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# COURSEWORK: Vibrations induced by blasting

## March 31, 2015

1 Overview
For the construction of a new road below a hill, a tunnel has been designed in order to cross the area. The
tunnel is excavated in a slightly blocky gneissic rock mass (GSI from 65 to 75), thus the chosen excavation
method is D&B. The geometry of the tunnel is as follows:

A part of this tunnel is passing near a residential area, according to the enclosed map. Due to the
proximity of the infrastructure with the houses, it is necessary to assess the maximum allowed charge per
delay (CPD) to guarantee the maximum allowed levels of the peak particle velocity (PPV) according to
the DIN 4150 (graph and limits appended). The tunnel is divided in three sections for this study: section
A (south from P1), section B (between P1 and P2) and section C (north from P2).
In order to obtain the rock transmission factor (K) of the rock mass in the site, a series of blasts has
been monitored in the previous sections. The results of this campaign are summarized in the following
table:

Charge (kg) Distance R (m) Measured PPV (mm/s) Measured frequency (Hz)
5 20 21.1 55
5 50 6.7 45
8 50 11.1 38
10 100 4.6 28
10 80 6.3 38
10 100 5.8 42
10 150 2.9 31
10 200 2.3 21
15 35 20.4 38
15 100 5.8 35
35 500 1.4 15
35 550 1.3 20
2 REQUESTS

2 Requests
1. Design the blast round of the tunnel by using a V-cut (wedge), including the blasting sequence of
each hole. Each round must be at least equal to 3 m;

## 2. calculate the explosive consumption per km of tunnel;

3. find out, by using the monitored blasts and the Log-Log graph (attached), an adequate scaling law
as indicated below: ✓ ◆ n
R
PPV = K p ;
CP D
4. evaluate the limit of CPD for the three sections specified on the appended map and verify if the
designed round is fulfilling the required CPD;

5. verify if the monitored blasts respect the limits required by the German standard DIN 4150-3
(attached);

6. discuss about the possible problems which can occur and the possible solutions which can be adopted
in order to fulfill the requirements of CPD.

Guideline values for PPV according to the German standard DIN 4150-3

• Line 1: Buildings used for commercial purposes, industrial buildings and building of similar design

## • Line 2: Dwellings and buildings of similar design and/or occupancy

• Line 3: Structures that, because of their particular sensitivity to vibration, cannot be classified
under lines 1 and 2 and are of great intrinsic value (e.g. listed buildings under preservation order)

60

50

40
PPV (mm/s)

30
1
2
3
20

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Frequency (Hz)
Plan of the intervention

Scale 1:2000
Custom Graph™
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1
10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1
10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1
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Log-Log 1 Cyc Base10 Sq-Y Black&Gray LC - Land A4 http://customgraph.com