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Single unit biogas

and fertiliser
generator
● Balendira Balaraman (24740)
● Lim Choon Hao (21698)
● Muhammad Ashraf Bin Razali (22011)
● Nesha Priya A/P Arasu (23142)
● Nor Atikaah Suhaida Bt. Supian (22127)
---- GROUP 84 ---- DR MUHAMMAD RASHID BIN SHAMSUDIN
Single unit biogas
and fertiliser
generator
Black color - To prevent growth
of algae within the prototype

---- GROUP 84 ---- DR MUHAMMAD RASHID BIN SHAMSUDIN


TABLE 1: Estimated Methane Emission and Electricity Generated from
Food Waste in 2010

Hoo P.Y., Hashim H., Ho W.S., Tan S.T., 2017, Potential biogas generation from food waste through anaerobic digestion in peninsular malaysia, Chemical
Engineering Transactions, 56, 373-378 DOI:10.3303/CET1756063
TABLE 2 : Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation by states in Peninsular
Malaysia - in thousand tonnes)
Projection based on (1998 - 2000) on an average increase rate of
2.14%

[1] Johari, A., Ahmed, S. I., Hashim, H., Alkali, H., & Ramli, M. (2012). Economic and environmental benefits of landfill gas from municipal solid waste in
Malaysia.
TABLE 3: Typical malaysia municipal Solid Waste characterization

[1] Johari, A., Ahmed, S. I., Hashim, H., Alkali, H., & Ramli, M. (2012). Economic and environmental benefits of landfill gas from municipal solid waste in
Malaysia.
PROBLEM STATEMENT
1) Improper waste management of
common organic waste.
2) Surplus of Green House Gases
(GHG’s) in the environment.
SOLUTION (OBJECTIVES)
● To generate energy out of common organic
waste.
● To promote the use of a greener technology
which is usable in rural areas.
● To improve available technology by
combining a biogas generator and a
fertiliser generator together to form a
‘single unit biogas and fertiliser generator’.
TARGETED GROUP
● Local citizens around tronoh
● Especially in UTP (can be used in
cafes)
● Farm owners
LITERATURE REVIEW (biogas)

Ø Anaerobic digestion of organic waste = biogas. [3]

Ø Cheap and renewable green energy source. [2]

Ø Biogas potential of 4.59 billion m3 year—1. [2]

Ø Digestate = organic fertiliser. [3]

[2] Abdeshahian, P., Lim, J. S., Ho, W. S., Hashim, H., & Lee, C. T. (2016). Potential of biogas production from farm animal waste in Malaysia. Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews,60, 714-723. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2016.01.117
[3] Arthur, R., Baidoo, M. F., & Antwi, E. (2011). Biogas as a potential renewable energy source: A Ghanaian case study. Renewable Energy, 36(5), 1510-1516.
doi:10.1016/j.renene.2010.11.012
LITERATURE REVIEW (fertiliser)
Ø Vermicomposting is a bio-oxidative process (earthworms consume biomass). [5]

Ø Vermicomposting occurs within 45-60 days. [5]

Ø Vermicompost stimulate microbiological life and introduce beneficial microbes. [4]

FIGURE 1 : Application of vermicompost and inorganic fertilizer on number of fruit/plant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

[4] Kashem, M. A., Sarker, A., Hossain, I., & Islam, M. S. (2015). Comparison of the Effect of Vermicompost and Inorganic Fertilizers on Vegetative Growth and
Fruit Production of Tomato (<i>Solanum lycopersicum</i> L.). Open Journal of Soil Science, 05(02), 53-58. doi:10.4236/ojss.2015.52006.
[5] Pathma, J., & Sakthivel, N. (2014). Microbial Diversity Of Vermicompost Bacteria That Exhibit Useful Agricultural Traits And Waste Management Potential.
Organic Agricultural Practices,161-208. doi:10.1201/b17368-12
LITERATURE REVIEW
TABLE 4 : Table of Potential of Biogas and Biofertilizer of Different
Organic Waste and the Equivalent of LPG to the Estimated Yields of Biogas.

Ngumah, C., Ogbulie, J., Orji, J., & Amadi, E. (2013). Potential of Organic Waste for Biogas and Biofertilizer Production in Nigeria. Environmental Research,
Engineering and Management,63(1). doi:10.5755/j01.erem.63.1.2912
METHODOLOGY

CONTENTS

● MATERIAL ● FINAL DESIGN ● WORKING


SELECTION PRINCIPLE
TABLE 5 : Material selection
NO MATERIAL JUSTIFICATION

Plastic Container - Can be Reuse and Recycle


1

Plastic Box - Compatible Size


2

Plastic Water Bottle - Non Corrosive


3

PVC Pipes and Valves - Easy Installation


4

-High Availability,
-Long Lasting & good stretch ability,
5 OVERALL -Low cost,
-Suitable with room temperature.
FINAL DESIGN
30cm
38cm

28cm
18cm

26cm
26cm

FIGURE 2 : Isometric View of FIGURE 3 : Isometric View of


Vermicompost Box Biowaste Container
WORKING PRINCIPLE

COW DUNG BIOGAS

FERTILIZER
FIGURE 4 : The
Workflow
Chart of our CROPS

prototype
Biogas tester unit
EQUIPMENT USED 2

1. Arduino Uno Board


2. Potentiometer (16mm)
3. MQ-2 Analog Gas
Sensor 1 3
4. Liquid Crystal Display
5. LED

4
5
TEST RUN DATA

Test run data:


(displayed on
a PC’s Serial
Monitor)

FIGURE 6 : Test Run Data


RESULTS

TABLE 6 : Potential of biogas and biofertilizer of cow manure the equivalent of LPG to the estimated
yields of biogas.

Mass of Estimated Energy potential Estimated LPG equivalent


cow biogas of biogas per biofertilizer (dry) volume (L)
manure potential of kilogram of waste
potential (kg)
used (kg) waste (m3) (MJ kg-1)

3.000 0.099 2.129 1.623 0.095

Ngumah, C., Ogbulie, J., Orji, J., & Amadi, E. (2013). Potential of Organic Waste for Biogas and Biofertilizer Production in Nigeria. Environmental Research,
Engineering and Management,63(1). doi:10.5755/j01.erem.63.1.2912
ECONOMIC VIABILITY
TABLE 7 : Cost of Prototype
Material Cost (RM)

Plastic Container for Biogas 20

Plastic Container for Fertiliser 15

Plastic Bottle 2

PVC Pipes 2

Gas Valve 4

Soil 0.7

Worms (Eisenia fetida) 6.75

Total 50.45
ECONOMIC VIABILITY
TABLE 8 : Profit Margin of Fertilizer

Adjusted Cost Price Market Price Profit (RM) Profit Margin


(RM) (RM)

8.5 22 14.55 1.59


ECONOMIC VIABILITY
TABLE 9: Example of ROI for a Cattle Farm Owner

Size of farm Estimated Estimated LPG Estimated Profi


(no of amount of biogas equivalent biofertilise
t
animals) animal waste potential of per kilogram r (dry)
per day (kg waste per day of waste (L potential (RM)
day-1) (m3 day-1) day-1 ) (kg kg-1 )

30 678.6 0.99 0.96 48.69 436.5

60 1357.2 1.98 1.92 97.38 873

200 4524 6.6 6.4 324.6 2910

400 9048 13.2 12.8 649.2 5820


ECONOMIC VIABILITY
TABLE 10: Example of ROI for a Cattle Farm Owner

Profit per Cost of Return of


Size of farm (no of month (RM) Equipment Investment
animals) (RM) (Month)

30 436.5 500.00 4
60 873 1000.00 4
200 2910 3000.00 4
400 5820 5000.00 4
Recommendations
• Upscale the prototype.
• Increase mobility.
• Substitute with other waste material.
Table 4 : Potential of Biogas and Biofertilizer of Different Organic Waste and the Equivalent of LPG to the
Estimated Yields of Biogas.
CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION
PROBLEM : Improper waste management and surplus of Green
House Gases (GHG’s)

SOLUTION : Create a ‘single unit biogas and fertilizer generator

HOW DOES IT SOLVE THE PROBLEM ?

1) Unit acts as a medium of disposing waste organic matters in the cleanest


way possible because even remnants of biomass production are used in
generating fertiliser

2) Able to reduce Green House Gases (GHG’s)in the environment - produce


energy out of waste materials. So less organic wastes in landfills.

Return of Investment - One time investment and free gas for the whole life
- Compact, detachable, mobile, upscale,
vermicomposting