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HDD performance

HDD

Service time

Exercise 1

• rotation speed: 15000 RPM (round per minute)

• data transfer rate: 100 MB/s

• mean seek time: 8ms

• overhead controller: 0.1ms

0.002s = 2ms

Exercise 2

• What percentage of data locality do I need?

the data locality of a disk is the percentage of blocks that do not

need seek or rotational latency to be found

Exercise 3

disk (i.e., Locality = 35%)?

• 10 MB = 10240KB = 10240 blocks

= 6.61 ms

• 10240*6.61ms = 67.6864s

• Other approach:

• 10240 * (1-0.35) * 10.11ms + 10240 * 0.35 * 0.11 ms =

67.6864s

Computing Infrastructure

RAID disks

RAID levels

RAID 1 mirroring only

§ RAID 0+1 (nested levels)

§ RAID 1+0 (nested levels)

RAID 2 bit interleaving (not used)

RAID 3 byte interleaving - redundancy (parity disk)

RAID 4 block interleaving - redundancy (parity disk)

RAID 5 block interleaving - redundancy (parity block distributed) –

highly utilized

§ RAID 5+0 (nested levels)

RAID 6 greater redundancy (2 failed disks are tolerated)

RAID 7 (proprietary solutions)

RAID levels (combined)

§ n x m disks in total

§ Consider m groups of n disks

§ Apply RAID x to each group of n disks

§ Apply RAID y considering the m groups as single disks

n

m RAID x

RAID y n

RAID x

RAID 0, 1, 0+1 and 1+0 organizations

RAID 0 RAID 1

RAID 0+1 RAID 1

A1 A2 A1 A1 RAID 0 RAID 0

A3 A4 A2 A2

A1 A2 A3 A1 A2 A3

A5 A6 A3 A3

A4 A5 A6 A4 A5 A6

A7 A8 A4 A4

B1 B2 B3 B1 B2 B3

A1 A1 A2 A2 A3 A3

A1, B1,... data blocks

A4 A4 A5 A5 A6 A6

B1 B1 B2 B2 B3 B3

B4 B4 B5 B5 B6 B6

RAID 4, 5, 5+0

RAID 4 RAID 5

A1 A2 A3 Ap A1 A2 A3 Ap

B1 B2 B3 Bp B1 B2 Bp B3

C1 C2 C3 Cp C1 Cp C2 C3

D1 D2 D3 Dp Dp D1 D2 D3

RAID 5+0 RAID 0 Ap ... parity blocks

A1 A2 Ap A3 A4 Ap A5 A6 Ap

B1 Bp B2 B3 Bp B4 B5 Bp B6

Cp C1 C2 Cp C3 C4 Cp C5 C6

D1 D2 Dp D3 D4 Dp D5 D6 Dp

RAID 6 organization

RAID 6

A1 A2 A3 Ap Aq

A1, B1,... are data blocks

Ap, Aq,... are parity blocks B1 B2 Bp Bq B3

C1 Cp Cq C2 C3

Dp Dq D1 D2 D3

when the number of disks increases the loss of efficiency decreases

but the probability of 2 concurrent failures increases, so RAID 6

becomes mandatory

selection of RAID level (2)

NO redundancy

RAID 0

required? YES

§ fast read/write

§ low reliability

§ high-perf computing (speed and

capacity are more important than

reliability)

YES duplication

RAID 1

required?

§ small write random

§ high reliability

§ database appl. (high NO § random small

transaction rate) RAID 5 read/write

§ only 50% of the capacity § medium reliability

(high cost)

RAID 6 § Fault tolerance with

two failures

characteristics of RAID levels (3)

level performance performance applications

0 100% N/A Very good Good Non critical data

1 50% Excellent Very good / good good Critical information

3 (n-1)/n Good Good / fair Fair Single user, large

file processing,

image processing

5 (n-1)/n Good Good/ fair Poor Database,

transaction based

applications

6 (n-2)/n Excellent Very good/ poor Poor Critical

information,

w/minimal

1+0 50% Excellent Very good/ good Good Critical

information,

w/better

performance

3+0/5+0 (n-1)/n Excellent Very good/ good Fair Critical information

w/fair performance

• thus back-ups!!! back-ups!!!

RAID

reliability

primary metrics

period from the start (if the resource is new) or restart (after a

failure has been repaired or the resource has been replaced by a

new one) to the following failure

component)

number of disk failures that cause a loss of data in the array,

i.e., such that it is impossible to reconstruct the lost data from

the redundant information (e.g., 1 in a RAID0, 2 in a RAID5, 3 in

a RAID6)

MTTF – Minimum failure time of n disks

F(t): distribution function of the time to failure X

t

−

FX (t) = 1− e MTTF

identically distributed distributions X1 … Xn is:

n

F min( X1... Xn ) (t) = 1− (1− FX (t))

(Why exponential distribution, and why the minimum has this formula will

proven in the availability part of the course)

MTTF – Minimum failure time of n disks (2)

n

" " −

t %% −

n⋅t

F min( X1... Xn ) (t) = 1− $$1− $1− e MTTF

''' = 1− e MTTF

# # &&

§ Maclaurin series

MTTF – Minimum failure time of n disks (3)

§ Usually we have:

n disks, each with a given MTTF, will fail after t days

as:

n⋅t

F min( X1... Xn ) (t) ≅

MTTF

MTTF – MTTDL of n disks

n⋅t

−

F min( X1... Xn ) (t) = 1− e MTTF

MTTF

E !" F min( X1... Xn ) (t)#$ =

n

§ In other words, the MTTDL of n disks, is equal to the MTTF of

one disk, divided by n.

Exercise 2: MTTDL of an array RAID0

§ n = 8 disks

§ MTTR = 10 days

§ MTTDL = MTTF(1 disk) / n = 125 days

RAID 0

MTTF

MTTDL =

n MTTR = 1

3000

2500

2000

MTTDL

Exact N = 4

1500

Exact N = 5

Exact N = 6

1000

500

0

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000

MTTF

Exercise 3: MTTDL of an array RAID1

The system fails if there is a second failure when the first resource has

failed and is under repair.

We can approximate the failure probability of the first disk as:

st 2

P(1 fail) =

MTTF

And compute the failure probability of the entire RAID 1 as:

st nd 2 MTTR

P(RAID1) = P(1 fail)⋅ P(2 fail < MTTR) = ⋅

MTTF MTTF

Finally we can approximate the MTTDL as:

1 MTTF 2

MTTDL = =

P(RAID1) 2 ⋅ MTTR

Exercise 3: MTTDL of an array RAID1 (2)

§ MTTR = 10 days

§ p(1° failure) = n / MTTF(disk) = 2 / 1000

§ p(2° failure: of the mirror disk) = MTTR / MTTF

§ MTTDL = 1/(2/1000 ´ 10/1000) = 50000 days

times.

M. Gribaudo

RAID 1

MTTF n

MTTDL =

n ⋅ MTTR n−1

MTTR = 1

1E+10

1E+09

100000000

10000000

1000000

100000

MTTDL

N=2 Exact

10000 N=2 Approx

N=3 Approx

100

10

1

1 10 100 1000 10000

0,1

0,01

0,001

MTTF

Exercise 4: MTTDL of an array RAID 1+0

In RAID1+0, the second fault causes data loss only if it happens for the

mirror disk of the one already broken.

Here we consider 8 groups (RAID 0) of 2 disks each (RAID 1), for a total

of 16 disks.

§ MTTR = 10 days

§ p(1° failure) = n / MTTF(disk) = 16 / 1000

§ p(2° failure: of the mirror disk of the 1° failed) = MTTR / MTTF

§ MTTDL = 1/(16/1000 ´ 10/1000) = 6250 days

the array

§ In general: MTTDL = MTTF2 / (n * MTTR)

RAID 1+0

1000000

MTTR = 1

100000

10000

1000

N=8 Exact

MTTDL

n=12 Exact

10

N=12 Approx

1 N=16 Exact

1 10 100 1000 10000

N=16 Approx

0,1

0,01

0,001

0,0001

MTTF

Exercise 5: MTTDL of an array RAID 0+1

In RAID1+0, the second fault causes data loss only if it happens for any

of the disk of the other group.

in total.

§ total number of disks = 16 (2 ´ 8)

§ MTTR = 10 days

§ p(1° failure) = one of the 16 = n / MTTF(disk) = 16 / 1000

§ p(2° failure: a disk fails in the other mirror group)

= MTTR / (MTTF ´ 2/n)

§ In general: MTTDL = 2 * MTTF2 / (n2 * MTTR)

M. Gribaudo

RAID 0+1

10000000 MTTR = 1

1000000

100000

10000

N=8 Exact

MTTDL

n=12 Exact

100

N=12 Approx

10 N=16 Exact

N=16 Approx

1

1 10 100 1000 10000

0,1

0,01

0,001

MTTF

RAID 1+0 and RAID 0+1 comparison

the RAID 1+0 has an MTTDL of 6250 days

the RAID 0+1 has an MTTDL of 781 days

a RAID 0 with the same capacity (with only 8 disks) has an MTTDL of

125 days

• RAID 1+0 has MTTDL that is 6250/781 = 8 times larger than the

RAID 0+1

• However, as we have seen, RAID 0+1 can be simpler to

implement, and this is why sometimes it is used.

Failures in RAID 5

RAID 5 fails when two disks are failed concurrently (the second one

fails during the interval required to repair the first one).

If there are G disks in the beginning, when one is failed, G-1 disks

remains.

The probability of the second failure must consider that one of the G-

1 remaining disks fails during the MTTR of the first:

%

nd

− MTTR ⋅ (G −1)

P(2 fail < MTTR) = 1− $ e MTTF

' ≅

# & MTTF

Failures in RAID 5

st nd G (G −1)⋅ MTTR

P(RAID5) = P(1 fail)⋅ P(2 fail < MTTR) = ⋅

MTTF MTTF

1 MTTF 2

MTTDL = =

P(RAID5) G ⋅ (G −1)⋅ MTTR

Failures in RAID 6

Similarly, for RAID 6, where two disks must fail before the repair of

the first distk, we have:

P(RAID6) = P(1st fail)⋅ P(2 nd fail < MTTR)⋅ P(3rd fail < MTTR / 2) =

G (G −1)⋅ MTTR (G − 2)⋅ MTTR

= ⋅ ⋅

MTTF MTTF 2 ⋅ MTTF

§ We have to use MTTR/2 since during the 3rd failure, there are

two disks being repaired, and thus we have to consider the

minimum of the two.

3

1 2 ⋅ MTTF

MTTDL = = 2

P(RAID6) G ⋅ (G −1)⋅ (G − 2)⋅ MTTR

Exercise 6: MTTDL of a RAID5 and RAID6

§ n = 5 disks for RAID5, and n = 6 for RAID6

§ MTTR = 10 days

disks).

1000 2

MTTDLRAID5 = = 5000 days

5⋅ 4 ⋅10

2 ⋅1000 3

MTTDLRAID6 = 2

= 166667 days

6 ⋅ 5⋅ 4 ⋅10

§ RAID6 has an MTTDL more than 33.3 times larger than RAID5 !

M. Gribaudo

RAID 5

MTTF 2

MTTDL =

n ⋅ (n −1)⋅ MTTR

1000000 MTTR = 1

100000

10000

1000

N=4 Exact

MTTDL

n=8 Exact

10

N=8 Approx

1 N=16 Exact

1 10 100 1000 10000

N=16 Approx

0,1

0,01

0,001

0,0001

MTTF

M. Gribaudo

RAID 6

2 ⋅ MTTF 3

MTTDL =

n ⋅ (n −1)⋅ (n − 2)⋅ MTTR 2

MTTR = 1

1E+09

100000000

10000000

1000000

100000

10000 N=5 Exact

MTTDL

100 n=8 Exact

10 N=8 Approx

1 N=16 Exact

1 10 100 1000 10000

0,1 N=16 Approx

0,01

0,001

0,0001

0,00001

0,000001

MTTF

Exercise 7: Comparison of RAID 1+0 and RAID 6

§ n = 4 disks, 2 for data and 2 for parity

§ MTTR = 10 days

groups of 2 disks – 4 disks in total).

2 ⋅1000 3

MTTDLRAID6 = 2

= 833333 days

4 ⋅ 3⋅ 2 ⋅10

1000 2

MTTDLRAID1+0 = = 25000 days

4 ⋅10

§ RAID6 has an higher MTTDL than RAID 1+0, even if they both

uses the same number of disks

Exercise 8: RAID 1+0 and RAID 6 in general

2 ⋅ MTTF 3

MTTDLRAID6 =

4 ⋅ 3⋅ 2 ⋅ MTTR 2

MTTF 2

MTTDLRAID1+0 =

4 ⋅ MTTR

MTTDLRAID6 MTTF

= RAID 6 is better if MTTF > 3 * MTTR

MTTDLRAID1+0 3⋅ MTTR

Recap - RAID 4, 5, 5+0

RAID 4 RAID 5

A1 A2 A3 Ap A1 A2 A3 Ap

B1 B2 B3 Bp B1 B2 Bp B3

C1 C2 C3 Cp C1 Cp C2 C3

D1 D2 D3 Dp Dp D1 D2 D3

RAID 5+0 RAID 0 Ap ... parity blocks

A1 A2 Ap A3 A4 Ap A5 A6 Ap

B1 Bp B2 B3 Bp B4 B5 Bp B6

Cp C1 C2 Cp C3 C4 Cp C5 C6

D1 D2 Dp D3 D4 Dp D5 D6 Dp

MTTDL of an array RAID 5+0

The first failure is of any of the N disks (from any of the groups).

The second failure must happen between the G-1 disks that composes the

group where the first failure occurred.

A simple way of deriving the formula is by applying the RAID 0 formula (with

m groups) to the MTTDL of a RAID 5 of G disks.

MTTF 2

MTTDLgroup G ⋅ (G −1)⋅ MTTR MTTF 2

MTTDLarray = = =

m N N ⋅ (G −1)⋅ MTTR

G

MTTDL of an array RAID 6+0

If the number of parity disks per group are two (RAID 6+0, the data are lost

when a third disk fails during the repair interval of the first two failed), also

the second fail must happen in the same group.

We can apply the same trick used for the RAID 5+0 to compute the MTTDL

of a RAID 6+0:

2 ⋅ MTTF 3

MTTDLarray =

N ⋅ (G −1)⋅ (G − 2)⋅ MTTR 2

Exercise 9: MTTDL of an array RAID 5 + 0

RAID 5

…

RAID 5 RAID 5

A1 A2 Ap A1 A2 Ap A1 A2 Ap

B1 Bp B2 B1 Bp B2 B1 Bp B2

…

…

…

Cp C1 C2 Cp C1 C2 Cp C1 C2

D1 D2 Dp D1 D2 Dp D1 D2 Dp

§ each group has a redundant disk

§ MTTF(disk)=1000 days, MTTR(disk)=10 days

Exercise 9 (cont.)

1000 2

MTTDLRAID5 = = 1000 days

25⋅ 4 ⋅10

M. Gribaudo

RAID 5+0

MTTF 2

MTTDL =

n ⋅ (g −1)⋅ MTTR

1000000

MTTR = 1

100000

10000

1000

N=15 Exact

MTTDL

n=25 Exact

10

N=25 Approx

1 N=50 Exact

1 10 100 1000 10000

N=50 Approx

0,1

0,01

0,001

0,0001

MTTF

Exercise 10: comparison between RAID 5 and RAID 5+0

RAID 5+0, with the MTTDL of a 21 disks RAID 5.

§ Both systems have exactly the same capacity.

§ MTTDL(RAID 5) = MTTF2 / (21 ´ 20 ´ MTTR)

§ With 25 disks, it is possible to have an array RAID 5 + 0,

§ MTTDL(RAID 5 + 0) = MTTF2 / (25 ´ 4 ´ MTTR)

§ Thus, the extra 4 disks allows a MTTDL that is more than four

times larger:

Exercise 11: comparison between RAID 6 and RAID 5+0

groups of 3 disks each, with the MTTDL of a 6 disks RAID 6.

§ Both systems have exactly the same capacity and uses the same

number of disks.

§ MTTDL(RAID 5+0) = MTTF2 / (6 ´ 2 ´ MTTR)

§ For RAID 6 we have:

§ MTTDL(RAID 6) = 2 x MTTF3 / (6 ´ 5 ´ 4 ´ MTTR2)

is more reliable.

Exercise 12: RAID 6 and RAID 5+0 in general

of k disks each, for a RAID 5+0, with the MTTDL of a 2k disks

RAID 6.

§ MTTDL(RAID 5+0) = MTTF2 / (2k ´ (k-1) ´ MTTR)

§ For RAID 6 we have:

§ MTTDL(RAID 6) = 2 x MTTF3 / (2k ´ (2k-1) ´ (2k-2) ´ MTTR2)

§ MTTDL(RAID 6) / MTTDL(RAID 5) =

2((k-1) x MTTF) / ((2k-1) x (2k-2) ´ MTTR)

Otherwise RAID 5+0 is more reliable.

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