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2, APRIL 2013

Connecting an Offshore Wind Farm to a One-Machine

Infinite-Bus System Using a Static Synchronous

Series Compensator

Li Wang, Senior Member, IEEE, and Quang-Son Vo

Abstract—This paper presents the stability improvement and the interconnected power systems. One of the simplest ways of

power-flow control results of a DFIG-based offshore wind farm solving these problems is by means of supplementary control of

(OWF) connected to a one-machine infinite-bus (OMIB) system the excitation system to render the desired additional damping

using a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC). An oscilla-

tion damping controller (ODC) of the proposed SSSC is designed [2]. Different damping control schemes have been extensively

by using modal control theory to render proper damping to the presented to enhance the damping of the mechanical mode of

dominant mode of the studied synchronous generator (SG). A the synchronous generator (SG) of the studied power systems.

frequency-domain approach based on a linearized system model The power system stabilizer (PSS) of the excitation system,

using eigenvalue analysis is accomplished. A time-domain scheme the static VAR compensator (SVC) with the designed damping

based on a nonlinear system model subject to a disturbance is also

performed. It can be concluded from the simulation results that controller, and the rectifier current regulator with the designed

the proposed SSSC joined with the designed ODC can effectively damping controller of the line-commutated converter (LCC)

improve the stability of the studied OMIB system with an OWF of the high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) link connected in

under various disturbances. The inherent low-frequency oscilla- parallel with the ac line were applied to a well-known one-ma-

tions of the OMIB system can also be effectively suppressed by the chine infinite-bus (OMIB) system to compare the damping

proposed control scheme.

characteristics of both mechanical mode and exciter mode

Index Terms—Modal control theory, offshore wind farm (OWF), [3]. Numerous damping control schemes for damping SG’s

one-machine infinite-bus (OMIB) system, oscillation damping con-

oscillations will not be discussed in this paper.

troller (ODC), stability, static synchronous series compensator

(SSSC). FACTS devices have become more relevant due to the

inherent high-speed response of high-power power-electronics

converters (PECs) to effectively control power flow of power

I. INTRODUCTION systems. These FACTS devices can also effectively improve the

stability of power systems and can allow more efficient uses of

opment of interconnection of large power systems have

been discussed and studied for over 45 years since the first

existing transmission lines [4], [5]. These FACTS devices based

on voltage-sourced converters (VSCs) provide a potentially

attractive solution to control power flow in modern electric net-

interconnected power systems of the Northwest, predominantly works. Such devices can be used for improving power transfer

hydro, and the interconnected Southwest, predominantly steam, limits, for congestion management in the network, for damping

were connected together in October 1964 [1]. The spontaneous oscillatory modes [6], etc. The static synchronous compensator

LFOs exhibited a very low frequency of the order of several (STATCOM) is one of the shunt FACTS devices and it has

cycles per minute. The oscillations would continue for a short been used widely to provide smooth and rapid steady-state and

period and then vanished, or continue to increase, causing transient voltage control at the bus to which it is connected. The

system disjunction [2]. When more field operating experiences static synchronous series compensator (SSSC), on the other

have accumulated, power engineers are now convinced that hand, is a series FACTS device and can be effectively used

LFOs are owing to the lack of damping of mechanical mode of for controlling the power flow [7]. In addition, an auxiliary

stabilizing signal can also be superimposed on its power flow

Manuscript received February 13, 2012; revised September 13, 2012; ac- control function to enhance the damping of oscillations which

cepted October 07, 2012. Date of publication November 29, 2012; date of cur-

have occurred in power systems [8], [9].

rent version March 18, 2013. This work was supported by National Science of

Council (NSC) of Taiwan under Grant NSC 100-3113-P-006-014, Grant NSC For the applications of SSSC, the damping function of an

100-3113-E-006-013, and Grant NSC 100-ET-E-006-005-ET. SSSC was proposed in [8] while the fundamental principles,

L. Wang is with the Department of Electrical Engineering and the Research

characteristics, and benefits of an SSSC were shown in [7] and

Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University,

Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (e-mail: liwang@mail.ncku.edu.tw). [10]. The simulations of a 24-step inverter-based SSSC using

Q.-S. Vo is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were carried

Kung University, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (e-mail: vqson80@gmail.com).

out in [10]. The modeling and control of a 48-step inverter-based

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. SSSC were discussed in [11]. The impacts of SSSC control

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TSTE.2012.2225156 modes on small-signal stability and transient stability based on

WANG AND VO: POWER FLOW CONTROL AND STABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF CONNECTING AN OWF TO AN OMIB SYSTEM 359

been combined with a STATCOM to form a new FACTS device,

i.e., a unified power flow controller (UPFC), where the SSSC

and the STATCOM use the same dc-link capacitor [13]–[15].

The contribution of this paper is associated with the inclu-

sion of an oscillation damping controller (ODC) to the proposed

SSSC connected in series with one of two parallel transmission

lines of an SG-based power system with a DFIG-based offshore

wind farm (OWF). The ODC is designed by using modal con-

trol theory to exactly locate the mechanical mode of the SG on

the desired location on the complex plane. The goals of both

damping low-frequency oscillations of the SG and controlling

the power flow through the transmission lines can be simulta-

neously achieved by the proposed control scheme. Fig. 1. One-line diagram of the studied system.

This paper presents both power-flow control and stability

improvement results of a DFIG-based OWF connected to

an OMIB system using an SSSC. This paper is organized as

b) The rotor has two windings on each axis, i.e., one field

follows. System configuration and mathematical models of the

winding and one damper winding on the -axis and two

studied OMIB system, the DFIG-based OWF, and the proposed

damper windings on the -axis.

SSSC are introduced in Section II. Design procedure and results

c) The transients of stator windings and the effects of speed

for the ODC of the proposed SSSC using modal control theory

deviation in the stator-winding voltage equations are

are described in Section III. Root-loci results of the dominant

properly neglected.

mode of the OMIB system under different operation points are

plotted in Section IV. Comparative transient responses of the d) All quantities are in per unit (p.u.) except that time is in

studied system subject to a severe disturbance are studied in seconds, rotor angle is in electrical radians, and base an-

Section V. Finally, specific important conclusions of this paper gular frequency is in electrical radians per second.

are drawn in Section VI. For the complete - and -axis equivalent circuits and the

corresponding equations of an SG, refer to [16]. The IEEE

type ST1A excitation system model (fast static exciter) with an

II. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION AND MODELS

automatic voltage regulator (AVR) and a power system stabi-

Fig. 1 shows the configuration of the studied system in this lizer (PSS) is employed in this paper [16]–[18]. A single-reheat

paper. The SG with capacity of 4 555 MVA is connected to tandem-compound steam turbine model [16] is used in this

an infinite bus through a 24/230-kV step-up transformer and paper for the mechanical input torque of the SG while the speed

two parallel transmission lines (Line 34-1 and Line 34-2) [16]. governor model for the steam turbine [16] is also utilized.

The Line 34-2 contains the proposed SSSC located near Bus

#3 and the local load is connected to Bus #3. The aggregated

B. DFIG-Based OWF Model

200-MW OWF containing 40 5-MW DFIG-based wind turbine

generators (WTGs) is connected to Bus #3 through a 33/150-kV Fig. 2 shows the fundamental configuration of a DFIG-based

step-up transformer, a 150-kV HVAC line, and a 150/230-kV WTG system. The stator windings of the wound-rotor induction

step-up transformer. The aggregated 200-MW OWF is repre- generator are directly connected to the grid while the rotor wind-

sented by a 200-MW DFIG connected to the low-voltage side of ings of the induction generator are fed to the same grid through

the 33/150-kV transformer through an equivalent 0.69/33-kV a rotor-side converter (RSC), a dc link, and a grid-side converter

step-up transformer and a 33-kV infield cable. The equivalent (GSC). The per-unit - and -axis voltage–current equations of

wind DFIG is driven by an equivalent wind turbine (WT) an induction generator can be referred to [17], [18] and they can

through an equivalent gearbox (GB). The employed capacity be used for the electrical parts of the wind DFIG. The rotor of

of the proposed SSSC is 134 MVA, and it is calculated by the DFIG is mechanically coupled to the shaft of a WT through

taking 3 times (three-phase power) the multiplication of the a mechanical drive train system which consists of a high-speed

maximum current through Line 34-2 and the maximum voltage shaft, a gearbox (GB), and a low-speed shaft.

injected by the SSSC. The employed mathematical models of Fig. 3 shows the two-inertia reduced-order equivalent mass-

the studied system are described as below. spring-damper model of the WT coupled to the rotor shaft of the

studied wind DFIG. The effect of the equivalent gearbox (GB)

A. SG Model between the WT and the rotor of the DFIG has been included in

The SG model used in this paper is the same as the one de- this model [19]–[21].

veloped in [16]. This model takes into account the subtransient Fig. 4 shows the control block diagram of the RSC of the

effects and is established based on the following assumptions. studied wind DFIG. The RSC controller is used to control the

a) The model is established on the -axis reference frame electromagnetic torque of the DFIG to follow an optimal torque-

that is fixed on the rotor of the SG and is rotating with the speed characteristic and to maintain the terminal voltage of the

rotor speed. DFIG at the reference value. This controller is similar to the one

360 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 4, NO. 2, APRIL 2013

Fig. 5. Control block diagram for the GSC of the wind DFIG.

WT coupled to the rotor shaft of the studied wind DFIG.

C. SSSC Model

Fig. 6 shows the fundamental configuration of a typical

SSSC. The SSSC consists of a voltage-source inverter (VSI)

that converts a dc voltage into a three-phase ac voltage. Hence,

the equivalent components of an SSSC consist of a three-phase

voltage source with fundamental frequency, a series coupling

transformer, a dc capacitor, and a controller.

Under the synchronous reference frame, the - and -axis

components of the series injected voltage are expressed by, re-

spectively, [27]

(1)

(2)

Fig. 4. Control block diagram for the RSC of the wind DFIG.

where is the turns ratio of the coupling transformer, is

the dc capacitor voltage, is the phase angle of the injected

voltage, and is the inverter constant that relates the dc-side

in [22]–[24], where the reactive power is controlled instead of

voltage to the ac-side line-to-neutral voltage. For a 48-pulse in-

the terminal voltage of the DFIG.

verter, the constant is given by

Fig. 5 plots the control block diagram of the GSC of the

DFIG where the superscript denotes the variables in the

stator-voltage-oriented reference frame. This controller aims to (3)

maintain the dc-link voltage constant and control the reactive

power exchanged between the GSC and the grid. For minimum

converter rating as assumed in this paper, the GSC is controlled From the dc-side equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 7 and bal-

to operate at unity power factor and, hence, exchanges only ancing the power exchanged between the ac side and the dc side,

active power with the gird. In order to achieve the decoupled the dynamic equation of the dc capacitor can be expressed

control of active and reactive power flowing between the GSC by

and the grid, the stator-voltage-oriented synchronous reference

frame, with its -axis aligning the stator voltage vector is

adopted [22], [25]. (4)

WANG AND VO: POWER FLOW CONTROL AND STABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF CONNECTING AN OWF TO AN OMIB SYSTEM 361

provement. Whenever the ODC is used, the subtraction of

and , instead of only , is multiplying by the current

magnitude to obtain required voltage magnitude .

From the block diagram of the SSSC controller shown in

Fig. 8 and the above descriptions, the following equations can

Fig. 7. Equivalent circuits of an SSSC at the: (a) ac side; (b) dc side. be written by introducing an intermediate variable

(5)

(6)

(7)

as a quadrature voltage control scheme. In this case, the required

compensating voltage magnitude is directly specified in-

stead of multiplying the current magnitude by . For the

details of the quadrature voltage control scheme, refer to [30].

The employed parameters for the models of this paper are listed

in the Appendix.

CONTROL THEORY

Fig. 8. Control block diagram of an SSSC as a power flow controller.

This section describes the design procedure and the results

of the ODC of the proposed SSSC. The aim of the ODC for the

The SSSC may be operated under capacitive mode or inductive SSSC is to achieve stability improvement of the studied OMIB

mode to increase or decrease the power flow through transmis- system under disturbance conditions. The nonlinear system

sion line, respectively. In this paper, only the capacitive mode equations developed in Section II can be linearized around a

of the SSSC is used. The control block diagram of the reactance selected nominal operating point to acquire a set of linearized

scheme-based controller [10], [28]–[30] for an SSSC in capac- system equations in the matrix form of [3]

itive mode is shown in Fig. 8. This control scheme can be de-

scribed as follows. (8)

The phase-locked loop (PLL) shown in Fig. 8 is used to deter-

(9)

mine the reference angle , which is phase-locked to phase of

the voltage at Bus #3.The - and -axis components of the line

current are calculated in a synchronous reference frame using where is the state vector, is the output vector, is the

the reference angle of the PLL. The magnitude of the line cur- external or the compensated input vector, is the disturbance

rent and its relative angle with respect to the PLL angle input vector while , and are all constant matrices of

are then calculated. The phase angle of the line current is cal- appropriate dimensions. The state vector can be divided into

culated by adding the relative angle and the PLL angle . The several substate vectors such as - (electric system of

required magnitude of the SSSC’s compensating voltage SG), - (electromechanical system of SG), -

is determined by multiplying the current magnitude by the de- (excitation system of SG), - (PSS of SG), -

sired compensating reactance . (turbine of SG), - (governor of SG), -

The phase angle of the required voltage is either (electric system of OWF), - (control system of OWF),

in an inductive mode or in a capacitive mode. Since - (dc link of OWF), - (mechanical system

only the capacitive mode is used in this paper, the SSSC uses of OWF), and - (electromechanical system of OWF).

a fixed dc-to-ac gain across the VSI. The required dc When the proposed SSSC is added to the studied system, a

capacitor voltage is, hence, determined from required new substate vector - results. To design the ODC of

compensating voltage magnitude . The actual dc capacitor the SSSC, in (8) and in (9) can be properly ignored by

voltage is then compared to its required value and setting .

the error between them is passed through a PI controller which The second and the third columns of Table I list the calculated

produces an angle that is then added to the angle to ac- eigenvalues of the studied OMIB system plus the OWF system

quire the final angle of the VSI. In Fig. 8, the desired com- without and with the proposed SSSC (compensating 50% of the

pensating reactance is directly specified to achieve the transmission line reactance) under the selected nominal oper-

power flow control goal. Fig. 8 also shows an auxiliary signal ating conditions of p.u., p.u. (SG on

(or damping signal) that comes from an ODC that will be 2220 MVA base), p.u., m/s (wind DFIG-

362 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 4, NO. 2, APRIL 2013

TABLE I steady-state power flow control loop of the SSSC. Hence, the

EIGENVALUES (rad/s) [DAMPING RATIO/FREQUENCY (Hz)] output signal in (9) is and the input signal in (8)

OF THE STUDIED SYSTEM WITHOUT SSSC, WITH SSSC,

AND WITH SSSC AND THE DESIGNED ODC

and (9) is . The transfer function of the proposed

PI ODC of the SSSC in domain is given by

(10)

and are the proportional gain and the integral gain

of the ODC, respectively. Taking the Laplace transformation

of (8)–(9), an algebraic equation of the closed-loop system

containing the PI ODC of the SSSC can be acquired [31]. The

design results of the PI ODC of the SSSC are given as below.

Prespecified Eigenvalues

based OWF system containing the SSSC and the designed PI

ODC are listed in the fourth column of Table I. When the de-

signed ODC of the SSSC is added to the studied system, a new

substate vector - results are shown in Table I. It can

be clearly observed that have been exactly located on the

desired locations on the complex plane. It is also seen that the

damping ratio of the mechanical mode of the SG has been in-

creased from 0.042 to 0.142 but the frequency is kept at 1.37 Hz.

From the eigenvalue results listed in the fourth column of Table I

and the three parameters of the designed PI ODC, it can be

concluded that the design results are appropriate to the studied

system. Steady-state analysis of the mechanical mode under dif-

Fig. 9. Control block diagram of the employed SSSC including the designed ferent operating conditions using the root-loci scheme as well as

PI ODC. time-domain simulations using the developed nonlinear model

subject to a severe disturbance condition will be performed in

Sections IV and V, respectively.

based OWF), and p.u., respectively. Comparing the

eigenvalue results of these two columns listed in Table I, the IV. STEADY-STATE ROOT-LOCI ANALYSIS

complex-conjugated eigenvalues refer to the mechanical

This section presents the root-loci analyzed results of the me-

mode of the SG and it dominants the stability characteristics

chanical mode of the OMIB plus the OWF system when the

of the low-frequency oscillations of the OMIB system. When

operating conditions are widely varied. The simulated output

the SSSC is included in the system, both damping ratio and active power of the SG is increased from 0.5 to 1.0 p.u.,

frequency have been increased. We can also observe that other the terminal voltage of the SG is increased from 0.95 to

modes are nearly fixed on the complex plane regardless of the 1.1 p.u., the output power factor of the SG (PF) is increased

addition of the SSSC. Hence, the ODC of the SSSC needs to be from 0.5 lagging to 0.96 lagging, and the wind speed

properly designed to render adequate damping to the mechan- of the DFIG-based OWF is increased from 4 m/s (cut-in wind

ical mode of the SG. speed) to 24 m/s (cut-out wind speed). Fig. 10 plots the com-

The control block diagram of the equivalent reactance of the parative root-loci results for the mechanical mode of the studied

SSSC including the PI ODC is shown in Fig. 9. It consists of OMIB system without SSSC, with SSSC, and with both SSSC

a washout block and a PI controller. The input signal of the and ODC under the selected operating conditions. The root-loci

ODC is the active-power deviation through Line 34-2, results shown in Fig. 10 are analyzed as follows.

where the SSSC is inserted. The output signal of the ODC is a) Fig. 10(a) shows the comparative root-loci results of the

the damping signal (or auxiliary signal) that is added to mechanical mode under different values of . It is found

the reference reactance as the desired value using by the that the root loci of the mechanical mode move towards

WANG AND VO: POWER FLOW CONTROL AND STABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF CONNECTING AN OWF TO AN OMIB SYSTEM 363

axis of the complex plane for all three cases when PF in-

creases. The mechanical mode may have the best damping

characteristics when the proposed SSSC and the designed

ODC are both included in the system. The root loci of the

mechanical mode are close to the imaginary axis of the

complex plane when PF is low and the system is with and

without the proposed SSSC.

d) Fig. 10(d) shows the root-loci plots of the mechanical

mode under different values of . It is discovered that

mechanical mode is approximately fixed on the complex

plane regardless the variations of . This is due to the

fact that the capacity of the DFIG-based OWF is quite

small and it is about 1/10 of the capacity of the SG. Again,

the mechanical mode may have the best damping charac-

teristics when the proposed SSSC and the designed ODC

are both included in the system.

V. TIME-DOMAIN SIMULATIONS

This section employs the nonlinear system model devel-

oped in Section II to compare and demonstrate the damping

characteristics contributed by the proposed SSSC joined with

the designed ODC under three cases (Case 1, Case 2, and

Case 3). A three-phase short-circuit fault is suddenly applied

to the infinite bus at s while the duration of the ap-

plied fault lasts for six cycles (0.1 s) in Case 1 and 0.7 s in

Case 2, respectively. Case 3 employs a sudden trip of the OWF

and wind-speed change on the OWF to demonstrate that the

low-frequency oscillations of the SG can be excited by the

DFIG-based OWF. The operating conditions of the studied

system prior the severe disturbance are properly selected the

same as the ones of Table I.

A. Case 1

Fig. 11 plots the comparative transient responses of the

Fig. 10. Comparative root-loci results for the mechanical mode under different studied system without the SSSC, with the SSSC, and with the

values of: (a) , (b) , (c) PF, and (d) . SSSC joined with the designed ODC. It is clearly observed from

the comparative transient simulation results that all transient

responses of the studied system, i.e., Figs. 11(a)–(g) for the SG,

the imaginary axis of the complex plane for all three cases. Figs. 11(l)–(m) for the DFIG-based OWF, Figs. 11(h)–(j) for the

When SSSC and ODC are both in service, the mechan- two transmission lines, etc., with the proposed SSSC joined with

ical mode can be maintained stable and nearly fixed on the designed PI ODC have the shortest time to quickly recover to

the complex plane. However, the mechanical mode has the original steady-state operating conditions in three responses.

widely varied and can be pushed towards the imaginary When the fault occurs, large amplitudes on all quantities shown

axis when is increased. in Fig. 11 can be clearly found and the quantities of the system

b) Fig. 10(b) illustrates the root-loci characteristics of the without the SSSC demonstrate the largest amplitudes in three

mechanical mode under different values of . It is seen responses. It also shows that the proposed SSSC joined with the

that mechanical mode moves away from the imaginary designed ODC can simultaneously supply the proper amount

axis of the complex plane for all three cases when in- of reactive power to the line of the studied system and offer

creases. However, the mechanical mode can have the best better damping characteristics to the mechanical mode of the

damping performance when the proposed SSSC and the SG in order to quickly damp out the low-frequency oscillations

designed ODC are both in service. The root loci of the of the SG. Voltage responses of the studied system shown in

mechanical mode locate close to the imaginary axis of the Fig. 11(a), (n), and (o) can also be effectively improved by the

complex plane when is low and the system is with and proposed SSSC with the designed ODC. The voltage across the

without the proposed SSSC. transmission-line side of the series coupling transformer shown

c) Fig. 10(c) plots the root-loci outcomes of the mechanical in Fig. 11(o) rises as high as 1.6 p.u. when the SSSC is with

mode under different values of PF. It is discovered that the designed ODC during the faulted interval. However, this

364 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 4, NO. 2, APRIL 2013

Fig. 11. Transient responses of the studied system subject to a three-phase short-circuit fault at the infinite bus: (a) , (b) , (c) , (d) , (e) , (f) ,

(g) , (h) , (i) , (j) , (k) , (l) , (m) , (n) , and (o) .

transient high voltage decays faster than the one of the system the designed ODC. It is obviously observed from the compar-

with the SSSC but without the ODC. ative transient simulation results that all transient responses of

the studied system with the proposed SSSC joined with the de-

B. Case 2 signed PI ODC are stable and quickly return back to their corre-

Fig. 12 illustrates the comparative transient responses of the sponding steady-state values in 5 s. On the other hand, all tran-

studied system with the SSSC and with the SSSC joined with sient responses of the studied system with the SSSC but without

WANG AND VO: POWER FLOW CONTROL AND STABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF CONNECTING AN OWF TO AN OMIB SYSTEM 365

Fig. 12. Transient responses of the studied system subject to a three-phase short-circuit fault at the infinite bus under Case 2: (a) , (b) , (c) , (d) ,

(e) , (f) , (g) , (h) , (i) , (j) , (k) , (l) , (m) , (n) , and (o) .

the designed PI ODC are unstable while all the responses di- ODC of the proposed SSSC can effectively stabilize the studied

verge to unacceptable values in 1.1 s. It shows the designed system under an unstable scenario.

366 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 4, NO. 2, APRIL 2013

Fig. 13. Transient responses of the studied system when the DFIG-based OWF is suddenly tripped under Case 3: (a) , (b) , (c) , (d) , (e) , (f) ,

(g) , (h) , (i) , (j) , (k) , (l) , (m) , (n) , and (o) .

C. Case 3 the wind speed of the DFIG-based OWF changes. The varia-

tions of the wind speed take into account the base wind speed,

Fig. 13 shows the transient responses of the studied system noise wind speed, gust wind speed, and ramp wind speed while

when the DFIG-based OWF is suddenly tripped at s Fig. 14(o) shows the simulated wind speed . It is clearly

while Fig. 14 shows the dynamic responses of the system when observed from the time-domain responses shown in Figs. 13

WANG AND VO: POWER FLOW CONTROL AND STABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF CONNECTING AN OWF TO AN OMIB SYSTEM 367

Fig. 14. Dynamic responses of the studied system when the DFIG-based OWF is subject to a wind-speed change under Case 3: (a) , (b) , (c) , (d) ,

(e) , (f) , (g) , (h) , (i) , (j) , (k) , (l) , (m) , (n) , and (o) .

and 14(a)–(n) that the low-frequency oscillations of the SG can VI. CONCLUSION

be excited when the disturbances are at the DFIG-based OWF.

Figs. 13 and 14 also show that the SSSC combined with the This paper has presented the stability-improvement and

designed ODC can effectively suppress the low-frequency os- power-flow control results of an OMIB system with a

cillation in these two studied cases. DFIG-based OWF using a static series compensator (SSSC).

368 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 4, NO. 2, APRIL 2013

The proposed SSSC has been properly connected in series with B. DFIG-Based OWF [23]

one of the two parallel lines to supply adequate reactive power.

a) Wind turbine (rated 5 MW)

A PI-type ODC has been designed for the proposed SSSC by

using a unified approach based on modal control theory to

assign the mechanical mode of the studied OMIB system on the

desired locations of the complex plane. Root-loci plots under

various operating conditions and time-domain simulations of

the studied OMIB system subject to a three-phase short-circuit

fault at the infinite bus have been systematically performed b) Generator (per unit) (rated 5 MW, 0.69 kV)

to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SSSC joined

with the designed PI ODC on damping inherent low-frequency

oscillations of the studied OMIB system and improving system

stability under different operating conditions. It can be con-

cluded from the simulation results that the proposed SSSC c) Mass-spring-damper system

joined with the designed ODC has the ability to improve the

performance of the studied OMIB plus the DFIG-based OWF

system under different operating conditions. The designed

ODC of the proposed SSSC can also effectively stabilize the

studied system under an unstable scenario.

C. SSSC (Per Unit) [8] (Rated 134 MVA)

APPENDIX

SYSTEM PARAMETERS

a) Single SG (per unit) D. Network Impedances (Per Unit on 100 MVA Base)

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