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DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF CHASSIS & FRAMES OF HYBRID

CAR

A Project Report Submitted

in the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of degree of

Bachelor of Technology

in

AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

by

G.RATAN KUMAR [H. T No.. 10071A2453]

P.DAVID JOSHUA [H. T No.. 10071A2436]

N.SAI KIRITI [H. T No.. 10071A2432]

CH. RAVINDRA BABU [H. T No.. 10071A2412]

under the esteemed guidance of


SRI T. SRINIVASA RAO

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

DEPARTMENT OFAUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

VALLURUPALLI NAGESWARA RAO VIGNANA JYOTHI

INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

BACHUPALLY, NIZAMPET (S.O), HYDERABAD – 500 090


INDIA

APRIL, 2014
VNR VIGNANA JYOTHI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

BACHUPALLY, NIZAMPET (S.O), HYDERABAD – 500 090

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled “DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF


CHASSIS AND FRAMES OF HYBRID CAR” being submitted by
Mr. GONE RATAN KUMAR, H.T.No. 10071A2453,
Mr. PALUCHURI DAVID JOSHUA, H.T.No. 10071A2436,
Mr. N. SAI KIRITI, H.T.No. 10071A2432,
Mr. CH. RAVINDRA BABU, H.T.No. 10071A2412,
in partial fulfillment for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology in
Automobile Engineering to the JNTUH, Hyderabad at V.N.R. Vignana Jyothi
Institute of Engineering & Technology, Hyderabad, is a record of bonafide work
carried out by him under our guidance and supervision.

This report has not been submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of any
degree.

Signature of SUPERVISOR & HOD

SRI T. SRINIVASA RAO


DEPARTMENT OF AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING
CERTIFICATE

Viva Voce examination for the Industrial Training is being conducted by


Mr………………………………………….... on ………………… and the work is approved
for the award of Bachelor of Technology in Automobile Engineering.

INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to express our gratitude to each and every person who
had helped us directly or indirectly during the tenure of our project.

Our sincere thanks to SRI T. SRINIVASA RAO, Head of


Department, Department of Automobile Engineering, VNRVJIET. who motivated us
during throughout in spite of his schedules and commitments.

A special note of thanks to Dr. C. D. NAIDU, Principal, VNRVJIET


and management of VNR VJIET for providing facilities for doing our project.

We would also like to express our gratitude to the Staff


members of Automobile Engineering Department. VNR VJIET, Bachupally,
Hyderabad.

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ABSTRACT
With the increase in Global warming around the world, the concept of hybrid cars is
increasing day by day as they reduce the amount of pollution to some extent. This
project deals with the design and manufacturing of the Hybrid Electrical Vehicle.

A Hybrid car is one which runs on two or more distinct power sources. Most
of the Hybrid vehicles employee an electrical (Battery-Motor) system as one of the
power sources, as they produce less amounts of danger to Global warming, so the
name “Hybrid Electrical Vehicle”.

In this project, we worked on the Design and Analysis of chassis & frames of
the Hybrid Vehicle. This report outlines the steps taken to design the chassis, body
frame, solar panel frame and engine frame. The thesis continues with the analysis of
the above mentioned parts.

Design work of the parts has been done in Catia V5 R19 software. During this
step of designing, the basic design work of the models for chassis, body frame, solar
panel frame and engine frame are done.

Analysis part of work has been done in ANSYS software. During this step, the
analysis of the members where the loads are being applied after the fixing of panels
has been done. This part involves the analysis types of Static Analysis, Modal
Analysis and Thermal analysis.

The additional part of this thesis is the different types of calculations regarding
the Centre of Gravity, different types of stresses being applied on the members,
deflections and also the bending moments. These calculations are done as per the
loads applied on the members due to mounting of frames.

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Table of Contents
Title Page No.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i
ABSTRACT ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS iii

LIST OF FIGURES vii

CHAPTER- I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Need for Hybrid Vehicles 1


1.2 Hybrid Cars 1
1.3 Power Sources for Hybrid Vehicles 3

CHAPTER- II THEORY OF HYBRID VEHICLES

2.1 Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles 4


2.2 Classification of Hybrids
2.2.1 Parallel Hybrid Vehicles 5
2.2.2 Series Hybrid Vehicles 6
2.2.3 Full Hybrid Vehicles 6
2.2.4 Mild Hybrid Vehicles 7
2.2.5 Plug In Hybrid Vehicles 7
2.3 Comparison of Hybrids 7
CHAPTER – III INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN
3.1 Introduction 8
3.2 Design 8
3.3 Objectives 8
3.4 Introduction to Catia 8
3.5 Modules in Catia V5
3.5.1 Sketcher 9

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3.5.2 Part Design 9
3.5.3 Assembly Design 9
3.5.4 Drafting 10
3.5.5 Wire frame and Surface Design 10
3.5.6 Weld Design 10
CHAPTER – IV LITERATURE SURVEY
4.1 Type of Chassis
4.1.1 Ladder Chassis 11
4.1.2 Backbone 12
4.1.3 Space Frame 12
4.1.4 Monocoque 12
4.2 Frame 12
4.3 Types of Frame
4.3.1 Conventional Frame 13
4.3.2 Semi Integral Frame 13
4.3.3 Integral Frame 13
4.4 Types of Frame Sections 13
4.5 Materials for Frame 14
4.6 Design Principle of Chassis 14
4.7 Components Mounted on Chassis 14
CHAPTER – V DESIGN OF CHASSIS
5.1 Chassis Specifications of Hybrid Car 15
5.2 Dimensions 15
5.3 Procedure for Design
5.3.1 Design of Ladder 16
5.3.2 Design of Bottom Portion 16
5.3.3 Design of Top Portion 17
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CHAPTER – VI DESIGN OF SOLAR PANEL FRAME &
ENGINE FRAME
6.1 Design of Solar Panel Frame 18
6.1.1 Members used for Design of Solar Panel Frame 18
6.2 Design of IC Engine Frame 19
6.2.1 Members used for Design of IC Engine Frame 19
CHAPTER – VII CENTER OF GRAVITY
7.1 Center of Gravity 20
7.2 Calculations based on Moments Equation 22
7.2.1 Moments about Front Axle 22
7.2.2 Moments about Rear Axle 23
7.3 Calculations based on Front View 24
CHAPTER-VIII INTRODUCTION TO NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
8.1 Numerical Analysis 25
8.2 Introduction to FEM 25
8.3 Steps Involved in FEA
8.3.1 Pre Processing 26
8.3.2 Analysis 26
8.3.3 Post processing 27
8.4 Introduction to Ansys 27
CHAPTER – IX ANALYSIS OF CHASSIS & FRAME
9.1 Procedure for Analysis
9.1.1 Type of Element 28
9.1.2 Material 28
9.1.3 Properties of Mild Steel 28
9.1.4 Modelling 28

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9.1.5 Meshing 29
9.1.6 Solving 29
CHAPTER – X ANALYSIS OF SOLAR PANEL FRAME
10.1 Procedure for Analysis
10.1.1 Type of Element 32
10.1.2 Material 32
10.1.3 Properties of Aluminium 32
10.1.4 Modelling 32
10.1.5 Meshing 33
10.1.6 Solving 33
CHAPTER – XI ANALYSIS OF IC ENGINE FRAME
11.1 Procedure for Analysis
11.1.1 Type of Element 36
11.1.2 Material 36
11.1.3 Properties of Mild Steel 36
11.1.4 Modelling 36
11.1.5 Meshing 37
11.1.6 Solving 37
BIBILOGRAPHY 40

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LIST OF FIGURES
FIG NO. Description Page No.
Figure 1: Basic Layout of Hybrid Vehicle ..................................................................... 2
Figure 2 Layout of Parallel Hybrid Vehicle .................................................................. 5
Figure 3: Layout of Series Hybrid Vehicle .................................................................... 6
Figure 4: Complete Design of Hybrid Car ..................................................................... 9
Figure 5: Design of Ladder .......................................................................................... 16
Figure 6: Design of Bottom Portion............................................................................. 16
Figure 7: Design of Chassis & Frames ........................................................................ 17
Figure 8: Design of Solar Panel Frame ........................................................................ 18
Figure 9: Design of IC Engine Frame .......................................................................... 19
Figure 10: Weights acting on a Sports Car .................................................................. 21
Figure 11: Center of Gravity from Side View ............................................................. 23
Figure 12: Mesh View of Rail Track ........................................................................... 25
Figure 13: Types of Analysis using ANSYS ............................................................... 27
Figure 14: Mesh view of Chassis & Design ................................................................ 29
Figure 15: Deformation view of Chassis & Frame ...................................................... 30
Figure 16: Displacement vector sum ........................................................................... 30
Figure 17: Stresses acting on Chassis & Frame ........................................................... 31
Figure 18: Mesh View of Solar Panel Frame............................................................... 33
Figure 19: Deformation View of Solar Panel Frame ................................................... 34
Figure 20: Displacement Vector Sum .......................................................................... 34
Figure 21: Stresses acting on Solar Panel Frame ......................................................... 35
Figure 22: Mesh View of IC Engine Frame................................................................. 37
Figure 23: Deformation View of IC Engine Frame ..................................................... 38
Figure 24: Displacement Vector Sum .......................................................................... 38
Figure 25: Stresses acting on IC Engine Frame ........................................................... 39

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CHAPTER-I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 NEED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES:


With a constant rise in fuel costs and the environmental concerns regarding
automobiles, vehicle engineers have had to develop more economical and
environmentally safer alternatives to the internal combustion engine that powers most
cars. This has led to the birth of the hybrid automobile. These hybrid automobiles
offer a number of benefits. The hybrid automobile is a car that is powered by both an
electric motor and a gasoline engine. Compared to non hybrid vehicles, the hybrid car
saves on the cost of fuel by being more fuel efficient and has a lower rate of fuel
consumption.

Since this very conception of the automobile made engineers and designers to
go on search to make them more efficient and save on fuel consumption. Petrol fuels
the majority of vehicles and diesel fuel is used in heavier automotive equipment. The
internal combustion engine is considered to be a major if not the biggest source of
environmental pollution and the cost of fuel is increasing every day.

1.2 HYBRID CARS :

Hybrid cars operate on a dual mode where the electric motor, powered by
batteries, takes over once the gasoline engine has gotten the vehicle up to speed.
Braking and deceleration generates energy that is used to charge the electric motor's
batteries. This system allows the hybrid car to provide better fuel efficiency. This also
means that the engine of a hybrid vehicle is shut the moment the car is stopped.
Considered the biggest advantage to the hybrid car is the reduction of environmental
pollution due to fewer emissions of carbon dioxide and other harmful gases in to our
atmosphere. Automobile manufacturers such as Honda, Toyota, and Ford have
already introduced hybrid car models to the commercial market and several others are
in development.

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Hybrid automobiles provide several benefits due to some very unique features.
The construction of the hybrid vehicle uses more lightweight materials than
traditional automobile. This saves energy by using less to propel the hybrid car.
Hybrid cars also increase energy efficiency because of their more aerodynamic
shapes. Tires used by hybrid vehicles run on a higher pressure and are made of a more
rigid material than general car tires. The higher pressure helps to increase the vehicles
gas mileage per gallon of gasoline used. The overall efficiency of the vehicle is
increased by these tires because they reduce friction on road surfaces and provided a
grip. The braking system provided an energy transfer from the electric motor to the
vehicles batteries whenever the brakes are applied. The overall gas mileage of a
hybrid varies from model to model.

Figure 1: Basic Layout of Hybrid Vehicle

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1.3 POWER SOURCES FOR HYBRID VEHICLES:

The following list gives the variety of power sources that can be employed in a
Hybrid Vehicle.

 Wood, Coal and other solid combustibles.


 Petrol or Diesel.
 Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems (RESS).
 Compressed or Liquefied Natural Gas.
 Electricity.
 Solar and wind power.
 Human Powered.

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CHAPTER II
THEORY OF HYBRIDS

2.1. INTRODUCTION TO HYBRID VEHICLE:


A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to
move the vehicle. The term most commonly refers to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs).
Power sources for hybrid vehicle include CNG, LNG, LPG, Electricity, human
powered, EV battery, hydrogen, petrol, diesel, solar and wind. The inherent flexibility
of HEVs will allow them to be used in a wide range of applications, from personal
transportation to commercial hauling.
Hybrid power systems were conceived as a way to compensate for the
shortfall in battery technology. Because batteries could supply only enough energy for
short trips, an onboard generator, powered by an internal combustion engine and
onboard Solar panels could be installed and used for longer trips. In the old days, we
thought that by biasing the system toward battery-electric power and operating on
wall-plug electricity as much as possible, efficiency and emissions would then be
about as optimal as we could hope for until better batteries came along. The natural
conclusion of this concept was that, with better batteries, we probably would not need
hybrids at all. But after 20 years of study, it seems that hybrids are taking center stage
and electric vehicles are only being used in niche market applications where fewer
miles are travelled.
More efficient cars can make a big difference to society in terms of
environmental benefits, and the serious deterioration of urban air has motivated
regulators to require cleaner cars. Use of production HEVs will reduce smog-forming
pollutants over the current national average. Hybrids will never be true zero-emission
vehicles, however, because of their internal combustion engine. But the first hybrids
on the market will cut emissions of global-warming pollutants by a third to a half, and
later models may cut emissions by even more.

2.2. CLASSIFICATION OF HYBRIDS:


Hybrid vehicles are classified on the basis of drive train and degree of
hybridization. Each classification is explained in detail in the following sections.

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 ON THE BASIS OF DRIVE TRAIN:
On the basis of drive train, hybrids are classified broadly into two categories.
They are:
1. PARALLEL HYBRID
2. SERIES HYBRID
2.2.1. PARALLEL HYBRID VEHICLE:
In parallel hybrids, the IC Engine and the electric motor are both connected to
the mechanical transmission and can simultaneously transmit power to drive the
wheels, usually through a conventional transmission. The internal combustion engine
of many parallel hybrids can also act as a generator for supplemental recharging.
Currently, commercialized parallel hybrids use a full size combustion engine with a
single, small (<20 kW) electric motor and small battery pack as the electric motor is
designed to supplement the main engine, not to be the sole source of motive power
from launch. Parallel hybrids are more efficient than comparable non-hybrid vehicles
especially during urban stop-and-go conditions where the electric motor is permitted
to contribute, and during highway operation.

Figure 2 Layout of Parallel Hybrid Vehicle

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2.2.2. SERIES HYBRID VEHICLE:
In series hybrids, only the electric motor drives the drive train, and a smaller
ICE works as a generator to power the electric motor or to recharge the batteries.
They also usually have a larger battery pack than parallel hybrids, making them more
expensive. Once the batteries are low, the small combustion engine can generate
power at its optimum settings at all times, making them more efficient in extensive
city driving.

Figure 3: Layout of Series Hybrid Vehicle

 ON THE BASIS OF DEGREE OF HYBRIDIZATION:


On the basis of degree of hybridization, hybrid vehicles are classified into 3
types. They are:
1. FULL HYBRID VEHICLE
2. MILD HYBRID VEHICLE
3. PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE (PHEV)
2.2.3. FULL HYBRID VEHICLE:
Full hybrid, sometimes also called a strong hybrid, is a vehicle that can run on
just the engine, just the batteries, or a combination of both. Ford's hybrid system,
Toyota's hybrid synergy drive technologies are full hybrid systems. The Toyota
Prius, Ford escape hybrid, and ford fusion hybrid are examples of full hybrids, as

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these cars can be moved forward on battery power alone. A large, high-capacity
battery pack is needed for battery-only operation. These vehicles have a split power
path allowing greater flexibility in the drivetrain by inter-converting mechanical and
electrical power, at some cost in complexity.

2.2.4. MILD HYBRID VEHICLE:


Mild hybrid, is a vehicle that cannot be driven solely on its electric motor,
because the electric motor does not have enough power to propel the vehicle on its
own. Mild hybrids only include some of the features found in hybrid technology, and
usually achieve limited fuel consumption savings, up to 15 percent in urban driving
and 8 to 10 percent overall cycle. Accessories can continue to run on electrical power
while the gasoline engine is off, and as in other hybrid designs, the motor is used for
regenerative braking to recapture energy. As compared to full hybrids, mild hybrids
have smaller batteries and a smaller, weaker motor/generator, which allows
manufacturers to reduce cost and weight.
2.2.5. PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE (PHEV):
A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), also known as a plug-in hybrid, is a
hybrid electric vehicle with rechargeable batteries that can be restored to full charge
by connecting a plug to an external Electric power source. A PHEV shares the
characteristics of both a conventional hybrid electric vehicle, having an electric motor
and an IC engine; and of an All electric vehicle, also having a plug to connect to
the electric grid. PHEVs have a much larger all electric range as compared to
conventional gasoline-electric hybrids, and also eliminate the "range anxiety"
associated with all-electric vehicles, because the combustion engine works as a
backup when the batteries are depleted.
2.3. COMPARISON OF HYBRIDS:
In comparison, the series hybrid is less complex because the interface with the
drive train is electrical rather than mechanical. But originally, the parallel hybrid was
preferred design because of the large size, high mass and limited power of existing
gen-sets. With a parallel hybrid it was possible to obtain more power from a smaller,
lighter package. Today, due the lighter, smaller, and more powerful gen-sets that have
been developed, the emphasis has shifted to the series hybrid.

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CHAPTER – III

INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN

3.1 INTRODUCTION:

The automotive chassis is tasked with holding together, the components while
driving, and transferring vertical and lateral loads cause by acceleration on the chassis
through the suspension and two wheels.

A good chassis design is that the further mass is away from the neutral axis the
more rigid it will be.

3.2 DESIGN:
The engineering design process is the formulation of a plan to help an
engineer build a product with a specified performance goal. This process involves a
number of steps, and parts of the process may need to be repeated many times before
production of a final product can begin.

3.3 OBJECTIVES:
 To expose on design process of a Chassis, Engine frame, Solar panels frame.
 To design and manage various complex systems which are being installed to
vehicle.
 Well built structure to withstand against various environments.
 Improve vehicle Safety.

3.4 INTRODUCTION TO CATIA

CATIA (Computer Aided Three-dimensional Interactive Application) is a


multi-platform CAD/CAM/CAE commercial software suite developed by the French
company Dassault Systems. Written in the C++ programming language, CATIA is the
cornerstone of the Dassault Systems product lifecycle management software suite.

3.5 MODULES USED IN CATIA V5:

 Sketcher.  Drafting.
 Part Design.  Assembly Design.
 Wireframe & surfacemodelling.  Weld Design.

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Figure 4: Complete Design of Hybrid Car

3.5.1 SKETCHER

This module is responsible for the implementation of two-dimensional shapes,


in preparation for make a three-dimensional commands on it.

3.5.2 PART DESIGN

This module is responsible for converting two-dimensional graphics to


three-dimensional objects which is most famous in Catia and is closely linked with
sketcher module. The part design Module it is considered from most important
modules, that used by the designer to get the additional advantage from cad programs,
which is stereotaxic drawing or three-dimensional drawing.

3.5.3 ASSEMBLY DESIGN

This module is responsible for assembling the parts previously produced in


Part Design, and it is most important for those who work in the field of machinery
design or design in general, because it is the one who shows the inter-relationships
between the parts of the machine or any mechanical establishment.

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3.5.4 DRAFTING

This module is responsible, for converting what you see on the screen to
standard engineering drawings can be traded in the workshop for manufacturing or
save them for documentation.

3.5.5 WIREFRAME AND SURFACE DESIGN

With this module surfaces can be drawing with zero size and weight and
has its uses in the aerospace, automotive, ships and Mould Design.

3.5.6 WELD DESIGN

CATIA Weld Design is an application addressing welded assemblies.15


weld types (ISO standard) are provided to the user to create welds, part preparation
and relevant annotations.

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CHAPTER – IV

LITERATURE SURVEY
Basically chassis is considered as a framework to support the body,
engine and other parts which make up the vehicle. Chassis lends the whole vehicle
support and rigidity. Chassis usually includes a pair of longitudinally extending
channels and multiple transverse cross members that intersect the channels .The
transverse members have a reduced cross section in order to allow for a longitudinally
extending storage space. The chassis has to contain the various components required
for the race car as well as being based around a driver’s cockpit. The safety of the
chassis is a major aspect in the design, and should be considered through all stages.
Generally, the basic chassis types consist of backbone, ladder, space frame and
monocoque. Different types of chassis design result the different performance.

4.1 TYPE OF CHASSIS:


Chassis is considered to be one of the significant structures of an
automobile. It is usually made of a steel frame, which holds the body and motor of an
automotive vehicle. To be precise, car chassis or automobile chassis is a skeletal
frame which bolts various mechanical parts like engine, tires, brakes, steering and
axle assemblies. Chassis usually made of light a metal or composite plastic which
provides strength needed for supporting vehicle components and load into it. Here I
listed several different types of automotive chassis which include ladder chassis,
backbone chassis, monocoque chassis and tubular space frame chassis.

4.1.1 LADDER CHASSIS:

Ladder chassis is considered to be one of the oldest forms of


automotive chassis or automobile chassis that is still been used by most of the SUVs
till today. It is also resembles a shape of a ladder which having two longitudinal rails
inter linked by several lateral and cross braces. The lateral and cross members provide
rigidity to the structure.

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4.1.2 BACKBONE :

The other type of chassis is backbone chassis which has a rectangular tube
like backbone and simple in structure. It usually made up of glass fiber that is used for
joining front and rear axle together and responsible for most of the mechanical
strength of the framework. The space within the structure is used for positioning the
drive shaft in case a rear-wheel drive. Furthermore, the drive train, engine and
suspensions are all connected to each of the ends of the chassis. This type of chassis is
strong enough to provide support smaller sports car besides it is easy to make and cost
effective

4.1.3 SPACE FRAME:

A nodal triangulated truss network that attempts to distribute all loads into
axial directions so that no part of the frame is subjected to the harsher bending forces.

4.1.4 MONOCOQUE:

As for monocoque chassis, most modern cars nowadays use this type of
chassis. A monocoque chassis is a single piece of framework that gives shape to the
car. A one-piece chassis is built by welding several pieces together. It is different
from the ladder and backbone chassis as unlike them incorporated with the body in a
single piece, where as the former only support the stress members. The demanding of
a monocoque chassis highly increased since it is cost effective and suitable for
robotized production.

4.2 FRAME
The frame is the main part of the chassis on which remaining parts of
chassis are mounted. The frame should be extremely rigid and strong so that it can
withstand shocks, twists, stresses and vibrations to which it is subjected while vehicle
is moving on road. It is also called underbody.
The frame is supported on the wheels and tyre assemblies. The frame is
narrow in the front for providing short turning radius to front wheels. It widens out at
the rear side to provide larger space in the body.

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4.2.1 CONVENTIONAL FRAME
It is non-load carrying frame. The loads of the vehicle are transferred to the
suspensions by the frame. The suspension in the main skeleton of the vehicle which is
supported on the axles through springs. The body is made of flexible material like
wood and isolated frame by inserting rubber mountings in between. The frame is
made of channel section or tubular section of box section.
Example : This type of frame is used for trucks.

4.2.2 SEMI-INTEGRAL FRAME


In this case the rubber mountings used in conventional frame between frame and
suspension are replaced by more stiff mountings. Because of this some of the vehicle
load is shared by the frame also. This type of frame is heavier in construction.
Example : Popular in European and American car.

4.2.3 INTEGRAL FRAME OR FRAME-LESS CONSTRUCTION


In this type of construction, there is no frame. It is also called unitized frame-body
construction. In this case, the body shell and underbody are welded into single unit.
The underbody is made of floor plates and channel and box sections welded into
single unit. This assembly replaces the frame. This decreases the overall weight
compared to conventional separate frame and body construction.

4.3 TYPES OF FRAME SECTIONS


Six types of steel sections are being used for the making frames :
(a) Channel section,
(b) Tubular section,
(c) Box section,
(d) Hat section,
(e) Double channel, and
(f) I- section.
4.4 TYPES OF FRAMES
There are three types of frames :
(a) Conventional frame, (c) Integral frame (or unit frame)
(b) Semi-integral frame, and

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4.5 MATERIALS FOR FRAME
Steels used for pressed frame are mild steel ,carbon steel and nickel ally sheet
steel .The composition of nickel ally sheet steel

Carbon 0.25-0.35%
Manganese 0.35-0.75%
Silicon 0.30%
Nickel 3%
Phosphorus 0.05%
Sulphur 0.5%

4.6 DESIGN PRINCIPLE OF CHASSIS:


The fundamental principle of a chassis design states that the chassis is to
be designed to achieve the torsional rigidity and light weight in order to achieve good
handling performance of a car. By the definition, torsional rigidity is refers to the
ability of chassis to resist twisting force or torque.

4.7 Components mounted on Chassis:


 Motor.  Steering system.
 Suspension system.  Brakes.
 Wheels and tires.  Batteries.

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CHAPTER- V
DESIGN OF CHASSIS

The chassis of the car supports the whole weight of the batteries,
interior materials, humans, and also the weight of solar panel frame, IC engine Frame.
In order to achieve this, a chassis has to be designed in such a way that it supports all
these weights and the chassis should be light in weight. So, a chassis is designed in
CATIA V5 R19.

5.1 CHASSIS SPECIFICATIONS OF HYBRID CAR:

Type: 2 door, hatchback, rear wheel drive


Transmission Type Automatic
Suspension: Front Independent, Mac Pearson strut with
Anti-roll bar
Rear A-Arm with Pan Hard Rod and Coil-over
shock absorbers

Steering Manual, Rack and Pinion


Wheels & 13 inch wheel, steel
Tyres 6.65X13.4 PR
Brakes Hydraulic , Drum brakes
Kerb Weight 600 Kgs
Pay Load 270 Kgs

5.2 DIMENSIONS:

Wheel Base 1710 mm


Wheel Track 1500 mm
Height 1510 mm
Ground Clearance 150 mm
Overall Length 2900 mm

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5.3 PROCEDURE FOR DESIGN:

5.3.1 DESIGN OF LADDER:

The ladder is the component where batteries are placed and maximum
amount of the weight relys on it. The members of the ladder are designed with
rectangular hollow rods.

Figure 5: Design of Ladder

5.3.2 DESIGN OF BOTTOM PORTION:

This part includes the front and back bottom support of chassis, which
is the base for the whole portion of the vehicle. The members used are of rectangular
hollow, but of different widths.

Figure 6: Design of Bottom Portion

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5.3.3 DESIGN OF TOP PORTION:

This portion includes every part of the chassis excluding the bottom.
For this portion, a sub frame type of design is employed. The members are of circular
hollow sections with a maximum thickness of 5 mm.

This portion accommodates the space for the interior parts of the vehicle. This
portion is acts as a base for the Solar Panel Frame and the IC engine Frame.

The whole portion of this chassis rests on the suspension system, which is
designed to withstand these loads when applied.

Figure 7: Design of Chassis & Frames

These designed parts are then analysed in ANSYS software, where the simulation is
carried out by applying the real time loads.

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CHAPTER – VI

DESIGN OF SOLAR PANEL FRAME & ENGINE FRAME

6.1 DESIGN OF SOLAR PANEL FRAME:

The solar panels are being accommodated on roof of the car. The design
of the frame is done in such a way that it accommodates three solar panels on the roof.

Figure 8: Design of Solar Panel Frame

6.1.1 Members used for the design of solar frames

 L section member
 I section member

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6.2 DESIGN OF ENGINE FRAME

The IC engine is placed at the front of the vehicle .The frame has been done in
such a way that it holds the load of the engine.

Figure 9: Design of IC Engine Frame

6.2.1 Members used for Design of Engine Frame


 Box Section
 Tube section

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CHAPTER-VII
CENTER OF GRAVITY

Automobile handling and vehicle handling are descriptions of the way wheeled
vehicles perform transverse to their direction of motion, particularly
during cornering and swerving. It also includes their directional stability when
moving in steady state condition. Handling and braking are the major components of a
vehicle's "active" safety. The maximum lateral acceleration is sometimes discussed
separately as "road holding".

7.1 CENTER OF GRAVITY


The center of gravity height, relative to the track, determines load transfer, (related to,
but not exactly weight transfer), from side to side and causes body lean. When tires of
a vehicle provide a centripetal force to pull it around a turn, the momentum of the
vehicle actuates load transfer in a direction going from the vehicle's current position
to a point on a path tangent to the vehicle's path. This load transfer presents itself in
the form of body lean.

Height of the center of gravity relative to the wheelbase determines load transfer
between front and rear. The car's momentum acts at its center of gravity to tilt the car
forward or backward, respectively during braking and acceleration. Since it is only the
downward force that changes and not the location of the center of gravity, the effect
on over/under steer is opposite to that of an actual change in the center of gravity.
When a car is braking, the downward load on the front tires increases and that on the
rear decreases, with corresponding change in their ability to take sideways load.

A lower center of gravity is a principal performance advantage of sports cars,


compared to sedans and (especially) SUVs. Some cars have body panels made of
lightweight materials partly for this reason. Body lean can also be controlled by the
springs, anti-roll bars or the roll center heights.

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Figure 10: Weights acting on a Sports Car
Figure shows the forces on a stationary car. The earth’s gravitational pull (mg) acts
through the centre of gravity and the reaction (remember: to every action there is an
equal and opposite reaction) acts through the contact patches between the tyres and
the road. The vectors shown represent the combined reactions at both front wheels
(R1) and both rear wheels (R2).

We measure the reaction at each wheel on every car we test, and use this information
to publish the front/rear weight distribution. We also know the length of the
wheelbase, and hence we have enough information to calculate the position of the
centre of gravity in a vertical plane when seen from the side.

To do this, we need to know that when an object is stationary three conditions are
necessary to ensure that neither linear nor rotational acceleration is taking place:

1. The sum of the vertical forces must be zero.

2. The sum of the horizontal forces must be zero.

3. The clockwise and anti-clockwise moments must be equal in size but opposite in
direction.

[Moment is just another name for torque ie force times perpendicular distance; the
word is used mainly in when the objects being studied are not moving]

These conditions are NOT sufficient to ensure that the object will be
stationary, because forces in balance imply either constant speed motion or a state of

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rest. However, they do form the cornerstone of a great deal of civil engineering
calculations because buildings and bridges are objects that don’t move.

Let’s apply the above conditions. There are no horizontal forces, and the vertical
forces are known because we measure them, so that we only have to equate the two
moments around the centre of gravity caused by the reactions at the wheels.

R1.s1 (clockwise) = R2.s2 (anti-clockwise) …………………(1)

At this point we’re have two unknowns (s1 and s2) and only one equation. One of the
interesting results from mathematical theory is the fact that we need as many
equations as there are unknowns to enable us to find a solution. This means we have
to find another equation linking s1 and s2, and we’re in luck because these distances
add up to the wheelbase S. Thus we can write:

s1 + s2 = S……………………………………………………..(2)

At this stage we can assign numbers to the symbols whose values are known ,

we find that m = 730 kg and S = 1710 mm.

The front wheels carry 0,39 per cent of the mass

the rear wheels carry 0,61 per cent.

The weight of the car is equal to 730 kgs

The two reaction forces are R1 and R2, reaction force on front wheels and reaction
force on rear wheels of the car, respectively.

7.2 CALCULATIONS BASED ON MOMENTS EQUATION:


7.2.1 Moments about the front axle
W * S1 = R1 * S

S1 = [F1 * S] /W

On substituting , respective values

S1 = [ 400 * 1710]/730

S1 = 936.98mm

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This is the calculated distance of center of gravity from front axis.

Figure 11: Center of Gravity from Side View

7.2.2 Moments about the rear axle

W*S2=F2*S

S2=[F2*S]/W

On substituting , respective values

S2=[330*1710]/730

=773.01mm

This is the calculated distance of center of gravity from rear end.

This means that the centre of gravity is 910 mm from the rear wheel centreline.

A similar calculation, utilising a frontal view of the vehicle, can be used to determine
the position of the centre of gravity in a transverse plane. However, to calculate the

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height of this centre one would have to measure either R1 or R2 when the vehicle is
parked at an angle of at least 20 degrees.

7.3 Calculation of center of gravity, using front view of the vehicle:

Weight of the car, w=730kgs

Reaction force on left side tyre of the vehicle=370kgs

Reaction force on right side tyre of the vehicle=370kgs

Track distance=1200mm

Let S3 be the distance of CG from the right wheel

Let S4 be the distance of the CG from left wheel

S3+S4=S5

S3+S4=1200mm

Calculation of moment

W*S3=[Rr*S5] eq..3

S3=[Rr*S5]/W

On substituting values,

S3=[370 *1200]/730

S3=608.21mm

Similar calculations are done on the left side ,

W*S4=R4*S5

S4=[R4*S5]/W

On substituting corresponding values,

S4=[370 *1200]/730

S4=608.21mm

Thus, similar values are obtained as there is uniform weight distribution.

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CHAPTER VIII

INTRODUCTION TO NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

8.1 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS:


After the designing of any model, analysis has to be done so as to decide
whether the model withstands the loads applied or not. This helps in reducing the
possible problems which can arise after the manufacturing. With the increase in
technology, there are a number of softwares available in the market, using which the
virtual analysis of a real time load problems of the parts can be done. The analysis
which is done using the numerical values of the loads applied is called as Numerical
Analysis.

There are two types of Numerical analysis methods which are used for the
analysis of the parts, namely

 Finite Element Method/ Finite element Analysi (FEM/FEA)


 Finite Volume Method (FVM)

8.2 INTRODUCTION TO FEM:

In mathematics, the finite element method (FEM) is a numerical technique for


finding approximate solutions to boundary value problems for differential equations.
It uses variation methods (the calculus of variations) to minimize an error function
and produce a stable solution. Analogous to the idea that connecting many tiny
straight lines can approximate a larger circle, FEM encompasses all the methods for
connecting many simple element equations over many small sub domains, named
finite elements, to approximate a more complex equation over a larger domain.

Figure 12: Mesh View of Rail Track

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The subdivision of a whole domain into simpler parts has several advantages
 Accurate representation of complex geometry.
 Inclusion of dissimilar material properties.
 Easy representation of the total solution.
 Capture of local effects.

Some of the softwares available for Numerical analysis using FEM are listed below

 ANSA  NASTRAN  FEDEM


 ANSYS  ALGOR  VisualFEA

FEM is best understood from its practical application, known as Finite


Element Analysis (FEA).FEA as applied in engineering is a computational tool for
performing engineering analysis. It includes the use of mesh generation techniques for
dividing a complex problem into small elements, as well as the use of software
program coded with FEM algorithm.

8.3 STEPS INVOLVED IN FEA:


8.3.1 PREPROCESSING:

The user constructs a model of the part to be analyzed in which the


geometry is divided into a number of discrete subregions, or “elements,"
connected at discrete points called “nodes." Certain of these nodes will have
fixed displacements, and others will have prescribed loads. These models can
be extremely time consuming to prepare, and commercial codes with one
another to have the most user-friendly graphical “preprocessor" to assist in this
rather tedious chore. Some of these preprocessors can overlay a mesh on a pre-
existing CAD, so that Finite element analysis can be done conveniently as
part of the computerized drafting-and-design process.
8.3.2 ANALYSIS:
The dataset prepared by the preprocessor is used as input to the Finite
element code itself, which constructs and solves a system of linear or
nonlinear algebraic equations
Kijuj = fi

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where u and f are the displacements and externally applied forces at the nodal
points. The formation of the K matrix is dependent on the type of problem
being attacked, and this module will outline the approach for truss and linear
elastic stress analyses. Commercial codes may have very large element
libraries, with elements appropriate to a wide range of problem types. One of
FEA's principal advantages is that many problem types can be addressed with
the same code, merely by specifying the appropriate element types from the
library.
8.3.3 POST PROCESSING:
In the earlier days of finite element analysis, the user would pore
through reams of numbers generated by the code, listing displacements and
stresses at discrete positions within the model. It is easy to miss important
trends and hot spots this way, and modern codes use graphical displays to
assist in visualizing the results. A typical postprocessor display overlays
colored contours representing stress levels on the model, showing a full-filed
picture similar to that of photoelastic or moire experimental results.

8.4 INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS:


Advanced Numerical System Simulation (ANSYS) is engineering
simulation software used for the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) purpose.
ANSYS offers engineering simulation solution sets in engineering simulation that a
design process requires.

There are two different types of analysis possible using ANSYS software. They are
listed in chart as below.

Figure 13: Types of Analysis using ANSYS

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CHAPTER – IX
ANALYSIS OF CHASSIS & FRAME
The whole weight of the batteries, car interior materials, humans and also
weight of the Solar Panels, IC engine rely on the chassis & the frame support. So,
Static Analysis has to be conducted by applying loads on the members.

9.1 PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS:

9.1.1 TYPE OF ELEMENT:

The element type has to be decided in order to carryout analysis and check
whether it withstands the loads. Here we consider a BEAM 3 Node element for the
members of the chassis. There are different sections with different cross sections that
have been chosen in order to model the chassis and Frame.

9.1.2 MATERIAL:

For the chassis and Frame of car the material has to be chosen in such a way
that it has to withstand the heavy loads applied on it and it has to be flexible to
convert to any shape. MILD STEEL is chosen for this, because of its high
Malleability, ductility, high strength and its low of cost.

9.1.3 PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL:

Young’s Modulus : 200 Gpa

Poisson’s Ratio : 0.3

Density : 7830 kg/m3

9.1.4 MODELLING:

The model of the chassis and frame has to be designed in ANSYS separately
in order to apply loads and do analysis on it. For this, modelling is done using key
points and lines creation, applying the elements on to those lines and finally meshing
to obtain the desired model.

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9.1.5 MESHING:

For the meshing, a line mesh has been applied and the edge length was chosen
accordingly in order to obtain an reliable model of the chassis and frame. The Finite
element division is as shown in the figure.

Figure 14: Mesh view of Chassis & Design

9.1.6 SOLVING:

The body is perfectly constrained at the supports and the loads are applied at
the relevant nodes to carry out the analysis.

The results of the analysis are obtained in the Post processor and are as follows. The
maximum deflection of the chassis & frame is found out to be in range of 2mm
which is quite considerable in this context. The stresses at the members are also been
checked and it is found that no member is going to fail because of these loads.

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Figure 15: Deformation view of Chassis & Frame

Figure 16: Displacement vector sum

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Figure 17: Stresses acting on Chassis & Frame

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CHAPTER – X

ANALYSIS OF SOLAR PANEL FRAME

As it has been discussed earlier that Solar Energy is one of the power sources
for the running of the vehicle. Solar Panels were accommodated on the top roof of the
vehicle on a frame separately designed for the Solar Panels.

This Frame has to withstand weight of the panels. So, a static analysis has to
be conducted in order to decide whether the frame withstands the loads.

10.1 PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS:


10.1.1 TYPE OF ELEMENT:

The element type has to be decided in order to carryout analysis and check
whether it withstands the loads. Here we consider a BEAM 3 Node element for the
Solar Panel frame members. The Cross section of the beams is selected as L –
Section, keeping in view the shape of the panels.

10.1.2 MATERIAL:

For this Solar Panel frame, the material has to be chosen in such a way that it
has to be of low weight, high strength. Aluminium is chosen as the material for Solar
Panel Frame because its high resistance to corrosion, less weight and high ductility.

10.1.3 PROPERTIES OF ALUMINIUM:

Young’s Modulus : 70 GPa

Poisson’s Ratio : 0.35

Density : 2700 kg/m3

10.1.4 MODELLING:

The model of the Solar Panels frame has to be designed in ANSYS separately
in order to apply loads and do analysis on it. For this, modelling is done using key
points and lines creation, applying the elements on to those lines and finally meshing
to obtain the desired model.

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10.1.5 MESHING:

For the meshing, a line mesh has been applied and the edge length was chosen
accordingly in order to obtain a reliable model of the Solar Panel frame. The Finite
element division is as shown in the figure.

Figure 18: Mesh View of Solar Panel Frame

10.1.6 SOLVING:

The body of the Solar Panel Frame is perfectly constrained at the supports and
the loads are applied at the relevant nodes to carry out the analysis.

The results of the analysis are obtained in the Post processor and are as follows. The
maximum deflection of the chassis & frame is found out to be in range of 5mm
which is a considerable in this context. The stresses at all 4members are checked and
it is found that no member is going to fail because of these loads.

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Figure 19: Deformation View of Solar Panel Frame

Figure 20: Displacement Vector Sum

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Figure 21: Stresses acting on Solar Panel Frame

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CHAPTER – XI

ANALYSIS OF THE ENGINE FRAME

In order to charge the batteries at any place, an IC engine has been


mounted in the front portion of the vehicle. So, a separate frame is been designed and
is fixed to the front part of the chassis. This frame has to withstand the weight of IC
Engine and any vibrations caused by the engine. So, a Static Analysis has been carried
out on the IC Engine Frame.

11.1 PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS:


11.1.1 TYPE OF ELEMENT:

The element type has to be decided in order to carryout analysis and check
whether it withstands the loads. Here we consider a BEAM 3 Node element for the IC
Engine frame members. There are different Cross Section beams considered for the
IC Engine Frame, keeping in view the availability of space and in order to reduce the
weight.

11.1.2 MATERIAL:

For this IC engine frame, the material has to be chosen in such a way that it
has to withstand heavy loads, flexible to convert into any shape. MILD STEEL is
chosen for this, because of its high Malleability, ductility, high strength and its low of
cost.

11.1.3 PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL:

Young’s Modulus : 200 Gpa

Poisson’s Ratio : 0.3

Density : 7830 kg/m3

11.1.4 MODELLING:

The model of the IC Engine frame has to be designed in ANSYS separately in


order to apply loads and do analysis on it. For this, modelling is done using key points
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and lines creation, applying the elements on to those lines and finally meshing to
obtain the desired model.

11.1.5 MESHING:

For the meshing, a line mesh has been applied and the edge length was chosen
accordingly in order to obtain a reliable model of the IC Engine frame. The Finite
element division is as shown in the figure.

Figure 22: Mesh View of IC Engine Frame

11.1.6 SOLVING:

The body of the IC Engine Frame is perfectly constrained at the supports and
the loads are applied at the relevant nodes to carry out the analysis.

The results of the analysis are obtained in the Post processor and are as follows. The
maximum deflection of the chassis & frame is found out to be in range of 2mm
which is a considerable in this context. The stresses at all 4members are checked and
it is found that no member is going to fail because of these loads.

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Figure 23: Deformation View of IC Engine Frame

Figure 24: Displacement Vector Sum

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Figure 25: Stresses acting on IC Engine Frame

39
BIBILOGRAPHY

1. PSG Design data book for standard data - M/s KALAIKATHIR


ACHCHAGAM, Coimbatore,2004
2. Finite element analysis by ROBERT D. COOK, Jaico publications,
2004
3. Stress Analysis of a truck chassis with riveted joints by CICEBOK
KARAOGULU, N.SEFA KURALAY, Department of mechanical
Engineering, DEU Faculty of Engineering, Bomova, Ixmir (2002)
4. Machine Design by R.S. KHURMI, S.CHAND &Co. Ltd., New
Delhi,2011.

Websites:

 http://web.iitd.ac.in/~achawla/public_html/736/3-Automotive_chassis-
design-v2.pdf
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analysis
 http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/materials-science-and-engineering/3-11-
mechanics-of-materials-fall-1999/modules/fea.pdf

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