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PART OF PANCREAS

HISTOLOGY OF LIVER

Liver is divided histologically into lobules. The center of the lobule is


the central vein. At the periphery of the lobule are portal triads.
Functionally, the liver can be divided into three zones, based upon
oxygen supply. Zone 1 encircles the portal tracts where the
oxygenated blood from hepatic arteries enters. Zone 3 is located
around central veins, where oxygenation is poor. Zone 2 is located in
between.

Sheets of connective tissue divide the liver into thousands of small


units called lobules. A lobule is roughly hexagonal in shape, with
portal triads at the vertices and a central vein in the middle.

The lobule is the structural unit of the liver and rather easy to
observe. In contrast, the hepatic acinus is more difficult to visualize,
but represents a unit that is of more relevance to hepatic function
because it is oriented around the afferent vascular system.

The parenchymal cells of the liver are hepatocytes. These polygonal


cells are joined to one another in anastomosing plates, with borders
that face either the sinusoids or adjacent hepatocytes. The
ultrastructure appearance of hepatocytes reflects their function as
metabolic superstars, with abundant rough and smooth endoplasmic
reticulum, and Golgi membranes. Glycogen granules and vesicles
containing very low density lipoproteins are readily observed.

Hepatocytes make contact with blood in sinusoids, which are


distensible vascular channels lined with highly fenestrated
endothelial cells and populated with phagocytic Kupffer cells. The
space between endothelium and hepatocytes is called the Space of
Disse which collects lymph for delivery to lymphatic capillaries.

The hepatic duct is continuous with the common bile duct, which delivers bile into the duodenum. In most
species, bile is diverted through the cystic duct into the gall bladder. The columnar epithelium of the gall
bladder is devoted largely to absorption of water and electrolytes.

BOWMAN CAPSULE

Bowman's capsule (or the Bowman capsule, capsula glomeruli, or glomerular capsule) is a cup-like sack at
the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney that performs the first step in
the filtration of blood to form urine. A glomerulus is enclosed in the sac.

The glomerulus filters blood and produces glomerular filtrate. This filtrate contains water, glucose, salts and
urea. Large molecules such as protein are too large to fit through the blood capillary walls. The bowman's
capsule collects the filtrate and it enters the tubules.
HISTOLOGY OF KIDNEY

Length = 10 cm (4 inches)

Width = 5.5 cm (2.2 inches)

Thickness = 3 cm (1.2 inches)

Weight = 150 g (male ),135 g (female )

Shape = Bean shaped

our to six ounces. They are situated above your waist, with the left kidney a little higher and a little larger.
The right kidney is a little lower and smaller to make room for the liver. The lower ribs protect your kidneys.

Inside the kidneys are nephrons. These are tiny units where the filtering of excess fluids and dissolved
particles occurs. There are between 1 and 1.3 million nephrons in each kidney.

What kidneys do

Most people think their kidneys are just responsible for producing urine, but there’s a lot more to it. In
addition to removing extra fluid and water from your body, kidneys:

 Filter the blood

 Balance fluid content in the body

 Produce the enzyme renin that helps control blood pressure

 Produce the hormone erythropoietin to help make red blood cells

 Activate vitamin D to maintain healthy bones

 Adjust levels of minerals and other chemicals to keep the body working properly

CORPUS LUTEUM
The corpus luteum secretes estrogens and progesterone. The latter hormone causes changes in the uterus
that make it more suitable for implantation of the fertilized ovum and the nourishment of the embryo. If the
egg is not fertilized, the corpus luteum becomes inactive after 10–14 days, and menstruation occurs.
FALLOPIAN TUBE (MUSCLE)
HISTOLOGY OF PRIMARY & SECONDARY FOLLICLE

 PRIMARY FOLLICLE = Pre- antral follicle

 Zona pellucida secreted by oocyte and granulosa cells.


 SECONDARY FOLLICLE = Antral Follicle

 Follicles grow in size

 Liquor folliculi between granulosa cells (contents)


- Coalesce to become antrum
 Granulosa cells around ooctye – accompany during ovulation
ANATOMY OF TONGUE
PAROTID GLAND
HISTOLOGY OF OLFACTORY
EPIGLOTTIS
LAYER OF TESTIS (EPIDERMIS)
HISTOLOGY OF SEMINAL VESICLE