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UNIT I PROPAGATING TREES AND FRUIT TREES

Content Standard
Demonstrates an understanding of specific practices in planting trees and fruit trees.

Performance Standard
Applies knowledge and skills in planting trees and fruit trees.

Learning Competencies: Code TLE6AG – 0a-1 (Week 1 )

1.1 Discusses the importance of planting and propagating trees and fruit bearing trees and marketing
seedlings.
1.1.1 explains benefits derived from planting trees and fruit bearing trees to families and
communities
1.1.2 identifies successful orchard growers in the community or adjacent communities

LESSON 1 IMPORTANCE OF PLANTING AND PROPAGATING TREES AND FRUIT-BEARING TREES

Lesson Objectives
1. Give the importance of planting and propagating trees and fruit-bearing trees.
2. Explain the benefits derived from planting trees and fruit-bearing trees to families and
communities.
3. Identify some common trees planted in both rural and urban areas.
4. Identify successful orchard growers in the community or adjacent communities.

LET’S BE INFORMED
Planting and propagating trees and fruit –bearing trees is a source of livelihood for many Filipino
families. Nowadays, many people engage in this as a source of additional income for their daily needs.
Fruit –bearing trees can be planted in your backyard depend on several factors: the space in your
backyard , the kind of soil, and, and the type of climate in your own community. The pupils should be
able to demonstrate understanding of scientific practices in planting and propagating trees and fruit
bearing trees.
It is important, however, to first learn the benefits derived from planting and propagating trees
and fruit-bearing trees to families and communities. This lesson will discuss these benefits. It will also
identify successful orchard growers in the country. At the same time, the lesson will present sources of
fruit-bearing seedlings for sale. In addition, this lesson will also present the latest data on the volume of
production of the most in demand fruit crops in the country.
Why is there a need for plant propagation?
Plant propagation is the process of reproducing or creating a new plant or seedling. It is an
important part of gardening, whether outdoors or indoors. Plants are living things that grow either
through their roots, stems and leaves of their flowers, fruits, and seeds. It is a method of growing new
plants from seed or from parts of existing plants.

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Benefits derived from planting trees and fruit-bearing trees to families and communities

Trees are valuable to the family and the community for the products and amenities they give
such as:

1. food like fruits, vegetables, nuts, and sugar


2. wood used as fuel for cooking and heating
3. construction materials which include lumber, plywood, and board
4. fiber for the production of pulp and paper; and
5. chemical products such as resin, rubber, and turpentine.

Other Benefits Derived from Trees

There are benefits derived from trees to maintain a healthy environment. Some of these benefits
include:

1. They provide shade and fresh air around the house and, along the streets and surroundings.
Trees are very much needed by people in these times of climate change when the temperature is
high and the heat of the sun becomes intense. Without trees, there are no shades to keep us
cool.
2. They protect the soil from erosion. Have you seen big roots that extend several meters from the
trunk or go deeper into the soil? These roots hold the soil, preventing it from eroding when rain
or floods come.
3. They help maintain high quality water supply. The roots of plants and trees help strain the dirt
and cleanse the water as it passes through the roots.
4. The root system promotes soil stability. This means that the soil held by the roots remain there
and does not erode.
5. They serve as valuable wildlife habitats. Wild animals live in places with many trees like that of a
forest.
6. They serve as windbrakers during typhoons and storms, thus, reducing the destruction of home
and agricultural crops. A typhoon that is strong usually moves at a very fast speed. It continues
to be that strong if there are no barriers on the path where it moves. But when it passes barriers
like mountains and trees, it slows down and its speed is reduced. Small crops and plants as well
as houses are safe when typhoon is weak.
7. They help reduce pollutions in congested urban areas. Remember that trees take in carbon
dioxide emitted from vehicles that belches smoke. The more trees present, the less amount of
carbon dioxide is in the air.
8. They contribute to the beautiful landscapes in the city and the countryside. Imagine a land with
plenty of trees and grass and a scattering of flowers of beautiful colors, sizes, and shapes.
9. They improve the atmosphere of a place by giving a feeling of freshness and coolness as they
reduce temperature.
10. They prevent river and lake sedimentation. Have you observed a river bank that is lined endlessly
with full-grown trees? These trees help hold the water in the lake and river and keep it there.
This prevents the lake and river from drying up.
11. They prevent floods. Floods occur when water from rain rushes in causing soil erosion. However,
if there are trees to serve as barriers and the roots to hold the water, flood will not occur.

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Trees and Fruit-bearing trees that one can plant

Some of the common trees planted in both rural and urban areas are the following:

1. Narra 9. Alibangbang
2. Yakal 10. Banaba
3. Apitong 11. Pine Tree
4. Acacia 12. Indian Tree
5. Ipil-Ipil 13. Fire Tree
6. Palm Tree 14. Molave
7. Rubber Tree 15. Mahogany
8. Bamboo Tree

Some of the common fruit-bearing trees are the following:

1. Duhat 14. Rambutan


2. Mango 15. Lychee
3. Santol 16. Guava
4. Coconut 17. Aratiles
5. Orange/Dalandan 18. Camachile
6. Pomelo 19. Mangosteen
7. Atis 20. Durian
8. Langka 21. Pili
9. Chico 22. Cashew
10. Banana 23. Star Apple
11. Avocado 24. Guyabano
12. Longan 25. Balimbing
13. Cacao

Successful orchard growers in the Philippines

If you get to know the success stories of our country’s top orchard growers, you would never
imagine how they got to where they are now. Their hard work, determination, and will to succeed is
truly worth emulating. Below are three of our successful orchard growers:

Editha Aguinaldo Dacuycuy- Manang Editha ventured into the dragon fruit business when she was told
how the fruit can help relieve constipation problems – a condition common to cerebral palsy patients.
Her daughter, Kate, was suffering from this ailment. Selling at Php 450.00 per kilo, dragon fruit was too
expensive for Editha, so she decided to raise her own fruits in their backyard. From a small plot, they
now own a 10-hectare property. Dubbed as “Dragon Lady”, Manang Editha, together with her husband
and daughter, Mimie Mildred), also expanded their business into dragon fruit ice cream, vegan dragon
fruit lumpia, wine, vinegar, and even empanadita, dumplings, and burger patties. Located in Barangay
Paayas, Burgos, Ilocos Norte, REFMAD Farms ( Rare Eagle Forest Marine and agricultural Development) is
now an agritourism showcase offering research and livelihood training to fellow Ilocanos and interested
farmers. No less than President NOYNOY Aquino awarded Manag Editha for her hardwork, as well as
other well- known awarding bodies. Her farm has a steady market in neighboring provinces in Ilocos
Norte and Metro Manila. Dole Philippines orders in bulk, while hotels in Ilocos Norte are their regular
clients.

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Alfredo M. Yao – The “Juice King of the Philippines, also owns a farm in Negros Occidental aside from
Zest – O Corporation. At 12 years old, he lost his father and grew up doing odd jobs to help his mother
feed her family of six children. One of his jobs was working in a warehouse of a packaging company.
Encouraged by the promising profitability of a packaging format in Europe (Doypack), he bought one and
tried to market the machine to local juice manufacturers. When no factory took notice, he made his own
fruit juice and launched what was to become one of the biggest local juice brands.

Patricio Base – With his 3 hectare plantation of watermelons, honeydew melons, and papaya, he
produces crops year-round in Alicia, Isabela. He was able to send his four children to college with his
earnings. He used to grow rice before venturing into watermelons. He said there was no money in
planting rice, but now with melons, one can even hit the jackpot. In July 2013, he planted Diana
watermelons in 3,500 square meters and got 12 tons worth Php 480.00.

Successful orchard growers in the community or adjacent communities:

1. Sinura Pampanga Farm (San Fernando, Pampanga)


It has 1000 guapple trees, few mango trees and calamansi.
2. Anon, Florida Blanca Farm
Has fruit bearing trees, 600 calamansi, 35 mango and other assorted fruits.
3. Sta. Ana Mango Farm
Has 50 income generating mango trees and fish pond.
4. Mango Farm, Magalang ,Pampanga
Has mango and other fruit bearing trees.
5. Fruit Farm – Mitula Homes, San Fernando, Pampanga
This is a dragon fruit farm.

LET’S EXPLAIN

1. What are the benefits we derived from trees and fruit – bearing trees?
2. How do trees contribute to a healthy and safe environment?
3. What are the benefits of having a skill in planting trees?

LET’S REMEMBER

1. Trees are important to the family and community as they are sources of food, lumber for
construction of houses, fiber for paper, fuel for cooking, and chemicals like resin and turpentine.
2. Trees provide benefits to the environment. Some of these are: 1) they protect the soil from
erosion; 2) they help maintain high quality water supplies; 3) their root system promotes soil
stability; 4) they serve as valuable wildlife habitat; 5) they are attractive and effective
windbreakers: 6) they prevent floods; and 7) they prevent lake and river sedimentation, etc.

CHECK YOUR PRACTICES

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Put a check (/) in the column that fits you.

Practices Always Sometimes Never


1. I enjoy going to places and playground with plenty of trees.
2. I help plant trees at home and at school.
3. I feel that planting seedlings of trees, even in the pots and
cans, is a worthwhile activity.
4. I join in beautifying our neighbourhood by planting
trees/plants.
5. I help cut down a tree at home because it was growing out of
place.
6. I join a planting-tree activity in school because it is one of our
projects in TLE.
7. I help conserve trees by encouraging others to plant.
8. I help preserve our surrounding by telling others not to cut
trees.
9. I think trees help us so we should conserve them by taking care
of them.
10. I take care of my small garden at home because this is one way
of caring for the trees.

LET’S DO TOGETHER

A. Match column A with column B. Write the letters of the correct answer on the blank.

A B
_____ 1. Windbreakers a. extracted from wood pulp of sugar plant
_____ 2. Wood b. product made from fiber harvested from
wood pulp of trees
_____ 3. Lumber c. derived from sap of some trees
_____ 4. Paper d. the product produced from juice of some
trees

_____ 5. Rubber e. slows down speed of typhoons/storms

_____ 6. Turpentine f. this is what man gives off

_____ 7. Erosion g. major source of fiber for the production of


pulp and paper
_____ 8. Sugar h. this is what trees give off
_____ 9. Carbon dioxide i. processed wood used to construct houses for
man and animals
_____ 10.Oxygen J. the root system holds water in the soil in
order to prevent this

B. True or False: Write T if the statement is true and F if it is false.


_______ 1. Trees are man’s source of food.

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_______ 2. Trees give of carbon dioxide.
_______ 3. Man needs carbon dioxide to live.
_______ 4. Resin is a chemical derived from trees.
_______ 5. Too many trees cause pollution.
_______ 6. A healthy environment is an environment full or trees.
_______ 7. It is all right to cut trees for as long as they are replenished.
_______ 8. Reforestation is the process of planting new trees in place of old ones that have
been cut down.
_______ 9. When trees slow down the speed of a typhoon, they act as windbreakers.
_______ 10. Roots of trees hold the soil and water, thus, preventing soil erosion and flood.

REINFORCEMENT
Conduct a Survey

Go around your school, home or community. Write down the names of trees that you see. What uses do
they give? Write your answers in your notebook.

Reference: Learning and Living in the 21 st Century for Grade 6, pp 309-315


Gloria A. Peralta, et al. The Basics of Better Family Living pp. 53-59

LESSON 2 ELEMENTS TO BE OBSERVED IN PLANTING TREES AND FRUIT-BEARING TREES

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Learning Competencies: Code TLE6AG-0b-2 (Week 2)
1.2 Uses technology in the conduct of survey to find out the following:
1.2.1 Elements to be observed in planting trees and fruit bearing trees
1.2.2 Market demands for fruits
1.2.3 Sources of fruit bearing trees
1.2.4 Famous orchard farms in the country

Lesson Objectives
1. Observe the proper care of plants and soil
2. Differentiate the methods of planting trees
3. Explain how to prepare seeds for planting
4. Discuss the process of seed germination
5. Discuss the preparation of seedlings before transplanting
6. Conduct survey on the elements to be observed in planting trees and fruit bearing trees.

LET’S BE INFORMED

Planting, just like cooking, requires systematic way of doing things. It requires a step-by-step
procedure on how to select and prepare the soil, the seedlings, the tools, and the location for planting.
With these requirements, all that is needed is a thorough knowledge and skill on how to do the
planting process and the manner on how plants are to be taken care of.

Elements to be observed in planting trees and fruit bearing trees

A. Proper Care of Plants and Soil


Proper care of plants and soil is necessary for a healthy and bountiful harvest. Do the following:

1. Choose the best place for planting.

Trees and fruit trees require more space for growth than ornamental plants or crops. This is because
trees and fruit trees grow tall and wide . There are trees that roots that expand sideward and those that
move downward. Choose a place where trees will grow freely without obstruction like street fences or
walls. Have enough space allowance between trees, or between the streets, fences, or walls. Consider
the type of soil and the amount of sunlight.

2. Choose the seeds that best suit the season and the soil.

This means that the seeds come from a good quality mother and the seeds are healthy, mature, with
no blemishes or cuts, and of the right size and form. Seeds must be prepared before planting. Planting
should be done preferably during the rainy season. The soil must be suited to the type of seeds to be
planted. Consult an expert on what type of soil, or where do trees like acacia, narra, mango, rambutan,
or coconut grow best.

3. Put sufficient fertilizers in the soil.

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It is advisable to prepare the soil before planting. This means cleaning the soil and its surrounding area
and mixing the soil with organic fertilizers. Organic fertilizers are safe and economical to use, while
inorganic or commercial fertilizers have to be regulated because overuse can poison the soil. A rich soil is
40 percent clay loam, 30 percent compost, 20 percent dried carabao manure or chicken dung, and 10
percent sand. Remember, plants need nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium to grow and to make them
resistant to pests and diseases.

4. Take care of the soil and the plants regularly.

Caring for the young trees means removing the grass and weeds around them so they do not
compete in getting the nutrients from the soil. Keep the soil always moist and this is no problem during
the rainy season. However, during the dry months, there is a need to water them regularly. Watering is
done during sunrise or after sunset to keep the evaporation of water from the soil slow. Make a ring of
cultivation around the young tree with the size matching the circumference of the crown of the tree.
The soil in this ring is loose and slightly hilling up. In case of pests or insects infestation, do this by
building a fire and allowing the smoke to penetrate the foliage. Use the appropriate pesticide or
fungicide to control plant disease. Consult an expert on this. Likewise, prune the young tree by cutting
off infected or unproductive branches. Do not leave excess branches on the trunk to avoid infection
which occurs when the cut has not healed.

B. Methods of Planting

Different trees are cultivated in different ways. There are two ways of planting: direct and
indirect. Direct planting is a method of planting where the seeds or parts of a plant are directly planted
in the soil where it will germinate and grow into full-grown trees.
The use of high quality seeds results in high productivity. High quality seeds have a high
percentage of germination and correct moisture content and are free from seed pests, diseases, and
other physical impurities. They should come from a tree with a uniform height and heading, a
characteristic known as varietal purity. To maintain high quality seeds, the following steps are
recommended:
1. Remove off-type, diseased, and damaged seeds.
2. Label seeds properly.
3. Select and preserve only mature seeds and dry them under the sun until proper moisture is
attained.

C. Preparing Seeds for Planting

There are different ways of preparing seeds. One way is by placing the seeds under the sun
before planting. One example of this is the ipil-ipil tree. Some seeds like the mango have to be removed
from their hard shells before planting. Seeds like santol need to be dried before planted in the soil. There
are also seeds that need to be soaked in water before planting, like the seeds of ipil-ipil. Seeds of
avocado are planted as is with the bigger end of the seed below the soil surface.

D. Seed Germination

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Seeds need moisture, warmth, oxygen, and, in some instances, sunlight in order to germinate.
Small seeds are sown in a seed box before setting them out in the field. Seeds can also be germinated in
small plastic trays, pots, and other relatively small containers filled with soil medium recommended for
seed propagation. The bottom of the seed boxes should have tiny holes to allow drainage.

Before the seed is sown, the soil should be moistened with a fine spray of water until the soil has
absorbed enough moisture. Make rows with pointed sticks. These rows should be twice as deep as the
size of the seeds. Sow the seeds evenly in rows and cover them with loose soil then press the soil gently.
If you will plant trees, the space should be 10 meters in distance depending on the size of the tree.
The seed box should be kept in a shady place until the seeds have sprouted. It should be
protected from pests, animals, and adverse weather. Cover the seed box with a sheet of paper to keep it
from drying out too fast during the dry season. When the seeds have sprouted, make sure they get
enough sunlight for proper growth.

E. Preparation of Seedlings Before Transplanting

Mortality is high during transplanting if the seedlings are not given proper care. To ensure a higher
rate of survival, the following processes are needed:

1. Thinning – There are times when more seeds are sown than necessary. To produce strong plants,
pull out some crowded seedlings so that the remaining plants will have more room. Thinning
accelerates the circulation of air and provides a greater feeding area for seedlings to make them
sturdier and healthier.

2. Pricking – This is done by transferring seedlings from one seed box to another to provide more
space for proper development. Water the seedlings before pricking.

3. Hardening – This process is done 7 to 15 days before transplanting. The purpose is to make the
tissue of the plants harder in order to survive the rigors of transplanting. The water intake of the
plant is gradually decreased and the seedling is exposed to sunlight for a longer period of time.

F. Indirect Planting

In indirect planting, the plant needs to be transferred to its permanent place. This is commonly
done with trees. Nowadays, you can avail seedlings planted in small plastic bags, ready for transfer.

Follow the general steps in the proper transferring of plants:


1. Place the seedlings away from direct sunlight. Make sure the seedlings are healthy and fresh
before planting.

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2. Dig the area where you want to plant them. The length and depth of the hole should be
according to how big the tree will become. Leave two inches allowance in the length and depth
of the hole to allow the new roots to breath. For big trees like santol, mango, or acasia, the hole
is one meter wide, one meter deep, and one meter long. For small trees like atis, chico, avocado,
and kasoy, the hole should measure 20 inches deep, 20 inches wide, and 20 inches long.

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3. Remove the plant from the plastic bag. Do not remove the soil which holds the roots.

4. Slowly and carefully place the seedlings in the hole. Make sure the main roots are not bent.

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5. Cover it with soil. Lightly press the soil.

6. Water the new plant early the next morning. Use a water sprinkler. It is important to water the
soil that surrounds the plant.

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7. Remember: Plant your seedlings in the afternoon when sunlight is no longer hot to avoid
withering.

LET’S EXPLAIN

1. What must we do to have a healthy and bountiful harvest?


2. How can we maintain high quality seeds?
3. How do seeds germinate?
4. What are the processes needed in order to have high survival of seedlings?
5. What are the steps in transferring plants? Explain each.

LET’S REMEMBER

It is necessary to observe the elements in planting trees and fruit bearing trees in order to have bountiful
harvest.

CHECK YOUR PRACTICES

Draw a happy face on practices that are good and sad face on practices that are not good.

1. I join community projects like planting. _________


2. I wear the appropriate working clothes when planting. _________
3. Choose good quality seeds coming from a good quality mother. _________
4. Plant all types with equal distances from one another. _________
5. I prefer to use organic fertilizer as it is safe and economical. _________
6. Keep the soil moist around young trees by watering them early
morning or late afternoon. _________
7. Spray insecticide often to avoid insect infestation. _________
8. Indirect planting is a better method than direct planting because germination
is easier in boxes or plastic bags. _________

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9. Study the type of tree and the kind of soil it needs before planting. _________
10. Be scientific in planting by knowing the needs of plants and how to take care of them._________

LET’S DO TOGETHER

A. Fill in the blanks with the correct answer.


1. _______ is the amount of space between two trees when planted.
2. _______ is the number of days before watering the plants that have been newly planted.
3. _______ is the time of the day when planting is ideal.
4. _______ is the way wherein the seeds of the plant or part of the plant are planted directly
Into the soil.
5. _______ is the amount of space allotted between two tree seedlings when planted.

REINFORCEMENT
Conduct a Survey

Visit a garden in your school, at home, or in the community. Observe the different plants and
trees, where they are planted and how they are planted. Interview a gardener on how plants are cared
for. Write your answers in your notebook.

Reference: Learning and Living in the 21 st Century 6

LESSON 3 MARKET DEMANDS FOR FRUITS

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Lesson Objectives:
State the best time to harvest fruits
Identify the factors to consider when harvesting fruits
Discuss the tips in storing fruits
Identify the market demands for fruits
Enumerate the ways of marketing products

LET’S BE INFORMED

Harvesting Fruits
Harvesting is picking fruits in their season when they are ready to be sold or eaten. Harvesting is
done at different seasons depending on the characteristics of each product. Generally, fruits are picked
when they are mature enough. Fruits should reach the market in good condition.
1. Mangoes, bananas, and papayas are harvested before they ripen. They should be green and
matured.
2. Pomelos and chicos should be picked at the right size and maturity.
3. Native oranges or dalandans are picked while green They eventually ripen.

The right time to harvest depends on the following factors:


1. The price of fruits on the market – The beginning of harvest season of any fruit commands the
highest price in the market. This is because the fruits are new in the market and are not as
abundant as when they are in the peak of harvest season.
2. The distance of the farm to the market – Transportation comprises a big expenditure in
marketing the products. The farther the farm is to the market, the higher the transport cost.
Likewise, the rate of ripening and deterioration may be affected by the length of time it takes for
the product to reach the market.
3. The period of storage of harvested fruits before bringing them to the market – The longer the
storage, the higher is the risk of the fruits to deteriorate. When some products become overripe
and close to deteriorating, they cannot be sold at a higher price than when they are fresh and at
the right degree of maturity or ripeness.

Storing the Products


Proper storage of harvest is very important to keep them in good condition. Most fruits when
ripened are perishable so they rot or decay easily. Therefore they should be used or sold while still
slightly ripe and firm.

Tips in Storing Fruits


1. Use a wicker basket in storing fruits. This will prevent the fruits from ripening fast because the
holes in the wicker basket will provide fruits with cool air.
2. Use a durable and clean wicker baskets for handling.
3. Classify the fruits first before placing them in the wicker basket, depending on the ripeness, size,
and shape. Separate the ripe from the unripe ones.
4. Place the heavy, unripe fruits in the base, and place the light, ripe ones above, in packing fruits
like papaya, mangoes, and pineapple.
5. Store in a cool, dry place.
6. Store the products in a clean place, free from ants, cockroaches, and other harmful insects.

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7. Handle the fruits carefully especially when placing them in the boxes or wicker baskets to avoid
bruises.
8. Always remember, the better the product, the higher the price.

To ensure success in selling fruits, the farmer or seller should consider the following market demands:
1. Buyers select fruits and other products of good quality, usually based on size, shape, and
appearance.
2. Good quality fruits have the same appearance, size, stage of maturity, state of freshness, and
shape.
3. Fruits should be in their freshest state when being sold. They can command higher prices.
4. Pack fruits properly in good containers to maintain their freshness and to avoid cuts, bruises, and
blemishes.
5. Price your products based on the current price on the market. Going with the current price
makes your product competitive. Generally, when products are sold during the peak season, if
your products are of superior quality, you can demand a higher price . Many consumers prefer to
pay a higher price if they feel they are getting their money’s worth.

Ways of Marketing a Product


1. Retail- This refers to the sale of goods in small quantities directly to the consumer.
2. Wholesale- This is the sale of goods in a relatively large quantity to be retailed by others.
3. Consignment basis- This is an agreement to supply goods for a definite price and at a specific
time.
4. Announcement of products to the public.
5. Direct selling to the market place.
6. Selling through cooperatives.
Selling by wholesale is advantageous over the retail method because the producer has a
sure market for his products.
The retail method, however, is better because farmers earn more profits this way.
Marketing through cooperatives is the newest practice. Farmers from cooperatives in
order to earn higher profits, while consumers get the product at a lower price.

LET’S EXPLAIN

1. Describe the characteristics of fruits to be harvested to reach the market in good condition?
2. What are the factors to consider in harvesting fruits?
3. What are the tips in storing fruits to keep them in good condition?
4. Explain the market demands to be considered by farmers or sellers to ensure success in selling
fruits?

LET’S REMEMBER

Harvested crops in season are cheaper compared with those out of season.
We should consider the market demands for fruits in order to ensure success in selling fruits.

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CHECK YOUR PRACTICES

Put a check on practices which you have experienced doing and an X mark on those you have not
experienced doing.

Practices  or X
1. Planted fruit trees
2. Picked fruits from fruit trees
3. Took care of the fruit trees
4. Stored fruits in baskets
5. Sold fruits to friend and in the market

LET’S DO TOGETHER
A. Write T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false.
______ 1. Fruits should be harvested at the right shape and size.
______ 2. Fruits should be harvested carefully because cuts can easily lead to rotting.
______ 3. Examples of fruits are squash, cabbage, and bitter melon.
______ 4. Cropping is the picking of fruits when ready to be sold or eaten.
______ 5. The right time to harvest depends on the demand, market, and price.
______ 6. Mangoes are harvested when they mature because this is the stage when they are
firm and fresh.
______ 7. For storing fruits, use wicker baskets.
______ 8. One who buys products and sells them to retailers is called the middleman.
______ 9. Selling products by piece is called retailing.
______ 10. Pack fruits properly in good containers to maintain their freshness and to avoid cuts,
bruises, and blemishes.

REINFORCEMENT

Interview a farmer. Find out what fruit trees he plants the entire year. Ask why he chooses those
trees over the others, how he harvests them, and how he markets them.

Reference:
Learning and Living in the 21st Century 6 pp.331
Moving up with HELE 6 pp.161

LESSON 4 SOURCES OF FRUIT BEARING TREES

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Lesson Objectives
Give the importance of planting fruit-bearing trees
Identify the sources of fruit bearing trees
Mention famous orchard farms in the country

LET’S BE INFORMED

Just like vegetables and ornamentals, growing fruit trees is not difficult. The problems lie in the
lack of space or where to plant them.

In urban areas where spaces are very limited, fruit trees are not usually planted. Some home
owners do not like to plant trees because they say, a grown tree will destroy the foundation of their
houses because of their big and long roots.

But for those who have enough space, fruit trees like mango, duhat, tamarind, banana, papaya
and other fruit trees are planted. Aside from the shade that they give, when they bear fruits, the family
is, at least, assured of a supply of fruits for their daily consumption.

In the province, fruit trees are sources of income for the family. Aside from the added fresh air,
they provide the ambience that a city dweller have not experienced.

MANGOES

Our country is famous for its delicious mangoes. Although there are other varieties, the carabao
mango is the most sought after and exported in other countries.
Mango fruits are of these varieties:
1. Carabao or super mango. This variety is the favourite of most people around the world with
its perfect blend of sweet and sour taste, soft, succulent with a pleasant odor.
2. Pico. This is a smaller in size from the carabao variety but just as sweet, even when it’s not
yet ripe.
3. Indian mango. This originated from India. It bears plenty of fruits the whole year round. It is
a favourite appetizer by most teeners.
Mango tree comes from seed.

PAPAYAS

Papaya is a fruit rich in Vitamins A, B and C and aids in the digestion of food. A good and tasty
dessert, especially when sweet, papaya is an acceptable appetizer or dessert of people of all ages. The
unripe fruits are also valuable for some main dishes as tinola and ginataan. Because of it’s papain, a
protein-spitting enzyme obtained from the juice of unripe papaya, helps tenderize meat and used as an
aid in digestion.

Most home yards grow papaya trees. They are planted by direct seeding, that is, planting papaya
seeds in a hole and cover with ¼ inch of soil. After planting, in 10 to 15 days, seeds will germinate.
There is the so-called male and female papaya. The male plant, only produce flowers but do not
bear fruit. However, it is necessary for pollination. When planting, allow one male plant to grow for every

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15 to 20 female papayas. Intercropping is a method where papaya can be grown together with coconuts,
coffee, pineapple or bananas. It increases farm income and prevent the growth of weeds and/or grasses.

Sources of fruit-bearing trees

Fruit-bearing trees are available and sold in different stages of growth and ready to be transplanted.
Among their sources are:
 Commercial Nursery – Run by private individuals usually offering landscaping materials and
services.
 Agricultural Institution – A school that offers a course related to agriculture and other plant
studies.
 Department of Agriculture – Responsible for any agricultural activities in terms of vegetables and
fruits .
 Bureau of Plant Industry – They develop scientific improvement for each plant specie in a locality
and adjacent places.

Famous Orchard Farms in the Philippines

Rosa Farms, Zambales, Philippines

Rosa Farms is a 12.5 hectare mango orchard in the coastal province of Zambales, home of the
Philippine Carabao Mango. The farm has 888 mango trees nurtured for years. The farm is open to walk-in
guests who want to experience the ambiance of areal functional farm.

Kitsie’s Farm, Zambales, Philippines

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Kitsie’s Farm has dozens of fruit-bearing mango trees scattered across its 15 hectares land with
each tree yielding at least 200 kilos each.

Gapuz Grapes Farm, Bauang , La Union

Gapuz Farm has been in business for 30 years. The Gapuz brothers learned the ins and outs of
grapes growing in California.

Banana Farm, Davao Region

Banana is the leading fruit grown in the Philippines and a consistent top dollar earner.

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Davao Golden Pomelo Farm, Davao City

Carmelita Mercado is the top pomelo producer and distributor in the Philippines. The farm has
350 hectares of sweet pink flesh pomelo.

Nica’s Rambutan Farm, Barangay Lapaz, Tibiao, Antique

The rambutan tree belongs to a group of fruit bearing tropical trees like longgan and lychee.
The name rambutan came from an Indonesian name “rambut” which means hair.

Health Benefits of Rambutan (from www.healthbenefitstimes.com)

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1. Decreases Unwanted Fat. (rambutan seeds) It lessens the body fat

2. Skin Care. (raw rambutan seeds) For healthy, softer and gentle skin

3. Hair Care. (rambutan leaves) For excellent hair regrowth

4. Treats Dysentery. (rambutan skin)

5. Treats Diabetes. (dried fried rambutan seeds)

6. Cures Fever. (dried rambutan skin)

7. Increases Energy.

8. Strengthen Bones.

9. Increases Immune System. Can easily enhance bones because of its high calcium,
phosphorus and iron content

10. Anti-Cancer. It consists of anti-oxidants components

11. Protector of Free Radicals. It’s rich in gallic acid

12. Rich in Vitamin C.

13. Blood Formation. Rich in iron that help avoid anemia

14. Healthy Digestion. It’s rich in fiber that helps prevent bowel problems

15. Improve Sperm Quality and Prevent Cancer

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Grace’s Lanzones Farm, Guyam, Indang Cavite, Philippines

It has 200 fully growned lanzones that earn about 120,000 to 150,000 per harvest.

Dalandan Farm, Bayombong, Nueva Viscaya, Philippines

Dalandan or kahel originated from China. This fruit is flattened and turns yellow or reddish
orange when mature. It consists of 10-14 segments easily separated from one another to form an open
core.

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Durian Fruit, Davao City, Philippines
The Durian fruit is popular due to its strong aroma and unique taste. It is also grown in Thailand
and and Indonesia. Many often says. “ It smells like hell, but it tastes like heaven”. The flesh is rich in
carbohydrate, proteins, vitamins ( thiamine, riboflavin and Vitamins A and C), and minerals (calcium,
phosphorous, potassium and iron). The flesh is eaten fresh or processed into jams, marmalade, spread,
pastillas, or flavouring for ice cream, candies, cakes and rolls.

LET’S ANSWER

1. What are the health benefits from fruit bearing trees?


2. Where do most of our fruits come from?
3. Give the sources of fruit – bearing trees.

LET’S REMEMBER

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Fruit trees provide us shade, fruits, fresh air, good ambience, income, vitamins and minerals. They serve
as appetizer, dessert and aids in digestion.

CHECK YOUR PRACTICES

Put a check on practices which you have experienced doing and an X mark on those you have not
experienced doing.

Practices  or X
Planted fruit trees
Harvested fruits
Sold fruits
Ate fruits everyday
Took care of fruit bearing trees
LET’S DO TOGETHER

Identify the following. Write your answers on the blank before each number.

________ 1. The kind of mango that has a mixed taste, both sweet and sour.

________ 2. The mango that originated in India.

________ 3. The most common sought mango variety and exported in other countries.

________ 4. The enzyme found in papaya that helps tenderize meat.

________ 5. A popularly known fruit due to its strong aroma and unique taste.

________ 6. This fruit originated from China.

________ 7. Fruits grown in Indang, Cavite.

________ 8. This fruit has plenty of health benefits.

________ 9. It is the leading fruit grown in the Philippines and a consistent top dollar earner.

________ 10. This fruit produce flowers but do not bear fruits.

REINFORCEMENT

Identify the fruit trees grown in your backyard, school or community. Do they bear fruits? If not, ask the
reasons from the gardener.

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LESSON 5 TYPES OF ORCHARD FARMS

Learning Competencies: Code: TLE6AG-0c-3 (Week 3)


1.3 Conduct survey to identify:
1.3.1 Types of orchard farms
1.3.2 Trees appropriate for orchard gardening based on location, climate, and market demands
1.3.3 Proper way of planting/propagating trees and fruit bearing trees (budding, marcotting, grafting)
1.3.4 Sources of fruit bearing trees
1.3.5 How to care for seedlings

Lesson Objectives

Identify the types of orchard farms.


Give examples of trees planted in each type of orchard.
Identify trees appropriate for orchard gardening based on location, climate and market demands.

LET’S BE INFORMED
Orchard is a piece of land planted with fruit trees or nut trees. It is also known as fruit farm. Therefore,
an orchard can have any kind of fruit trees in it, be it mango, papaya, orange, duhat, banana, etc.

Types of Orchard Farms

Fruit Orchards
 Fruit orchards include any facility focused on growing tree-bearing fruits.
Citrus trees, such as those bearing lemons, limes or oranges, may be grown all
together in large citrus orchards, or individually in smaller facilities. Plantations that
grow fruit-bearing bushes generally don't fall under this category. These include
fruits not grown on trees.

Nut Orchards
 Nut orchards include a large variety of facilities that produce nut-bearing
trees. These include orchards that grow popular nuts like cashews, walnuts and

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almonds. This category also includes cocoa and chocolate-producing nuts, as well as
coconuts. Some orchard owners produce pine trees for their edible pine nuts.

Seed Orchards
 Seed orchards focus primarily on growing trees that produce seeds rather than nuts or fruit.
These seeds are then sold to commercial distributors for resale to the public in small seed
packets. They may also be sold to large agricultural facilities or used for food production. Seed
orchards can further be divided into two categories based on how they are established. In a
seedling orchard, trees are selected through controlled pollination. In a clonal seed orchard,
seeds are distributed through methods such as cutting and tissue culture, resulting in an easier
harvest overall.

Home or Backyard Orchards


 Home orchards are small gardens where grafted trees are needed and small
enough to fit in the garden.

Factors to consider in choosing fruit trees for your orchard:


1. Choose fruit trees which are suited to your location.
2. Choose trees based on your needs or market demands.
3. Consider how much effort you will exert.
4. Plant the right fruits.
5. Choose the best time for planting.
6. Consider the climate in your area.
7. For healthiest and tastiest fruit, choose the sunniest available planting location.

Trees suited for orchard gardening based on:

 LOCATION

Hill side Slope Valley Plain


Coconut Mango Durian Banana
Mango Coconut Banana Mango
Pili nut Cashew Papaya Citrus truits
Palm tree Palm tree Mangosteen Dragon fruit
Pili nut Jackfruit
Guava
Star apple
Santol
Coconut

 CLIMATE

Elevated ( Cold) Low (Warm) Dry Season Wet Season


Grape Mango Banana Durian
Pomelo Coconut Pili nut Banana
Banana Palm tree Mango

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Guava Dragon fruit
Durian Papaya
Guava
Star apple

 MARKET DEMAND

Year-round Seasonal
Banana Jackfruit
Mango Guava
Citrus Star apple
Dragon fruit Santol
Papaya
Coconut

LET’S EXPLAIN
1. What are the different orchard farms?
2. What are the factors to consider in planting fruit trees?
3. Why is it important to conduct a survey and determine the appropriate trees for orchard
gardening based on location, climate, type of soil, and market demands?

LET’S REMEMBER
For the healthiest trees and tastiest fruit, choose the sunniest available planting location.
Choosing the best time for planting can be a key to success.

LET’S DO TOGETHER
Identify the following:
______ 1. Is a piece of land planted with fruit trees or nut trees.
______ 2. Include any facility focused on growing tree-bearing fruits.
______ 3. Include a large variety of facilities that produce nut-bearing trees.
______ 4. Focus primarily on growing trees that produce seeds rather than nuts or fruit.
_______ 5. Orchards are small gardens where grafted trees are needed and small
enough to fit in the garden.

REINFORCEMENT

Conduct a survey in your school, home and community.

Which orchard farm is suited in your school, home or community? Describe your
location. Identify the fruit trees you want to plant suited to the location. Answer in
your notebook.

Reference:
Gloria A. Peralta, et al. The Basics of Better Family Living 6
Learning and Living in the 21st Century

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LESSON 6 PROPER WAY OF PLANTING AND PROPAGATING TREES AND
FRUIT BEARING TREES

Lesson Objectives

Identify proper way of planting, propagating trees and fruit bearing trees.
Demonstrate proper way of planting, propagating trees and fruit-bearing trees.
Identify proper care for seedlings.

LET’S BE INFORMED

Modern technology and research have gone a long way especially in the field of Agriculture.
There are different agricultural products today that did not exist long ago. We now have seedless grapes,
oranges, and watermelons. There are also various plants with leaves and flowers of different colors that
come from just one plant. Fruit-bearing trees are able to bear fruits within a very short span of time.
Some can bear fruits all year round. These advancements are possible because of an agricultural
technology called plant propagation.

Plant propagation is a method or reproducing, increasing, or multiplying plant species. It is being


practiced because of the following reasons:
1. To increase the number of plant species
2. To produce plant varieties that are resistant to some insect pests and diseases
3. To evolve new and better varieties of plants suited to different conditions of soil and
climate
4. To accelerate and at the same time lessen the bearing age of plants
5. To avert the extinction of some plant species

PROPER WAY OF PROPAGATING FRUIT-BEARING TREES

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 Cutting - The leaves are removed and the stems are cut 10 inches long. One—half of the cutting
is inserted into the soil. Example : Sinigwelas, Kamoteng kahoy

 Marcotting or Air layering – induces the stem to develop roots while it is still growing on the
mother plant. The steps are as follows:
a. Select a healthy branch.
b. Remove a ring-like layer of soft bark about 2 to 3 inches long or until you reach the bark about 2 to 3
inches long or until you reach the hard, wood layer.
c. Apply sphagnum moss around the cut surface.
d. Cover securely with a piece of plastic sheet.
e. Tie both ends to prevent drying of the rooting medium. Keep it moist.
f. Cut the marcot just below the ball of sphagnum moss when sufficient roots develop.
g. Remove some leaves to further induce root development.
h. Place the potted in a cool and shady place.

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 Grafting – a plant propagation method that involves inserting a scion into a stock so that they
will form a union and grow together.

Steps in Grafting

 Preparing the Stock. Start at the cut surface of the rootstock and make a vertical slit through the
bark where each scion can be inserted (2 inches long and spaced 1 inch apart).

 Preparing the Scion. Since multiple scions are usually inserted around the cut surface of the
rootstock, prepare several scions for each graft. Cut the base of each scion to a 1 1⁄2- to 2-inch tapered
wedge on one side only.

 Inserting the Scion. Loosen the bark slightly and insert the scion so that the wedge-shaped
tapered surface of the scion is against the exposed wood under the flap of bark. Push the scion firmly
down into place behind the flap of bark, replace the bark flap, and nail the scion in place by driving one
or two wire brads through the bark and scion into the rootstock. Insert a scion every 3 to 4 inches
around the cut perimeter of the rootstock.

 Securing the Graft. Seal all exposed surfaces with grafting wax or grafting paint. Once the scions
have begun to grow, leave only the most vigorous one on each stub; prune out all the others. Bark
grafts tend to form weak unions and therefore usually require staking or support during the first few
years.

 Budding – the process of transferring the lateral bud taken from the scion to the stock of the
same family. The steps are the following:

1. Cut bud sticks from strong shoots of the present season's growth with mature buds that are
slightly brownish in color.

2. Clip off the leaves from the bud sticks, leaving 1/2 inch of the leafstalk for a handle.

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3. Discard the soft tips of the bud sticks.

4. Choose branches from the rootstock that are the size of a lead pencil up to 1/2 inch diameter.
Larger branches have too thick a bark for this method to work.

5. On the rootstock, about 15 or more inches from the trunk, make a T cut across the bark.

6. With a knife blade, lift the corners and carefully loosen the bark.

7. Cut a bud from the bud stick which includes a thin piece of attached wood.

8. Slide the bud under the flaps of the bark on the rootstock until the ends are firmly un9. Using
electrician's tape, tie the bud to the rootstock.

10. Wrap the ends tightly, but be sure not to cover the bud with tape.

11. In two to three weeks, cut the tie so you will not girdle the graft.

12. The next year, cut the rootstock off above the graft when the bud starts growing.

13. Remove any shoots below the graft.

14. The second year, remove all growth from the tree except the bud grafted shoots.

Sources of Fruit-Bearing Trees

Fruit-bearing trees propagated by the sexual method (use of seeds):


Avocado
Star apple
Cashew
Chico
Citrus fruits
Guyabano or Sour sop
Guava
Jackfruit
Lanzones

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Mabolo
Macopa
Mango
Mangosteen
Papaya
Rambutan
Santol

Some are propagated asexually or by artificial methods:


Avocado (grafting)
Banana ( rhizomes)
Star apple (marcotting)
Chico ( marcotting or inarching)
Guyabano (grafting)
Guava (marcotting)
Langka (marcotting)
Duhat (marcotting)
Macopa (marcotting)
Pineapple (suckers)
Mango (grafting)
Strawberry ( runners)
Siniguelas (cuttings)

Taking Care of Fruit Tree Seedlings


Here are some ways to keep plants healthy:
 Water the plants twice a day. Do this in the early morning and in the late afternoon.
 Apply fertilizer in the soil. Use organic fertilizer.
 Cultivate the soil around the plants to allow the roots to breathe.
 Exterminate pests or insects.
The following are recommended for best results:
a. Water the plants.
b. Mix powdered chili or juice of the leaves of the neem tree with water. Keep this overnight.
Use the mixture for watering.
c. Fumigate the tree or plant using charcoal and dried leaves.
d. Remove insects and pests using hands or tweezers.
 Pull the grasses or weeds surrounding the plants because they compete for the nutrients which
are intended for the plants.
 Remove dried leaves and cut carefully the dried or infected branches.
 Monitor the growth of plants.

LET’S EXPLAIN
1. What are the ways of propagating fruit trees?
2. What are the steps in budding, grafting and marcotting?
3. How do we take care of seedlings?

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LET’S REMEMBER
Planting and propagating trees and fruit trees is a source of livelihood for many Filipinos.
You do not need huge tracts of land to plant trees. A small space in your backyard can be used to plant
calamansi, papaya, and banana.

LET’S CHECK

Analyze the puzzle and try to find five terms in plant propagation
A E I O U R P H R H
M A R C O T T I N G
R W G R N E G G E I
G S C I O N R B S G
H D B J I S A N W T
M Z J D W A F M A F
N T D X T Q T R E E
L U V C U W I L K D
B L C Z O Y N K H S
S R X A F K G P G W

Write your answers.


1.____________
2.____________
3.____________
4.____________
5.____________

LET’S DO TOGETHER
Perform different ways of propagating trees.
Way of Propagating Trees Name of Plant Date Performed

REINFORCEMENT
Conduct a survey in your home, school, and community on how fruit bearing trees were planted.
Propagate fruit trees in your backyard using marcotting. Give proper care. Document the result.

Reference:
Moving up with HELE 6 pp 145
https://www.google.com.ph/search?q=budding
https://www.google.com.ph/search?q=grafting
https://www.google.com.ph/search?q=marcotting
https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/grafting-and-budding-nursery-crop-plants
http://www.fao.org/docrep

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LESSON 7 LAYOUT DESIGN FOR AN ORCHARD GARDEN

Learning Competency: Code: TLE6AG-0c-4

1.4 Prepares layout design of an orchard garden using the information gathered

Objectives

Identify the steps in preparing the site for an orchard


Prepare layout design for an orchard

LET’S BE INFORMED

Good site preparation and layout are extremely important in successfully establishing fruit
plantings. Eliminating potential problems before planting will reduce money and effort needed in later
management practices for this long-term investment.

Preparing the Site

The following suggestions about site preparation apply mainly to the commercial or hobby
producer, but some have equal application to the home gardener.

1. Get soil sample for nematodes. If damaging nematodes are found, this site may have to be avoided
for a period of time until it can be placed into a grass or other plant rotation for 1 or more years. There
are no longer any chemicals registered to kill nematodes in home gardens. Home gardeners may try
solarization of site during summer months. Commercial growers do have nematicides available for use
but are also using nonchemical control methods.

2. Remove stumps, large rocks, and other debris from the site.

35
3. Plow the top and subsoil in the area to remove as many roots and smaller rocks as possible. Roots left
in the soil can contribute to root-rot problems in fruit trees.

4. Test the soil, and apply lime, phosphorus, and other fertilizer nutrients according to soil test
recommendations.

5. Apply about 50 to 75 percent of the lime, phosphorus, and other elements on the surface, and plow
as deeply as possible to get them into the root zone. Deep-plowing of lime and fertilizer is especially
important for tree fruit. After deep plowing, apply the remaining 25 to 50 percent of these chemicals
according to soil test recommendations, and disc them into the surface 6 to 10 inches.

Subsoil Nematodes Stump

Layout Systems in Orchard Planting

After preparing the site and determining the size of the orchard, you must next decide on a plan or
arrangement for the orchard.

The plan showing the arrangement of plants in an orchard is known as the “orchard layout”. There
are several systems of planting, these are the following:

A. Square System
For a fairly level site, use the rectangular or square design. It is most easy and popular
method of planting fruit plant. In this system row to row and plant to plant distances are
kept similar. The plants are planted exactly at right angle at each corner. Thus, every four
plants make one square. This is good for Mango, Banana and citrus crops.

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Advantages

1.Irrigation channels and paths can be made straight.

2.Operations like plowing, harrowing, cultivation, spraying and harvesting becomes easy.

3.Better supervision of the orchard is possible as one gets a view of the orchard from one end to the
other.

Disadvantages

1.Comparatively less number of trees are accommodated in given area.

2. A lot of space in the centre of each square is wasted i.e, certain amount of space in the middle of four
trees is wasted.

Lay out procedures :

a) Establish a base line/row.

b) Mark position of trees on this line using the wooden stakes on both sides of the base lines.

c) Using right angle shaft, extend lines perpendicular to the base line from every position of the trees
marked.

d) Stakes are fixed on these lines at plant to plant distance .

B. Rectangular System

The square and rectangle are the most commonly used systems for laying out orchards. The
rectangular design is used to set trees at unequal distances, as for example with dwarf orange, using a 9-
by 15-foot rectangle to set trees 9 feet apart in one direction and 15 feet in the other. Most growers
prefer to arrange their orchards in straight rows for ease of working. Thus, rectangular system
accommodates more plants in rows. The plants get proper space and sunlight for their growth and
development.

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Lay out procedures :

The procedure is the same as for the square system. The row to row distance is more than the plant to
plant distance and the row to row distance forms the length of the rectangle.

Advantages

1.Intercultural operations can be carried out easily.

2.Irrigation channel can be made length and breadth wise

3.Light can penetrate into the orchard through the large inter spaces between rows.

4.Better supervision is possible.

5.Intercropping is possible.

6. Inter-cultural operations can be carried out through both ways.

Disadvantages

1.A large area of the orchard between rows is wasted if intercropping is not practiced.

2.Less number of trees are planted.

Lay out procedures :

The procedure is the same as that of the square system. The row to row distance is more than the
plant to plant distance and the row to row distance forms the length of the rectangle.

C.Quincunx System/Diamond Pattern

This system is also known as filler or diagonal system. This is a modification over square system of
layout.To make use of the empty space in the center of each square is by planting another plant. The
plants that are planted in the center of each square along with tall growing plants at the corners of
squares are termed as “filler ” plants. Generally, filler trees will be of short duration and not be of the
same kind as those planted on the corners of the square. When main plants of the orchard resume their
proper shape, the filler plants are uprooted. Guava, Peaches, Papaya etc. are important filler plants.

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Advantages

1. Additional income can be earned from the filler crop till the main crop comes into bearing.

2.Compared to square to square and rectangular systems, almost double the number of trees can be
planted initially.

3.Maximum utilization of the land is possible. Increases approximately 10% of the plants in the square
method.

Disadvantages

1.Skill is required to layout the orchard.

2.Inter/filler crop can interfere with the growth of the main crop.

4.Spacing of the main crop is reduced if the filler crop is allowed to continue after the growth of the
main crop.

5. Intercultural operations is difficult.

Layout procedures :

Follow the procedure for the layout of a square system. In addition to this, mark the center of each
square with stake for the filler plants by drawing the diagonals.

D. Hexagonal / Triangular System

This system accommodates 15% more plants than square system. The plants are planted at the corner
of equilateral triangle. Thus, six trees are planted making a hexagon. Seventh tree is planted in the
center. This is very intense method of planting and hence requires fertile land. In the suburb of cities
where land is costly, this system is worth adopting. However, the laying out of the system is hard and
cumbersome.

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Advantages

1.Compared to square system 15% more trees can be planted.

2.It is an ideal system for fertile and well irrigated land.

3.Plant to plant distance can be maintained .

4.More income can be obtained.

Disadvantages

1.Skill is required to layout the orchard.

2. Intercultural operations maybe difficult.

Layout procedures

1. Establish a base line on one side of the field as in the square system.

2. Mark the position of trees on the base line at the desired distance and fix the stakes. Make
equilateral triangles on the base line maintaining the sides of the triangles equal to plant to plant
distance.

3. Mark all the triangles with stakes and join them into a line to form the second line of trees. Similarly,
make equilateral triangles on the second line and cover the whole land.

E. Contour system.

If the land is rugged and steep, follow the contour of the hillside. It is adopted in hilly areas for
planting fruit plants where land is undulated and soil erosion is a great threat. The contour system helps
prevent or reduce erosion and conserve moisture. The layout is started from the lowest level and the
tree rows are planted along uniform slopes at right angle to the slope with a view to reduce loss of top-
soil due to erosion. The width of contour terrace varies according to the slope of the hill. On steep or
rugged sites, contour systems help prevent or reduce erosion and conserve moisture. Since rainfall,
slope, soil, and other conditions vary in different parts of the country, growers use various arrangements.
At the present time, growers use terraces in contour systems when additional erosion control is needed.

40
Advantages

1.This system can be adopted in hilly regions, can control the soil erosion and helps simultaneously in the
conservation of water.

2.Preserved plant nutrients which are supplied as manures and fertilizers.

Disadvantages

1.Laying out of contour lines is difficult and time consuming.

2.Special skill is required to layout this system.

3.Special instruments are required for making contour lines.

4.The row to row distance will not be equal and adjustments may be required in the plat to plant
distance.

5.Rows are broken in to bits and pieces.

Layout procedures:

Contour system is a little more complicated than any other system of layout since planting has to
be done on slopes. For the procedure, mark contours at a distance equal to row to row distance on each
contour lines. The contours may be of full length or less than full length depending on variations in the
degree of slope.

Since rainfall, slope, soil, and other conditions vary in different parts of the country, growers use
various arrangements. At the present time, growers use terraces in contour systems when additional
erosion control is needed. In commercial operations, no matter which orchard layout is used, a minimum
25- to 30-foot turnaround should be left at the ends of rows to allow easy movement of any equipment
and machinery.

Determining Planting Distances

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Proper spatial arrangement is very important in new plantings. Aligning the trees carefully not only
improves the orchard’s appearance, but it also makes orchard operations easier. Individual tree or plant
sites can be indicated with a stake. The number of plants required to plant an acre can be determined by
multiplying the distance between trees in the row by the distance between rows and then dividing the
figure into the number of square feet in an acre (43,560).

Determining Home Orchard Size

Not all people enjoy all fruits. Evaluate your family situation, and plant those fruits that best meet
your needs. The number of plants that will supply the annual needs for fresh and processed fruit for a
family of five is listed in Table 1.

Table 1.

Number of Fruit Plants to Meet Annual Needs of a Family of Five

Fruit Type Number of Plants Tree Fruit

Pomelo 5 to 8

Mango 3 to 5

Chico 5 to 8

Atis 5 to 8

Lanzones 4 to 6

If you choose to produce several fruit types, you will most likely have more fruits than your
family can use. Only plant what you enjoy eating, and avoid the chore of caring for more plants than you
really need.

LET’S LEARN

Orchard – is an intentional planting of trees that is maintained for food production.

Plat – is a map showing the divisions of a piece of land.

Cumbersome – large or heavy and therefore difficult to use, unmanageable.

Undulated- have a wavy form or outline.

Contour – an outline especially of a curving or irregular figure.

Nematodes – microscopic round worms found in soil.

Subsoil – is the layer of soil under the topsoil on the surface of the ground.

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Stump – the bottom part of a tree left projecting from the ground after most of the trunk has fallen or
been cut down.

Intercultural operations – permits the intercropping and cultivation even with the use of mechanical
operations.

LET’S EXPLAIN

1.How do we prepare the site for home orchard?

2.How are fruit trees planted in the different types of orchard?

3.Why is intercultural operations difficult in the hexagonal system layout?

LET’S REMEMBER

If you choose to produce several fruit types in your home orchard, you will most likely have more
fruits than your family can use. Only plant what you enjoy eating, and avoid the chore of caring for more
plants than you really need.

Most growers prefer to arrange their orchards in straight rows for ease of working. Thus,
rectangular system accommodates more plants in rows. The plants get proper space and sunlight for
their growth and development.

Choosing the right pattern for your orchard project will depend on the shape, terrain, and slope
of the land.

LET’S CHECK

Give the meaning of the following words:

1.Plat

2.Cumbersome

3.Undulated

4.Contour

5.Nematodes

6.Subsoil

7.Stump

8.Orchard layout

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9.Intercultural operations

10.Filler plants

LET’S DO TOGETHER

A. Answer the following.

1.Which is the most easy and popular method of planting fruit plant?

a. square b. rectangle c. diamond d.a & b

2. Which layout system accommodates more plants in rows?

a. hexagonal b. rectangle c.diamond d. square

3. These plants are uprooted as soon as the main plants of the orchard resume their proper shape.

a. shrubs b. fillers c. weeds d. stump

4. How many trees are planted in a hexagonal system?

a. 4 b. 5 c. 6 d. 3

5. Which layout system is used on hillsides, slopes, and rugged sites?

a. diamond b. square c. rectangle d. contour

B. Draw a layout design of an orchard garden of your choice. Identify the plants that you are going to
plant.

REINFORCE MENT

Visit an orchard in your community . Observe and describe the layout of trees. Do they get
enough sunlight? Write your answers in your notebook.

Reference:

https://www.raitechuniversity.in/school%20of%20agricultur/e-resources/Planting%20system%20in
%20orchards.pdf

http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/horticulture/horti_orchard%20management.html

http://www.aces.edu/pubs/docs/A/ANR-0053-I/ANR-0053-I.pdf

44
LESSON 8 PROPAGATING TREES AND FRUIT – BEARING TREES USING SCIENTIFIC PROCESSES

Learning Competencies: Code: TLE6AG-0d – 5


1.5 Propagates trees and fruit-bearing trees using scientific process
1.5.1 identifies the appropriate tools and equipment in plant propagation and their uses
1.5.2 demonstrates scientific ways of propagating fruit bearing trees
1.5.3 observes healthy and safety measures in propagating fruit bearing trees.

Lesson Objectives

Identify the appropriate tools and equipment in plant propagation and their uses.
Demonstrate scientific ways for propagating fruit-bearing trees.
Observe healthy and safety measures in propagating fruit-bearing trees.

LET’S BE INFORMED

Our love for nature and the environment is best shown when we plant trees. Planting trees is a
productive and enjoyable activity that can be turned into an occupation or a hobby. Successful tree-
planting requires some knowledge about trees, what they need and how they grow, and some skill on
when and how to plant and take care of them.

Tools and equipment in plant propagation

Caring for fruit trees is the same as caring for other trees. Orchard tools and equipment play a very
important role in systematic process of plant preparation. Their availability makes the work easier and
helps in the proper execution of the different procedures.

1.Hoe – a tool used in digging and loosening hard, dry soil. It has a thin blade across the end of a long
handle.

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2.Rake – a long handled tool having a bar at one end with teeth in. It is used for smoothening the soil
and gathering loose leaves, hay, or straw.

3.Trowel – a tool with a curved blade used for loosening the ground and taking up small plants.

4.Axe – a tool with a flat, sharp blade fastened to a handle used for cutting trunk of trees and their
branches.

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4. Crowbar – a straight, heavy iron bar pointed at one end, about 4 feet in length, used for digging
holes and for planting seeds.

5. Bolo – a tool with a wooden or metal handle in which a long blade is attached. It is used for
cutting tall grasses and branches of trees.

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6. Shovel – a broad scoop attached to a handle. It is used to dig, lift, and throw loose matter.

7. Fork – a tool resembling a table fork but much bigger in size. It is used in digging and preparing
the soil for the plants.

8. Water Sprinkler – a can with a spout to sprinkle water on the plants. Plants should be watered
everyday to make them grow healthier.

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9. Wheelbarrow – used to transfer soil plants and other materials from one place to another.

10. Hose – used for watering seedlings arranged in mass.

11. Sprayer – used for spraying chemicals to eliminate plant seeds.

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12. Weighing Scale- for weighing plants, seeds, and fertilizers.

14. Pieces of wood or bamboo – used as fences of seed boxes and plots to protect plants from being
destroyed by animals.

16. Pruning Shears – used for cutting small branches including the unnecessary branches.

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17. Garden gloves – used while working in the garden, made of strong rubber to protect from thorns
and withstand punctures.

Tips in performing scientific way of propagating fruit-bearing trees

1.Select a stem which is not too young or too old.

2. Be sure the propagating materials are of the same specie.

3. See to it that the stock and the scion are fitted with each other.

4. Do the propagation at the right time.

Healthy and Safety Measures in Propagating Fruit-Bearing Trees

1.Before working make sure you have refresh yourself (like taking a bath) in order to work well.

2.Always wear complete personal protective protective equipment which includes hairnet, hand gloves,
apron, boots if needed, protective eyeglass, and face mask.

3. Make sure tools and equipment are working properly before using them.

4. Always follow instructions for use of equipment.

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5. Focus on the work at hand. Do not allow yourself to get distracted.

6. Know your limits in working, seek help whenever necessary.

7. Work in proper position. Make sure you do not strain your back while working.

LET’S EXPLAIN

Why is it important to propagate trees and fruit-bearing trees.

Explain the healthy and safety measures in propagating fruit trees.

Explain the tips in performing scientific way of propagating fruit-bearing trees.

LET’S REMEMBER

In propagating fruit-bearing trees, remember the following:

1.Select a stem which is not too young or too old.

2. Be sure the propagating materials are of the same specie.

3. See to it that the stock and the scion are fitted with each other.

4. Do the propagation at the right time.

LET’S DO TOGETHER

Watch the demonstration on marcotting and grafting to be shown in a slide presentation, film clip or
actual demonstration. Write the tools used in the presentation.

REINFORCEMENT

Form groups of five members each. With your teacher’s guidance, practice different methods of
propagation using the right tools.

Reference:

Gloria A. Peralta, et al. The Basics of Better Family Living 6

HELE for Life 6

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LESSON 9 SYSTEMATIC AND SCIENTIFIC WAYS OF CARING ORCHARD TREES

Learning Competencies: Code : TLE6AG-0e-6


1.6 performs systematic and scientific ways of caring orchard trees/seedlings such as watering,
cultivating, preparing, and applying organic fertilizer
1.6.1 uses different ways of preparing organic fertilizer and pesticides through internet/library
1.6.2 explains the benefits of using organic fertilizer and locally made pesticides toward sustainable
development
1.6.3 observes healthy and safety measures in formulating fertilizer and organic pesticides
1.6.4 keeps record of growth/progress of seedlings

Lesson Objectives
Perform systematic and scientific ways of caring orchard trees and seedlings such as watering,
cultivating, preparing, and applying organic fertilizer.
Use different ways of preparing organic fertilizer and pesticides through internet/library
Explain the benefits of using organic fertilizer and locally made pesticides toward sustainable
development
Observe healthy and safety measures in formulating fertilizer and organic pesticides
Keep record of growth/progress of seedlings

LET’S BE INFORMED

One needs to carefully plan an orchard project to avoid useless and wasteful spending. It is also
important that once an orchard project is started , the proper care for seedlings and trees are
undertaken. There are tried and tested procedures for taking care of these plants from cultivating , use
of fertilizer, and watering.
This lesson will present systematic and scientific ways of caring for orchard trees and seedlings.

Ways of watering plants


Natural- This is nature’s way of providing water for plants through the rain.
Manual- This is with the use of a water pail and dipper or water sprinkler.
Artificial- Water supply is artificially produced from a deep-well, dams, and river with the help of motors.
Under this method are the following:
 Surface or furrow irrigation – Water is distributed to each row so it is applicable only for row
crops with uniform slope.
 Sprinkler irrigation- This include the line , rotating, and micro sprinklers in which artificial rain is
generated through special devices that wet the entire field.
 Drip or trickle irrigation- A special water source designed to discharge water close to the plant,
wetting only that area and leaving the rest dry.
 Sub-irrigation- This type is very high in cost because the water source is underground.

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Proper irrigation is very important for each orchard may it be large or small scale. It has to be
done properly for the seedlings to grow healthy and the trees to start bearing fruits.

Proper ways of cultivating


Cultivating the land is practiced to help promote the growth of roots and improve aeration for
fast absorption of nutrients by the soil.
There are two ways:
Off-barring- cultivating the soil in rows.
Hilling -up – cultivating the soil towards the base of the plant.
When cultivation is done properly, the growth of weeds can be controlled. Soil texture will improve plant
growth and distractive microorganisms found in the soil will eventually die.

Preparing and applying organic fertilizer

Fertilizer is any substance added to the soil that promotes the healthy growth of plants.
They are classified into two types:
Inorganic- artificial fertilizer made from chemicals ( liquid, soluble, and granular form).
Organic – natural fertilizer from decayed matter, animals, and other natural sources.

Fertilizer Advantages Disadvantages


Inorganic  Odorless and handy  Made of chemicals
 Always available in the  Hazardous to animals
market  Expensive
 Fast production  Makes the soil
 Makes the soil
unfertile(dependent to
it)
Organic  Natural  Foul odor
 Easy to produce  It takes time to prepare
 Promote the growth of
beneficial organism
 Adds more nutrients to
the soil
 Very high in production

Examples of organic fertilizer


 Humus- comes from decayed matters from plants and animals mixed with soil.
 Manure – comes from animal waste such as livestock (big animals) and poultry (chicken) waste.
 Green manure – comes from decayed plants.
 Compost – comes from decomposed biodegradeable waste in a pit.
 Compost pit- composting by digging pit keeping compost underground.
 Basket compost – composting home garbage in container.
 Compost heap – a compost pile.
 Vermi compost – comes from the waste of vermin (earthworm).
 Liquid fertilizer – made from the juice of plants and vermin compost through the process of
concoction (allows the juice to decompose with red sugar/molasses in a container).

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 Preparing organic fertilizers take a long period of time but provides a lot of help to plants.

Benefits of using organic fertilizer


 It increases the yield.
 It improves soil condition. Clay soil will turn porous when organic fertilizer is added.
 It balances the soil pH. Soil pH is the degree of acidity and alkalinity of the soil. Pulverized
eggshell, oyster shell, bone meal, and any lime will neutralize the acidity of the soil.
 It helps the development of roots, flowers, shoots, and fruits.
Ways to make an organic fertilizer (compost pit)
1. Dig the hole for your compost pit.
2. Chop your composting materials finely.
3. Add the organic materials to the compost pit.
4. Place a board over the hole if you plan to add more scraps.
5. Cover your compost with soil.
6. Keep the compost pit wet while it is decomposing.
7. Sow plants above the compost after it has decomposed.

Preparing organic liquid fertilizer

Ingredients:
Chopped fruits and vegetables
Red sugar/molasses
Container
Manila paper
Masking tape

Procedure:
1.Mix sugar, chopped fruits, and vegetables in a container.
2.Squeeze the mixture until all ingredients looks watery.
3.Cover the container using manila paper and masking tape.
4.Put date of process, wait for ten days to harvest the fertilizer.
5.During harvest filter the mixture. Get the juice.

Benefits of using organic pesticide


The use of pesticide may be necessary to protect and prevent plants and trees from getting damaged
due to infestation. Following are some of the advantages and benefits of using pesticides:
 Insect pest life cycle will be stopped.
 Infestation will be lessened.
 Prevents the spread of plant diseases
 The growth of plant will continue to progress.
 Higher yield is expected.
The best thing about using organic pesticide is that it is not harmful to humans and other
animals. There is no side effect to health. It can sustain the budget of growers because it is
affordable, the materials are readily available within the community and it is very easy to
prepare.

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Preparing organic pesticide
Ingredients:

1 cup of red chilli


1 role of makabuhay (bitter plant)
Whole garlic
1 cup warm water
Materials needed:
Apron, face mask, hand gloves
Knife, chopping board, medium bowl
Empty glass bottle or spray bottle
Funnel and piece of clean cloth

Procedure:
1.Chop all ingredients into pieces. Put in a bowl. Squeeze, and then filter using another clean cloth.
2.Add water. Use funnel transfer the solution to the empty or spray bottles.
3.Spray to infected plants. The effectivity of the solution last only for 3 days. Make sure it is already
consumed before the time of expiration.

Safety measures in preparing fertilizers and organic pesticide

 Always wear the personal protective equipment such as face mask, hand gloves, apron, working
clothes, and boots.
 Always read the instruction before doing the activity.
 Follow the guide of proper posture while working to avoid straining your back.
 Check the working condition of tools before using them.
 Never leave your work unattended especially when ingredients are about to be mixed.
 Measure all ingredients properly and follow the correct procedures. Do not deviate from the
instructions provided.
 Always focus on the work at hand. Avoid destructions.
 Avoid exposures to pesticides.
 Maintain a clean working place and free from any disturbances.
 Never forget to take a bath and clean thoroughly after working.

LET’S EXPLAIN
How do we water plants?
What are the methods in watering plants?
Why do we cultivate plants?
How do we prepare organic fertilizer?
Describe the different kinds of fertilizer?
What are the benefits of using organic fertilizer?
Explain the ways to prepare compost.
How do we prepare organic pesticide?
What are the safety measures in preparing organic fertilizer?

LET”S REMEMBER

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When cultivation is done properly, the growth of weeds can be controlled. Soil texture will improve plant
growth and distractive microorganisms found in the soil will eventually die.

The best thing about using organic pesticide is that it is not harmful to humans and other animals. There
is no side effect to health. It can sustain the budget of growers because it is affordable, the materials are
readily available within the community and it is very easy to prepare.

LET’S DO TOGETHER
With the guidance and instruction of your teacher, undertake the following activities:
Preparation of organic fertilizer and pesticide.

REINFORCEMENT
Apply organic fertilizer and pesticide to your plants in the school and make a report on the findings.

Reference:
Gloria A. Peralta, et al. The Basics of Better Family Living 6

57
LESSON 10 MARKETING FRUITS AND SEEDLINGS

Learning Competencies Code: TLE6AG-0f-7


1.7 markets fruits and seedlings
1.7.1 applies scientific knowledge and skills in identifying fruits and seedlings ready for sale
1.7.2 keeps updated record of trees/seedlings for sale
1.7.3 plans marketing strategy to be used in selling
1.7.4 uses online marketing of orchard trees/seedlings
1.7.5 prepares flyers or brochures

Lesson Objectives
Keep updated record of trees/seedlings for sale
Plan marketing strategy to be used in selling
Use online marketing of orchard trees and seedlings
Prepare flyers and brochures

Learning Competency Code TLE6AG-0g-8


1.8 Develops plan for expansion of planting trees and seedling production

LET’S BE INFORMED

Characteristics of marketable seedlings


 The stem is strong, thick, and healthy.
 It has five or more leaves.
 Establish healthy roots.

Once your products have undergone quality control inspection and are deemed marketable, you
may start promoting them. Below are some ways one can promote and market a product:
 Conduct survey to find the needs of the community. What fruits are in demand?
 Prepare and distribute pamphlet, flyers, and brochures-containing information about the
location and the picture of products.
 Use online marketing tools.
 Post contact numbers for clients who want to order or inquire about the product.
 Keeping a record of sales.

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Computing Sales and Profit

A. Sale Bangkok Santol


30 kilos x 25.00 = 750.00

Mango
20 kilos x 30.00 = 600.00
Total = 1,350.00

B. Expenses
Labor 200.00
Transportation 40.00
Containers, water 100.00
Seeds 75.00
Insecticide 100.00
Fertilizer 50.00
Total 565.00

C. Profit
Total sale 1, 350.00
Total Expenses - 565.00
----------------------
Profit 785.00

Table for record of sales/expenditures

Date Items Quantity Amount Remarks


May 11, 2017 Santol 10 500.00 seedlings

Marketing strategy used in selling


Marketing fresh fruits starts with educating your clientele about the value of buying
healthy food. Constantly communicating and providing helpful information on ways and access
to integrate fresh produce into one’s diet is a good subtle way to build customer loyalty. It shows
that you care about your clients.
Today, when more and more people are realizing the importance of a vitamin and fiber-
rich diet to one’s health, marketing fruits in this manner can be very effective. It might also help
to provide detailed information such as the use of organic fertilizer, and the variety of produce.
The use of online marketing of orchard trees/seedlings is the fastest way to market
products nowadays. Another is the preparation , distribution, and posting of flyers in
conspicuous places.

Selling the Plants

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More and more homes, offices, hospitals, and other business establishments include greens to
decorate their interiors . They buy or rent plants from nurseries. To attract buyers, collectors, and
those who are going to buy orchard owners provide the following:
 Artistically arranged plants miniature rock gardens and healthy plants
 Tall plants with thick foliage
 Rare plants
 Shady/clean and unobstructed pathways
 Helpful information tips
 Reasonable prize
 Cheerful, honest, and accommodating caretakers/sales person
Future plan for expansion
Every business should have a future plan for expansion. A successful orchard is important to the
community and environment. Its benefits stand as evidence that expansion is necessary.

Tips for future expansion:


 Community survey and symposium to find the needs of the locality.
 Build relationship to stakeholders of the community, the local government unit, schools, and
private sectors who runs related business.
 Real market status understand the demand-what are the fruit rate of sales?
 Open for investment and franchising.
 Availability of experience/skilled orchard technician.

LET’S EXPLAIN
1. What are the characteristic of marketable seedlings?
2.How do we market and promote a product?

LET’S REMEMBER
Plants will grow healthy and profitable if they are provided with best care.
Once your products have undergone quality control inspection and are deemed marketable, you may
start promoting them.

LET’S DO TOGETHER
Prepare flyers or brochures for promoting marketable products.

REINFORCEMENT
Marketing localized seedlings, fertilizer and pesticide in your school garden, home, and community by
using online marketing or preparing flyers and brochures.

Reference:
Gloria A. Peralta, et al. The Basics of Better Family Living 6

60
UNIT 2 ANIMAL AND FISH RAISING

Content Standard
Demonstrates an understanding of scientific processes in animal/fish raising

Performance Standard
Applies knowledge and skills, and develops one’s interest in animal/fish raising

LESSON 11 CONDUCTING A SURVEY

Learning Competencies: Code: TLE6AG-0h-9


2.1 Conducts survey to find out:
2.1.1 persons in the community whose occupation is animal (four –legged)/ fish raising
2.1.2 kinds of four-legged animals/fish being raised as means of livelihood
2.1.3 possible hazards that animal raising can cause to the people and community.
2.1.4 Ways to prevent hazards brought about by raising animals
2.1.5 Market demands for animal/fish products and by products
2.1.6 Direct consumers or retailers
2.1.7 Benefits that can be derived from animal/fish raising
2.1.8 Stories of successful entrepreneurs in animal/fish raising

Objectives:
Identify the steps in conducting a survey.
Identify the persons in the community whose occupation is animal/fish raising by conducting a survey.

LET’S BE INFORMED
Animal raising or fish farming industry can lead to different entrepreneurial endeavours ranging from the
sale of live animals and fish to the production of by-products including meat.

Conducting a survey
Once you have decided what kind of farming you want to do, it is best to scout the area where you are
situated. When you conduct your own survey, take your time and get as much information before you
finally begin farming.
Whether it is small scale (backyard) farming or large scale farming that you have in mind, it is best to take
initial steps.
 Know your area
Find out if there are other farms of the same kind in your area. How many ? Will there be
competition between you and the other farms in your area?

61
 Know the local animal and fish industry
a. What other animals and fishes are raised in other farms?
Will it have any kind of effect on your farm?
b.Where will you be getting your farm supplies? Know the office of the provincial veterinarian or
the local office of the Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI).
 Know the people in the community
There are certain rules on zoning. Make sure you have been cleared to put up a farm or raise
documentations should be secured prior to operation since animal farms are prohibited to
operate in or near residential areas.
 Know your market
Know the local market and middle men. Get in touch with direct buyers, consumers, and
retailers in your area.
 Learn from others
Some say that experience is the best teacher. Learn from other people’s previous experiences.
Think of ways to do business deals better.

LET’S EXPLAIN
Do you think animal and fish farming may be done in the city? Why?
If you are to establish your own animal and businesses, what would it be and why?
Can you say that if done properly, animal and fish raising can be a big business endeavour?
What are the steps in conducting a survey?

LET’S REMEMBER
Animal raising adds income to the family.
Keep pens and their surroundings clean to avoid disease and pollution.
Give the animals nutritious and clean food to get the best results and have progressive
enterprise.
Fish farming or aquaculture is a wise alternative for productive use of time, talent, and treasure.

LET’S DO TOGETHER
Prepare a survey questionnaire regarding animal /fish raising in the community.
Find out:
1.Persons in the community whose occupation is animal/fish raising
2.Kinds of four-legged animals/fish being raised in the community
3.Possible hazards that animal raising can cause to the people and community
4. Ways to prevent hazards brought about by raising animals
5.Market demands for animal/fish products and by products
6.Direct consumers or retailers
7.Benefits that can be derived from animal/fish raising
8.Stories of successful entrepreneurs in animal/fish raising

REINFORCEMENT
Conduct a survey in your locality using your questionnaire.
Present results and stories of successful entrepreneurs.

Reference:
Gloria A. Peralta, et al. The Basics of Better Family Living 6

62
LESSON 12 PLANNING FOR THE FAMILY’S ANIMAL AND FISH RAISING PROJECT

Learning Competency: Code: TLE6AG-0i-10


2.2 Plans for the family’s animal raising project
2.2.1 identifies animals to be raised as an alternative source of income for the family (e.g, goat, hogs,
fish)
2.2.2 Prepares list of needed materials to start the project
2.2.3 Prepares schedule of work for raising, caring, processing, and marketing of products and by
product
2.2.4 Records potential income, expenses and gains

Objectives
Identify animals to be raised as an alternative source of income for the family
Discuss how to feed these animals
Prepare list of needed materials to start the project-animal raising
Prepare schedule of work for raising, caring, processing, and marketing of products and by-product
Implement plan on animal raising
Compute income, expenses and gains
Record potential income, expenses, and gains

LET’S BE INFORMED
Planning for the family’s animal and fish raising project
Particularly, in livestock raising, you consider not only the animals to be raised but also their dwelling,
food, water supply, and many other things.
Planning and preparing to raise animals must be given ample time and careful thought. To
achieve your set goals in livestock raising, be mindful of minute details.

Here are some suggestions to make the right decisions.


 Attend seminars sponsored by government agencies.
 Read journals or magazines on livestock raising.
 Interview persons authority or experts on animal raising.
 Have enough capital or budget for the venture.
 Decide on what animal to raise.
 Determine the proper location or space for the chosen animals.
 Ascertain sufficient food supply for the animals.
 Look into the water system of the place.
 Check manpower.

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Animals to be raised
Raising swine/hog raising

Hog meat is one of the popular meats in the market. Filipinos are heavy consumers of this protein-rich
food.

Breeds
The following are the standard breeds of swine commonly raised today:
a.Hampshire – The pig looks smaller than other breeds. The ears are erect, tail is usually black, and legs
are short.

b.Duroc – This breed comes from New Jersey. It has a dark red and golden yellow color. It is also a good
producer of milk and has good mothering characteristics.

c.Yorkshire-This breed is commonly raised in Canada. It has large ears with white and black spots. This
breed is a good source of meat for making bacon.

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d.Landrace – This breed comes from Denmark. It has white hair and skin . Its ears are larger in size and
covers much of its face. Its meat is best for making bacon, ham, and pork chop.

e.Hypor- This breed has well muscled back, well developed ham, and has high carcass quality.It has
superior milking qualities.

f.Poland China- This breed is black in color with white spots on its feet, tail, and face. It has thick meat.

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g.Tamworth – This has a long narrow head, long snout, and erect ears. The body is light and dark red in
color. Its meat is best for making bacon.

Feeding Swine
Swine at different age levels require different feed types to be given two to three times per day. These
are the following:
Starter Mash- This is given to two to eight week old piglets.
Growing mash- This is given to two to six month old piglets.
Fattening mash- This is given to ten month old piglets until they are ready for slaughtering.
Alternative food like camote tops, kangkong, papaya leaves may also be given to swine from time to
time.

Needed materials to start the project

Requirements for hog raising


 Pigpen. This must have adequate space for the pig to move around freely. There must be trough
for feeds and water. The roofing is made of galvanized sheets.The floor is slightly sloping to the
draining area to prevent urine and manure from accumulating. A pit is provided for dumping of
hog waste.
 Piglet. This must be carefully selected. Ckeck skin, legs, feet and nails, as well as breed and size.
Also choose those that have been vaccinated with anti-cholera, anti-anemia, and immunization
from other diseases.
 Food. There are many kinds containing various ingredients and nutrients. Avoid giving spoiled
food for this can cause diseases which can be transmitted to humans.

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 Care. One must ensure that the pigs do not contact any diseases. Proper care includes keeping
them in pigpens, maintaining cleanliness in their spaces, bathing them everyday, and consulting
a veterinarian when necessary.

Goat raising
Goats are easier to raise because they simply live on grass and leaves of plants like ipil-ipil,
kangkong, camote, and tamarind. They are managed for the production of milk, meat and wool. Among
goats, major health problems are internal and external parasites coccidiosis (in kids before and after
weaning) and pneumonia. A good health care program includes vaccination for most diseases and is
established between the grower and veterinarian. In the Philippines, goat meat is relatively more
expensive than chicken, pork, or beef, Goat farming has a high potential for profit. Goats, like cattle, may
be caged in a pen or allowed to graze on a large parcel of grassy land.

Needs in goat raising

In launching a goat enterprise, consider the resources you have to devote to the project. Personal
attitudes like interest and determination, availability of land, machinery, equipment, labor, capital, and
marketing/selling are the things that should matter. Also, there should be a profitable outlet for goat
products.

Housing for goats

A good housing for goats is very essential as they are prone to pneumonia when regularly exposed to
rain. A goat house must be well ventilated, clean, and dry. There should be separate pens for lactating
does, dry does, kids and bucks. A fenced loafing area should be provided complete with feeding racks
and water troughs.

Feeding the goats

Goats are known to relish paragrass, stargrass, napier grass, guinea grass, and centrosema among other
grasses and legumes. Goats like other livestock, require the same nutrients such as protein,
carbohydrates, fats , minerals, vitamins, and water. During the rainy season, keep the goats in their pen.

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Feed them with cut grass and salt. Salt makes goats keep a steady appetite making them grow faster and
produce more milk.

Fish farming

Fish farming is one of the biggest industries in the Philippines. As an archipelago, surrounded by many
bodies of water, the country is rich in natural resources, making fish farming is suitable and viable source
of livelihood for many Filipinos.

Tilapia
Tilapia is one of the most in demand fish in the market today. Fish growers both locally and abroad are
focusing aquaculture efforts on Tilapia because of the demand for it as well as its rapid growth and
productivity at harvest time.

Ways of raising Tilapia


Tilapia may be grown in three ways.
Choose what suits your locality, space, and even your purpose whether for family consumption or as a
livelihood project.
 Using the drum. This pertains to the use of big drums to grow tilapia. Because the space is
limited, the harvest is also limited just enough for a family’s consumption.

 Using a fish pen or pond. This indicates that the use of rivers and lakes with pens or ponds
measuring 1x1x1 square meters. This can raise from 250 to 1500 tilapia.

 Using an artificial pond. This suggests raising tilapia in an excavated or dug out concrete pond at
the backyard preferably near a water source where water supply is sufficient.
Milkfish
Also referred to as the national fish of the Philippines, milkfish or bangus is very popular for its milky
taste. Like the tilapia, milkfish requires no special kind of feed, for its diet. Milkfish can be harvested
after seven to ten months of feeding.

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Catfish
Catfish resembles cat’s whiskers. This fish has become a staple food for many Filipinos especially in the
tagalog region. Catfish can be harvested between four to six months of feeding.

Ways of raising fish


The following are the common types of fish enclosures used today.
a.Dug out/excavated enclosures – This type of fish pen is an inland fish pen. A large land area is
excavated to create a pool of water where fish can be grown.

b.Concrete/plastic enclosures-Concrete and plastic fish tanks are usually used for commercial fingerling
production and research development.

c.Fish cages- This is an enclosure made of nets and stakes placed in large bodies of water like the sea,
lakes, and rivers to contain and protect fish until they can be harvested.

Preparing schedule of work for raising, caring, processing, and marketing of products and by products

Having decided what animal and fish you would like to raise on your farm, it is time to learn to prepare a
work schedule.
Draft your action plan using bullet points of what you want to do, how you want to do it, and what you
are willing to do to set your goal.
 Set a concrete, attainable goal.
 Determine how you plan to attain that goal that you set.
 What makes you different from other farms/farmers doing the same thing?
 Do you have a marketing plan?
 Do a SWOT analysis.

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 What are your strengths?
 What do you think are your weaknesses.
 Are there opportunities you should look into?
 What potential threats should you be aware of?
 Prepare your SWOT analysis table following the sample below.

Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats

SWOT analysis may also help you use external forces you have no control of to your advantage.

The following points out the schedule of work when you put up a farm.
 Development of a business plan
This includes setting the objectives that you want to attain

The following are the required permits when putting up a farm business:
Business name registration
This permit is secured from the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)
Barangay Clearance
You need to secure the necessary permit to operate from the barangay where your farm
will be put up.
Mayor’s permit and License/Sanitary permit
The local government, which has jurisdiction over the area where the business is located
issues business licenses or license to operate to establishments.
Tax Identification Number (TIN)
This serves as the business tax ID.
Environmental Compliance Certificate (ECC)
This document is issued by the department of Environment and natural Resources (DENR) after
inspection of the facilities that you have built on your farm.
 Planning for operations
This is an outline of the day to day operations of your farm. What gets done, how it is
done, when it is done, who does it (production cycle).
 Development of the marketing plan
This answers the question: What do you do to your products once these become
available
 Establishing your financial plan
This includes budget allotment vs. expenses, debt, labor, and miscellaneous expenses of
the farm.
 Execution of the business plan
At this point, you as a farm operator are able to translate all your actions to income
generation and experience gain.
 Monitoring
It is important to keep records to assess whether your farm business yields income or not.
 Research and development

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It is best to keep learning and take in new ideas and practices that can help improve your
daily operations. The internet is a good source of free information.

Taking Care of the Environment in Raising Animals


It is important to take care of the environment when raising animals. Some laws regulate the use
of a place for animal raising. Laws prohibit the use of residential areas for large-scale animal raising.
There is a need to segregate waste. A definite place should be allotted for dumping the waste. Be sure
that this waste does not pollute the surrounding area specially lakes, ponds, and rivers. Animals should
stay in their own fence and they are not allowed to loiter.

LET’S ANSWER
Identify the animals that can be raised as a source of income.
Describe the different breeds of swine.
What are the guidelines in swine and goat raising?
What are the needed materials for swine and goat raising?
How do we raise tilapia?
What are the materials needed to start an animal raising project?
Why do we need to do SWOT analysis?
What are the different permits required when putting up a farm?
What are the points in preparing a schedule of work when putting up a farm business.
How do we take care of the environment in raising animals?

LET’S REMEMBER
The animal raising or fish farming industry can lead to different entrepreneurial endeavours ranging
from the sale of live animals and fish to the production of by-products including meat.

LET’S DO TOGETHER
After deciding what animal to raise, prepare a powerpoint presentation on the following:
1. The kind of animal you want to raise
2. A list of materials you will need to start the project
3. Your possible expenses and income at the end of the project
4. List of recommendations

REINFORCEMENT
Implement plan on animal/fish raising

Reference:
Gloria A. Peralta, et al. The Basics of Better Family Living 6

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LESSON 13 IMPLEMENTATION OF PLAN ON ANIMAL/FISH RAISING

Competency
2.3 Implements plan on animal/fish raising Code: TLE6AG-0i-11
2.3.1 monitors growth and progress
2.3.2 keeps an updated records of growth/progress
2.3.3 expands/enhances one’s knowledge of animal/fish raising using the internet

LET’S BE INFORMED

As with any business, it is important to keep records to assess whether your farm business yields
income or not. Assuming that business is good, farm products are abundant, and daily operations are at
their peak, you should be able to set standards for all aspects of production. For example, quantity of
milk produced every day, number of young born every breeding cycle, number of animals sold every
selling season.
There are also a lot of information about animal/fish raising available on the internet. Make sure
to validate information and check different sources.

Rubrics for Animal and Fish Raising

Indicators Excellent Good Poor


(5 points) (3-4) (1-2)
He or she monitors the
growth and progress of
the project
He or she keeps an
updated record of the
growth and progress of
the project
He or she
expands/enhances his
or her knowledge of
animal and fish raising

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using the internet and
other sources of
information.

Total

LET’S EXPLAIN

1.Why is keeping records in any business important?


2.Why do we need to monitor growth and progress of the business?
3. How can we enhance our knowledge in animal/fish raising?

LET’S REMEMBER
In the implementation process, as farm operators we should be able to translate all our actions
to income generation and experience gain.

LET’S DO TOGETHER
Create a monitoring form for recording growth and progress of yields .

REINFORCEMENT
Monitor progress of any business in your locality for one week. Use your monitoring form to record
growth and progress.

Reference:
Gloria A. Peralta, et al. The Basics of Better Family Living 6

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LESSON 14 MARKETING OF ANIMAL/FISH RAISED

Learning Competencies: Code TLE6AG-0J-13


2.5 manages marketing of animals/fish raised
2.5.1 discusses indicators for harvesting/capturing
2.5.2 demonstrates skill in harvesting/capturing animal/fish
2.5.3 prepares marketing strategy by asking help from others or using the internet
2.5.4 markets animal/fish

Lesson Objectives
Discuss indicators for harvesting animals/fish
Demonstrate skill in harvesting/capturing animal/fish
Prepare marketing strategy by asking help from others using the internet
Market animals/fish
Compute the income earned from marketed products (Gross sale-Expenses = Net Income)
Prepare plans for expansion of animal-raising venture

LET’S BE INFORMED

Indicators for harvesting/capturing fish


Tilapia can be harvested after three to four months of feeding.
Milkfish can be harvested after seven to ten months of feeding.
Catfish can be harvested between four to six months of feeding.

Ways in capturing fish


1.Total pond harvest is accomplished by draining and seining.
2. The pond is partially drained (20-30 %) to concentrate the fish.
3. The pond is repeatedly seined until most (80%) of the fish are captured.
4. The pond is drained further and seining is continued.

Marketing the farm produce


Here are some ways to market your farm produce:

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1.Direct farm sales
You can sell animal or fish by-products directly from your farm. This is a very convenient way to generate
income since there is no extra cost for rent. All your selling transactions can be done within your farm.

2.Farmers market/livestock auction market


As an animal raiser/farm operator, you should be on the lookout for events such as livestock auction
markets or similar events in your area where people from nearby provinces come to buy livestock direct
from raisers themselves.

3.Farm to market
Some farming families or entrepreneurs also have meat shop or fish stall in the nearby wet market to sell
their own animal products.
4.Restaurants
One possible livestock client can be the nearby restaurants in your area. You could establish “suki”
system.

5.Selling through the internet


Due to the wide coverage of the internet, aside from placing advertisements on different websites, you
could also use social media to market your animal and fish farm products and services.

6.Selling through middlemen


There are entrepreneurs and there are people who work with entrepreneurs to make deals with other
entrepreneurs, resellers, and dealers. These are called middlemen. Middlemen are people who buy
goods from animal and fish raisers and sells them to retailers or other consumers.

Marketing Pork, Beef, and By-products


Today, there is a great demand for meat like pork and beef. Pork and beef are sold in the
following forms: fresh, frozen, choice cuts, and cured as in tocino, tapa, longganisa, and hotdogs. Cow’s
milk is packed as fresh milk, evaporated milk, powdered milk, or used as ingredient for cheese, butter,
yogurt, ice cream, pastillas, and leche flan and other dessert products.

Example computation for the income of a backyard piggery doing a grow out operation.
Assuming that there is an existing small piggery in your backyard and you bought (10) two-
month old piglets at 3,500.00 each which you intend to grow and sell after four months. In cases where
no infrastructure has been built yet, construction cost (labor and materials) or rent of facilities should be
taken into consideration.
Given:
10 piglets at 3,500.00
Cost of feeds 1,000/head/month (x 4 months)

A six month old pig ready for selling (averages of 90kg assuming price per kilo is 120.00).

(3,500.00/piglet) x (10 heads) = 35,000.00 (cost to buy piglets)

(1,000 food allowance/head/month) x (10 heads ) x (4 months) – 40,000.00 (cost of food forn10 growing
pigs)

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(90 kg ideal selling weight at 6 months old) x (120.00/kilo of live pig) – 10,800.00 (selling price of each
pig after the 4 –month growing period)
10,800.00/head x 10 heads = 108,000.00

108,000.00 (selling price of 10 pigs grown after 4 months)

-(less)

35,000.00 (cost of 10 heads of pig as starter)

-(less)
40,000.00 (cost of food for 4 months)

33,000.00 (income in 4 months or 8,250.00 per month)

With the assumption that labor is free since work is done by members of the family

RECORD OF EXPENSES/PRODUCTION
Date Item/s Quantity Amount Remarks

Make sure to keep your record book updated. List down expense items as they are incurred so
you will not forget them. Be specific in listing down items. Keep receipts and file them in a folder or
envelope.

LET’S EXPLAIN
1.When is the best time to harvest Tilapia, Milkfish, and Catfish?
2. Explain the ways of capturing fish.
3. Discuss the ways of marketing farm produce.
4. What are the by-products from pork and beef?

LET’S REMEMBER
Due to the wide coverage of the internet, aside from placing advertisements on different websites, you
could also use social media to market your animal and fish farm products and services.

LET’S DO TOGETHER

Answer the following:


_______ 1. This kind of fish can be harvested after three to four months of feeding.
_______2. This fish can be harvested after seven to ten months of feeding.
_______3. Fish that can be harvested between four to six months of feeding.
_______4. What percentage should a pond be partially drained to concentrate the fish?

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_______5. They are people who buy goods from animal and fish raisers and sells them to retailers or
other consumers.
_______6. Example of fish by-products.
_______7. Example of pork by-products.
_______8. Example of beef by-products.
_______9. How do we compute the net income?
_______10. How is harvesting fish done?

REINFORCEMENT
Prepare for a summative test.

Reference
The Basics of Better Living 6

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