQ: 1)2 2) 1 3) 2 4) 2 5) 3 6) 3 7) 1 8) 4

9)3 10) 1 11)2 12)4 13) 3

JEE MAINS AND ADVANCED: 1)2 2) 2 3) 1 4) 2 5)3 6) 1 7) 2

8) 2 9) 2 10) 3 11)2 12) 3 13) 2 14) 3 15)1,3

16) 2,3 17) 1,2 18) 1,2,3 19) 1 20) 3 21)1 22) 2 23) 3
24) 3 25) a-5;b-2;c-1;d-3 26) 10 27) 2

WORK SHEET-2- KEY

CUQ: 1)1 2) 1 3) 2 4) 1 5) 2 6)1

JEE MAINS AND ADVANCED 1)4 2)2 3) 1 4) 2 5)2 6)1


7)3 8)2 9)1 10)2 11) 3 12) 3 13)4 14) 4 15) 1,2,3

16) 1,2,3 17) 1,4 18) 1,2,3,4 19) 1 20) 3 21) 1 22) 1 23)
1 24)A-1,2;B-1,2,3;C-4;D-1,2 25) 1 21) 1 26) 45
28) 6

REFRACTION OF LIGHT AT PLANE SURFACES


WORK SHEET-1- KEY

CUQ: 1)2 2)2 3)4 4) 1 5) 1 6)3 7) 2 8) 1 9) 1

JEE MAINS AND ADVANCED 1)1 2)1 3) 2 4) 1 5) 4 6) 1 7) 3

8) 4 9) 4 10) 2 11) 1 12) 4 13) 2 14) 3 15) 1,3

16)3,4 17) 1,3 18) 1,2 19) 4 20) 3 21) 2 22) 4 23) 3

24) 2 25)2 26) a-4;b-2;c-1;d-3 27)a-1,2;b-3;c-4;d-5

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 103


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

WORK SHEET-2- KEY

MCQ: 1)1 2)1 3)2 4)1 5)3 6)4 7)4 8)2

JEE MAINS AND ADVANCED 1)2 2) 2 3) 2 4) 4 5)4 6) 1 7) 3

8) 2 9)1 10) 1 11) 3 12) 3 13) 3 14) 1,2 15) 3

16) 3 17) 1 18) a-2;b-3;c-4;d-1

WORK SHEET-3- KEY

CUQ: 1)1 2)2 3)1 4)4 5) 1

JEE MAINS AND ADVANCED 1) 1 2) 1 3)1 4) 2 5) 2 6) 3


7) 2

8) 1 9) 1 10) 4 11) 4 12) 1 13) 1,2,3,4 14) 3

15) 2 16) 2 17) 1 18) 2

WORK SHEET-4- KEY

CUQ: 1)1 2)2 3)1 4)1 5) 3 6)4 7)1

JEE MAINS AND ADVANCED 1) 2 2) 4 3) 2 4) 4 5) 3 6) 1 7) 3

8) 3 9) 2 10) 3 11) 1 12) 1 13) 1,4 14) 1,2 15) 1


16) 1 17) 1 18) 2 19) 3 20) 2 21) a-3;b-4;c-2;d-1 22) 8

WORK SHEET-5- KEY

CUQ: 1. 4 2. 3 3. 3 4. 3 5. 3 6. 1 7. 2
8. 2 9. 3 10. 1 11. 4 12. 3 13. 4 14. 1

JEE MAINS AND ADVANCED

15. Key: 1

When D  Dm  r  A / 2

16. Key: 3

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 104


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

Figure (a) is part of an equilateral prism of figure (b) as shown in figure which is
a magnified image of figure (c). Therefore, the ray will suffer the same deviation
in figure (a) and figure (c).

 A 
sin  
  2 
17. Key: 1 D     1 A 18. Key: 3 A
sin
2

19. Key: 1

In minimum incidence case the angles will be as shown in figure. Applying Snell’s

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 105


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

7
law : 1 sin imin  sin( A  C ) ; from this we get  imin  300
3

20. Key: 2

sin 30 1
21. Key: 3 Sol. Apply Snell’s law of refraction at P; 
sin r 2

1 1
or sin r  2    sin 45 or r = 45 0  d  r  30  45 30  15
2 2

sin i sin 90
22. Key: 1,2,3 23. Key: 2 24. Key: 2  
sin r sin 30

25. Key: 4 26. Key: 1 d  i1  i2  A 27. Key: a-2; b-3; c-1; d-4,5

REFRACTION OF LIGHT AT CURVED SURFACES


WORK SHEET-1- KEY
CUQ: 1) 4 2) 1 3) 2 4) 3 5) 4 6) 3 7) 1 8) 4 9) 4

JEE MAINS AND ADVANCED: 1) 1 2) 1 3) 1 4) 2 5) 4 6) 1

7) 2 8) 1,3,4 9) 1 10) 1 11) 1 12) 1 13) 4 14) 1 15) 2

16) 2 17) 1 18) 3 19) 4 20) 1 21) a-4;b-1;c-2;d-3

22) a-1;b-2;c-2;d-1 23) a-1;b-3;c-4;d-3 24) 66

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 106


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.
WORK SHEET-2- KEY
CUQ: 1. 3 2. 2 3. 2 4. 2 5. 1 6. 3 7. 2

1 1 1 
JEE MAINS AND ADVANCED: 8. Key: 1      1   
f  R1 R 2 

1  1 1 
  a g  1   
9. Key: 2 fair  R1 R 2 
; fwater

 a g  1 = 94 cm
1  1 1 
fair  w g  1
  w g  1   
fwater  R1 R 2 

1 1 1  1  l  1 1 
10. Key: 4    l  1    ; 1     1  R  R 
f  R1 R 2  f  g  1 2

1 1 1 
11. Key: 2     1    ; R1  2 R2
f  R1 R2 

  
1 
f a  l
 
12. Key: 1 fl    1 
 
 

 
fl   1 
 
13. Key: 3 f    1  ; fl  f  0.225 m (given)
 
 l 

14. Key: 4 The focal length of concave mirror does not depend on the
medium  f  R /2   The focal length of canvex lens depends on the medium.

15. Key: 2 30. Key: 1 31. Key: 3

1   1 1 
16. 30. 31.   1       1
fair  1   R1 R 2 

1   1 1 
  1       2
fliquid  1   R1 R 2 

17. Key: a-5; b-1; c-2; d-3 Conceptual

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 107


CLASS X-PHYSICS MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS-GOVT.OF A.P.

HUMAN EYE AND COLOURFUL WORLD

WORKSHEET - 1 KEY

CUQ: 1) 1 2) 4 3) 2 4) 2 5) 4 6) 1 7) 2

JEE MAINS & ADVANCED: 1) 4 2) 2 3) 4 4) 1 5) 2 6) 1

7) 4 8) 3 9) 4 10) 2 11) 4 12) 4

13. The far point is 80cm. This means that this person can see the distant object (kept

at infinity) clearly if the image is formed at his far point

 u   ; v=-80cm( Far point,in front of lens); f=?

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
        f  80cm
f v u 80  f 80 f

14. hypermetropic eye can see the nearby object kept at 25cm. clearly if image of the

object is formed at it’s own near point

1 1 1 1 1 1 100
u=-25cm v=-100cm      f  33.3cm
f v u f 100 25 3

1 1 100
p    3.0D
f(in meters) 0.33 33

1 1 1
15. p  5.5   F    0.18m  18cm 16. 1 17. 1,3.
f(in meters) f 5.5

**********

Career Foundation Course - Municipal Schools - Govt. of A.P. 108