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Session 9

CPD Seminar
Lifts and Escalators
25 January, 2013

Legislation
• Lifts and Escalators (Safety) Ordinance Cap 327 had
been used for just over half a century.
• From 17th December, 2012 onwards, the new Lifts and
Escalators Ordinance (Cap 618), enacted on 18th April,
2012, has been effective.
• Associated with 2 regulations: Lifts and Escalators
(General) Regulation and Lifts and Escalators (Fees)
Regulation.
• Enhancement of control measures.
• Governs all lifts and escalators in both public and private
sectors.
• Responsible Persons (RPs) established, owners,
managers and controllers of lifts or escalators.

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Cap 618 ensures the safety of lift and escalator by the following
means:

(i) Equipment compliance


Lift/escalator and their safety components shall be type approved
by EMSD.

(ii) Quality control


Lift/escalator works such as installation, maintenance, repair,
alteration and demolition of lifts/escalators shall be undertaken by
registered lift/escalator contractors (RCs). RC shall notify EMSD
in respect of undertaking and subcontracting lift/escalator works.

(iii) Safety examination


Lift/escalator shall be thoroughly examined and certified in safe
working order by registered lift/escalator engineers (REs) before
putting into use and operation, after major alternation; and
periodically at interval not exceeding 1 year for lifts and 6 months
for escalators.

Cap 618 ensures the safety of lift and escalator by the following means:

(iv) Setting of standards


EMSD is empowered to issue code of practice (CoP) e.g. the CoP on
the design and construction of lifts and escalators and the Code of
Practice for Lift Works and Escalator Works (2012 Edition.
RC shall attend to the failure of emergency device of lift within 4 hours
after the RC becomes aware of the failure. The emergency devices of
a lift include the alarm system, emergency lighting and
intercommunication system of the lift and the ventilation fan of the car
of the lift.
If the failure of the emergency device cannot be rectified within 24
hours after the registered lift contractor becomes aware of the failure,
the RC must, before the end of the 24-hour period, notify EMSD of the
failure in the specified form.

(v) Prosecution
EMSD is empowered to issue prohibition order, cessation order,
examination order, removal order and improvement order.
The penalty levels of offences have been increased – the maximum
fine is $200,000 and the maximum imprisonment period is 12 months.
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Cap 618 ensures the safety of lift and escalator by the following means:

(vi) Registration system


The registration systems for RC and RE are enhanced and they are
required to renew their registration every 5 years. In addition, a new
registration regime for lift /escalator workers (RWs) is introduced.
Registers of RC, RE and RW are maintained.
RE and RW shall carry their registration cards at works.
Disciplinary action against registered person who committed
disciplinary offence.

(vii) Public monitoring


The new use permit clearly indicates its validity period to better
promote user surveillance.
If there is a specified incident relating to a lift/escalator, RP shall
within 24 hours after the incident comes to the person’s knowledge,
notify in writing the EMSD and the RC.
RC shall display a notice before the end of the 4-hour period after the
contractor becomes aware of the specified incident if the normal use
and operation of the lift/escalator is suspended because of the
incident.
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Cap 618 ensures the safety of lift and escalator


by the following means:

(viii) Record keeping


RP shall keep log-books.
RC and RE shall enter information into log-books and
keep related records, such as the name and contact
information of sub-contractor if the works is
subcontracted.

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According to section 2 of Cap 618, the responsible
person (RP) for a lift or an escalator is defined as:
(1) the owner of the installation; or
(2) any other person who has the management or control of the installation, but
that does not include any person who only uses or operates the installation
or carries out lift or escalator works.

• The owner may confer on the appointed responsible person for the
installation all or part of the management or control of the installation in a
specific and clear manner.
• The owner should provide the RP with adequate information so that the
latter can effectively perform the required duties.
• Apart from the owner, any other person who has the management or control,
including the organization and its staff, the property management company
under its contract and the staff representing the property management
company, shall be regarded as the responsible person for the installation.
• The parties who rent or occupy the premises but are not authorised to
manage or control the installation, such as tenants or premises users, are
not required to undertake or fulfil the responsibilities of a responsible person
for the installation.

Responsibilities of a RP

• Ensure the installation and all associated equipment or machinery


kept in a proper state of repair and of safe working order.
• Ensure the installation is not used under certain circumstances.
• Ensure the service lift, goods lift, or mechanized vehicle parking
system is not used for carrying persons and is not overloaded.
• Ensure all lift works or escalators works carried out by registered
contractors.
• Ensure maintenance works undertaken by registered contractors,
not exceeding one month.
• Ensure certain works conducted by registered engineers, such as
periodic examinations, examinations after major alterations.
• Periodic examination within 2 months from the expiry of the permit.
• Keep record of log-books for at least 3 years.
• Allow registered contractors to notify users after serious accidents.
• Notify registered contractors about failure of emergency devices.

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How to select an appropriate maintenance
contractor?

• Background
• Sufficient technical knowhow
• Spare parts
• Anticipated duration of maintenance, availability of
maintenance schedule
• Registered Contractor’s Performance Rating Scheme
established by EMSD, available on EMSD web site
• Capability of dealing with emergencies

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Benefits of modernization or renovation

• Safety enhancement
• Reliability and availability enhancement
• Improving the appearance
• More comfortable ride
• Energy saving
• Performance improvement, e.g. dispatching, speed etc.
• Prolonging the life
• Saving money – replacement better than repair
• Problems with changing a contractor, manufacturer not
necessary the maintenance contractor

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Definitions
• Definition of a Lift - according to Cap 618, it means a lifting
machine or appliance having a carrier the direction of movement
of which is restricted by one or more guides; or a mechanized
vehicle parking system.
• Definition of an Escalator – according to Cap 618, it means an
inclined, continuous stairway that is driven by mechanical power
for raising or lowering passengers; or a passenger conveyor that
is a continuous walkway driven by mechanical power and is used
for conveying passengers on the same or between different traffic
levels.
• Definition of Traction Lift – a whose lifting ropes are driven by
friction in the grooves of the driving sheave of the machine.
• Definition of Hydraulic Lift – a lift in which the lifting power is
derived from an electricity driven pump transmitting hydraulic fluid
to a jack, acting directly or indirectly on the car.

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Types of Lifts:
• Traction (Geared/Gearless/Machine Roomless)
• Hydraulic
Types of Drives:
• AC2 (AC 2-speed)
• ACVV (AC Variable Voltage)
• ACVVVF (AC Variable Voltage Variable
Frequency)
• DCWL (DC Ward Leonard)
• DCTL (DC Thyristor Leonard)
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Basic
Structure of
a Traction
Lift

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Basic Structure
of a Hydraulic
Lift

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MG taken away for 3-phase motor


Thyristor Leonard driven by power
Drive electronics
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Standard
Geared
Machine

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A Standard
Gearless Drive

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Roping Systems

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Machine Roomless Lifts

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Twin Lifts

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Mitsubishi Ropeless Elevator

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Otis
Odyssey

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Torque Speed Curve of a standard Induction Machine

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ACVV
Control

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ACVVVF Torque Speed Curves

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Torque Speed Curves of ACVVVF Scalar Control

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Major Safety Devices of


Traction Lifts:
• Intercom
• Overrun switches
• Landing door interlock
• Car door interlock
• Governor and Safety gear
• Buffers
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Progressive Safety
Gear for High-
Speed Lifts

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Flexible guide clamp
safety gear for heavy duty
elevators

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1. Wedge-shaped gibs
2. Moving on hardened
steel chromium-plated
rollers
3. Mounted in a non-ferrous
cage
4. Running in the hardened
steel tracks of the jaw
5. Adjusted by means of a
screw assembly
6. Cage secured in its
position by a helical
spring.

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Additional Safety Devices of Hydraulic


Lifts:

• Pawl Device is a mechanical device for


stopping involuntary descent of the car
and maintaining it stationary on fixed
supports.
• Electrical Anti-creep system is a
combination of precautions against the
danger of creeping.
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Protection Against Unintended Car Movement

• A traction drive lift shall be provided with a means to stop


unintended car movement away from the landing with the
landing door not in the locked position and the car door
not in the closed position, as a result of failure in any
single component of the lift machine or drive control
system upon which the safe movement of the car depends,
except failure of the suspension ropes or chains and the
traction sheave or drum or sprockets of the machine.
• Failure of traction sheave includes a loss of traction.
• The means shall detect unintended movement of the car
away from the landing and cause the car to come to a stop
at the latest in a distance of 1,200 mm as measured from
the landing sill.

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Rope Gripper
• A traction drive lift shall be provided with ascending car
overspeed protection means to detect uncontrolled
movement of the ascending car at a minimum 115% of
rated speed and shall cause the car to stop.
• This means shall act either to the car, or to the
counterweight, or on the rope system (suspension or
compensating) or on the traction sheave.

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Automatic Rescue
Device

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Use a Double Brake System

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A Double Brake

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Structure of
Escalator
Safety Devices:
Shirting/step; Handrail; Comb
plate
Emergency stop; Power failure
with any one phase
Earth fault; Overload;
Overspeed
Operation of auxiliary brake
Breakage of drive chains
Stopping of succeeding
escalators; Sagging of steps
Breakage of handrail
Opening of inspection doors
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Advances on
Lift Design and Installation

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World’s Fastest Lift at Taipei 101


600 m/min down
1010 m/min up
Coming one in China up to 20 m/s perhaps

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Destination
Hall Call
System
Miconic 10

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Remote
Monitoring
of Lift
Systems

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Central Remote Monitoring Centre

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Elevgraphy

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Elevgraphy (cont’d)
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Data Acquisition System


and Final Graphs of
Elevgraphy

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Comfort:
• ISO 18738:2003
• Sound measurement – microphone placed
1.5 m above car floor at the centre,
measuring A-weighted sound pressure, LAeq
during lift travel
• Vibration sensor measures all three
directions, using ISO 8041 frequency-
weighing factors, maximum peak-to-peak and
A95 peak-to-peak value along x- and y-
directions and maximum peak-to-peak value
along z-direction
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Parameter to Evaluate Energy


Performance:
•Unfair to judge that one elevator is less ENERGY
EFFICIENT only because it consumes more energy than
another similar elevator even with the same rated capacity,
same rated speed and same height of travel.
•The absolute energy consumption over a period of time
MUST NOT BE used
•Total energy consumption very much depends on the traffic
patterns. An idle elevator car almost consumesno energy.
•Therefore, the benchmarking parameter must be traffic
pattern dependent.

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(J/kg of passengers - m of car travel) should be one appropriate
benchmarking parameter, trip by trip basis over a measurement
window of T , say 30 minutes, over a day
ET = energy consumed during T
n = number of brake-to-brake journeys within T

ET
J/kg - m = n

∑ i =1
wi d i

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Conventional Control

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Artificial Intelligence based Control without
Energy Saving Algorithms

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Artificial Intelligence based Control with


Energy Saving Algorithms

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Parameters measuring Traffic
Performance
• Average Waiting Time (AJT <
30 s)
• Average Travel Time (ATT < 60
s)

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RTT – the
most
important
parameter in
Lift Traffic
Analysis

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Formulae for calculating RTT
df df
t s = t f 1 + t c + to − ; tv = ;
v v
tl + tu
tp =
2
RTT = 2Ht v + (S + 1)t s + 2 Pt p
RTT 300 PL
UPPINT = ; UPPHC =
L RTT
100UPPHC
% POP =
U eff

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CoP and Guidelines for Energy Efficiency of Lifts and Escalators,


earliest 2000 Edition, latest 2012 Edition
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The Ordinance (Building Energy Efficiency Ordinance Cap 610) specifies that
designated duties under the Ordinance must be performed by Registered
Energy Assessors. They are:

• to certify the declarations by building developers that suitable design


provisions of relevant building services installations have been incorporated
into the planning and design of the buildings in accordance with the Building
Energy Code (BEC) and then have been installed and completed in
compliance with the BEC so as to apply for Certificate of Compliance
Registration (COCR) from Director of Electrical and Mechanical Services (the
Director); or
• to certify the relevant building services installations involved in major
retrofitting works that the installations comply with the BEC, issue Forms of
Compliance (FOC) to responsible persons or owners of the premises
concerned; or
• to conduct energy audits and issue Energy Audit Form (EAF) for owners of
commercial buildings and commercial portion of composite buildings in
respect of the central building service installations at interval not longer than
ten years.

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An applicant for REA:
• is a registered professional engineer within the meaning of section 2(1) of the
Engineers Registration Ordinance (Cap. 409) and is registered in the electrical,
mechanical, environmental or building services discipline under that Ordinance;
• has had at least 2 years practical experience in engineering works relating to
energy efficiency in buildings acquired while being so registered;
• has the knowledge required for the performance of the duties and functions of a
registered energy assessor under the Ordinance; and
• is a fit and proper person to be registered; or
• is a corporate member of the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers in the electrical,
mechanical, environmental or building services discipline, or has an equivalent
qualification recognized by the Institution as being of a standard not lower than
that of a corporate member of the Institution in any of those disciplines;
• has had at least 3 years practical experience in engineering works relating to
energy efficiency in buildings acquired while being such a member;
• has the knowledge required for the performance of the duties and functions of a
registered energy assessor under the Ordinance; and
• is a fit and proper person to be registered.

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The developer of that building, at occupation approval stage (within 4 months after
issue of an "occupation permit"), is further required to:
• engage a REA to certify that the 4 key types of building services installations
provided by the developer in the building at or before the time when the
declaration is made have been designed, installed and completed in accordance
with the standards and requirements specified in the BEC; and
• submit "stage two declaration" to EMSD to declare that the 4 key types of
building services installations provided by the developer in the building at or
before the time when the declaration is made have been designed, installed and
completed in accordance with the standards and requirements specified in the
BEC (the edition applied in the "stage one declaration"), in order to apply for
COCR (Certificate of Compliance Registration) for the building.
Subsequently, the owner(s) of the building (i.e. the Incorporated Owners or all
owners, etc.), every 10 years, is/are required to:
• engage a REA to certify that the design of all the 4 key types of central building
services installations are maintained to a standard not lower than the BEC
version applied in the first COCR or FOC (Form of Compliance) of the building;
and
• submit application to EMSD for renewal of the COCR.

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General Approach
• Limit maximum allowable drive power
• Reduce loss by Min Total Power Factor
• Reduce loss by Limiting decoration load
• Reduce loss by Standby or parking mode -
govern VAC
• Reduce loss by Mitigating power quality
problems
• Metering and energy monitoring for better
energy efficiency management

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Remark:
The
maximum
allowable
electrical
power for a
passenger
conveyor with
Nominal
Width above
1000 mm and
below 1400
mm is given
by
interpolation.
1400 & above could not be shown due to
space limitation.
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Total Power Factor


• TPF ≧ 0.85 for full-load up at rated speed for lifts
• TPF ≧ 0.85 for E/PS at brake load at rated speed in an
upward movement
• Power factor correction device when necessary

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Energy Efficiency Requirements
for Lift & Escalator Installations
Decoration Load in a Lift

For lifts above 1800 kg, allowable D gradually


drops from approximately 33% to 25% of rated
load at a maximum of 5000 kg.
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Allowable D Load vs Rated Load L

1400.0
Allowable Decoration Load D (kg)

1200.0

1000.0

800.0

600.0

400.0

200.0

0.0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500

Lift Rated Load L (kg)

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Lift Parking Mode
• Low traffic period – at least one car of a
bank under parking mode
• What is LOW TRAFFIC PERIOD?
• Parked car not responding to landing calls
• V/AC of parked car specially handled
• 2 min for V, 10 min + 5 min for AC

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THD for Lifts

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THD for Escalators

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Metering and Monitoring Facilities


• Metering devices or provision for measurement
• V (phase-phase, phase-neutral)
• I (lines and neutral)
• TPF
• Energy consumption (kWh)
• P (kW)
• Maximum demand (kVA)
• Total harmonic distortion (%)
• Provision means measurement without interruption to
normal operation except escalators

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