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INTERNATIONAL ADVANCED DIPLOMA IN COMPUTING

QUESTION 1

Instruction, sub[A],[B],[C], subtracts number stored in address A to


address B and then stores the result into address C. Assume instruction is
stored at address 4D, show the fetch and execute steps.

ANSWER
THE FETCH CYCLE

1. 4D PC MAR Address bus


2. Read control line asserted
3. [Sub A, B, C] Data bus MBR IR
4. PC=PC+1

THE EXECUTE CYCLE

1. IR decoding circuitry
2. A MAR Address bus
3. Read control line asserted
4. [50] A data bus MBR AX =
50
5. B MAR Address bus
6. Read control line asserted
7. [30] B data bus MBR AX=50-
30
8. C MAR Address bus
9. Write control line asserted
10. AX MAR data bus [20] C
result

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QUESTION 2
Write the assembly codes for expression M = A-B/(C+D)*F-E using Zero,
One,
Two and three address-format machines

ANSWER
Change the expression M=A-B/(C+D)*F-E to Reverse Polish Notation
M=A-B/(C+D)*F-E
Reverse polish Notation
A – B / (C+D) x F- E
A-B / (CD+) x F –E
A – (BCD + /) x F – E
A- (BCD +/ F x) - E
(ABCD+/ F x –) E –
= ABCD + / F x – E –

 ZERO ADDRESS FORMAT: implied destination of operation is


stack.
ABCD + / F x – E –

PUSH A
PUSH B
PUSH C
PUSH D
ADD
DIV
PUSH F
MUL
SUB
PUSH E

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SUB
POP M

 ONE ADDRESS FORMAT: implied destination is the Accumulator.


LOAD C
ADD D
STORE R
LOAD B
DIV R
MUL F
STORE O
LOAD A
SUB O
SUB E
STORE M

 TWO ADDRESS FORMAT: implied destination of operation is the


first operand.
ADD C, D, [MC]
DIV B, C, [MB]
MUL B, F, [MB]
SUB A, F, [MA]
SUB A, E, [MA]
MOV E, M

 THREE ADDRESS FORMAT: Implied destination of operation is the


Register.

ADD C, D, R1 [R1] [Mc] + [Md]


DIV B, R1, R2 [R2] [Mb] / R1
MUL R2, F, R3 [R3] R2 * [Mf]
SUB A, R3, R4 [R4] R3 - [Ma]

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SUB R4, E, M M[M] R4 – [Me]

QUESTION 3
A 3 address-format machine is able to access 10000 different memory
locations,
150 different general purpose registers and issue 400 different
commands. Allocate the appropriate number of bits to the different parts
of the IR. State the total length of IR and the number of direct addressable
locations.

ANSWER
1. 3 address format machine
2. Memory Locations 10000
3. Total accessible General Purpose Register (GPR) 150
4. Total acceptable command 400

Number of bits in GPR field = 8 28 = 150 accessible General


Purpose Registers
Number of bits Operand field = 14 2 14 = 10000 memory
locations.
Number of bits in Opcode field = 9 29 = 400 acceptable command
The total number of direct address locations would be 2n14 = 16384

Opcode Operand 1 Operand 2 Operand 3 GPR


9 14 14 14 8

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QUESTION 4
The processor speed has increase tremendously for the last 10 years.
Discuss about the speed of different processors and explain why there is a
need for the increment of processor speed at this rate.

ANSWER
HISTROY OF PROCESSOR
Computer processor is one of the most advanced technologies available in
the world today; they are found everywhere, in many applications such as
cars, cameras, and mobile phones.. The processor is found in most high-
tech gadgets such as game consoles and digital audio players. Processors
have complicated circuitry and their architecture gets more complex with
every improvement in their design.

The first processor was made by Intel in 1971. It was called the Intel 4004
and was made possible because of integrated circuit technology. An
integrated circuit means that the entire Central Processing Unit is on a
single chip. The 4004 was a 4-bit processor which had a speed of 740 kHz.
In 1976, Intel introduced the 16-bit 8086 processor which had a speed of 5
MHz. A later version of the 8086 was used to build the first personal
computer by IBM. This was followed by the Intel 486, which was a 32-bit
processor which had a speed of 16 MHz. During this period, several
improvements in technology were made. For instance, processors could
run in both real mode and protected mode, which introduced the concept
of multitasking. Power-saving features, such as the System Management

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Mode (SMM), meant that the computer could power down various
components. Computers finally went from command-line interaction to
WIMP (Window, Icon, Menu, Pointing device) interaction.

In 1993, Intel introduced the Pentium processor which has a speed of 60


MHz. This was followed by the Pentium II which has a speed of 233 MHz,
and the Pentium III which has a speed of 450 MHz, and the Pentium 4
which has a speed of 1.3 GHz. Later, Intel brought out the Celeron
processor, which has a speed of 266 MHz and which is used in affordable
low-end computers. In 2003, Intel inaugurated the Pentium M processor,
which ushered in a new era of mobile computing, under the Centrino
platform. The Pentium M is slower, at 900 MHz, so that energy
consumption is reduced and the battery of the laptop lasts longer. In
2006, Intel introduced the Core processor which has a speed of 1.6 GHz. It
has more than one core, like in the case of Core Duo (which has two
cores) and has virtualization capability which allows multiple copies of an
operating system to be run on the same computer.

While Intel is the leading company in the manufacturing of processors,


there are other companies such as AMD that make processors too. In
1991, AMD had brought out the Am386 processor and its speed is 40 MHz.
It is compatible with the Intel 386 processor. In 1999, AMD introduced the
Athlon processor which has a speed of 500 MHz. Athlon was a legitimate
competitor to Intel Pentium III because it was faster. As a matter of fact,
AMD Athlon was the first processor to reach the speed of 1 GHz. The
future for the computer processor industry is promising, as processors will
continue to get faster and cheaper. According to Moore's Law, the number
of transistors on a chip used to double every year, and from 1975, it used
to double every two years.

PROCESSOR DEFINITION
A processor also called a Central Processing Unit (CPU) is said to be the
main brain of the computer and it controls other parts of the computer

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such as the memory, the hard drive and the video card. It is responsible
for the execution of programs stored in the computer memory and also
carries out calculations. The following components are what make up a
processor.
• The Arithmetic Logic Unit
• Control Unit
• Register.
There are two main manufacturers of processors as stated above they
are:-
(1) INTEL COMPUTER PROCESSOR
This is produced by one of the leading manufacturers of processor, INTEL.
Four of the processors models are listed below and they include:-
Intel® Celeron® Processor
The Celeron brand has been used by Intel for several distinct ranges of
x86 CPUs targeted at budget personal computers. Celeron processors can
run all IA-32 computer programs, but their performance is somewhat
lower when compared to similar CPUs with higher-priced Intel CPU brands.
For example, the Celeron brand will often have less cache memory, or
have advanced features purposely disabled. These missing features have
had a variable impact on performance. The Intel® Celeron® processor is
designed for the value PC market segment. It provides consumers great
performance at an exceptional price, and it delivers excellent
performance for uses such as gaming and educational software. Systems
based on the Intel® Celeron® processor are ideal for day-to-day

computing, whether in the home, classroom, or office . The Intel®


Celeron® processor, with 512 KB of shared L2 cache and 800 MHz Front
Side Bus, has two independent processor cores in one physical package
running at the same frequency, delivering superior energy efficient dual-
core performance.
SPECIFICATIONS

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CPU FSB FEATUR INSTRUCT SOCKETS CORE
CLOCK SPEEDS E SIZE ION SET NAMES
RATE
266 MHz 66 MHz to 250 nm X86, x86- Slot 1 Covington
to 45 nm
to 1066 MT/s 64,
3.6 GHz Min.
Socket Mendocino
370
Socket Coppermin
478 e-128

LGA 775 Tualatin-


256
Socket M Willamette
-128

Northwood
-128
Prescott-
256
Cedar Mill-
512
Conroe-
L

• Intel® Pentium® Processor


The Intel Pentium® processor allowed computers to more easily
incorporate "real world" data such as speech, sound, handwriting and
photographic images. The first processors under this branding were
simply called the Pentium and were released March 22, 1993.
Types:-There were officially 15 processor types branded under the name
Pentium. These Pentium processors covered every aspect of modern
computing including laptops, desktops, enterprise level servers and
workstations.

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Function:-The Pentium processor served as the central processing unit
for the computers that they were installed in. Over the generations, these
processors grew from simple low-frequency computing processors to
advanced multi-threaded and multi-core processor solutions.

• Intel® Itanium™ Processor


The Itanium™ processor is the first in a family of 64-bit products from
Intel. Designed for high-end, enterprise-class servers and workstations,
the processor was built from the ground up with an entirely new
architecture based on Intel's Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing
(EPIC) design technology, in which decisions about which instructions to
execute in parallel must be made by the compiler. The processor delivers
world-class performance for the most demanding enterprise and high-
performance computing applications, including e-commerce security
transactions, large databases, mechanical computer-aided engineering,
and sophisticated scientific and engineering computing.
Putting aside a proposal to update the x86 architecture, Intel invested in a
protracted development process. After many delays the first Itanium
processor, codenamed Merced, was released in 2001. Although its speed
would have been impressive if introduced on time in 1999, it ran only half
as fast as the contemporary x86-based Pentium 4 As of 2008, Itanium is
the fourth-most deployed microprocessor architecture for enterprise-class
systems, behind x86-64, IBM POWER, and SPARC.
CPU FSB INSTRUCT SOCKET CORE CACHE
CLOCK SPEED ION SET S NAMES
RATE S
733 MHz 266 MT Itanium PAC418 Merced L2 cache - 96
to /s KiB
800 MHz
L3 cache - 2 or
4 MiB

• Intel® Xeon™ Processor

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The Intel® Xeon™ processor is targeted for high-performance and mid-
range, dual-processor workstations, dual and multi-processor server
configurations. The platform offers customers a choice of operating
systems and applications, along with high performance at affordable
prices. Intel Xeon processor-based workstations are expected to achieve
performance increases between 30 and 90 percent over systems featuring
Intel® Pentium® III Xeon™ processors depending on applications and
configurations. The processor is based on the Intel NetBurst™
architecture, which is designed to deliver the processing power needed for
video and audio applications, advanced Internet technologies, and
complex 3-D graphics.

CPU CLOCK FSB INSTRUCTI CORE MICROARCHITEC


RATE SPEEDS ON SET TURE
400 MHz to 100 MHz IA-32, x86- 1, 2, 4, 6, or Nehalem, Core,
64
3.8 GHz to 6.4 GT/s 8 NetBurst, P6
L3 cache - 2 or 4
MiB

(2) AMD COMPUTER PROCESOOR

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This is designed by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). It functions well with
almost all computer programs as well as it applications. The models
include:-

• AMD Phenom Processor


The AMD Phenom family is a microprocessor family from AMD. It includes
the Phenom X4 quad-core series, Phenom X3 triple-core series and
Phenom X2 dual-core series. The Phenom family is also related to the
Athlon 7xxx and Athlon II processors. The first Phenoms were released in
November 2007.

• AMD Athlon Processor


Amd Athlon Processors History began with the original Athlon Classic,
which is the first seventh-generation x86 processor and since it is the first,
it remained to be the first performance lead over Intel for a couple of
years.

It showed a lot of promise as it showed superior performance compared to


the Pentium 3 which was the champion at that time. The second
generation Athlon called The Thunderbird came along in year 2000. It had
a speed ranging from 600 to 1400 MHz. AMD replaced the 512 KiB
external reduced speed cache used by the Athlon Classic with 256 KiB of
on-chip, full speed exclusive cache.. AMD released The Palomino or the
Athlon XP. XP meaning "Extreme Performance". Then AMD released The
Thunderbird which is at 1.8 GHz. Then the fifth generation Athlon came
along, Barton core processors, running at the same speed as the
Thoroughbred predecessors.
Finally, the Mobile Athlon XP was introduced. It has lower power
consumption, and lower heat production which is basically used for the
notebook.

• AMD Sempron Processor

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AMD Sempron processor family is a budget line of AMD processors that
supersede AMD Duron family. AMD Sempron family spans two different
micro-architectures:

• K7 microarchitecture - All K7-based processors have the same


features as other desktop K7 processors, and work only on socket
462 (socket A) motherboards.
• K8 microarchitecture - K8-based Sempron processors require socket
754, 939 or AM2 motherboards, and include many new features that
were introduced by K8 microarchitecture.

Despite being advertised as a budget line of AMD processors, Sempron


socket A processors are simply re-branded Athlon XP processors. Unlike
the previous generation of budget processors, AMD Duron, which had
some CPU features crippled, the socket A Semprons incorporate all of the
features of Athlon XP CPUs. Sempron socket A processors have 333 MHz
(166 MHz DDR) bus speed, 256KB or 512 KB level 2 cache and are
manufactured on the 0.13 micron technology. All Sempron processors
support SSE instructions. Similar to Athlon XP processors,
all Semprons are marked with rated speed. Sempron CPUs are rated
differently from Athlon XPs - while the XP processors are rated relatively
to Pentium 4 family, Sempron CPUs are rated relatively to Intel Celeron
CPUs.

SEMPRON NEXT GENERATION


SPECIFICATION OF SEMPRON(64)
K7 Microarchitecture K8 Microarchitecture
Up to 512 KB L2 cache Up to 512 KB L2 cache
SSE instructions Single core
Socket A (462)
Up to 2.2 GHz Up to 2.3 GHz

333 and 400 MHz FSB


32-bit 64-bit (except earlier
CPUs)
Budget CPU Budget CPU

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NEED FOR INCREMENT OF PROCESSOR SPEED
Increase in the speed of processors will have many benefits one of which
is:-
Multitasking and Faster Computer Operation - it will improved
reaction and response time, and increased number of users a server can
support. Today's multi-processing software is also compatible with Hyper-
Threading Technology enabled platforms, but further performance gains
can be realized by specifically tuning software for Hyper-Threading
Technology. For future software optimizations and business growth this
technology complements traditional multi-processing by providing
additional headroom.

Processor speeds are increasing all the time and their sophistication is
growing with every innovation. In the future, processors will have more
cores that will be blistering fast and reduce power consumption. Software
programmers will have to create multi-threaded applications to utilize the
multiple cores. Computers with such processors will be faster for
multimedia applications such as graphics software, audio players and
video players. There is also a possibility that optical computing will
increase processor speeds exponentially. All these signs point to a
brighter future for processors, which will be to the benefit of everyone.

REFERNCES
http://www.pcguide.com/ref/cpu/fam/g3.htm
http://www.pcguide.com/ref/cpu/fam/g4.htm

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http://www.pcguide.com/ref/cpu/fam/g5.htm
http://www.pcguide.com/ref/cpu/fam/g6.htm

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