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358 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 4, NO.

2, APRIL 2013

Power Flow Control and Stability Improvement of


Connecting an Offshore Wind Farm to a One-Machine
Infinite-Bus System Using a Static Synchronous
Series Compensator
Li Wang, Senior Member, IEEE, and Quang-Son Vo

Abstract—This paper presents the stability improvement and the interconnected power systems. One of the simplest ways of
power-flow control results of a DFIG-based offshore wind farm solving these problems is by means of supplementary control of
(OWF) connected to a one-machine infinite-bus (OMIB) system the excitation system to render the desired additional damping
using a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC). An oscilla-
tion damping controller (ODC) of the proposed SSSC is designed [2]. Different damping control schemes have been extensively
by using modal control theory to render proper damping to the presented to enhance the damping of the mechanical mode of
dominant mode of the studied synchronous generator (SG). A the synchronous generator (SG) of the studied power systems.
frequency-domain approach based on a linearized system model The power system stabilizer (PSS) of the excitation system,
using eigenvalue analysis is accomplished. A time-domain scheme the static VAR compensator (SVC) with the designed damping
based on a nonlinear system model subject to a disturbance is also
performed. It can be concluded from the simulation results that controller, and the rectifier current regulator with the designed
the proposed SSSC joined with the designed ODC can effectively damping controller of the line-commutated converter (LCC)
improve the stability of the studied OMIB system with an OWF of the high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) link connected in
under various disturbances. The inherent low-frequency oscilla- parallel with the ac line were applied to a well-known one-ma-
tions of the OMIB system can also be effectively suppressed by the chine infinite-bus (OMIB) system to compare the damping
proposed control scheme.
characteristics of both mechanical mode and exciter mode
Index Terms—Modal control theory, offshore wind farm (OWF), [3]. Numerous damping control schemes for damping SG’s
one-machine infinite-bus (OMIB) system, oscillation damping con-
oscillations will not be discussed in this paper.
troller (ODC), stability, static synchronous series compensator
(SSSC). FACTS devices have become more relevant due to the
inherent high-speed response of high-power power-electronics
converters (PECs) to effectively control power flow of power
I. INTRODUCTION systems. These FACTS devices can also effectively improve the
stability of power systems and can allow more efficient uses of

T HE low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) due to the devel-


opment of interconnection of large power systems have
been discussed and studied for over 45 years since the first
existing transmission lines [4], [5]. These FACTS devices based
on voltage-sourced converters (VSCs) provide a potentially
attractive solution to control power flow in modern electric net-
interconnected power systems of the Northwest, predominantly works. Such devices can be used for improving power transfer
hydro, and the interconnected Southwest, predominantly steam, limits, for congestion management in the network, for damping
were connected together in October 1964 [1]. The spontaneous oscillatory modes [6], etc. The static synchronous compensator
LFOs exhibited a very low frequency of the order of several (STATCOM) is one of the shunt FACTS devices and it has
cycles per minute. The oscillations would continue for a short been used widely to provide smooth and rapid steady-state and
period and then vanished, or continue to increase, causing transient voltage control at the bus to which it is connected. The
system disjunction [2]. When more field operating experiences static synchronous series compensator (SSSC), on the other
have accumulated, power engineers are now convinced that hand, is a series FACTS device and can be effectively used
LFOs are owing to the lack of damping of mechanical mode of for controlling the power flow [7]. In addition, an auxiliary
stabilizing signal can also be superimposed on its power flow
Manuscript received February 13, 2012; revised September 13, 2012; ac- control function to enhance the damping of oscillations which
cepted October 07, 2012. Date of publication November 29, 2012; date of cur-
have occurred in power systems [8], [9].
rent version March 18, 2013. This work was supported by National Science of
Council (NSC) of Taiwan under Grant NSC 100-3113-P-006-014, Grant NSC For the applications of SSSC, the damping function of an
100-3113-E-006-013, and Grant NSC 100-ET-E-006-005-ET. SSSC was proposed in [8] while the fundamental principles,
L. Wang is with the Department of Electrical Engineering and the Research
characteristics, and benefits of an SSSC were shown in [7] and
Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University,
Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (e-mail: liwang@mail.ncku.edu.tw). [10]. The simulations of a 24-step inverter-based SSSC using
Q.-S. Vo is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were carried
Kung University, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (e-mail: vqson80@gmail.com).
out in [10]. The modeling and control of a 48-step inverter-based
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. SSSC were discussed in [11]. The impacts of SSSC control
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TSTE.2012.2225156 modes on small-signal stability and transient stability based on

1949-3029/$31.00 © 2012 IEEE


WANG AND VO: POWER FLOW CONTROL AND STABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF CONNECTING AN OWF TO AN OMIB SYSTEM 359

an OMIB system were examined in [12]. Currently, an SSSC has


been combined with a STATCOM to form a new FACTS device,
i.e., a unified power flow controller (UPFC), where the SSSC
and the STATCOM use the same dc-link capacitor [13]–[15].
The contribution of this paper is associated with the inclu-
sion of an oscillation damping controller (ODC) to the proposed
SSSC connected in series with one of two parallel transmission
lines of an SG-based power system with a DFIG-based offshore
wind farm (OWF). The ODC is designed by using modal con-
trol theory to exactly locate the mechanical mode of the SG on
the desired location on the complex plane. The goals of both
damping low-frequency oscillations of the SG and controlling
the power flow through the transmission lines can be simulta-
neously achieved by the proposed control scheme. Fig. 1. One-line diagram of the studied system.
This paper presents both power-flow control and stability
improvement results of a DFIG-based OWF connected to
an OMIB system using an SSSC. This paper is organized as
b) The rotor has two windings on each axis, i.e., one field
follows. System configuration and mathematical models of the
winding and one damper winding on the -axis and two
studied OMIB system, the DFIG-based OWF, and the proposed
damper windings on the -axis.
SSSC are introduced in Section II. Design procedure and results
c) The transients of stator windings and the effects of speed
for the ODC of the proposed SSSC using modal control theory
deviation in the stator-winding voltage equations are
are described in Section III. Root-loci results of the dominant
properly neglected.
mode of the OMIB system under different operation points are
plotted in Section IV. Comparative transient responses of the d) All quantities are in per unit (p.u.) except that time is in
studied system subject to a severe disturbance are studied in seconds, rotor angle is in electrical radians, and base an-
Section V. Finally, specific important conclusions of this paper gular frequency is in electrical radians per second.
are drawn in Section VI. For the complete - and -axis equivalent circuits and the
corresponding equations of an SG, refer to [16]. The IEEE
type ST1A excitation system model (fast static exciter) with an
II. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION AND MODELS
automatic voltage regulator (AVR) and a power system stabi-
Fig. 1 shows the configuration of the studied system in this lizer (PSS) is employed in this paper [16]–[18]. A single-reheat
paper. The SG with capacity of 4 555 MVA is connected to tandem-compound steam turbine model [16] is used in this
an infinite bus through a 24/230-kV step-up transformer and paper for the mechanical input torque of the SG while the speed
two parallel transmission lines (Line 34-1 and Line 34-2) [16]. governor model for the steam turbine [16] is also utilized.
The Line 34-2 contains the proposed SSSC located near Bus
#3 and the local load is connected to Bus #3. The aggregated
B. DFIG-Based OWF Model
200-MW OWF containing 40 5-MW DFIG-based wind turbine
generators (WTGs) is connected to Bus #3 through a 33/150-kV Fig. 2 shows the fundamental configuration of a DFIG-based
step-up transformer, a 150-kV HVAC line, and a 150/230-kV WTG system. The stator windings of the wound-rotor induction
step-up transformer. The aggregated 200-MW OWF is repre- generator are directly connected to the grid while the rotor wind-
sented by a 200-MW DFIG connected to the low-voltage side of ings of the induction generator are fed to the same grid through
the 33/150-kV transformer through an equivalent 0.69/33-kV a rotor-side converter (RSC), a dc link, and a grid-side converter
step-up transformer and a 33-kV infield cable. The equivalent (GSC). The per-unit - and -axis voltage–current equations of
wind DFIG is driven by an equivalent wind turbine (WT) an induction generator can be referred to [17], [18] and they can
through an equivalent gearbox (GB). The employed capacity be used for the electrical parts of the wind DFIG. The rotor of
of the proposed SSSC is 134 MVA, and it is calculated by the DFIG is mechanically coupled to the shaft of a WT through
taking 3 times (three-phase power) the multiplication of the a mechanical drive train system which consists of a high-speed
maximum current through Line 34-2 and the maximum voltage shaft, a gearbox (GB), and a low-speed shaft.
injected by the SSSC. The employed mathematical models of Fig. 3 shows the two-inertia reduced-order equivalent mass-
the studied system are described as below. spring-damper model of the WT coupled to the rotor shaft of the
studied wind DFIG. The effect of the equivalent gearbox (GB)
A. SG Model between the WT and the rotor of the DFIG has been included in
The SG model used in this paper is the same as the one de- this model [19]–[21].
veloped in [16]. This model takes into account the subtransient Fig. 4 shows the control block diagram of the RSC of the
effects and is established based on the following assumptions. studied wind DFIG. The RSC controller is used to control the
a) The model is established on the -axis reference frame electromagnetic torque of the DFIG to follow an optimal torque-
that is fixed on the rotor of the SG and is rotating with the speed characteristic and to maintain the terminal voltage of the
rotor speed. DFIG at the reference value. This controller is similar to the one
360 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 4, NO. 2, APRIL 2013

Fig. 5. Control block diagram for the GSC of the wind DFIG.

Fig. 2. One line diagram of the DFIG-based wind turbine system.

Fig. 6. Fundamental configuration of an SSSC.

Fig. 3. Two-inertia reduced-order equivalent mass-spring-damper model of the


WT coupled to the rotor shaft of the studied wind DFIG.
C. SSSC Model
Fig. 6 shows the fundamental configuration of a typical
SSSC. The SSSC consists of a voltage-source inverter (VSI)
that converts a dc voltage into a three-phase ac voltage. Hence,
the equivalent components of an SSSC consist of a three-phase
voltage source with fundamental frequency, a series coupling
transformer, a dc capacitor, and a controller.
Under the synchronous reference frame, the - and -axis
components of the series injected voltage are expressed by, re-
spectively, [27]

(1)
(2)

Fig. 4. Control block diagram for the RSC of the wind DFIG.
where is the turns ratio of the coupling transformer, is
the dc capacitor voltage, is the phase angle of the injected
voltage, and is the inverter constant that relates the dc-side
in [22]–[24], where the reactive power is controlled instead of
voltage to the ac-side line-to-neutral voltage. For a 48-pulse in-
the terminal voltage of the DFIG.
verter, the constant is given by
Fig. 5 plots the control block diagram of the GSC of the
DFIG where the superscript denotes the variables in the
stator-voltage-oriented reference frame. This controller aims to (3)
maintain the dc-link voltage constant and control the reactive
power exchanged between the GSC and the grid. For minimum
converter rating as assumed in this paper, the GSC is controlled From the dc-side equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 7 and bal-
to operate at unity power factor and, hence, exchanges only ancing the power exchanged between the ac side and the dc side,
active power with the gird. In order to achieve the decoupled the dynamic equation of the dc capacitor can be expressed
control of active and reactive power flowing between the GSC by
and the grid, the stator-voltage-oriented synchronous reference
frame, with its -axis aligning the stator voltage vector is
adopted [22], [25]. (4)
WANG AND VO: POWER FLOW CONTROL AND STABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF CONNECTING AN OWF TO AN OMIB SYSTEM 361

designed for the SSSC in Section III to achieve to stability im-


provement. Whenever the ODC is used, the subtraction of
and , instead of only , is multiplying by the current
magnitude to obtain required voltage magnitude .
From the block diagram of the SSSC controller shown in
Fig. 8 and the above descriptions, the following equations can
Fig. 7. Equivalent circuits of an SSSC at the: (a) ac side; (b) dc side. be written by introducing an intermediate variable

(5)
(6)
(7)

It should be noted that there is a similar control scheme known


as a quadrature voltage control scheme. In this case, the required
compensating voltage magnitude is directly specified in-
stead of multiplying the current magnitude by . For the
details of the quadrature voltage control scheme, refer to [30].
The employed parameters for the models of this paper are listed
in the Appendix.

III. DESIGN OF AN ODC FOR SSSC USING MODAL


CONTROL THEORY
Fig. 8. Control block diagram of an SSSC as a power flow controller.
This section describes the design procedure and the results
of the ODC of the proposed SSSC. The aim of the ODC for the
The SSSC may be operated under capacitive mode or inductive SSSC is to achieve stability improvement of the studied OMIB
mode to increase or decrease the power flow through transmis- system under disturbance conditions. The nonlinear system
sion line, respectively. In this paper, only the capacitive mode equations developed in Section II can be linearized around a
of the SSSC is used. The control block diagram of the reactance selected nominal operating point to acquire a set of linearized
scheme-based controller [10], [28]–[30] for an SSSC in capac- system equations in the matrix form of [3]
itive mode is shown in Fig. 8. This control scheme can be de-
scribed as follows. (8)
The phase-locked loop (PLL) shown in Fig. 8 is used to deter-
(9)
mine the reference angle , which is phase-locked to phase of
the voltage at Bus #3.The - and -axis components of the line
current are calculated in a synchronous reference frame using where is the state vector, is the output vector, is the
the reference angle of the PLL. The magnitude of the line cur- external or the compensated input vector, is the disturbance
rent and its relative angle with respect to the PLL angle input vector while , and are all constant matrices of
are then calculated. The phase angle of the line current is cal- appropriate dimensions. The state vector can be divided into
culated by adding the relative angle and the PLL angle . The several substate vectors such as - (electric system of
required magnitude of the SSSC’s compensating voltage SG), - (electromechanical system of SG), -
is determined by multiplying the current magnitude by the de- (excitation system of SG), - (PSS of SG), -
sired compensating reactance . (turbine of SG), - (governor of SG), -
The phase angle of the required voltage is either (electric system of OWF), - (control system of OWF),
in an inductive mode or in a capacitive mode. Since - (dc link of OWF), - (mechanical system
only the capacitive mode is used in this paper, the SSSC uses of OWF), and - (electromechanical system of OWF).
a fixed dc-to-ac gain across the VSI. The required dc When the proposed SSSC is added to the studied system, a
capacitor voltage is, hence, determined from required new substate vector - results. To design the ODC of
compensating voltage magnitude . The actual dc capacitor the SSSC, in (8) and in (9) can be properly ignored by
voltage is then compared to its required value and setting .
the error between them is passed through a PI controller which The second and the third columns of Table I list the calculated
produces an angle that is then added to the angle to ac- eigenvalues of the studied OMIB system plus the OWF system
quire the final angle of the VSI. In Fig. 8, the desired com- without and with the proposed SSSC (compensating 50% of the
pensating reactance is directly specified to achieve the transmission line reactance) under the selected nominal oper-
power flow control goal. Fig. 8 also shows an auxiliary signal ating conditions of p.u., p.u. (SG on
(or damping signal) that comes from an ODC that will be 2220 MVA base), p.u., m/s (wind DFIG-
362 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 4, NO. 2, APRIL 2013

TABLE I steady-state power flow control loop of the SSSC. Hence, the
EIGENVALUES (rad/s) [DAMPING RATIO/FREQUENCY (Hz)] output signal in (9) is and the input signal in (8)
OF THE STUDIED SYSTEM WITHOUT SSSC, WITH SSSC,
AND WITH SSSC AND THE DESIGNED ODC
and (9) is . The transfer function of the proposed
PI ODC of the SSSC in domain is given by

(10)

where is the time constant of the washout block while


and are the proportional gain and the integral gain
of the ODC, respectively. Taking the Laplace transformation
of (8)–(9), an algebraic equation of the closed-loop system
containing the PI ODC of the SSSC can be acquired [31]. The
design results of the PI ODC of the SSSC are given as below.
Prespecified Eigenvalues

Parameters of the Designed PI ODC

The system eigenvalues of the studied OMIB plus the DFIG-


based OWF system containing the SSSC and the designed PI
ODC are listed in the fourth column of Table I. When the de-
signed ODC of the SSSC is added to the studied system, a new
substate vector - results are shown in Table I. It can
be clearly observed that have been exactly located on the
desired locations on the complex plane. It is also seen that the
damping ratio of the mechanical mode of the SG has been in-
creased from 0.042 to 0.142 but the frequency is kept at 1.37 Hz.
From the eigenvalue results listed in the fourth column of Table I
and the three parameters of the designed PI ODC, it can be
concluded that the design results are appropriate to the studied
system. Steady-state analysis of the mechanical mode under dif-
Fig. 9. Control block diagram of the employed SSSC including the designed ferent operating conditions using the root-loci scheme as well as
PI ODC. time-domain simulations using the developed nonlinear model
subject to a severe disturbance condition will be performed in
Sections IV and V, respectively.
based OWF), and p.u., respectively. Comparing the
eigenvalue results of these two columns listed in Table I, the IV. STEADY-STATE ROOT-LOCI ANALYSIS
complex-conjugated eigenvalues refer to the mechanical
This section presents the root-loci analyzed results of the me-
mode of the SG and it dominants the stability characteristics
chanical mode of the OMIB plus the OWF system when the
of the low-frequency oscillations of the OMIB system. When
operating conditions are widely varied. The simulated output
the SSSC is included in the system, both damping ratio and active power of the SG is increased from 0.5 to 1.0 p.u.,
frequency have been increased. We can also observe that other the terminal voltage of the SG is increased from 0.95 to
modes are nearly fixed on the complex plane regardless of the 1.1 p.u., the output power factor of the SG (PF) is increased
addition of the SSSC. Hence, the ODC of the SSSC needs to be from 0.5 lagging to 0.96 lagging, and the wind speed
properly designed to render adequate damping to the mechan- of the DFIG-based OWF is increased from 4 m/s (cut-in wind
ical mode of the SG. speed) to 24 m/s (cut-out wind speed). Fig. 10 plots the com-
The control block diagram of the equivalent reactance of the parative root-loci results for the mechanical mode of the studied
SSSC including the PI ODC is shown in Fig. 9. It consists of OMIB system without SSSC, with SSSC, and with both SSSC
a washout block and a PI controller. The input signal of the and ODC under the selected operating conditions. The root-loci
ODC is the active-power deviation through Line 34-2, results shown in Fig. 10 are analyzed as follows.
where the SSSC is inserted. The output signal of the ODC is a) Fig. 10(a) shows the comparative root-loci results of the
the damping signal (or auxiliary signal) that is added to mechanical mode under different values of . It is found
the reference reactance as the desired value using by the that the root loci of the mechanical mode move towards
WANG AND VO: POWER FLOW CONTROL AND STABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF CONNECTING AN OWF TO AN OMIB SYSTEM 363

mechanical mode, again, moves away from the imaginary


axis of the complex plane for all three cases when PF in-
creases. The mechanical mode may have the best damping
characteristics when the proposed SSSC and the designed
ODC are both included in the system. The root loci of the
mechanical mode are close to the imaginary axis of the
complex plane when PF is low and the system is with and
without the proposed SSSC.
d) Fig. 10(d) shows the root-loci plots of the mechanical
mode under different values of . It is discovered that
mechanical mode is approximately fixed on the complex
plane regardless the variations of . This is due to the
fact that the capacity of the DFIG-based OWF is quite
small and it is about 1/10 of the capacity of the SG. Again,
the mechanical mode may have the best damping charac-
teristics when the proposed SSSC and the designed ODC
are both included in the system.

V. TIME-DOMAIN SIMULATIONS
This section employs the nonlinear system model devel-
oped in Section II to compare and demonstrate the damping
characteristics contributed by the proposed SSSC joined with
the designed ODC under three cases (Case 1, Case 2, and
Case 3). A three-phase short-circuit fault is suddenly applied
to the infinite bus at s while the duration of the ap-
plied fault lasts for six cycles (0.1 s) in Case 1 and 0.7 s in
Case 2, respectively. Case 3 employs a sudden trip of the OWF
and wind-speed change on the OWF to demonstrate that the
low-frequency oscillations of the SG can be excited by the
DFIG-based OWF. The operating conditions of the studied
system prior the severe disturbance are properly selected the
same as the ones of Table I.

A. Case 1
Fig. 11 plots the comparative transient responses of the
Fig. 10. Comparative root-loci results for the mechanical mode under different studied system without the SSSC, with the SSSC, and with the
values of: (a) , (b) , (c) PF, and (d) . SSSC joined with the designed ODC. It is clearly observed from
the comparative transient simulation results that all transient
responses of the studied system, i.e., Figs. 11(a)–(g) for the SG,
the imaginary axis of the complex plane for all three cases. Figs. 11(l)–(m) for the DFIG-based OWF, Figs. 11(h)–(j) for the
When SSSC and ODC are both in service, the mechan- two transmission lines, etc., with the proposed SSSC joined with
ical mode can be maintained stable and nearly fixed on the designed PI ODC have the shortest time to quickly recover to
the complex plane. However, the mechanical mode has the original steady-state operating conditions in three responses.
widely varied and can be pushed towards the imaginary When the fault occurs, large amplitudes on all quantities shown
axis when is increased. in Fig. 11 can be clearly found and the quantities of the system
b) Fig. 10(b) illustrates the root-loci characteristics of the without the SSSC demonstrate the largest amplitudes in three
mechanical mode under different values of . It is seen responses. It also shows that the proposed SSSC joined with the
that mechanical mode moves away from the imaginary designed ODC can simultaneously supply the proper amount
axis of the complex plane for all three cases when in- of reactive power to the line of the studied system and offer
creases. However, the mechanical mode can have the best better damping characteristics to the mechanical mode of the
damping performance when the proposed SSSC and the SG in order to quickly damp out the low-frequency oscillations
designed ODC are both in service. The root loci of the of the SG. Voltage responses of the studied system shown in
mechanical mode locate close to the imaginary axis of the Fig. 11(a), (n), and (o) can also be effectively improved by the
complex plane when is low and the system is with and proposed SSSC with the designed ODC. The voltage across the
without the proposed SSSC. transmission-line side of the series coupling transformer shown
c) Fig. 10(c) plots the root-loci outcomes of the mechanical in Fig. 11(o) rises as high as 1.6 p.u. when the SSSC is with
mode under different values of PF. It is discovered that the designed ODC during the faulted interval. However, this
364 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 4, NO. 2, APRIL 2013

Fig. 11. Transient responses of the studied system subject to a three-phase short-circuit fault at the infinite bus: (a) , (b) , (c) , (d) , (e) , (f) ,
(g) , (h) , (i) , (j) , (k) , (l) , (m) , (n) , and (o) .

transient high voltage decays faster than the one of the system the designed ODC. It is obviously observed from the compar-
with the SSSC but without the ODC. ative transient simulation results that all transient responses of
the studied system with the proposed SSSC joined with the de-
B. Case 2 signed PI ODC are stable and quickly return back to their corre-
Fig. 12 illustrates the comparative transient responses of the sponding steady-state values in 5 s. On the other hand, all tran-
studied system with the SSSC and with the SSSC joined with sient responses of the studied system with the SSSC but without
WANG AND VO: POWER FLOW CONTROL AND STABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF CONNECTING AN OWF TO AN OMIB SYSTEM 365

Fig. 12. Transient responses of the studied system subject to a three-phase short-circuit fault at the infinite bus under Case 2: (a) , (b) , (c) , (d) ,
(e) , (f) , (g) , (h) , (i) , (j) , (k) , (l) , (m) , (n) , and (o) .

the designed PI ODC are unstable while all the responses di- ODC of the proposed SSSC can effectively stabilize the studied
verge to unacceptable values in 1.1 s. It shows the designed system under an unstable scenario.
366 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 4, NO. 2, APRIL 2013

Fig. 13. Transient responses of the studied system when the DFIG-based OWF is suddenly tripped under Case 3: (a) , (b) , (c) , (d) , (e) , (f) ,
(g) , (h) , (i) , (j) , (k) , (l) , (m) , (n) , and (o) .

C. Case 3 the wind speed of the DFIG-based OWF changes. The varia-
tions of the wind speed take into account the base wind speed,
Fig. 13 shows the transient responses of the studied system noise wind speed, gust wind speed, and ramp wind speed while
when the DFIG-based OWF is suddenly tripped at s Fig. 14(o) shows the simulated wind speed . It is clearly
while Fig. 14 shows the dynamic responses of the system when observed from the time-domain responses shown in Figs. 13
WANG AND VO: POWER FLOW CONTROL AND STABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF CONNECTING AN OWF TO AN OMIB SYSTEM 367

Fig. 14. Dynamic responses of the studied system when the DFIG-based OWF is subject to a wind-speed change under Case 3: (a) , (b) , (c) , (d) ,
(e) , (f) , (g) , (h) , (i) , (j) , (k) , (l) , (m) , (n) , and (o) .

and 14(a)–(n) that the low-frequency oscillations of the SG can VI. CONCLUSION
be excited when the disturbances are at the DFIG-based OWF.
Figs. 13 and 14 also show that the SSSC combined with the This paper has presented the stability-improvement and
designed ODC can effectively suppress the low-frequency os- power-flow control results of an OMIB system with a
cillation in these two studied cases. DFIG-based OWF using a static series compensator (SSSC).
368 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 4, NO. 2, APRIL 2013

The proposed SSSC has been properly connected in series with B. DFIG-Based OWF [23]
one of the two parallel lines to supply adequate reactive power.
a) Wind turbine (rated 5 MW)
A PI-type ODC has been designed for the proposed SSSC by
using a unified approach based on modal control theory to
assign the mechanical mode of the studied OMIB system on the
desired locations of the complex plane. Root-loci plots under
various operating conditions and time-domain simulations of
the studied OMIB system subject to a three-phase short-circuit
fault at the infinite bus have been systematically performed b) Generator (per unit) (rated 5 MW, 0.69 kV)
to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SSSC joined
with the designed PI ODC on damping inherent low-frequency
oscillations of the studied OMIB system and improving system
stability under different operating conditions. It can be con-
cluded from the simulation results that the proposed SSSC c) Mass-spring-damper system
joined with the designed ODC has the ability to improve the
performance of the studied OMIB plus the DFIG-based OWF
system under different operating conditions. The designed
ODC of the proposed SSSC can also effectively stabilize the
studied system under an unstable scenario.
C. SSSC (Per Unit) [8] (Rated 134 MVA)

APPENDIX
SYSTEM PARAMETERS

A. SG and Its Subsystems [16]


a) Single SG (per unit) D. Network Impedances (Per Unit on 100 MVA Base)

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speed wind-generator and wind-park modeling for transient stability He has been an associated professor and a pro-
studies,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1911–1917, Nov. fessor with the Department of Electrical Engineering,
2004. National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
[20] S. M. Muyeen, M. H. Ali, R. Takahashi, T. Murata, J. Tamura, Y. in 1988 and 1995, respectively. He was a visiting
Tomaki, A. Sakahara, and E. Sasano, “Transient stability analysis scholar with the School of Electrical Engineering
of wind generator system with the consideration of multi-mass shaft and Computer Science, Purdue University, West
model,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Power Electronics and Drives Systems, Lafayette, IN, from February 2000 to July 2000, and
Jan. 16–18, 2006, vol. 1, pp. 511–516. the School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Washington State
[21] P. Cartwright, L. Holdsworth, J. B. Ekanayake, and N. Jenkins, “Co- University, Pullman, WA, from August 2003 to January 2004. He was a re-
ordinated voltage control strategy for a doubly-fed induction generator search scholar of the Energy Systems Research Center (ESRC), the University
(DFIG)-based wind farm,” in IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., Jul. of Texas at Arlington (UTA), Arlington, TX, from July 2008 to January 2009.
2004, vol. 151, no. 4, pp. 495–502. At present, his research interests include power systems dynamics, power
[22] L. Yang, G. Y. Yang, Z. Xu, Z. Y. Dong, K. P. Wong, and X. Ma, system stability, ac machine analyses, and renewable energy.
“Optimal controller design of a doubly-fed induction generator wind
turbine system for small signal stability enhancement,” IET Generat.,
Trans., Distribut., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 579–597, May 2010.
[23] B. C. Pal and F. Mei, “Modelling adequacy of the doubly fed induc- Quang-Son Vo was born in Vietnam, on March
tion generator for small-signal stability studies in power systems,” IET 08, 1980. He received the B.E. degree in electrical
Renew. Power Generat., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 181–190, Sep. 2008. engineering from the Department of Electrical
[24] L. Fan, R. Kavasseri, Z. L. Miao, and C. Zhu, “Modeling of DFIG- Engineering, Danang University of Technology,
based wind farms for SSR analysis,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 25, Vietnam, in July 2004, and the M.Sc. degree from
no. 4, pp. 2073–2082, Oct. 2010. the Department of Electrical Engineering, National
[25] F. Wu, X.-P. Zhang, K. Godfrey, and P. Ju, “Small signal stability anal- Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, in July 2011.
ysis and optimal control of a wind turbine with doubly fed induction His research interests include power system sta-
generator,” IET Generat., Trans., Distribut., vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 751–760, bility, FACTS, and wind power generation systems.
Sep. 2007.