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Hydro power turbine exercises problems

Hari Prasad Neopane, PhD

Associate Professor & Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KU

Note: Students are requested to go through all the problems to build their confidence in the subject matter. If you need further help to
understand any of the problems, you can contact course instructor anytime. You are always most welcome.

1. A hydro company already owns a Pelton Wheel turbine rotor in excellent condition which they wish to use on a new contract.
In terms of disc and shaft strength this rotor is capable of transmitting up to 15 MW of mechanical power. It has a mean
bucket diameter of 1.65 m. The new contract is to harness a mountain flow of water having a net head at the turbine of 460.5
m. Hydrologists have advised designing for annual flow rates as follows:- Design standard: 4.750 m3/s for 150 days, Winter
2.375 m3/s for 211 days, No-flow, may be due to repair and maintenance reason for 4 days. The company will install an
alternator with p = 5, 6 or 7 pairs of poles but no more than 7. The company is prepared to install j =1, 2 or 3 Pelton jets.
Take jet nozzle CD =0.970, g =9.807 m/s2, hh =0.93, hmech=0.98, hvol =0.99, helec=0.92.
a. Estimate jet speed v, jet dia. d, ratio D/d, and determine the best number of jets j, explain your logic.
b. For values of p determine speed n, blade speed U and u/v. Select the speed you consider will prove most satisfactory
and hence recommend the number of poles for synchronous running on the national grid.
c. Consider the data and check whether the speed number at design conditions appears to fall in a suitable range.
d. Determine the hydraulic, mechanical shaft and electrical power output at both design and recommended winter
e. Determine the Load Factor.

2. A single jet Pelton turbine is required to drive a generator to develop 10,000 KW. The available head at the nozzle is 760 m.
Assuming electric generator efficiency 95 %. Pelton wheel efficiency 87 %, co-efficient of velocity for nozzle 0.97, mean
bucket velocity 0.46 of jet velocity, outlet angle of the buckets 15 degrees and the relative velocity of the water leaving the
buckets 0.85 of that at inlet find: the diameter of the jet, the flow in cumecs and the force exerted by the jet on the buckets. If
the ratio of the mean bucket circle diameter to the jet diameter is not to be less than 10. Find the best synchronous speed for
generation at 50 cycles per second and the corresponding mean diameter of the runner.

3. Design an efficient and compact Pelton Wheel Turbine for installation in difficult mountain terrain for local domestic
electricity generation: Head at turbine 305 m; Monsoonal discharge (Design flow rate) 200 liter/sec, Winter flow rate 110 l/s;
Speed around 750 rpm. Set out your assumptions etc. and your design details incl. Ns, Penstock general detail, Power, No. of
jets, Jet & Wheel diameters, Bucket Details, Casing size, Valves, Deflectors.

4. A set for generating local area electricity only is to consist of two identical Pelton runners, each having hydraulic efficiency =
90 % with two jets per runner, all of the same size. Nozzles have C d = 0.975. The water available is thought to be 5 m3/s but
seasonally may be only half that. Total altitude nozzle to reservoir surface is 150 m. The pipeline is 3000m long. One
consultant advised that “the efficiency of power transmission through pipelines and nozzle is 90 %.” Another advised that
“the friction factor ‘f’ for this pipeline material is definitely 0.0045”, but forgot to say for what internal diameter he had
calculated this. The client wants to know what diameter the pipeline should be, and expected power output summer and
winter (and speed, Ns. dimensions).

5. The same client (Q4 above) has instructed you as favored consultants to review all the above data and try to determine
whether two separate sets would be best or should the plant use three smaller sets, or maybe one big turbine. Examine
alternatives, design, take advice and write your expert recommendations as best as you can.

6. A double-jet Pelton Wheel turbine with Ns = 0.019 per jet is required to develop 5.4 MW. Water is supplied through a
descending penstock 850 m long, more or less running from under reservoir water level down to the turbine level 350 m
below. At least initially, allow a 10 % pressure loss due to pipeline friction. Subsequently design a suitable penstock.
Assuming the machine will generate power for the NEA grid and that the alternator will be directly shaft- coupled to the
turbine, advice on rotational speed, bucket mean PCD, jets diameter and optimum diameter of the penstock. And anything
else you think important!
7. A new Peltric powerhouse is proposed to generate 17000000 W of electricity for the NEA, preferably to run constantly at
about 600 rpm (directly coupled to the AC generator) and 840 available head. Estimate the min. necessary flow rate, and the
most compact wheel diameter and jet diameter, and also the nozzle tip diameter of your recommended nozzle, using only one
nozzle if possible. Assume or estimate all coefficients and efficiencies involved. Recommend the number of buckets and their
dimensions. Are your diameter ratio, your Ns and any other values sizes and parameters within the recommended limits?

8. For 6 months the above set (Q. 7) has to run with 33 % of the maximum flow for which it is designed. Estimate its likely
efficiency under those conditions. As that flow reduction in late winter spring and early summer is likely to occur every year
and may extend longer in the future, act as consultant to consider and recommend whether the set should be redesigned (and
if so, how) or whether two sets should be used instead (in which case, specify their Ns, design details and ratios etc and
whether the proposed design details seem reasonable).

9. A large single- jet Peltric set of very low Ns (about 0.004) for producing 200- 250 kW of 50 Hz grid power is designed for an
extremely high net head (1150 m), with a mean buckets PCD of 3.0 m. It is carefully balanced and designed for high speed
running. Describe more about it (likely flow rate, bucket size, ratios etc). However the task specification has been changed
and the flow to be handled will be 50 l/s at 1100 m. Can the machine be adopted and used for this, and if so, how? If it costs
no more, would it be a better idea to install two smaller Pelton turbines or even three, maybe at different altitudes down the

10. The Lamjung Electricity Development Company in its Track 1 activities has two small hydropower projects, each 50 Hz
grid- connected. Answer both parts (a) & (b) below. Take nozzle C d= 0.992 and ηmech= 0.988, ηvol= 0.999 and ηelec= 0.93 for
both cases.
a) NYADI 20.00 MW net installed output capacity (design total)
Three horizontal axis Pelton runners, each with a single jet
Running speed 428.6 rpm, Alternator has 7 pair of poles
Maximum head 352m, Design (available net) head H= 334 m
Design discharge Q= 2.375 m3/s per unit
Annual energy generation 127 GWh
Mean Bucket Diameter D 1.700 m
Minimum flow dry months 3.5 m3/s to all units
Headrace tunnel 1.28 m diameter, 3.72 km long, Steel- lined penstock 1.45 m diameter 564 m long.
Examine the data for this turbine and plant and estimate the following: system head loss (pressure loss calcs are not
requested), load factor, design jet speed d, D/d ratio, mean bucket design speed U, design U/V, turbine power output, η 0, ηh,
Ns. From your figures comment on any unexpected or standard features of this modern plant. How do you imagine the plant
will be configured to run during the dry months?
b) KHUDI 3.50 MW net installed output capacity (design total)
Two horizontal axis Turgo (Impulse) turbines, each with two jets, running speed 500 rpm
Maximum head 101 m, Available net head H= 95.5 m
Design Discharge Q = 4.5 m3/s to both units
Annual energy generation 24.25 GWh
Mean Side- Buckets Diameter D = 0.82 m
Minimum flow dry months 2.8 m3/s to both units

Either briefly describes with sketch this type of turbine how it works, etc.

Or Examine the data for this turbine and plant, estimating the following: system head loss (pressure loss calcs are not
requested), Load factor, design jet speed d, D/d ratio, mean bucket design speed U, design U/V, turbine power output, η0, ηh,
Ns. Comment on any features arising from your figures. How do you imagine the plant will be configured to run during the
dry months?

11. A propeller turbine system is to run at 16.0 m available head and synchronous speed of 500 rpm. The turbine, with hub radius
75 mm, runs in an annular space of outer radius 425 mm with small tip clearance. The head is all available at the inlet guide
vanes, which have a jet discharge coefficient Cd = 0.97. The guide vanes radius at their nozzle throat section is 674 mm and
height 65 mm, where they occupy 7 % of the peripheral area for radial flow. Thus confirm that the design flow rate for the
machine is 4.4 m3/s and that the constant axial component velocity past the impeller is Va= 8.00 m/s. At the mean radius of
250 mm the leading edge blade angle β1= 60.0°. Using an appropriate inlet velocity diagram determine the product V w1.U1
for that blade at entry. Using another outlet velocity diagram determine the trailing edge blade angle β2 as designed to induce
no exit whirl. Given that the impeller is designed to ensure constant Euler Head (and constant power production) at all radii,
with whirl velocity inversely proportional to radius, sketch and determine the blade angles β 1 and β2 that ideally apply
adjacent to the hub. Calculate the power output of the impeller. What is Ns for this turbine? Also estimate the hydraulic
efficiency of this turbine, and advise on what could or should be done to increase power output or efficiency and reduce

12. An inward flow Francis radial turbine is to operate with a net head H= 150.0 m. (Another 4 m head could be available
between turbine and tailrace water level).
It is to run at the synchronous speed of 600 rpm and accept a water flow of Q= 7.586 m3/s. Your task as a consultant is to
work out the turbine’s actual shaft power output and the hydraulic efficiency and to advice about a draft tube. To get an idea
about runner shape, make an estimate of Specific speed and refer to data sheets. The outer diameter of runner d1 = 1.100 m
and the inner diameter d2 = 0.650 m. Take the width (in the axial direction) of the guide vane and runner flow passages at
entry w1 = 72 mm and at discharge w2 = 160 mm. Assume blades occupy 10 % of the peripheral space for radial flow at inlet
and in the guide vanes, and 18 % at outlet.
 The 150 m net head (at this stage of the calculation) may be taken as acting at the throats of the 24 guide vanes.
These projects water at angle α1 = 42.0° to the tangential direction through a throat of clearance s1= 86.7 mm. Take
their effective guide vane ‘nozzle’ discharge coefficient Cd = 0.933. So confirm (by two approaches) that the
absolute velocity of water entering the runner V1= 50.6 m/s and its radial component of velocity entering Vrad1= 33.9
 Sketch an inlet velocity diagram for the runner, confirm that the ‘backwards-bent’ blade angle β1 = 95° (turbine
blade angles cannot be guaranteed to match theoretical relative velocity directions to within 1/4°) and determine
inlet whirl velocity Vw1.
 With an exit velocity diagram, determine U2 and Vw2, given that the exit blade angle β2= 60°.
 Estimate the Euler head and power output actually developed across the runner.
 Compare that with the mgH perfect hydraulic power for the machine, and so estimate the ηh of this machine at
present, and the head apparently lost.
 Suggest a suitable design for a draft tube which would reduce the losses, illustrating with simple calculations for
dynamic heads. Suggest what the efficiency could then become.

13. A hydro- electric development company has published the following data for its two hydro plants, now being built. Analyze
and consider all the data and answer the following questions below:
One Pelton Wheel Turbine with alternator (4 no. of poles). Installed Electrical Generating Capacity 47.00 MW. Three
nozzles, each with Cd = 0.981 at full flow. Actual Specific Speed per jet at maximum efficiency (design) conditions 0.02280.
Total (design) water flow rate 7.500 m3/s for 5.65 summer months then mean flow rate 4.000 m3/s for 6.0 ‘winter’ months
with shutdown for 0.35 month annually (take 1 month= 1/12 of 365 days). Available head 800.0 m at full flow in penstock
and 830.0 m at 53.3 % flow. Mean effective diameter of bucket 1486 mm, ηmech 99.44 %, ηvol 100.0 %. Estimate Turbine
Shaft Power P, V, U, U/V, d, d/D, ηelec, ηh, Ns overall. Comment as appropriate. Also advise on how the turbine should be
configured to run during winter and estimate its likely shaft power then if ηh falls by 2 %, other efficiencies being constant.
Estimate overall Load Factor.

14. Two Turgo Turbines each with Alternator (5 pair of poles) having ηelec= 87.33 % at design conditions. Total installed
electrical generating capacity 2.750 MW. Each machine with two nozzles Cd= 0.945. Total (design) water flow rate 3.320
m3/s for 5 summer months then 2.5 m3/s for 1.5 months then 1.600 m3/s (winter condition) for rest of year (Optimum U/V for
Turgos is 0.50, and D/d can be as low as 4.5). Available head is 110.5 m. Mean effective Diameter of wheel buckets 700 mm.
ηmech 99.75 %, ηvol 99.0 %. Estimate for each machine Turbine Shaft Power P, V, U, U/V, d, d/D, η h, Ns per turbine.
How will the machines be best configured to run during winter conditions? Estimate overall Load Factor (if η values do not
change at partial loads).

15. A radial flow turbine runner having 24 blades. Inlet guide vanes Cd= 0.95. Total Available Head for turbine = 200 m.
Available Head H across VIGVs= 198.0 m. Impeller (runner) speed n= 1000 rpm. Design Volume Flow V= 2.60 m3/s. Outer
radius r1= 0.350 m. Inner radius r2= 0.200 m. Axial flow passage width w1 in = 34.5 mm and blades occupy 10 % of the space
at inlet. Axial flow passage width w2 out = 3.5*w1= 120.75 mm, blades occupy 18 % space at outlet.
 If the absolute water velocity V1= Velocity of discharge from the variable inlet guide vanes, confirm the mean radial
velocity component at inlet is Vrad1= 38.08 m/s and at outlet Vrad2= 20.90 m/s.
 Construct the inlet velocity diagram with U1, Vrad1 and V1 as calculated and confirm that the inlet blade angle β1=
103° and absolute inlet water direction α1= 40°. Determine Vwhirl1 and the relative velocity Vwb1.
 For no exit whirl, confirm that the exit blade angle β2= 45° and calculate Vwb2.
 Check that Euler head is reasonable and that little head is needed inside the runner, and calculate the mechanical
power output of the turbine, and water power supplied, and η h.
 If flow rate is now reduced to half by adjusting the VIGVs (the water head, turbine speed, blade angles being
unchanged) examine your two velocity diagrams and think what must happen to flows in the impeller. Assuming the
relative velocities become halved, (and the VIGVs now make α1 about 19° or 25°) what is now power P and ηh of
the turbine?

16. Explain briefly with any brief calculation that may be needed what sort of hydraulic turbine(s) you would recommend to
operate with an available head of 150 m when the available flow rate is 1) 0.21 m3/s, 2) 2.1 m3/s, 3) 21 m3/s. It is decided
that to exploit the hydropower available in case 1) above for generation of electricity for the national grid, a Pelton Wheel
will be used. Appropriate allowance should be made for the fact that the water flow rate quoted will only run for 5 to 6
months of the year after which the flow rate will be steady at about half that amount. The machine should be as compact as
possible, preferably operating at the most convenient synchronous speed and with high efficiency throughout the year.
Outline a design for the machine including rotational speed, jet and blade speeds, mean bucket diameter D, jet diameter d,
number of jets and expected maximum mechanical power output P. Reasonable or recommended numbers should be used for
Ns, nozzle Cd and ηh etc.

17. A Pelton wheel is receiving water from a penstock with a gross head of 510 m. One- third of gross head is lost in friction in
the penstock. The rate of flow through the nozzle fitted at the end of the penstock is 2.2 m3/s. The angle of deflection of the
jet is 165°. Determine: a) The power given by water to the runner, and b) Hydraulic efficiency of Pelton Wheel. Take Cv
(coefficient of velocity) = 1.0 and speed ratio = 0.45

18. A Pelton Wheel having a mean bucket diameter of 1.2 m is running at 1000 rpm. The net head is 840 m. If the side clearance
angle is 15° and discharge through the nozzle is 0.12 m3/s, determine the power available at the nozzle, and ηh.

19. A Pelton Wheel is to be designed for the following specifications: Power (brake or shaft) 9650 kW, Head 350 m, Speed 750
rpm, Overall efficiency 85 %, Jet diameter not to exceed 1/6th of the wheel diameter. Determine the wheel diameter, diameter
of the jet and the no. of jets required. Take Cv= 0.985, Speed ratio= 0.45

20. A Pelton wheel nozzle, for which Cv= 0.97, is 400 m below the water surface of a lake. The jet diameter is 80mm, pipe
diameter is 0.6 m, its length is 4 km and f = 0.032 in the formula ηf = fLV2/D* 2g. The buckets deflect the jet through 165°
and they run at 0.48 times the jet speed, bucket friction reducing the velocity at outlet by 15 % of the relative velocity at inlet.
Mechanical efficiency = 90 %. Determine the flow rate, and the shaft power developed by the turbine.

21. The water available for a Pelton Wheel is 4 m3/s and the total head from the reservoir to the nozzle is 250 m. The turbine has
two runners with two jets per runner. All the four jets have the same diameters. The pipe is 3 km long. The efficiency of
transmission through the pipeline and the nozzle is 91 % and efficiency of each runner is 90 %. The velocity co-efficient of
each nozzle is 0.975 and co-efficient of friction ‘4f’ for the pipe is 0.0045. Determine power developed by the turbine,
diameter of jet, and diameter of the pipeline.

22. A single jet Pelton Wheel runs at 300 rpm under a head of 510 m. The jet diameter is 200 mm, its deflection inside the bucket
is 165° and its relative velocity is reduced by 15 % due to friction. Determine water power, resultant force on the bucket, and
overall efficiency. Take Mechanical losses = 3 %, Cv = 0.98 and speed ratio = 0.46.

23. A Pelton Wheel running at 480 rpm and operating under an available head of 420 m is required to develop 4800 kW. There
are two equal jets and the bucket deflection angle is 165°. The overall efficiency is 85 % when the water is discharged from
the wheel in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation. The co-efficient of velocity of nozzle = 0.97 and blade speed ratio =
0.46. The relative velocity of water at exit from the bucket is 0.86 times the relative velocity at inlet. Calculate cross-sectional
area of each jet, bucket pitch circle diameter, and ηh of the turbine.

24. The following data relate to a Pelton wheel: Head at the base of the nozzle = 82 m, diameter of the jet = 100 mm, discharge
of the nozzle = 0.30 m3/s, shaft power = 206 kW, power absorbed in mechanical resistance = 4.5 kW. Determine power lost
in nozzle, and power lost due to hydraulic resistance in water.

25. A single jet Pelton turbine is required to drive a generator to develop 10000 kW. The available head at the nozzle is 760 m.
Assuming electric generation efficiency 95 %, Pelton wheel efficiency 87 %, Co-efficient of velocity for nozzle 0.97, mean
bucket velocity 0.46 of jet velocity, outlet angle of bucket 15° and the relative velocity of the water leaving the buckets 0.85
of that inlet, find: i)The flow in m3/s, ii) diameter of jet, iii) force exerted by the jet on the buckets, iv) the best synchronous
speed for generation at 50 Hz and the corresponding mean diameter if the ratio of the mean bucket circle diameter to the jet
diameter is not to be less than 10.

26. The following data relate to a double overhung Pelton unit: Output of generator 25000 kW, Generator efficiency 93 %,
Effective head at the base of nozzle 300 m, Pelton Wheel efficiency 85 %, Co-efficient of velocity 0.97, Speed ratio 0.46, Jet
ratio 12. Determine: i) Size of jet, ii) Mean diameter of runner, and iii) Synchronous speed

27. The following data relate to a Pelton Wheel: Head 72 m, Speed of the wheel 240 rpm, Shaft power of the wheel 115 kW,
Speed ratio 0.45, Co-efficient of velocity 0.98, Overall efficiency 85 %. Design the Pelton Wheel.

28. A Pelton Wheel of 1.1 m mean bucket diameter works under a head of 500 m. The deflection of jet is 165° and its relative
velocity is reduced over the bucket by 15 % due to friction. If the diameter of jet is 100 mm and the water is to leave the
bucket without any whirl, determine: i) Rotational speed of wheel, ii) Ratio of bucket speed to jet velocity, iii) Impulsive
force and power developed by the wheel, iv) Available power (water power), v) power input to buckets, and vi) Efficiency of
the wheel with power input to bucket as reference input. Take Cv= 0.97

29. The following are the design particulars of a large Pelton turbine: Head at distributor = 630 m, discharge = 12.5 m3/s, power
= 65 MW, speed of rotation= 500 rpm, runner diameter = 1.96 m, number of jets = 4, jet diameter= 192 mm, angle through
which the jet is deflected by the bucket = 165°, and mechanical efficiency of the turbine = 96 %. Determine the hydraulic
power losses in the distributor nozzle assembly and the buckets.

30. An inward flow reaction turbine has external and internal diameters as 1.08 m and 0.54 m. The turbine is running at 200 rpm.
The width of the turbine at inlet is 240 mm and velocity of flow through the runner is constant and is equal to 2.16 m/s. The
guide blades make an angle of 10° to the tangent of the wheel and discharge at the outlet of the turbine is radial. Draw the
inlet and outlet velocity triangles and determine: i)The absolute velocity of water at inlet of the runner, ii) Velocity of whirl at
inlet, iii) Relative velocity at inlet, iv) Runner blade angles, v) Width of runner at outlet, vi) Weight of water flowing through
the runner per sec, vii) Head at inlet of the turbine, viii)Power developed, ix) Hydraulic efficiency of the turbine

31. A reaction turbine works at 450 rpm under a head of 120 m. Its diameter at inlet is 1.2 m and the flow area is 0.4 m2. The
angles made by absolute and relative velocities at inlet are 20° and 60° respectively with the tangential velocity. Determine: i)
Volume flow rate, ii) Power developed, iii) Hydraulic efficiency

32. An inward flow reaction has an external diameter of 1 m and its breadth at inlet is 250 mm. If the velocity of flow at inlet is
2m/s, find weight of water passing through the turbine per sec. Assume 10 % of the area of flow is blocked by blade
thickness. If the speed of the runner is 210 rpm and guide blades make an angle of 10° to wheel tangent, draw the inlet
velocity triangle and find: i)Runner vane angle at inlet, ii) Velocity of wheel at inlet, iii) Absolute velocity of water leaving
the guide vanes, iv) Relative velocity of water entering the runner blade.

33. In an inward flow reaction turbine the head on the turbine is 32 m. The external and internal diameters are 1.44 m and 0.72 m
respectively. The velocity of flow through the runner is constant and equal to 3 m/s. The guide blade angle is 10° and the
runner vanes are rigid at inlet. If the discharge at outlet is radial, determine: i) Speed of the turbine, ii) Vane angle at outlet of
the runner, iii) Hydraulic efficiency.
34. An inward flow reaction turbine is supplied 0.233 m3/s of water under a head of 11 m. The wheel vanes are radial at inlet and
the inlet diameter is twice the outlet diameter. The velocity of flow in constant and equal to 1.83 m/s. The wheel makes 370
rpm. Determine: i) Guide vane angle, ii) Inlet and outlet diameters of the wheel, iii) The width of the wheel at inlet and exit.
Assume that the discharge is radial and there are no losses in wheel. Take speed ratio = 0.7. Neglect the thickness of the

35. The following data pertain to an inward flow reaction turbine: Net head 86.4 m, Speed of runner 650 rpm, Shaft power
available 397 kW, Ratio of wheel width to wheel diameter at inlet 0.10, Ratio of inner diameter to outer diameter 0.5, Flow
ratio 0.17, ηh = 95 %, ηo= 85 %, Flow velocity constant & Discharge is radial. Neglecting blockage by blades, find the
dimensions and blade angles of the turbine.

36. The following data pertain to an inward flow reaction turbine: Diameter of wheel at inner periphery = 540 mm, Width of
wheel at inner periphery = 60 mm, Diameter of wheel at outer periphery = 360 mm, Width of wheel at outer periphery = 90
mm, Area occupied by the vanes = 8 % of the periphery, Guide vane angle = 25° to the tangent to the runner. Moving vane
angle at inlet = 95° (vane inclined forward to the direction of motion). Exit angle = 30°, Hydraulic losses = 10 % of supply
head, Mechanical friction losses = 5 % of supply head. Pressure in outer casing = 66 m more than that at discharge from the
runner. Determine the following: i) Speed of the runner, ii) Power available at the turbine shaft

37. An inward flow reaction turbine (vertical shaft) running at 400 rpm requiring a discharge of 15.0 m 3/s has an overall
efficiency of 90 %. The velocity at inlet of the spiral casing is 8.5 m/s and pressure head at this point is 230 m. The centre-
line of the spiral casing inlet is 2.5 m above the tail water level. The diameter of the runner at inlet is 2.0 m and width at inlet
is 0.25 m. If ηh is 94 % and the flow is radial at the outlet from the runner, determine: i) Power developed by the turbine, ii)
specific speed, iii) Guide vane angle, iv) Runner blade angle at inlet, v) %age of net head which is kinetic at entry to the
runner. Assume thickness of blade to be negligible.

38. In an inward flow reaction turbine the diameter of the outer periphery is two times the inner one, and the turbine operates
under a head of 20 m. The turbine has radial tips at the inlet while at the exit the blade makes an angle of 30° with the
forward tangent. Assuming a constant radial velocity of flow and that the blade friction accounts for a dissipation of energy
equivalent to 10 % of kinetic energy at the outlet, determine: i) Runner velocity at the rim, ii) ηh

39. A Francis Turbine with an overall efficiency of 76 % is required to produce 150 kW. It is working under a head of 8 m. The
peripheral velocity= 0.25√2gH and the radial velocity of flow at inlet is 0.95√2gH. The wheel runs at 150 rpm and the
hydraulic losses in the turbine are 20 % of the available energy. Assuming radial discharge, determine: i) Guide blade angle,
ii) wheel vane angle at inlet, iii) Diameter of wheel at inlet, iv) width of wheel at inlet

40. The following data pertain to a Francis turbine: Net head = 70 m, Speed = 700 rpm, Shaft Power = 330 kW, η0 = 85 %, ηh =
92 %, Flow ratio = 0.22, Breadth ratio = 0.1, Outer diameter of runner = 2 * inner dia of runner, velocity of flow = constant,
Outlet discharge = radial. The thickness of vanes occupy 6 % of circumferential area of runner. Determine: i) Diameters of
runner at inlet & outlet, ii) Width of wheel at inlet, iii) Guide blade angle, iv) Runner vane angles at inlet and outlet.

41. A vertical shaft Francis turbine runs at 420 rpm while the discharge is 15 m3/s. The velocity and pressure head at entrance of
the runner are 10 m/s and 230 m respectively. The elevation above the tail race is 5 m. The diameter of the runner is 2 m and
the width at the inlet is 270 mm. The overall and hydraulic efficiencies are 92 % and 98 % respectively. Calculate: i) Total
head across the turbine, ii) power output, iii) Guide vane angle, iv) vane angle at the inlet. Density of water taken as 1000

42. An inward flow turbine runner has an outer diameter of 0.6 m and an inner diameter of 0.3 m and runs at 750 rpm. The radial
velocity of flow at inlet and exit is 6 m/s. Water enters the runner making an angle of 12° to the direction of motion of the
blades at inlet. It leaves the runner radially. The mass flow rate is 1 kg/s. Calculate: i) Power developed ii) Angle between the
relative velocity of water and tangential velocity of the runner at exit.

43. An inward flow reaction turbine operating under 30 m head develops 4000 kW while running at 300 rpm. The overall
efficiency of the turbine is 0.85, the hydraulic efficiency is 0.9 and the radial velocity of flow at inlet is 7 m/s, the inlet guide
vane angle at full gate opening is 30°. Calculate the diameter and width of the runner at inlet. Blade thickness co-efficient is 5

44. In an inward flow reaction turbine (vertical shaft) the sum of the pressure and kinetic heads at entrance to the spiral casing is
132 m and vertical distance between this section and the tail race level is 3.3 m. The periphery velocity of the runner at entry
is 33 m/s, the radial component of velocity of water (velocity of flow) is constant at 11.0 m/s and discharge from the runner is
without whirl, i.e. radial discharge. The hydraulic losses are: i) losses between turbine entrance and discharge from guide
vanes = 4.95 m, ii) losses in the runner = 8.8 m, iii) losses in the draft tube = 0.88 m, iv) kinetic energy rejected to the tail
race = 0.55 m. Determine: a) Guide vane angle and the runner blade angle at inlet, b) pressure heads at entry to and discharge
from the runner.

45. In a vertical shaft inward flow reaction turbine, water enters the runner from the guide blades at an angle of 155° with the
runner blade angle at entry being 100°. Both these angles are measured from the tangent at runner periphery drawn in the
direction of runner rotation. The flow velocity through the runner is constant, water enters the draft tube from the runner
without whirl and the discharge from the draft tube into tail race takes place with a velocity of 3.0 m/s. The runner has the
dimensions of 480 mm external diameter and 45.6 mm inlet width. The turbine works with a net head of 50.4 m and the loss
of head in the turbine due to fluid resistance is 5.76 m of water. Determine: i)Speed of the runner ii) Runner blade angle at a
point on the outlet edge where the radius of rotation is 108 mm, iii) Power generated by the turbine and its specific speed, iv)
Inlet diameter of draft tube.

46. A Francis turbine supplied through a 6 m diameter penstock has the following particulars: Output of installation = 63500 kW,
Flow = 117 m3/s, Speed = 150 rpm, ηh = 92 %, Mean diameter of turbine at entry= 4 m, Mean blade height at entry = 1 m;
Entry diameter of draft tube = 4.2 m, Velocity in tail race = 2.4 m/s. The static pressure head in the penstock measured just
before entry to the runner is 57.4 m. The point of measurement is 3 m above the level of tail race. The loss in the draft tube is
equivalent to 30 % of the velocity head at entry to it. The exit plane of the runner is 2 m above the tail race and the flow
leaves the runner without swirl. Determine: i) Overall efficiency ii) Direction of flow relative to runner at inlet, iii) Pressure
head at entry to the draft tube.

47. A Kaplan turbine develops 22000 kW at an average head of 35 m. Assuming a speed ratio of 2, flow ratio of 0.6, diameter of
the boss equal to 0.35 times the diameter of the runner and an overall efficiency of 88 percent, calculate the diameter, speed
and specific speed of the turbine.

48. The following data pertain to a Kaplan turbine: Power available at the shaft = 22500 kW; Head = 20 m; Speed = 150 rpm.
Hydraulic efficiency = 95 %; Overall efficiency = 88 %; Outer diameter of runner = 4.5 m; Diameter of the hub = 2 m.
Assuming that the turbine discharges without whirl at exit, determine the runner vane angles at the hub and at the outer

49. Calculate the diameter and speed of the runner of a Kaplan turbine developing 6000 kW under an effective head of 5 m.
Overall efficiency of the turbine is 90 %. The diameter of the boss is 0.4 times the external diameter of the runner. The
turbine speed ratio is 2.0 and flow ratio 0.6. What is the specific speed of the turbine?

50. The propeller reaction turbine of the runner diameter 4.5 m is running at 48 rpm. The guide vane angle at inlet is 145˚ and
the runner blade angle at the outlet is 25˚ to the direction of vane. The axial flow area of the water through the runner
is 30 m2 . If the runner blade angle at the inlet is radial, determine: i) Hydraulic efficiency of the turbine, ii) Discharge
through the turbine, and iii) Power developed by the runner.