A DISSERTATION
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the award of the degree
of
MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
in
CIVIL ENGINEERING
(With Specialization in Computer Aided Design)
By
AMITKUMAR M. PATEL
I hereby declare that the work which is being presented in this thesis report
entitled "ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BRIDGE SUBSTRUCTURES USING
VB.NET " in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of the
Master of Technology with specialization in Computer Aided Design in the Department
of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, is an authentic record of
my own work carried out during past one year from July 2007 to June 2008, under the
supervision of Dr. Bhupinder Singh, Assistant professor, Department of Civil
Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee.
The matter presented in this thesis has not been submitted by me for the award of
any other degree of this or any other Institute.
(Am? u. Patel)
Date: 30"' June, 2008,
Place: IIT Roorkee
This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the
best of my knowledge.
Date
(BI upin
d Sin  cqb$
Asst. Professor,
Dept. of Civil Engg.,
IIT Roorkee,
Roorkee247667(India)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Amit umarM.Patel
M.TECH (II"d Year),
Computer Aided Design,
Department of Civil Engineering,
IIT Roorkee.
Date: 30062008
Place: Roorkee
ABSTRACT
The analysis and design of all the components of even the most simple bridge
type can be a fairly laborious and cumbersome job especially with respect to the various
elements of the bridge substructure. For bridges located on major perennial rivers, resort
will have to be made to deep foundations like wells or pile foundations, the design of
which involves lengthy computational effort. The bridge engineer should be equipped
with a handy computational tool with the help of which he can quickly and reliably
determine the suitability of various layouts and configuration of the substructure before
finalizing the most optimum design of the substructure. In this thesis and attempt has
been made to develop a P.C. based software on VB.Net platform for the analysis and
design of substructure for bridges with simplysupported spans. The computer
programme includes the analysis and of walltype and circular piers and includes the
option for the complete analysis and design of twotypes of deep foundations on the basis
of the relevant IS Codes of Practice: Well foundations and pile foundations. The pile
foundations can be analyzed and designed for both river and nonriver bridge crossings
and the user is presented the option of two types of piles for use in the foundations:
underreamed piles particularly for nonrivet bridge foundations and bored castinsitu
circular piles. A noteworthy feature of the program is that lateral load analysis of both
free and fixedhead piles can be carried out by the user in line with the recommendations
of the relevant IS Codes. The user friendly and interactive program assists the user in the
selection of preliminary dimensions of the well foundation, the safety of which is
checked of the elastic state of the soil surrounding the well and at ultimate loads.
Structural design of the critical well components like well curb, steining and well cap is
incorporated in the software. The results for foundation design obtained from the
program have been validated with longhand calculations present in the Appendix.
CONTENTS
Table.
Title Pg.No.
No.
2.1 Value of constant K for Pressure Intensity due to Water Current 7
2.2 Permissible Stresses in Concrete 9
3.1 Silt factors for Sandy beds, IRC: 7820008 15
3.2 Values of the constant Q for square or rectangular wells 20
4.1 Bearing Capacity Factor, JV y 33
4.2 Value of coefficient of horizontal soil stress (KS) 33
4.3 Safe loads for underreamed piles 35
4.4 Values of the constant r7„ (kN/m3) 41
4.5 Values of the constant K (kN/m2) 41
A1 Calculation of Maximum Shear forces bearings 141
A2 Stresses due to horizontal shear force at bearings 141.
A3 Summary of Stresses due to various forces acting on the Pier 142
A4 Resultant Compressive Stresses at Point "A" & "B" on Pier 143
A5 Resultant Tensile Stresses at Point "A" & `B" on Pier 143
A6 Horizontal shear force at bearings & moments at the base of foundation 148
A7 Seismic moment due of mass of bridge components & Live load, 148
B1 Calculation of Maximum Shear forces at bearings 168
B2 Stresses due to horizontal shear force at bearings 169
B3 Summary of Stresses due to various forces acting on the Net 169
B4 Resultant Compressive Stresses at "A" & `B" on Pier 170
B5 Resultant Tensile Stresses at "A" & `B" on Pier 170
B6 Moment about longitudinal axis in pile cap from the critical section 182
B7 Calculation of twoway shear force 184
B8 Calculation of oneway shear force at critical section along LL axis of 185
bridge
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig,
Title Pg. No.
No.
2.1 Typical Shapes of Piers 5
3.1 Different Shapes of Well 11
3.2 Typical Section of Well Foundation 12
4.1 Piles Classification on the basis of load transfer mechanism 26
4.2 Uplift Piles 27
4.3 Use of piles in scourable beds 27
4.4 Piles in expansive soils can control seasonal movements 28
4.5 Free Standing Pile Group 29
4.6 Piled Foundation 29
4.7 Load resisting mechanism in a pile 31
4.8 Bearing Capacity Factor, Nq for bored piles 32
4.9 Adhesion factor for cohesive soils 34
4.10 Typical arrangement of piles in a group 36
4.11 Determination of the depth of fixity of the pile 42
4.12 Reduction factors for freehead and fixedhead piles 43
4.13 Computation of Settlements for End Bearing Piles & Friction Piles 45
4.14 Critical section for moment & oneway shear 47
4.15 Critical section for twoway shear 47
4.16 Typical detailing of reinforcement in a pile cap 47
5.1 Flow Chart of preliminary dimensioning of pier 51
5.2 Flow Chart for Analysis of Pier 52
5.3 Flow Chart for calculation of Maximum Scour Depth 54
5.4 Flow Chart for calculation of soil resistance 56
5.5 Flow Chart for calculation of soil resistance at ultimate loads 58
5.6 Flow Chart for design of Well curb 59
5.7 Flow Chart for design of Well steining 60
5.8 Flow Chart for design of Well Cap 61
5.9 Flow Chart for soil details 63
5.10 Flow Chart for calculating safe bearing Capacity of bored castinsitu pile 65
5.11 Flow Chart for calculating safe bearing Capacity of an underreamed Pile 66
5.12 Flow Chart for calculation of SBC of group of bored castinsitu piles 68
5.13 Flow Chart for calculation of SBC of group of underreamed piles 69
5.14 Lateral load capacity of Underreamed Pile 70
5.15 Lateral load capacity of Bored Castinsitu pile 71
5.16 Design of Pile Cap 72
6.1 Details of Soil layers in Ground 104
A1 Pier Section in longitudinal direction of bridge 133
A2 Water Pressure Details 137
A3 Location of "A" & `B" on pier 142
A4 Diagram of a Well Foundation 145
A5 Diagram of Well curb 146
A6 Diagram of Bottom Plug 146
A7 Load dispersion area in well cap 158
A8 Moments in wellcap when freely supported 160
A9 Moments in wellcap when fully clamped 161
A10 Reinforcement Details of Well Cap 163
B1 Pier Section in transverse direction of bridge 164
B2 Location of "A" & `B" on Pier 170
B3 Effective overburden pressure on pile 172
B4 Arrangement of Piles in Foundation 174
B5 Settlement of End bearing piles 180
B6 Reinforcement details of Pile Cap 186
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Thomas B. Macaulay once said: "Of all inventions, the alphabet and the printing press
alone, excepted, those inventions which abridge distance have done the most for the
civilization of our species". Since ancient times, bridges have been the most visible testimony,
to the contribution of engineers. Bridges have always figured prominently in human history.
They enhance the vitalities of the cities and aid the social, cultural and economic
improvements of the locations around them.
Bridge is a structure providing passage over an obstacle without closing the way
beneath. The required passage may be for a road, a railway, pedestrians, a canal or a pipeline
and the obstacle to be crossed may be a river, a road, railways or a valley. The portion of the
bridge structure below the level of the bearing and above the ,founding level is generally
referred to as the substructure. The design of bridge substructure is an important part of the
overall design for a bridge and affects to a considerable extent the aesthetics, the safety and
the economy of the bridge. Bridge substructure are a very important part of a bridge as it
safely transfers the loads from the superstructure to the earth in such a uranner that the
stresses on the soil are not excessive & the resulting deformations are within the acceptable
limits.
The selection of the foundation system for a particular site depends on many
considerations, including the nature of subsoil, location where a bridge is proposed to be
constructed i.e. over a river, road, or a valley, etc. & the scour depth. A bridge may have
either have the following types of foundations:
1. Well foundations: It is the most common type of foundation in India for both road &
railway bridges. Such foundation can be sunk to great depths and can carry very heavy
vertical and lateral loads. Well foundations can also be installed in'a boulder stratum. It is a
massive structure and is relatively rigid in its structural behavior.
2. Pile foundations: It consist of relatively long and slender members, called piles which are
used to transfer loads through weak soil or water to deeper soil or rock "strata having'a high
bearing capacity. They are also used in normal ground conditions for elevated road ways.
The analysis and the design of all the components of a bridge particularly with
reference to the bridge substructure can become a very lengthy and laborious task if the
calculations are attempted manually. A design engineer would like to try various
liPage 
configurations, shapes and sizes of the principal components of a bridge before finalizing the
most optimum combination on the basis of safety, economics and aesthetics of the elements
of the superstructure and the substructure. At the same time, in spite of the best efforts
during subsoil investigations, many uncertainties always exist with respect to the subsoil
conditions which may be encountered at pier and foundation locations. Unexpected subsoil
conditions may require a significant redesign of the foundation or in extreme cases the
foundation type may have to be changed from for example an openfooting to a pile or a well
foundation. For the above eventualities, it is desirable that a quick, handy and reliable
computational tool should be available to the design engineer for the analyses and design of
bridge substructure in general and well and pile foundations in particular.
In this thesis an attempt has been made to develop P.C. software package in the
VB.Net platform for the analysis and design of substructures for concrete bridges with
simply supported spans.
Analysis of the superstructure for loads transferred to the substructure is included in
the software. Two IRC loading categories: Class AA and Class A are considered for super
structure analysis. The option for single lane and two lanes of traffic is included. The user is
provided with the option of two types of concrete piers: walltype and hammerhead type
with a circular shaft. The analysis and design of both these types of piers is included in the
software. In the software, the option is provided for two types of deep foundations: well and
piles. Well foundations are essentially meant for riverbridge crossings where as the option
for pile foundations take care of pile analysis and design for both nonriver and river bridge
crossings. The analysis of the well foundation is carried out as per the relevant IRC code for
the resultant axial, lateral loads and moments transferred from the superstructure for the
following two conditions: (1) The soil surrounding the well is in an elastic state (2) At
ultimate load conditions. The program includes check on thickness of the bottom plug and the
analysis and design of the critical components of a well viz, well curb, well steining and well
cap. Practical considerations related to construction of wells are examined through a check on
the sinking effort developed in the well. Two types of piles are available for design of pile
foundations: (1) Underreamed piles and (2) Bored castinsitu circular piles. Underreamed
piles are essentially meant for nonriver bridge crossings and their design for vertical and
lateral loads has been carried out as per recommendations of IS: 2911. The software includes
the analysis and design of both freehead and fixedhead bored castinsitu circular piles in
cohesion less as well as cohesive soils. A noteworthy feature of the software is the lateral
load analysis of the pile as per the relevant IS Code. The design of the pile foundation
2( Page
concludes with check on group behavior including settlement analysis and structural design
of the pile and the pile cap.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE THESIS
Development of an interactive userfriendly software for the analysis and design of
substructures of RCC bridges with simply supported spans for river as Well as nonriver
bridge crossings.
1.3 SCOPE OF THE WORK
The analysis of the simply supported superstructure his been carried out for 'only two
loading classes: Class AA and Class A. Two type of piers are included in the software:'wall
type and hammerhead type with a circular shaft. Besides gravity loads, lateral loads due to
wind, earthquake and hydrodynamic effect are considered in the analysis. The well'
foundation analysis is performed at both elastic and ultimate state. The analysis and design of
pile foundation is restricted to underreamed and bored castinsitu piles in both cohesibnless`
and cohesive soils for vertical as well as lateral loads: Stnictural design of piles and pilecap
is included in the software. The software does not have the option of generating detailing and
working drawings of the bridge substructure.
1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS
• The introduction to the thesis & the scope of present work together with the'
organization of thesis is contained in Chapter 1.
• Chapter 2 discusses about the piers in substructure It' contains the details '&
summarizes the available literature on pier. The 'steps for analysis for pier' are
explained in this chapter.
• The knowledge base of well foundation is provided in Cfiapte'r 3, following the
procedure for analysis of well foundation & design of various conrpoinents 6f the well. '
• Chapter 4 includes the literature review on pile foundations At discusses the analysis
& design steps of pile foundations.
• The features & limitations of the software developed es the part of thesis woik are
being explained in Chapter 5. The functioning of various modules of the softivare are
explained in the form of flow chart, in the same chapter. '
• The application of the proposed software to the analysis & design of typical well
foundation and pile foundation is presented in Chapter 6.
• The conclusions from the present study are discussed in Chapter 7.
• References form the last part of this thesis.
3IPage
CHAPTER 2
4 I Page — 
t%v&~;` Z .CUT~WATER
lr .. .:' STAIGH1:PORTION th U'<:%• z` '
(a) Solid Pier
Ii
BENT CAP ~I
NV _
:jj
a a
~ a
SiPage
Minimum top width of pier is kept 600 mm more than the outtoout dimension of the
bearing plates, measured along the longitudinal axis of the superstructure. Length of pier
should not be less than 1200 mm in excess of the outtoout dimension of the bearing plates
measuredperpendicular to the axis of the superstructure. The bottom width of pier is usually
larger than the top width so as to restrict the net stresses within the permissible values. It is
normally sufficient to provide a batter of I in 25 on all sides for the portion of pier between
the bottom of the pier cap and the top of the well or pile cap, as the case may be.
2.3 PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS OF PIER
Analysis of pier is carried out considering various forces and loads transmitted from.
the superstructure and forces acting directly on the pier. Following arethe loads and forces to
be resisted by a pier:
1. Dead load:
Dead load of superstructure and substructure above the base level of pier.
2. Live load:
This consists of Live load of traffic passing over the bridge. Effect of eccentric
loading due to live load should also be considered.
3. Buoyancy:
Buoyancy has the influence of reducing weight. In masonry or concrete structure, the
buoyancy effect through pore'pressure may be limited to 15 percent of full buoyancy
on the submerged portion.
4. Wind load:
Wind load is considered on the live load, superstructure and the part of the
substructure above the base of pier or water level, whichever is higher. It acts on the
area. of the bridge in elevation and is thus always taken to be acting laterally to the
bridge only. This force could be considered as per recommendations of IS:8752.
5. Horizontal forces due to water current:
Horizontal force due to water current is considered on that part of substructure that
lies between the water level and the base of pier. The water current pressure is given
by Equation 2.1
P=KV 2 , (2.1)
where, P = intensity of pressure in kN/m2 due to water current,
K = a constant having different values for different shapes 'of piers.
The values of this constant for different pier shapes are present in
6I Page
Table 2.1
V = velocity of current in m/sec at the point where pressure intensity
is being calculated.
It is assumed that the velocity distribution in stream is such that. V2 is.,
maximum at the free surface of water, zero at the deepest'scour level and varies'
linearly in between them. Also the maximum velocity of flow is assumed to be equal
to fl times the velocity of the current.
Table 2.1: Value of constant K for Pressure Intensity due to Water Current
SHAPE K— Values
For calculating the pressure on the pier, the angle which the current makes'
with the axis of the pier should be taken into account. Generally, the maximum
variation in the angle of water current to the transverse axis of the bridge is taken as,
200. Thus, the pressure along the axis of the pier and transverse to it, is respectively',
given by,
P1 =KV 2 cos2 20° ,(2:2).
P2 = KV 2 sin2.20° , , (2,3)
6. Centrifugal forces: 
Centrifugal forces are taken into account, when the bridge is located on a curve.
7. Longitudinal forces:
Longitudinal forces are caused due to tractive effort caused through acceleration of
the driving wheels, braking effect due to application of brakes to the wheels '&
frictional resistance offered to the movement of free bearings due to change of
temperature. Braking effect is invariably, greater than the tractive effort, and as a
result the tractive effort of vehicles is neglected.
7j Page
8. Seismic forces:
Seismic force acts on all loads, which posses mass at their centre of gravity. Seismic
forces acting in horizontal direction, along longitudinal and transverse aids of the
bridge are considered. Forces acting in the vertical directions are comparatively small,
and are hence neglected. During earthquake, water in river will apply hydrodynamic
force on the submerged portion of pier. Seismic forces are considered to act only in
one direction at a time.
All the above loads are classified into different loading cases as discussed below.
1. Normal (N) Case loading: It includes dead load, live load, buoyant force, wind load,
forces due to water current, centrifugal forces, braking force/tractive force &
horizontal shear force at hinge bearings due to the effect of braking force, wind load.
2. Temperature (T) Case loading: It includes loads due to frictional restraint to
temperature movement at bearings.
3. Seismic (S) Case loading; It includes seismic forces acting in horizontal forces
acting in horizontal direction.
Considering the probability of earthquake with other forces, it is generally assumed
that earthquake and wind forces will not occur simultaneously and so only one can be
considered at a time. Taking all the case loading into accounts, pier is analyzed for three
different load combinations: Normal (N) Case, Normal and Temperature (N + T) Case &
Normal, Temperature and Seismic (N ± T + S) Case.
Longitudinal forces acting on the bridge like braking effort/tractive effort, frictional
resistance at the bearings and seismic forces acting on live load and bridge superstructure will
produce horizontal shear force at the bearings. The horizontal shear force will be calculated
for different load combinations as discussed above, and later is incorporated into their
respective case of load combinations.
Stresses developed into the pier due to different loads and forces are calculated
individually, and the resultant maximum stress acting on the pier is worked out for different
load combinations. The resultant maximum stress for each load combination should be within
the permissible stress limits. For brick masonry in cement mortar, permissible compressive
stress is I MPa and permissible tensile stress is 0.10 MPa. In stone masonry, compressive
stress is limited to 1.5 NlPa and tensile stress is limited to 0.10 MPa. Permissible stresses for
concrete are given in Table 21 of IS: 4562000', for different grades of concrete. Table 2.1
shows the permissible stresses for plain concrete used in bridge analysis and design.
81 Pa ge _—
Table 2.2: Permissible Stresses in Concrete
M l0 2:5. 
M 15 4.0 0.6
IRC: 620006 allows the increase in permissible stresses of concrete for different load
combinations. For Normal and Temperature (N + T) case i.e. when the effect of temperature
is considered, permissible stress can be increased by 15 percent.' Finally, • for Normal,
Temperature and Seismic (N + T + S) case permissible stress can be exceeded by 50% if the
maximum stresses in piers for the worst loading combination are indie than the permissible
stress, it is required to redesign the piers in order to bring maximum stresses within the
permissible limit.
2.4 CONCLUSIONS
The types and the features of piers and pier caps usually employed for bridge
crossings have been briefly discussed together with analysis methodology and permissible
stresses for design.
91Page
CHAPTER 3
WELL FOUNDATIONS
3.1 INTRODUCTION
Well foundations have their origin in India & have been used for hundreds of years
for providing deep foundation to important buildings and bridges. Well foundations were
freely used during the Moghal Period for bridges across the major rivers. Moghal monuments
including Taj Mahal are built on well foundations. Well foundations provide a solid &
massive structure. This foundation has maximum sectional modulus for a given cross
sectional area. Wells can resist large horizontal forces & vertical loads even when the
unsupported length is large in scourable river beds. A well foundation is monolithic and,
relatively rigid in its structural behaviour.
3.2 TYPES OF WELL FOUNDATIONS
Different types of wells in common use are shown in Fig. 3.1 The controlling factors
in selecting the shape of the well foundation are: the base dimensions of pier or abutment, the
ease with which the well can be sunk, cost, considerations of tilt and shift, ease of sinking and
the magnitude of the forces to be resisted by the foundation. Circular wells are used most
commonly and the mains points in their favour are their strength, simplicity in construction
and ease of sinking. However, in terms of the lateral stability for a given crosssectional area,
circular wells offer the least resistance against tilting when compared with other sections.
Circular wells also suffer from the disadvantage that in the case of large oblong piers, the
diameter of a circular well becomes excessive which renders them uneconomical besides
creating obstruction to the flow of water.
Two or three independent circular, square or rectangular wells in section suitably
connected can be used for supporting long piers. Such wells are called tied wells. Tied wells
of different shapes are preferred to avoid relative tilts between wells. DoubleD shaped and
dumbbell shaped wells are the most commonly used shapes of tied wells. Double octagonal
well is also a monolithic well consisting of two circular dredge holes. On account of its
shape, the flexural stresses developed in the steining are relatively less compared to a double
D shape. However, sharp corners of double octagonal wells produce gratei scour.
Rectangular wells are generally adopted for bridge foundations having shallow depths. They
can be adopted very conveniently where the bridge is designed for open foundations and
change to well foundation becomes necessary during the course of construction on account of
adverse conditions such as excessive inflow of water and silt into the excavation. For piers of
101P age
very large sizes, wells with multiple dredge holes are used. Wells of this type have been used
for the towers of the Howrah Bridge.
111 P a g e
3.3 ELEMENTS OF A WELL FOUNDATION
A well foundation is a type of foundation which is generally built in parts at the
surface and sunk to its final position, where it forms the permanent foundation. Fig. 3.2
shows a typical section of a circular well foundation.
tt —well diameter s{
well cap
L.W.L.
top plug
max. stetntng
scour depth
intermediate plug
i4LS.L (optional)
Sand filling
Ta AUII
I
grip length well curb
~— rnning edge
F.t.
bottom plug
(a) Wellcap:
It is a RCC slab laid at the top of the well steining to transmit the loads and moments from
the pier to the well or wells below. Shape of well cap is same as that of well with a possible
overhand of 150 mm allaround to accommodate lengthy piers. It is designed as a twoway
slab with partial fixedity at supports. The top of the well cap is usually kept at the bed level in
case of rivers with seasonal flow or at about the low water level in case of perennial rivers.
Thickness of well cap is usually between 1500 mm to 2000 mm.
121 P a g e
Steining:
(b)
It is the main body of the well which transfers load to the base of the foundation. Steining is
normally of reinforced concrete. Minimum grade of concrete used in steining is M20 with
cement content not less than 310 kg/m'. To facilitate well sinking an offset of 75 mm to 100
min is provided in well steining at its junction with the well curb.
The thickness of well steining should not be less tan 500 mm nor less than that given
by Eq. 3.1.
t = KDiTE, (3.1)
where, t = minimum thickness of concrete steining, m,
D = external diameter of circular well or dumb bell shaped well or smaller
plan dimension of twin D well,"m,
L = depth of well in m below L.W.L. or top of well cap whichever is greater, ..
K = a constant depending On the nature of subsoil and steining material (taken
as 0.30 for circular well and 0.039 for twin —,D well for concrete steining
in sandy strata and 10% more than the corresponding value in the case of
clayey soil).
(c) Well curb:
It is the wedge shaped RCC ring beam located at the lower portion of the well steining
provided to facilitate sinking. Well curb carries cutting edge for the well and is made up of
reinforced concrete using controlled concrete of grade M25. The cutting edge usually consists
of a mild steel equal angle of side 150 mm. In case blasting in anticipated, the outer face of
the well curb should be protected with 6 mm thick steel plate and the inner face'shbuld have
10 mm thick plate up to the top of the curb and 6,mm plate further up to a heiglitof 3 m'
above the top of the curb.
(d) Bottom plug:
After the well is sunk to the required depth, the base of the well is plugged with concrete.
This is called the bottom plug. It acts like an inverted dome supported by the steining on all
the sides and transmits the load to the subsoil and acts as a raft against soil pressure from.
below. Minimum grade of concrete used in bottom plug is M15. Thickness of bottom plug
should not be less than the half of dredgehole diameter nor less than the value calculated in
Eq. 3.2.
t2 =8
f~(3+r9), (3.2)
13 P age
t = flexural strength of concrete in bottom plug,
0.7 7 , and,
V = Poisson's ratio for concrete, 0.18 to 0.20.
(e) Top plug:
The top plug is an unreinforced concrete plug, generally provided with a thickness of about
600 mm beneath the well cap to transmit the loads from the pier to the steining. Minimum
grade of concrete used in top plug is M15.
The space inside the well between the bottom of the top plug and the top of bottom
plug is usually filled with clean sand, so that the stability of the well against overturning is
increased. While this practice is good in case of wells resting on sand or rock, the desirability
of sand filling for wells resting on clayey strata is doubtful, as this increases the ]bad on the
foundation and may lead to greater settlement. In the latter case, the sand filling is done only
for the part of well up to scour level, and remaining portion is left free.
(f) Intermediate plug:
As discussed above, for wells resting on clayey strata, it is not preferable to fill the space
inside the well completely with sand. In such cases, sand filling is not done or sand is filled
up to the scour level. A concrete plug covering the filling is usually provided, known as
intermediate plug. Usually, thickness of intermediate plug is taken as 500 mm.
3.4 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF WELL FOUNDATION
In order to design the well foundation, maximum depth oLscour should be,deterthined
first since the maximum scour depth decides the depth of the well foundation.
3.4.1 DETERMINATION OF MAXIMUM SCOUR DEPTH
The codes IRC: 7820008 and IS:395519675 recommend that the maximum scour
depth in a stream should be ascertained, whenever possible, by actual soundings at or near the
site proposed for the bridge, during or immediately after a flood before the scour holes have
had time to silt up appreciably. In case actual soundings are not possible, depth of scour in
stream can be ascertained using theoretical methods taking into account the velocity of
stream, characteristics of the river bed materials, and many other factors.
The IRC: 782000$ recommended formula for calculating the mean depth of scour
below High Flood Level (HFL) for natural channels flowing over scourable bed is as follows:
1
z la
dsm = 1.34 ( . , (3.3)
(a f 1
where, Db = Design discharge per meter width of effective linear waterway, m3/ms,
14 1 P age
Q , Q is the design discharge in the stream in m3/s and L = 4.76
is the linear waterway, m,
K,f = Silt factor for a representative sample of the bed'rrlaterial obtained up
to the level of the anticipated deepest scour; and,
= 1.76 dm , d,,, is the median size of the bed sediments in inm.
Table 3.1 presents the IRC: 7820008 recommended values of silt factor for various
types of sandy beds for ready reference and adoption.
Table 3.1: Silt factors for Sandy beds,; IRC: 7820008
Type of bed material dsm (mm)
The normal scour depth for natural streams in alluvial beds can also be calculated
using Lacey's formula given below:
d = 0.473 ~1}3 ,
where, d = Normal depth of scour below highest flood level for regime conditions iri'
a stable channel, m.
Q = Designed discharge, m3/s and,
f = Lacey's'silt factor for a representative sample of the bed material. This
can be determined from Table 3.1.
The scour depth with maximum value,: obtained from any of the forniulae:as discussed
above will be considered as dsm, the mean scour depth for design of foundation.
As per the recommendations of IRC: 78 — 2000,
8 at the noses of piers, the maximum
depth of scour, dm,, is taken as twice of mean scour depth, dsm.
dmax = 2 Xdsm (3.5)
151 P age
The well foundation shall be taken to such a depth that it is safe against scour. Apart
from this, the depth of the well foundation should also be sufficient from considerations of
bearing capacity, settlement stability and suitability of strata at the founding level. Invariably,
the well foundation in all cases shall be taken down to a depth which will provide sufficient
grip. The grip length below the anticipated maximum scour level shall not be less than 1/3`a
the maximum anticipated depth of scour below H.F.L.
3.4.2 LOADS FOR WELL FOUNDATION DESIGN
After determining the depth of the well foundation, the dimensions of well and its
different components are empirically assumed.
The following loads are considered for the analysis and design of well foundation:
1. Dead load
2. Live load
3. Buoyancy
4. Wind load
5. Horizontal force due to water current
6. Centrifugal forces
7. Longitudinal forces
8. Seismic forces
9. Horizontal shear forces at bearings due to longitudinal forces and seismic forces
10. Forces due to tilt and shift.
The loads mentioned above are discussed in Section 2.2 of Chapter 2. These loads are
calculated with respect to the bridge superstructure and substructure and correspondingly, the
total vertical load, the total horizontal forces acting along the longitudinal direction and the
transverse direction of bridge and the moments about the transverse and longitudinal axis of
the bridge are obtained for the design of the well foundation. Moments due to shift and tilt of
wells are also be included in the analysis of the well.
3.4.3 STABILITY ANALYSIS OF WELL FOUNDATIONS
The stability of well foundation under the action of lateral loads, particularly large
magnitudes of seismic forces, depends on the passive resistance of the soil on the sides and
the base of the well. As the lateral load increases for a given magnitude of the vertical load,
the soil deformation increases disproportionately when compared with the deformation at
initial loading. Under the combined action of vertical and lateral loads the mechanism of
sharing the applied loads between the sides and the base of the well also gets significantly
modified. Hence, the behaviour of the soil at ultimate loads is different form that at the elastic
16IPage
stage which is assumed to prevail under vertical loading. The IRC: 4519727 . therefor
specifies two checks, one for soil pressures under working loads and the other. for the facto
of safety available with respect to.ultimate strength of the surrounding the well.
r
As per IRC: 4519727; the resistance of the soil surrounding the well is checked using
a. Elastic theory
b. Plastic theory (also called as Ultimate Resistance Method)
The following assumptions are made in computing soil pressure using elastic theory:
i. The soil surrounding the well and below the base is perfectly elastic, homogeneous
and obeys Hooke's law
ii. Under design loads, the lateral deflections are so small that the unit soil reaction `p'
increases linearly with increasing lateral deflections z'. Hence p = KHZ'
where, Ka is the coefficient of horizontal subgrade reaction at the base.
iii. The coefficient of horizontal subgrade reaction increases linearly with depths in the
case of cohesionless soils.
iv. The well is assumed to be a rigid body, • subjected to ah extemalunidireotional
horizontal force `H' and moment `M' at scour level.
As a consequence of the above assumptions, the'pressure distribution is parabolic on the sides
of the well and linear at the base. 
The elastic theory gives the soil pressure in the sides and the base of the well under
design loads. However, to determine the actual factor of safety against failure it is necessary
to calculate the ultimate soil resistance which is done by assuming plastic behaviour of the
soil at ultimate loads. For checking the ultimate load capacity of the well foundation, the
applied loads are multiplied by suitable load factors for various load combinations and the
ultimate resistance is reduced by appropriate understrength factors and the two are then'
compared..
A stepwise description of these two methods of analysis of well foundations is given
below:
Both the above methods are applicable if the well foundation is resting on
noncohesive soil like sand and is surrounded by the same soil below the maxim ' scour'
level.
The above methods should not be used for analysis if the depth of embedment of the well
is less than 0.5 times the width of foundation in the direction of the principal lateral forces.
17 P age
1. ELASTIC THEORY
STEP 1: Determine the values of W, H and M under, combination of normal loads
without wind and seismic loads
where, W = total downward load acting at the base of well, including self weight of
well '
H = external horizontal force acting on the well at scour level
M total applied external moment about the base of well, including those
due to tilts and shifts,
STEP 2: Compute Ip and I. and !;
where, I = 18 + mli,(1 + 2µ'a), (3.6)
la = moment of inertia of base about an axis normal to the direction of
horizontal forces and passing though the C.G. of the well.
1, = moment of inertia of the projected area in elevation of the soil mass
LDX
offering lateral resistance =
iz
L = projected width of the soil mass offering lateral resistance multiplied by
the appropriate value of shape the factor. The value of shape factor for
circular wells shall be taken as 0.9. For square or rectangular wells
where the resultant horizontal force acts parallel to the principal axis, the
shape factor shall be unity and where the forces are inclined to the
principal axis, a suitable shape factor based on experimental results is
used.
D = depth of well below scour level,
m = KH/K; Ratio of horizontal to vertical coefficient of sub grade reaction at
base of well. In the absence of values for KH and K determined by field
tests m shall generally be assumed to be unity,
u' = coefficient of friction between the sides of the well and the soil
= tand, where S is the angle of wall friction between well and the soil,
a = B for
2D
a rectangular well,
= diameter
for a circular well.
rrD
STEP 3; Ensure the following:
H> r (1+1Ft')—µW (3.7)
181 P a g e
H< M(1—µµ')+µW
I
where, r = 2 X
mt v
= coefficient of friction between the base of the and the soil. It
shall be taken as tan 0
0 = angle of internal friction of soil.
STEP 4: Check the elastic state
Z ! 1. y(Kp — KA) (3.9)
where, y = density of the soil (submerged density to be taken when under water or
below water table)
Kp & KA = passive and active pressure coefficients to be calculated using Coulomb's
theory, assuming `S', the angle of wall friction between Well and soil to
be equal to ~ 0, but limited to a value of 222°.
_ cos0
(310)
KP — { cos s— sin(o+S) sin 0)
.
cosQ Z
(3.11)
KA = { cos S+ since+6) sin 0)
' MB
STEP 5: Calculate 1} = W i P + (3.12)
A
where, Ul & Qz = maximum and minimum base pressures, respectively,
A = area of the base of well,
B = width of the base of well in the direction of forces and moments,
P=M/r,
STEP 6: Check a2 < 0 i.e. no tension, and,
& a, allowable bearing capacity of soil.
STEP 7: If any of the conditions in Step 3 or Step 4 is not satisfied, then the grip length of
the well may be increased and all the calculations are revised. If the conditions in Step 5 are
not satisfied then, either the grip length of the well or the diameter of the well is increased.
STEP 8: The above steps are repeated for load combinations containing seismic and wind
loads separately. I ,
191 P a g e
2. ULTIMATE RESISTANCE METHOD
STEP 1: Check that A ) z , (3.13)
where, W = total downward load acting at the base of well, taking appropriate load
factors as per the combinations given below:
1.1D
1.1D +B + 1.4(Wc+EP+ W or S)
1.1D+1.6L
1.1D+B+1.4(L+Wc+Ep)
1.1D + B + 1.25(L + Wc + Ep + W or S)
where, D = dead load
L = live load including barking load and other forces related to live load
B = Buoyancy
We = water current force
EP = earth pressure
W = wind force
5 = seismic force
A = area of the base of well
Qu = ultimate bearing capacity of soil below the base of well (taking a factor
of safety of 2.5).
STEP 2: Calculate the base resisting moment, Mb, at the base of well using the following
equation:
Mb = QWBtan 0, (3.14)
where, B = width, in the case of square and rectangular wells measured parallel to
the direction of forces and diameter for circular wells
Q = a constant whose values are given in Table 3.2 below for wells with a
square or a rectangular base. A value of 0.60 is taken for circular wells
0 = angle of internal friction of soil.
20 1 P a g e
The ultimate moment of resistance of the well sides due to the passive resistance of
the soil, M5 , is calculated next.
MS = 0.10 y D 3 (Kp — KA )L  ( 3.15)
where, y = density of soil (submerged density to be taken for soils under water or ,
below the water table),
L = projected width of the soil mass offering resistance. In case of circular
wells, it shall be 0.9 times the well diameter
K p & KA = passive and active pressure coefficients to be calculated using Coulomb's
theory, assuming `S', the angle of wall friction between the well and the
surrounding soil to be equal to 3 0 but limited to a value of 222°.
STEP 3: The ultimate moment of resistance of the well sides due to friction, M f , is
calculated
(i) For rectangular wells,
M,r = 0.18 y (K p — KA)L. B. D Z sin S (3.16)
(ii) For circular wells,
M f = 0.11 y (K p — K482 . D2 sin 6 (3.17)
STEP 4: The total ultimate moment of resistance of the well is taken as Mt
Mt = 0.7(Mp + Ms Mr) (3.18)
Where 0.7 is the strength reduction factor
STEP 5: Check M, 4z M
where, M = Total applied external moment about the plane of rotation of the well
taking appropriate load factors as per combinations given vide step 1.
STEP 6: If the conditions in Steps 1 and 5 are not satisfied, the well shall be redesigned.
3.4.4 DESIGN OF WELL CURB
When the well is dredged during the process of sinking, the curb cuts through the soil.
under the action of the dead weight of the steining including kentledge, if any. and hence hoop
tension is developed in the well curb. The well curb has to be designed for the hoop'tension.
sin o—µcos A
Total hoop tension, T = 0.75N ( )
µsin A+cos A
d (3.19)
211 P age
A minimum reinforcement of 72 kg/m3 is provided in the  well curb. The
reinforcement is provided in the form of rings distributed along the perimeter of the well
curb, the rings being enclosed within stirrups.
3.4.5 DESIGN OF WELL STEINING:
Before designing the section of the steining, the stresses in the steining are calculated
at the level of maximum scour.
Ql = A + Z (3.20)
(3.21)
Thickness, train = Z {i — 4
f (3.22)
r
where, d = external diameter of well,
yc = density of concrete, and,
f = skin friction acting on the curved surface area of the well,
__ FUKAYsu6h
2
where, p = coefficient of friction between soil and concrete,
KA ° coefficient of active earth pressure
ymb = submerged density of soil on the sides of steining
h = height of well.
After performing the checks for stresses and thickness of steining, the reinforcements
in the steining are calculated. The vertical reinforcements in the steining should not be less
than 0.12 percent of the gross sectional area of the actual thickness provided for the steining.
The vertical reinforcement should be equally distributed on both the faces of the steining. The
221 P a g e
vertical reinforcement should be tied up with hoop steel not less than 0.04 percent of the
volume per unit length of the steining.
3.4.6 DESIGN OF BOTTOM PLUG
The bottom plug has to be checked for minimum thickness given by the following
equations,
tZ = 1.16r 2 (For circular wells), (3.23)
is
z
(For rectangular wells), (3.24)
tZ af~t3gb2
where, r = radius of well at the base
q = unit bearing pressure against the base of the Well,
fc = flexural strength of concrete used in bottom plug
b = short side of well
a = short side/long side ratio of well. .
3.4.7 DESIGN OF WELL CAP
A well cap is needed to transfer the loads and moments from the pier to the well. The
shape of the wall cap is normally kept the same as of the, well with a possible overhang of
150 mm. The top of the well cap is usually kept at about the low 'water level in 'case of,
perennial rivers. The well cap is designed as a twoway reinforced concrete slab resting over
the top of well. The support conditions are taken partially restrained. ,
The design of the well cap is carried out by assuming that the load from the pier acts ,
on an imaginary circle having an area equal to the area of dispersion of the loads transferred
from the pier to the well cap.
Since the wellcap is assumed to be partially restrained by the steining, the moments in
the wellcap are calculated for circular patch loading and for U.D.L. (selfweight of well cap)
for the following two conditions:
(1) Well cap freely supported on steining
(2) Well cap fully clamped on steining
Condition 1: Well cap freely supported on the steining
Take, i9 = Poisson's ratio of concrete,
w weight of well cap per unit area
V = vertical load acting on the wellcap
h = effective diameter of wellcap,
Mr & Mr are the radial and the tangential moments in wellcap, respectively.
231 Page
In the first instance, the moments.in the well cap due to vertical loads transferred from the
pier and the self weight of the well cap are determined.
(i) Moments beneath loaded area due to circular patch loading
4a [1 + (1 + fl)ln (d)]
Mt = (3.26)
d = diameter of equivalent circular patch loading
(ii) Moments beneath unloaded area due to circular patch loading
Mr = — 4 (1 + a9 )ln(f) (3.27)
z C3 + fl) [1 — lh/Z]
Mr = 64 (3.29)
Atsupport,d = h; _ 1 = 1
h
Condition 2: Well cap fully clamped at support
(i) Moments beneath loaded area due to circular patch loading
+ fl)In l (3.32)
Mt = as [C)
d = diameter of equivalent circular patch loading.
(ii) Moments beneath unloaded area due to circular patch loading
Mr
as [\z{h/2 (1 —'9) — (1 +,9)ln(c) — 1] (3.33)
Mr = 6
42 [(1 + fl) — (3 + z9)~2] (3.35)
241 P age
Mr = bz2 [(1 ±9)  (1 + 3fl)X2] (3.36)
At centre, d = 0; i; = d = 0
Atsupport,d = h; Ic = h = 1.
If Ml is the resultant moment per metre length of the pier, then maximum reactive moment at
the support = ±'X0.5 = 4 e'
Hence, the maximum moment at the centre of, the well cap dtie to moments
transferred form pier = + B
The maximum moment at the edges of the well cap due to moments transferred from
pier = ±T
The resultant moments for the design of the wel];cap section at midspdn.and at
supports can be found out as follows.
M~ m = (Mean radial moment due to patch loads beneath the loaded area)
+ (Mean radial moment due to U.D.L. at the centre of wellcap)
+ (moment at the centre of well cap due to moments transferred from pier)
Medgo = (Mean radial moment due to patch loads beneath unloaded area)'
+ (Mean radial moment due to U.D.L. at the support of well=cap)
+ (moment at the edges of well cap due to moments transfefred from'pier)
Hence, the reinforcement at the centre of the wellcap is calculated for the moment Mcenire
and the reinforcement at the edges of wellcap' is calculated for the moment Ivledse. Half of the
main tension reinforcement at the centre and at the support sections of the well cap is
provided on the compression face. All reinforcement in the wellcap is provided as an
orthotropie mesh.
The wellcap is finally checked for punching shear as per IS:45620001.
3.5 CONCLUSIONS
The role and the feamtes of well foundations have been discussed in 'this 'chapter. This
stability analysis of well' foundations has been explained and the design of various
components has been briefly reviewed.
251 P a g e
CHAPTER 4
PILE FOUNDATIONS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
Piles are relatively long and slender members used to transfer loads through weak soil
or water to deeper soil or rock strata having a high bearing capacity. Piles are usually
installed in clusters/group to provide foundations for bridges. A pile foundation may have
vertical piles or batter piles or a combination of vertical and batter piles. Well foundations are
provided to the bridges, only when soils with high bearing capacity are available at the
shallow depths in ground, in order to resist loads and moments transferred by well to the soil.
It is not preferable to use well foundations, when low bearing strata like clay is present in the
ground up to greater depths.
The uses of piles for bridge foundations are justified in the following cases;
(a) The upper soil strata are too compressible or too weak to support the heavy vertical
reaction transmitted by the superstructures and piers. In this instance, piles serve as
extensions of piers to carry the loads to deep, rigid stratum such as rock. Such piles
are called as point or end bearing Piles. If a rigid, stratum does not exist within
reasonable depth, the load must be gradually transferred, mainly by the friction, along
the pile shafts. Piles transferring loads to soil by skin friction through its lateral
surface area are called as Friction Piles.

SOFT
STRATA 4 b
41 f .
ROCK
261 Pa ge
(b) Piles are also frequently required because of relative inability of other foundations to
transmit inclined, horizontal, or uplift forces and overturning moments. As the name implies,
uplift piles are used for resisting uplift forces on foundations.
27 1 P age
4r
A swelling
1 soil
stable soil
BI
Fig. 4.5 Free Standing Pile Group Fig. 4.6 Piled Foundation
4.2 DESIGN OF PILE FOUNDATIONS
If pile foundations are to be used for river bridge crossings, then the maximum scour
depth for the stream has to be determined. The calculation of maximum scour depth is
discussed in Section 3.3.1 of Chapter 3. For river bridge crossings, the to of the pile cap is
placed at the level of L.W.L., while for nonriver bridge crossings, the pile cap is fully buried
into the ground with its top placed at ground level. Later, the forces and moments acting at
the top of pile cap i.e. at the base of pier are calculated, during the analysis of piet. After
calculating the forces and moments at the base of pier, the axial loads in the piles due to.
applied forces and moments are determined for an assumed size and configuration of piles in
a pile group. The assumed pile properties are subsequently checked for safety.
4.2.1 UNDERREAMED PILES
The diameter of underreamed piles in bridge applications is generally not taken, less
than 300 mm. The length of the pile is selected as per the nature of the soil ,stra(a. For
example, if a weak layer is underlain by a strong stratum at a reasonable depth, the length of
the pile is so chosen such that the penetration of the pile into the strong'stratum (bearing
stratum) is a minimum of 5 times the pile diameter or width. On the other hand, if the weak
layer extends to a considerable depth, the length of pile is so chosen as to obtain adequate pile
capacity through skin resistance.
The design of underreamed piles can be carried out with the aid of Table 1 of IS:
2911(Part III) — 1980°. Table I of IS: 2911(Part III) — 1980 which is reproduced in toto as
Table 4.3 in this thesis is a useful guide for selecting important parameter w.r.t. underreamed
piles viz. Diameter of pile shaft and underream, length of pile number of underreams and
the capacity of a selected configuration of underreamed pile in compression, tension and
291Page
lateral load carrying capacity. Usually a suitable value is selected as the diameter of the pile
shaft. The diameter of the underream is taken as 2.5 times the diameter of pile shaft. Piles
can have one or more than one underreams, but it is not advisable to have more than two
underreams on one pile without ensuring their feasibility in strata needing stabilization of
boreholes by drilling mud. For piles up to 300 mm diameter, the spacing between consecutive
underreams should not exceed 1.5 times the diameter of the underream. For piles of
diameter greater than 300 mm, spacing can be reduced to 1.25 times the stem diameter. The
topmost underream should be at a minimum depth of 2 times the underream diameter
below the ground. Tn expansive soils, the topmost underream should not be less than 1.75 ni
below ground level. Clearance between the underside of pile cap embedded in the ground and
the top underream should be minimum 1.5 times the underream diameter. Columns (3) &
(4) of Table 4.3 provide minimum length for single and double underreamed piles,
respectively.
After fixing the dimensions of the underreamed pile, the load bearing capacity of a
single underreamed pile is estimated. The pile capacity is compared with the maximum load
expected on the pile to ensure an adequate margin of safety.
4.2.2 BORED CASTINSITU PILES
The safe bearing capacity of a pile can be determined from its ultimate bearing
capacity, by using a suitable factor of safety. The methods available to estimate the ultimate
capacity of a single pile in compression can be grouped into the following categories:
i. Staticinsitu test.
ii. Static analysis,
iii. Dynamic analysis,
The staticinsitu test, popularly known as pile load test, is the only direct method for
determining the allowable load on piles. It is considered to be the most reliable of all the,
approaches, primarily due to the fact that it is an insitu test performed on a pile of prototype
pile dimension. Pile load test is a costly test and is used to confirm whether the actual pile
installed in the filed can take the load predicted by static or dynamic analysis. Dynamic
analysis is used for determining ultimate capacity of driven piles. Static analysis, which is
based on `soil mechanics' approach provides approximate estimates of pile capacity, as
values of a number of parameters appearing in the static formulae are assigned empirically.
For bored piles, static analysis is performed. A brief description of static analysis of piles is
presented next.
A pile when loaded, transfers the load through skin friction along the length of the
30 l P a g e
pile and through point bearing at the tip of the pile.
Thus, the ultimate capacity of a pile may be obtained as,
Qu = Qs + Qp .
(4.1)
= f:As+ gpAp,
where,
Qs = total skin frictional resistance,
Qp = total point bearing resistance,
fs = unit skin frictional resistance,
qp unit point resistance,
AS = lateral surface area of the pile, and,
Ap = area of the pile tip.
stance
31 Page
z
0
20 25 30 35 40 45
ANGLE OF INTERNAL FRICTION 0
321 P age
Table 4A Bearing Capacity Factor, N1;
• Angle of internal friction of soil Ny
0 0.00
5 0.45
10 1.22
15 2.65
20 5.39
25 1'0.88
30 22.40
35 48.03
40 109.41 
45 271.76
50 762.89
33 1 P age
Here, K. =
1 — sin . (4.4)
Piles in cohesive soils;
The point bearing resistance and the skin frictional resistance of a pile in cohesive soil
i.e. clay, can be determined as follows:
Point Bearing Resistance:
The unit point bearing resistance is obtained as follows,
9v = c.Nc , (4.5)
where, c„ = undrained cohesion at the pile tip, and,
Nc = bearing capacity factor, generally taken as 9.
Skin Frictional Resistance:
The unit skin resistance is obtained as follows,
fs = ac, , (4.6)
where, a = adhesion factor.
The adhesion factor depends on the cohesive strength of the soil. It can be obtained
from Fig. 4.9.
Nit
o O.Z
RECOMMENDED FOR DES
34 1 P a g
Table 4.3 Safe loads for underreamed piles
Sty men. Mao Sme/. Co dnns
iwti SAM l
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bogs Length Length Iengtli length
tm mf en in Na Dlanun an t t t t t t t t t t
(1) (2) (3) (4) (51 (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17)
20 50 3$ 3.5 3 10 16 9 12 OS a7 4 6 Q.6'0,S$ ID 12
25 02.5  3.5 3.5 4 10 22 12 I8 1.15 0.9 6 9 O.g5' 0.70 IS i.s
C
35 P a g e
I_—S 1
,—s
3 Pita s'pilas
spits'
5
1 i s
to °,.(S { i
O O I L s T ai 4s
I plies S piles
—sss
I
1I
1 1
~_oo_
s s s s
10 piles 11 pllas
~ s s  s
w w o a :
s~~s ..S 5 w,
Singly row for a wall s
5 5
Double row for a wall
tl
Triple row for a well ijll
Fig. 4.10 Typical arrangement. of piles in`a group =
Piles in foundation can be arranged in a grid pattern, where the spacing between the
piles in longitudinal as well as transverse direction of the bridge remains the same.
After fixing the arrangement of piles in a group, the dimensions of the pile cap are
determined. A clear overhang of 100 mm to 150 mm should be provided in the pile cap
beyond the edge of the outermost pile in the group.
A minimum of three piles shall be provided in pile group. If the numbers of piles
provided in the foundation are three, then the connection of the pile cap with the piles is
361 P a g
assumed to be hinged connection i.e. pile cap can Transmit only forces and not the moments;
from pier to the piles. If the number of piles in the pile group exceeds three; then a rigid
connection is provided between the piles and the pile cap i.e. the pile cap is able to transmit
both forces and moments, from pier to the piles.
The group capacity of piles is found by assuming the pile group'to behave"as a deep
footing.
4.2.4 SAFE BEARING CAPACITY OF PILE GROUPS
The group capacity of piles may be found assuming the pile group to behave as one
deep footing.
4.2.4(a) GROUP OF BORED CASTINSITU PILES
The ultimate bearing capacity of the pile group in can be estimated as follows:
Pile Group in cohesionless soil ,
For a pile group in sand, the values of the different parameters used for estimating the
ultimate bearing capacity of the pile group can be calculated as follows:
(4.7)
Qy = ffA5+ q,A, ,
fs = unit skin frictional resistance,
= K0 tan p , (4:8)
where, p„ = the effective overburden stress at the depth considered,
0 = angle of friction of soil, and,
Ko = 1 — sin ,
( 4.9)
As = lateral surface area of the block enclosing the piles in the group,
qp = unit point resistance,
(4.10)
= cuNc , and,
where, c,, = undrained cohesion at the; bottom of pile group, and;
Nc = bearing capacity factor, generally taken as 9,
A,, = base area enclosing all the piles in group.
For Pile Group in cohesive soil
For pile group in clay, the values of different parameters used in estimating ultimate
bearing capacity of pile group can be calculated as follows:
fs = unit skin frictional resistance,
(4.11)
= Cu,
37 I P age
qp = unit point resistance,
= cuNN , and, (4,12)
where, NN = bearing capacity factor, generally taken as 9,
AP = base area enclosing all the piles in group.
The safe bearing capacity of the pile group shall be taken as the smaller of the two
values given below:
• nQu
FOS
Qg
•
FOS
38 1 P age
4.2.5 DISTRIBUTION OF LOAD BETWEEN VERTICAL PILES OF PILE GROUP
The load acting on an individual pile is obtained from the elastic theory by using the
following method:
MYYX1 + MxX Z` , (4.13)
,
Qi = Q 
Ex Ey
where, Q; = load on ith pile,
Q = Total vertical load acting on the foundation
n = Total number of piles in group,
Myy = Moment acting at the soffit of pile cap about longitudinal axis of
bridge
Mxx = Moment acting at the soffit of pile cap about transverse. axis of
bridge
xj = distance of the centre of ith pile from the centre of gravity of pile
group, measured parallel to transverse axis of bridge
y j = distance of the centre of the ith pile from the centre of gravity of pile
group, measured parallel to longitudinal axis of bridge
x2 = summation of squares of distances of the centres of all the piles from
the centre of gravity of pile group measured parallel to'transverse axis o:
bridge
y2 = summation of squares of distances of the centres of all the piles, from
the centre of gravity of pile group measured parallel to longitudinal axis'
of bridge
If the calculated load on a pile exceeds its safe bearing capacity then the piles an
required to be redesigned. The option is that, the number of piles or the spacing betweeri pile:
can also be increased to reduce the maximum load acting on the piles. In the case of under
reamed piles, the number of underreams can be increased to increase the safe load limit of
the pile.
39 1 Page
4.2.6 LATERAL LOAD ANALYSIS OF PILES
It is assumed that all the piles in a group share equally the lateral load acting on «,,
foundation.
4.2.6 (a) LATERAL LOAD ANALYSIS OF BORED CASTINSITU PILES
When the length of a pile is more than ten times its diameter it is classified as a long
pile and flexural behaviour governs the response of the pile to lateral loads. A majority of the
piles used in bridge practice belong to this category.
Generally, three types of boundary conditions are encountered in long piles namely
(a) freehead pile, (b) fixedhead pile, & (c) partiallyrestrained head pile. In the case of free
6
head pile, the lateral load may act at or above the ground level and the pile head is free to
rotate without any restraint. A fixedhead pile is free to move only laterally but rotation is
prevented completely, whereas a pile with partially restrained head moves and rotates under
restraint. If the number of piles in group is 3 or less, then the piles are considered as freehead
piles. If the number of piles in group exceeds 3, the piles are considered as fixedhead piles.
 The following procedure is followed for finding the lateral load capacity of a pile.
i. The relative stiffness factor T or R as the case may be, is found.
T
=
5 nh (for piles founded in sand and normally loaded clays), (4.14)
R = 4 K (for piles founded in preloaded clays), (4.15)
Q _ 38I Y
(for free head piles), (4.17)
n
C
_ 12EIY
(L1+L1)3 ,
(for fixed head piles), (4.18)
where, Y is the limiting lateral deflection of pile head taken as 5 mm for bridge
substructures.
Table 4.4 Values of the constant i1h (kN/m3 )
Unconfined
Range of values of Probable value of
Compression
K, in kN/m2 K, in kN/m2
Strength, in kN/m2
41 Page
Z~ FREE HEAD PILE Q Q
 FIXED HEAD PILE T T
71\ Lt _ Lt
,` L1
1.9 T
J
FOR PILES IN
190
2 L 16 8 1,~J PRELDADED CLAYS
Lt/R OR LI/I
42 I I' a g e
1.0
— FOR PILES IN
PRELOADEO CLAYS
FO
Q  SANDS AND IN
Li
L~*Li LOADED CLAYS ,
Le
0.2
4 6• B 10 12
L;JR OR L7 /T
(a) For Free Head Piles
„ 1.2
E FOR PILES IN PRELOA ED CLAYS
0 _ FOR PILES IN SANDS AND
NORMALLY LOADED CLAYS
Q 1.0
0
U 0.8 L1 Lt
0 Lle
W i
ct 0.6
0 015 10 15 2.0 2.5
L,/R OR L1/T
43~Page
4.2.8 SETTLEMENT OF PILE GROUP
According to Terzaghi and Peck (1967)21, the total settlement of a group of driven or
bored piles under a safe design load not exceeding onethird to one half of the ultimate group
capacity can generally be estimated roughly as that of an equivalent raft foundation. The
deformation and compressibility properties of the soil beneath the equivalent raft foundation
can be estimated from empirical correlations with the results of field tests, plate load tests,
etc. or from the laboratory tests on undisturbed soil samples of cohesive soils. The settlement
estimates should also be checked by pile load tests for possible extrapolation to group
behaviour.
Since the use of elastic theory for determination of vertical stresses in the soil
surrounding and below the pile tips is extremely laborious for practical cases, approximate
methods are proposed. These methods are briefly discussed below:
(i) For friction piles, the vertical load acting on the foundation is placed on a fictitious raft
footing located at L3 from the bottom of the piles, where Lf is the penetration of the pile
into the ground. Plan dimensions of the raft are determined on the basis of a 1H : 2V
dispersion of load as shown in Fig. 4.13 (b) & (c).
(ii) For point bearing piles in dense sandgravel deposits, the fictitious raft is placed at `f
3
from the bottom of the piles, where Lf is penetration of the pile into the soil layer where the
pile tip is situated. Plan dimensions of the raft are determined on the basis of a 1H : 2V
dispersion of load as shown in Fig. 4.13 (a).
The soil at or below the fictitious raft must carry the applied loads without excessive
deformation. In some cases the settlements calculated by the above methods are smaller than
the measured values. However, these simple approximations give sufficient information for
determining the supporting strength of the lower strata of the soil.
44IPage
(a) End Bearing Piles ,
(b) Friction pile, with pile cap embedded (c) Partially embedded frietion:piles
into the ground
Fig. 4.13 Computation of Settlements for End Bearing Piles &'Friction Pile's
Settlement of pile group in cohesionless soil
On the basis of the raft analogy, a preliminary estimate of the settlement of,a pile
group in cohesionless soil can be made. ".
The settlement S of the pile group in a• soil layer can be estimated from the following
equation proposed by DeBeer and Martens method (1 97)22•
45~PaBe
C = constant of compressibility,
_ 1.5gc
Al' (4.23)
where, q, = average static cone penetration resistance for the layer considered.
Settlement of vile group in cohesive soils
For piles in normally consolidated clays, the settlement Si is given by,
=cH
Si — i+eolog10 p°}pvap (4.24)
where, S1 = settlement of the layer considered,
H = height of layer,
pv = mean effective overburden pressure for the layer,
t p = average increase in vertical stress in the layer due to footing load. This
may be obtained assuming 1H 2V load dispersion,
Cc = compression index, and,
eo = void ratio in the clay layer corresponding to the effective insitu
overburden pressure.
CI
9L*:T9.
1 O
__piers pier
1
11~
`aitkMsedianfor
d L moment ~y   T
Fig. 4.14 Critical section for Fig. 4.15 Critical section for
moment & oneway shear twoway shear
When the vertical load from the pier is transferred to the centroid of the piles through
inclined internal coverage struts in the pile cap, large tension forces are induced in the
reinforcements of the pile cap. The component of the thrust in the inclined concrete. strut;
acting in the horizontal direction away from the pilecap has a tendency to create "burstinf
forces" in the pile cap. Therefore, it is desirable to configure the concrete in the pile cap wit!
suitable "bursting reinforcement", usually 12 mm diameter'closed rings at 150 c/c along thl
depth of the pile cap, Fig. 4.16.
pile cap .
pile
75 mm thick
levelling course
of concrete
Fig. 4.16 Typical detailing of reinforcement in a pile cap.
47 I P a g e
4.3 CONCLUSIONS
The features, analysis methodologies and the design of piles for vertical as well as
lateral loads have been discussed in this chapter. The analysis and design of pile caps has
been briefly reviewed.
481Page
CHAPTER 5
SOFTWARE FEATURES
5.1 INTRODUCTION
A software has been developed in the Visual Basic.Net platform for the analysis and
design of bridge piers and foundations. The analysis and design of both well and pile foundations
is incorporated in the software. The details and features of the software along with its functions
layout are presented in this Chapter. Interactive feature are incorporated in the software which
provides guidelines to the user for the input of every data. The software provides ample of
flexibility to the user for selecting suitable data.
Some of the important user friendly aspects of the software developed are as follows:
1. The analysis and design calculations are explained sequentially with the help of
appropriate diagrams
2. Alert messages are given by the software if the user misses to input the required data in
any of the form pages.
3. In case any of the analysis or design requirements are not satisfied the software will
prompt the user with appropriate alternatives.
49IPage
5.2.1 SELECTION AND INPUT OF PARAMETERS USED FOR ANALYSIS AND
DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS
Initially, the software will ask the user to select the type of foundation whose analysis and
design is to be performed. The option of pile foundations is provided for river bridge crossings
and for elevated roadways. The user will be asked to select any one type of bridge: river bridge
crossing or nonriver bridge crossing. The option of well foundations is provided for river bridge
crossing. For well as well as and pile foundations in river bridge crossing, the user will be asked
to input values of maximum mean velocity of stream, High Flood Level (HFL), Low Water
Level (LWL), mean diameter of river bed particle & submerged density of soil at the site where
the proposed foundation is to be provided. The option for use of different type of material in the
pier is included in the software is included in the software. The user will be asked to input other
relevant parameters like depth of girder, span, dead load on each girder, area of superstructure,
type and width of carriageway & seismic zone, etc...
The flow chart for the preliminary dimensioning of the pier is presented in Fig. 5.1 If a
wall type pier is selected then as per the bearing spacing and plan dimensions of the bearings, the
minimum required top width and length of the pier (without cutwater) is calculated.. Software
will not perform the next stage of calculations unless the input value of top width and length of
pier (without cutwater) is greater than the minimum requirements. Later, the user is prompted to
enter the batter of the pier so as to calculate the bottom width of the pier. Length of pier cap of
walled type pier is calculated from the top length of pier. If a hammerhead type of pier is
selected by the user then the user is asked to input the diameter and height of the pier shaft'
Length of pier cap is calculated from bearing spacing and dimensions. The user will be asked to
enter the thickness of the rectangular and the tapered portion of the pier cap
50IPage
3rAin'
of
tne3n,
Pier aced
pier
511Page
Fig. 5.2 Flow Chart for Analysis of Pier
S2 I Page
5.2.2 ANALYSIS OF PIER
The flow chart for the analysis of the pier is presented in Fig. 5.2. After deciding the
preliminary dimensions of pier and pier cap, the software will perform the analysis of pier for the
various forces acting on the pier. For both well and pile foundations in river bridge crossing, the
pier is analysed for flood condition i.e. water level is at HFL. Stresses for various types of forces
acting on pier due to dead load on pier, eccentric live load, longitudinal forces, water current in
river, buoyant force, wind load, seismic force and shear forces at the bearings are computed.
These loads are categorized into three loading categories: Normal (N) Case, Temperature (T)
Case & Seismic (S) Case. Stresses, in pier due to N Case, T Case and S Case loading are
computed separately. Subsequently, the resultant stresses in the pier due to the following load
combinations are calculated: N case, N+T Case, N+T+S 'case. These resultant stresses are
compared with the permissible limits. If the stresses are within the permissible limits, the pier is
safe and the pier will be analyzed next for no water condition. However if the resultant stresses
exceed the permissible limit, then the software will direct the user to a page where the pier will
be redesigned in order to withstand the stresses safely.
5.2.3 ESTIMATION OF SCOUR DEPTH FOR FOUNDATION. DESIGN
For both well and pile foundations in riverbridge crossings, the scour depth is required to
be calculated for determining the founding levels. The flow chart for calculation of maximum
scour depth is shown in Fig. 5.3.
To ensure a sufficient margin of safety in the scour depth calculations, the software
multiplies the design discharge by a flat value of 1.30 to get the discharge for calculation of the
normal depth of scour. The software calculates the normal scour depth using two formulae:
formula suggested in IRC: 7820008 & Lacey's formula.
Linear waterway in calculated form the equation L = 4.83J. Knowing the linear,
waterway L, Db is calculated. The silt factor in both the equation is taken as 1.76J , where
dm is the median size of the bed sediments, in mm.
The higher of the two values of the normal scour depth is used for calculating the
maximum scour depth. The normal scour depth is multiplied with two to get the of maximum
scour depth at the nose of the pier.
531Page
START
Increase dstharge by I
 o:
k>='f7q
ec!ILifit:;t
54 1 P age
5.2.4 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF WELL FOUNDATION
The analysis and design of well foundation follows the designing of the pier. The user is
prompted to select the pieliminary dimensions of the ell based on empirical rules.
5.2.4.1 ANALYSIS OF WELL FOUNDATION
The resistance of soil surrounding the well foundation is determined in its elastic state
and at ultimate loads to check whether the soil will be able to resist the force and moments
transferred by the well foundation.
The flow chart for calculation of soil resistance using elastic theory is presented in Fig.
5.4.
The flow chart for calculation of soil resistance at ultimate loads is presented in Fig. 5.5.
551Page
Fig. 5.4 Flow Chart for calculation of soil resistance
56 j P a g e
5.2.4.2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF WELL
Once the safety of the selected preliminary size of the well has been established in the
elastic state and at ultimate loads, the structural design of the following components of the well
is performed next by the software: Bottom plug (check on thickness provided), well curb,
steining and well cap. The design aspects for these components have been explained in detail in
an earlier chapter. The flow charts for the structural design of well curb, steining and well cap
are presented in Figs. 5.6,5.7 and 5.8 respectively.
57IPage
SLART
#1 Ca1culate,W,A; C ; c
FTCP diathiier
'ofweIl  
Calvdato rn1o,din
i  tiEE
0.1 187(K2 K 4
4.
Fig. 5.5 Flow Chart for calculation of soil resistance at ultimate loads
58 1 P age
Resise diainaier of t
In reiaf
59 I Page
START
Catcuhdc,
PermSi,kr4rcn
ii a0
c*ureoreHieilnroreneit,
o.n%0rgr%,cc1iona1arca,
orstcèl ,rOt
%
,ciliThire*Iümcufhoô, eel,
Yolutnt 0 64o I,flOIOm&IInII idfl3,I1 ofsieinlmg
atmnol hoop
 
tc1nin
ScIec1ihiâsetero1biiüsnJt
imi hoop reimiroretnest. 
44prov ~ 4it
ES
'ZNP
60 1 Page
Fig. 5.8 Flow Chart for design of Well Cap
61IPage
5.2.5 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF PILE FOUNDATION
Before proceeding to the analysis of pile foundation, the software will prompt the user to
supply details of the subsoil investigations. The user will be required to input details of the
numbers, the type and the engineering properties of the soil layers at the site where the pile
foundation is to be constructed. Particularly, care will be required to enter the relevant properties
of cohesive soils and the user will be required to make a distinction between preconsolidated
and normally consolidated clays. The flow chart for soil details is show in Fig. 5.9. The software
will first run the loop to enter details of soil layers, and subsequently, the user will be asked to
enter details about the first layer. User will be asked to enter the height of first layers, density of
soil & type of soil. If the soil is sandy, then the user will be asked to enter the angle of internal
friction (0) and the average cone resistance of the soil layer (q0). If soil is clay then software will
ask user to enter the undrained cohesion of soil (c„) and the compression index of clay. Further,
the user will be asked to select the type of clay. If the clay is preconsolidated, then pre
consolidation pressure will have to be entered. Similarly, the loop will run again so as to enable
the user to enter the details of next soil layer. The loop will be terminated when details of all the
layers are entered.
62 I P a g e
Fig. 5.9 Flow Chart for soil details
5.2.5.1 ANALYSIS OF PILES
(a) Bored castinsitu circular piles
The user will have to enter the diameter and the length of the pile. Thereafter, the
software will perform the calculations for estimating the safe bearing capacity of the pile. The
procedure for calculation of the ultimate bearing capacity of the pile in cohesive as well as
cohesion less soils has been explained in detail in Chapter 4. The computed ultimate bearing
capacity is divided by a factor of safety of 3 to get the safe bearing capacity of the pile. The flow
chart for calculation of the safe bearing capacity of a bored castinsitu pile is presented in
63 I P a g e
Fig.5.10.
(b) Underreamed piles
The user will be asked to select the diameter of pile stem and the number of underreams
on each pile. For the selected diameter of the pile stem, the length of pile specified in Table 1 of
IS: 2911 (Part III) — 19804 is noted. This pile length is stored in "L". If the number of under
reams selected for the pile is less than or equal to two, then for the user specified diameter,
number of underreams & length "L", the safe vertical load for the underreamed pile is read
from Table I of IS: 2911(Part III) — 19804. However, if the number of underreams specidified
by the user exceeds two, then the safe vertical load for the pile is extrapolated with the help of
the incremental values given in Table I of IS:2911 (Part III) — 19804.
The procedure for obtaining the safe vertical load of an underreamed pile is presented in
the flow chart in Fig. 5.11.
641 Page
Fig. 5.10 Flow Chart for calculating safe bearing Capacity of bored castinsitu pile
65 j P a g e
Fig. 5.11 Flow Chart for calculating safe bearing Capacity of an underreamed Pile
66 I P a g e
5.2.5.2 SAFE BEARING CAPACITY OF PILE GROUP
After calculating the single pile capacity, the safe bearing capacity of the pile group is
calculated.
(a) Pile groups with bored castinsitu piles
The software will calculate the vertical load acting on the foundation. The pile
dimensions are then entered by the user in software. As discussed in the previous section, the
software will calculate the ultimate bearing capacity of asingle pile and from it the safe bearing
capacity of the pile. Dividing the total vertical load on the foundation by the safe bearing
capacity of one pile will give the total number of piles required in the foundation. The software
will ask the user to enter the total number of piles. The number of piles provided will be accepted
only if it is greater than total number of piles required. For analysis, the pile group is considered
to act as a deep footing in soil. The software will then run the loop file to calculate pile group
capacity. The software will start with soil layer 1. If layer 1 is sand then Qs & Q, will be
calculated as per the formulae of sand, while if it is clay then the formulae of clay will be used to
calculate values of QS & Q,. The loop will run again and calculate Qs & Qp for the second layer,
as per the soil type. In this manner the software will calculate the value of Qs & QP for each Iayer
of the soil. Finally, Qs & Qp for all the soil layers are added together to obtain the value of Qg;.
Qg,safe is obtained by dividing Qg by 3. If Qg is more than the total number of piles provided *
ultimate bearing capacity of each pile (Q) / 3, then Q8,sare will be equal, to the total number of
piles provided * ultimate bearing capacity of each pile (Q) / 3. ,
The values of Qg,safe finally obtained is the safe bearing capacity of the pile group. The
flow chart for calculating the safe bearing capacity of pile groups made of bored castinsitu
circular piles is presented in Fig. 5.12
(b) For underreamed piles
The flow chart of Fig. 5.13 explains the complete procedure to compute safe bearing
capacity of underreamed pile. User is required to enter diameter of pile stem, number of under
reams on each pile & spacing between piles. Diameter of underream is taken as 2.5 times the
diameter of pile stem. If the spacing between piles is less than two times the. underream
diameter, then the safe bearing capacity of pile group is taken as 90% of safe bearing capacity of
single pile X number of piles in foundation. While if spacing is more than or equals to two times
the underream diameter, then the safe bearing capacity of pile group is taken as safe bearing
67 I P a g e
j of single pile X number of piles in foundation.
Fig. 5.12 Flow Chart for calculation of SBC of group of bored castinsitu piles
68 I P a g e
,START_
yp~r No
Fig. 5.13 Flow Chart for calculation of SBC of group of underreamed piles
5.2.5.3 LATERAL LOAD ANALYSIS OF PILES
The lateral load capacity of the piles has to be determined so as to ensure that the
foundation can safely resist all design lateral loads. The flow chart for the lateral load analysis of
an underreamed pile is given in Fig. 5.14.
(a) Underreamed piles
For the given underreamed pile selected by the user, the lateral load capacity is directly
readoff from the values given in Table 1 of IS: 2911 (Part III)1980 and compared with the
lateral load apportioned to each pile. If required the underreamed pile parameters are revised to
ensure safety. The flow chart for the lateral load analysis of underreamed piles is given in Fig.
5.14. The detailed procedure for lateral load analysis of a bored castinsitu pile has been
explained in Chapter 4 and the flow chart for the same is shown in Fig. 5.15.
5.2.5.4 DESIGN OF PILE CAP
As shown in the flow chart of Fig. 5.16 the plan dimensions of the pile cap are computed
according to the arrangement and layout of piles in the group. Thereafter, the user will be asked
to enter the overall depth of the pile cap. Subsequently, the effective depth of pile cap is
69 Page
calculated. Later, the moment in the pile cap is calculated considering the critical section to be
located at the face of pier. For calculated moments, the area of steel required in pile cap is
calculated. Then, the user will be asked to select the diameter of bars to be used in pile cap and
enter the desired spacing between the reinforcement. For the selected bar diameter and spacing,
area of steel to be provided in the pile cap is calculated. Further, the pile cap is checked for one
way shear and twoway shear. If it fails, effective depth of pile cap will be increased.
70 Page
Figure 5.15 Lateral load capacity of Bored Castinsitu pile
I Page
a8edIZL
73IPage
CHAPTER 6
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
6.1 INTRODUCTION
The features & the functioning of various modules of the software developed for analysis
and design of bridge substructure has been discussed in the previous chapter. To illustrate the
practical application of the software, analysis and design of the well foundation and pile
foundation is performed for the assumed parameters. The long hand calculation's of the problem
will be done, which are compared with the results of software, to verify the output of the
software developed in the thesis work.
6.2 PROBLEM ON WELL FOUNDATION
The analysis of the well foundation and design of various components of well are being
performed. The details required for the analysis and design of well foundation are given below:
DETAILS REGARDING BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE
➢ Dead load on each span: 1500 kN
➢ Depth of simply supported girder: 2 m
➢ Span of simply supported girder: 16 m
> Type of Carriage way: Two lane carriage way
> Clear carriage way width: 7.5 m
> Area of bridge superstructure: 70 m2
> Type of live load acting on bridge: Class A loading
BEARING DETAILS
➢ Type of bearing used in bridge: Sliding bearings of Teflon on Stainless Steel
➢ CentretoCentre distance between bearings along longitudinal axis of bridge (Si): 900
➢ CentretoCentre distance between bearings along transverse axis of bridge (S2): 5500
mm
➢ dimension of bearing along longitudinal axis of bridge: 300 mm
➢ dimension of bearing along transverse axis of bridge: 400 mm
OTHER DETAILS
> Maximum mean velocity of stream: 4 m/sec
> Maximum discharge of stream: 4500 m3/sec
74IPage
➢ Weighted mean diameter of river bed particle: 0.505 mm
➢ High Flood Level (H.F.L.): 459.5 m
➢ Low Water Level (L.W.L.): 455.5 in
> Bridge is located in seismic zone II
> Angle of internal wall friction of soil (t): 370
> Submerged density of soil (ys„b): 14 kN/m3
DETAILS OF PIER
> Type of Material used in Pier: Reinforced Concrete
> Grade of Concrete used in Pier: M25
➢ Type of Pier used in bridge: Wall Type Pier
➢ Type of cutwater provided to pier: Circular cutwater
> Height of Pier: 7 m
> Batter provided to pier: I in 20
PIER CAP DETAILS '
75 1 P a g e
DtadloadolEdspan: t~0 r\ Tyeoflscektdb6nonthepan: C1ass~ ___
!t !
1l ptothcporidd, 1T~IT,ptPle
1lsttdalnsed(fltt; O Joy 0 FtIth cedCotu tR
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?maosup~s~ktntassttniueleratlon; 6 sq,~
BEIFING DETAILS
CtntreroCts~edistanrebehtetnbtangsatoogl laaisa(bridg1l; El m
(foromply suppottadspansotVpl
ltnghofhtasin8s4anJ4a+isolbddt: a mm
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WALLT?EPIER
Keighto.°Aiu(H): il00 mm
Entt&tt:IiA ?d
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6Bnin duitoUe1qhofpier(aithotaiMcW)U®IIUn
p1ERCAPDIMENSIONS
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?'nkbissofpilrcp: mm
aMaJM1dsshtddwma
li~
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tangtit of pier tap 1s 9050 mm
1, Stresses due to dead food cud self fl?iRhi
Deadloadf omSupeshuthtnt a 3pppk\ clhreihtof2kraad Pier cap 3590k\
Shtss ating at the base of pit: due to dead load S self urd ght a 1S9. ke Js q m
tlomcnduetoncntncit'aflireloadaboutT.rSsa 179s1kX•m
Constdahngtnstthe longiNdlealfoxewlllbe tingat the cenholdof the Alouddtisasnute&as Urn lrigltrom the ooadsutace
TodrostwetodidingenioNa n■ UN
lomentdottoonbelancedforaeattitehRofpiu ■ ?13kN•m Stemsetthebaseofpter■ +3169k1/gmor.31.6k1Jqm
To attoontforpossiblesanatoninuate:turrentdre to;assomemaamsnangleduneinmrrentdirdonof?Odegne
Hentt, uind force &ring an the e> osed surface of bridge is 16£Od ktl, at the helghl of 5.9 a froai the base of pies
~~~ onastc~csoss¢c
nZ
alomentduetonin4loadsatthebasaofpleris1d97:kNm \ "" 1 ••,
sttessacungategbaseof Fluls+d3o:W/sgm ,
I l
Feisrdcmoul7latgngaboutt;ans'etoeisofbnidge,att ebaseofpicduetodeadloadof a e;•st:uctmeandsub.sGuMseis3,%9.99k\m I •,,,; '
Hti drodtrtamdc fort gong on me pk r, along langitundi nai as of badge i 11, 9lX
t\mmal(N7Caseloadings: Itincludes Dead toad of superscixhueW the o:pierenthpie cap, lire load ansuper4thxtuse,9raldng effort tl'aer rentpnssu e,Sourantforce
xow,thehodwnlal shear fouesat bearings are almWtdferd f treul loadcombinatiom•Notnul Cue, Normal AidTemperature Xs1) Case, NotmalAndTempeaatueAndStlia*(N T'S) Cast
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gorconfal Shea, forces atfia'edbeathj Ihi&ebeann 1
10AD A E 1o\G1TVOINAL1DRCf M0'PT4THtMMSf0EP1ER STRESS T SFO£P1E11IBOLT1Ra1S1fNSEh11S
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; nBtR1'OFSTRESSEATDIf zR11'TIOG1T10S01'PIER:
IYHL1 DRY DL1UXG ROODS 141LX DRY DDALIG @L0ODS li 1LN DRY DLTIIIGaOODS
hTilre
e
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LJ
PIER
CHECK FOR STRESS:
(1)a(admnmrompresci rtsscaderNCactloadinga0.6961,Pa<GOOOOiaHtac OK
(3) Mz mmicompctssiverlrtssnuduN+T+$Casaloadingo2169WaC9,0001BaHtaceOX
(1)Jladm®hnsiltslrtssoudtrNCastloadiag'aO0?a<0900tiHaHtnreOK
(9J Jladmnm hmllt shin nadir Y 0T Cart loadlcg ■ M$3 Pa <I 035.Wa Hine OK
(6)Mammmltmlltsln6so kr\+7+9Casdoadiago09L'611'a<13101HaHmcOX
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EE
[ aLDI1I2iSIQN5
t c.t' (sly
Outar diamltet of Well is 12000 mm ?ssnmadtithessofwta ap: = mm
W.XSat4' 4MM Sit mitt
rn i
JGnimumtiicai ssofstliningasp!:IRCYS 19$3choi1db!1729mm
cortmisuO
Sdecl llmOltlalfotditdeIw1e; @$ad 011~amr
SK11O\AL1'1I1VOf LLfOt' Dd110S
Demitpofsen4il1edinsldethewe1l,
Foc detouek; amen ugng ongCattnasea>qsofbndge; 1369 k\ Fao due touak;cotratugpgalooglangltudlelal Asofbddge; 6U )N
g;EWngfnedttlogonglngltudlntladsofbndg : 16o'
if onunt at tk base o1 dl foundagon a bout tra,1ss eiIe aid of bridge : 6 623.6: k\' m
unbdatuadiomacgngatbmz gkvelalonlonitudlttrladsofbadge: P kX
Gomtatattlubaeofkundagonahutesiscesuadsof'orldgt:2.231 kYm
U) (U
!hosswa diagamt due to Icalta. Cutttnt Fora (1) Collie LompaSo,
t Duelo:NYadload (b) Sin campoeams
I Doetow altkftvofUcetoad
loment the aaaenlalo(IIi16adahoutlo iNdir<almdsafkidge; 9bS96k\'m alomentdue ttdlraflln bid about ttansttitsemisofbddge; 179$1 m
R Ne4 4 I ,cancel
t0
6. OngIoNmlaoEtatshwfos esalbwIaRkni
l9~nCPC~S
tiasi:onWshearfataacttngatbea.tlaudalongloagftdinlalaLisofhddge(sonddtiagsatsmiceffect): 233,69k\
S Nelagllandsbifl
H L 4 . Cuuel ,
ANALYSIS OF WELL FOUNDATION
IV g to;aldu~rnu'adlaadatmtgatthe6asaoftraIndadingthesdimlghtafwell
'te:esulf~athoti:oat1forte,HIs6,914 kX
al a totdappliedaotttwlmontatgoutthebaseofwil,tuludiAgthouduetoltsmtdsM(is
Tnemultn!loot nt,lti105,396.17k m
Compuleli,l,y and];
IV momcntaflncmaofgteproJktada~atneln'atlonafsoilmssoffetlngtttlstante
•C h1drnafhlrtlonhehreuth2stdeoftherrelland=0116ngsotl• Odt
SIEp3;
H>(IJ01PAµ')•µit
?sas l6boththeabovecondonsmesatlsfed
STUD:
xA ° rae;ddentafattlsaadthprauure a 4:3
m11~f • 4691 L„  (Kp•K A ) •
,boreco~ldan is satlsfied
R Nest c s4
Date iaesailp misatthtbastaficell 0, ° 11Y•p p)/• '(M3 /11)
P° Otalkira~talrtacQa~hmOulit ° Mir 2 3,fl.MN B ° Cleaitltrclntllinlhtplatuafbptdlag
i ■ no(baseactlonofwall ■ 1199asq.3i.
AD the above steps (Step l to Step S) ate rtpealed again for iM load$ considering nind loads and negledh g stmic effed
1lomtn;actingatfte atofudlalroutlondInd&ts ■ 14,915. IC''in Moment 6ttlngat the base ohe1Ia6aultrans<'esscads ■ b,69;,s6k.%5n
Rtsultantllomtm uic146W9$l m
1 ° 11 t mI Il+3p'6t1
■1.6
e?(1fr)(1+µp) .µs1'
Bohllh!lboe!condlgatuec tlthS
S1'EP4,
Ka ° !olfficIntafactiteletlhpmsur! ° 0,29
Deteatleemtlpetsu~esatthebaua(,rill Gs ° ( p?)(+a•(Bly)
P rota>ho>I:aalalrtactlanLotntheslde A Jl(r 4 3a61.3k\ e v7amtusctsrellizttlteplen:ofbting a 1W14m
d a ,Maofbascstttlonohcl1 2 11MS4.tn
C. p:59,6lk\Jsgm,>0ie,Yoicnsin 8ne0K
tIDI+1611 ° 3061b21*\
■ angleaflntn4htdanofsot1 • 37
XIoment M d 114,591S1k1m
•yam
C4cv1ate tltt itiomh moment of seistance due to srellstdes. This a ill have tiro camp°nmts:
U
(b)1!on tofresistm¢eduetoM0%Ili
11,p &i0'
B■ 11km 6 2.o°
\foment, 11 j • 91111,3:X'1
Dn~ngsinlongntllcurhissubjtcllo'noapctnrion T ° SJ,4ik\
I No116mm v diamtltrha~sutusedrssrupscssctllcmb
UZifl2sUTt
CALCL1ATEV01U11EOF
qVusssr~®uc~as~ =
BFINFORM ENt
i~a~smaz
Volume ofhazas ingsinxelltu:h • a79 awn
ssvzosasousrs %
Volume ofbu as sunupsInsrdlcmh + 0VIScu,t.
E;.MT a~ =t csoas m7
AT4HA5lQt
Toialprotiidtdsalun ofbtsinsctllcurblsmo;tthMttmimumrtqulrtdgu~tln.IientOK ATROGU
I
Topotidttnthasageformltlogdgea the bottom ohrdlncb,asn]w;be gpodtd
DETAILS OF RFL<'F0ACf1IFX1 L1 IML CURB
Dimexrofbmsustdasens±orhms;ii
Spdngspmtildtdroanthoch; 3a~ mm
Previous 57
W Cancel
MIUN UP WCLL bICINING
~gVatomrontpsossi~esbassinsacgonofsldning 0 O, ITI
Ciamttasafbasusedfo;rtasalsdr`'omrtin dIstaishng; 16 mm
Ili mumspdngsslqmtSfos16atnstiltsasrtltdrdnfoxtnttntsinwlpstalnlngR191mm.
panngspmriddtorebtalrehiIocmvainwellsfningis 1~1 mm
Diametetofbasodashopsitdbwdlstelning; 1n>m tv
CALCUtATESPACL~GFOR
~ WHOOP SCI i
Previous, ! S~tcal
R
DESIGN OFIVELCCAP
Owtildcpshoisrd!capn 12t mm
(a)Vertltalloadhomsuper•s Z32M1k\
a!omtntpermekngtnofpieraboutth ansrtssanslst1391k\'m ai entparmetIngthofpierabotl1ongltudlanladsIs164.46k.\m
1, momenlsdneloPalth]old
2 MomentIdvioSdfneightofuall•cap
:a Momanttlhu&ofneR•wp alomenUnradlaldisecfionQ 1&69
:a bfomcnl allhasuppods of srU•op alomentincadlelditedon : G.Wk\m
MOL1SOfh50AtQ AD0\1UCA 4REYSU'PPGAtE9J
tomcntiatangantialdimtlonp 11QSOm
I, MomenisdnetoPalchload
IF Moms banaalh the nnloadtduea; alomentlatadialdIuction' SS.IOkNm
(at the supportofucll•ca?
hlamtthatangenllaldisonp •9a!?k~m
23 6tomentat thecenht of xeI.cap ltomenttnradlaldtetton° 79,66k\1n
:allomtni I the sappottsatsrtU•tap Momeatnradlaldimtlon■ •135,Wk\m
1lomentintangantlldi:action° .2430k\m
Bending moment at the edges of well cap Is. 1560$ o: + 19603 k\m
Stu
rotilmonentsall a tnireofwellcapduetoseut;eightofseStap: 147,UXm (Sagging)
Jomentsat the dcecentreof well .cap from pieraM npetsttartue: 75039 km (Saggin/Mog&ng)
I'
Tolal sagging monied ii the teaIre of well cap: 1,a6913k\m
h[OMt'TS DUE TO SELF IItIGHT pt'ELL CAP FULLY CLA,11PED)
lttopttintortemtnt Al bollomzddorctmmt
ofnellcap ofxell•cap
lance,minfoxementatthe top Odtcaps,7gbe governed bythe nentat6ngatt ecenteofuell• cap, \l:7$ 39kXm
!ene,Ltementat the b torofeliapilt ,e governed by the rnonnt &dngatthe certre of well .ç,llw1A69.13k\m
CA1MATlOX OF RE1\'FORCF1IEXT
lladmummountathetopSo,Kmndoicell.capI7SOJ9I ut
reaoEstedrtqulmdetthetapohceu•up. 2,4913$sq,mm
Ptet+ious.. Next Catuel
Stltttln!dimttt:of6sustdfortoprtinforenant~ ?9oT Yi CALCULATE SPACINGS
11a durum t~tkt ~ ctnke sp sting of 16i aw. ss a gWrtd Ix9rten t~ bass o:1i mm di smtta: sisu:u
> CentretoCentre distance between bearings along transverse axis of bridge (S2): 4500
mm
> dimension of bearing along longitudinal axis of bridge: 300 mm
> dimension of bearing along transverse axis of bridge: 400 mm
GROUND PROFILE
> Elevation of Ground Level: 453.4 m
Details of soil layer present in ground
> For soil layer 1, Height of layer: 7 m
Type of soil: Normally Consolidated Clay
Density of soil: 17 kN/m3
Undrained Cohesion, C: 120 kN/m2
Compression Index: 0.3
> For soil layer 2, Height of layer: 9m
Type of soil: Sand
Density of soil: 23 kN/m3
103 Page
Angle of internal friction, 0 = 36°
Average static cone resistance: 2800 kN/m2
Ground 1ere1= 453Am
3
R.L= 450.4 In
crater level _
9n SOIL LAYFR 2
ILL. =437,4 an
104 I P a g e
Deudtoadafrarhspan: ji7 yx
l)ytofUvelosdsg nthtspn: Gass::Losding v
SpMafsthspl}'mppatedgisde; lb M $tjc2tne: L1
r~eaofsnpr~structunasseaioeimbon: !?
1 sqnt
Tpeofbl4; 0tt'rrbrldgtaossing Olori•rlrtrbddgtaassing
BUN'o DETAILS
I
Cenit~CtnCedistsrreht6rtenC~a~n~a~ngL•LroFsatbidgdSl); 70!01 MM
Ctnhe~Cenhedisgnse6rhre~btaringsalangT•Ta~iso;bridge(5+~: t~1 ~,
FtiueLi Dirgramot?IerrapsrilhdlaUsothtar>ngsparings
0 5Bdine beenngs o! Suet on ce l'os or!etd
Fieaiaus.. 11 [c ' j
rKhngulup;rti:n
~,—piucephepth~ cipiuup
flaeatlonofQoandlatitl: 3.A m
u N ER.E 4orn111THLIRCGLARSHAPE
cfpkrc~p
ticlgh:dEFirr(tti: Spat mm
~diuum~
lipre12(1) Ph; srclioainIransscnadhsbnofbddga
7NSofrictangulrpardonofplrrcap: I,
a(mimum~Clvussa}feperedporSonoEplaccap: Itrm
dlhofpirrapshoaldk&thUt4G mnw
1l1dlhofplac5p: d~ =
Totaldisectloada,•tngatthebaseofpier • 6,7,SLX
g:alngeffectisinv ia1ypeatarthe!tnatattiraeffort
.lomtntatbaseoipierduetobrakngforce • 1,000AOk\•tl
Tot~usistaneetoslidingatle,Rbe~ing ^ RUN
Totdrtastancetodidingataghtbeanng = ;1.39k~
irmkmomtnta;tlng about tmnsrerseaxis of bridge, attntbaseof pier due to dead kid of supts• statuue andsub•rttuttmIsa,711.51kNm
Totaluismicmomentahoutt•Taasofbadei&5151kNmabout4LasofbtldgtIs3e6A69lot
2Temptsamst(T)Cattloadings; thlsloadindtdtsloadduetofdctlonaltshainttottmptututemovementatbeadags
w,ththotizontalshtasfote atbeanngsatcilndandk;dll(tettloadronthlnddars•lomd
tj CazXoui:adTtmpaalue('+T)Cese,\o:malrnd? pt;alueAndseismic(\+TI)Cau
(3) Lonbimdim1forte
(4Brok1n6e((ad ii .159.1SOr15915
(6) NotlronlilShealforte
, ancel .
pcevi0us Nezf C
SL.1LMARYOF STRESSES AT DIFFERENT LOCATIONS 01 PIER:
0.153 0,143
It
1. Noam4 and Tompmlwe(Net).Caw 0179
(t)Mat1 omcompcnsIwslimnndtsN07Castloading•11S90.1a<6.909M1'aHtaccOK
(3) 6 sasimmn tampstssiee ctrtss odic N #745 Cast loading a 1Sf)11pa < 900 J Pa Hiatt 0K.
SOILLt3 2
Hdglita(sadla}tt . m
;~t~tofinct;ncIFicdanofcndf¢); 36 ° (indtgut)
at~agtstaaccostmiststetofu~dl9~l: BX k\fsgL
4ikcuedit(oundthonazek edCut•insilaConsttttttitc
Lyamtssrofpile: a mm
Af s ,+gr A r
fs  witcknhitBanolrctlstduo d s ~IattralsmidtasraoipnasciUJnfn:romidedseIIJa}c
9 ; +smitmd6earl"Stance Ap ° araaofpiletlp
astari e
forsmdla}rt, qo I aT %4
9 6tingrapatdracto„cIA obtalatdhomEG1oEIS;11(Pot1)fec:)•19~9~asshotrainfigalea9)
fords}'la}tir, qr °C°Nc
Table:CilmlatroaafSkintsidiabalstsatsateafpile, Q )
Eance, Q'2 laa?sleX qr ° 19,11132N(sgaa Ar ° 46isq,m
Q r a 6,B:u'Sk\
ABa(1 CI INIelUlat FAVION d
Q,° Q a ~ Q F
igrnse3.3 8tatgCpacit} tatlasX q fosbadcasUn.sitepilts
Q° Z74I6:k\
Ptevlous ; Next I ,Cancel i
iakingFatrorofsaEttcas3sae grapadrrofpf)tIotneds Q a ?5S1,Stk1
Te:ficalleadacgngon phi foundatic  6A6S:SW
total;tcloadactNganpilefoundaon 64SS1S
1gNmunu Sot piles egWredsnfoundanon a
5afebeasingcapac6rofssnglepile
S:;A1mm
lgNmamtItspa1ngbtaceappesis3Imesdiamcta:ofpde•27 mm
000000
SI
P 11u x t Ur •s
Smun Ioadactlngonpile 2...... + — + 
N Ex 2 Fr'
N I ntherafpilts 1 36
Pat"?
fro ° Sumafsqua'esotr•coo dinettsoEpilts ° f67d3gm GROUND
Ixtp9unofsguastsofx•toardinausofptlesa 763.43sgat
WE GROUP
BEARING CAPACITY OF
ofplltgtoup
Thu, Qa ° Q,+ Qp
° I1l'1 f qv .i p
Fnattangstutanct otput group
where, Q, and Q? are tow skin@ictionrnistause and total end beadng:eststanceof pile pop
Flgntt3,S BtadngCapttftrofPtftG[ap
Forsandlayer, 1 2 Ko Cr to¢
Cs rergaeffetlteoa+tr6nzdenst ss,
Forclayl m f a a a Ctl
Cn °acaageundraiudcohaslanalda}, a 2adhasia"(odor1,forgsou2ofpile;
Forsandlayn, 9p 16v N4
G r ° a(tattitaorarburdensLassatthebaseafpllegoup, N4 +6aaringcapactlplattar,tan6tobWnedfrom110.1af]S:1911(Part1/Se2)•19i9(asshosrnfnRlgme33)
Cn +undalntdcohaslonofdayatbaseofpIkgroop, Y 'baanncapad:fattor,takana9
Csingthe fo.~nsnlas asmantianedabove,sfexdl calculate total sbnfdttionresistatua and fatal and beating resistance of pile,
Table3 CalcolallonofSWfdctlonaesblaceofpllagsoap
II Q1
TaWnfl&b:ofSafetras3,sre
nil! gSebeai1ngcpadh•ofplkas Q = 9;97t161CV
494X36
C Si?66
Dtprhofb1 ,lf
~t
:.Waalmwmum momentonp!laIs ob,alridbrmultiplyingfu adtndmomanttstthreductionfactor,m F
4
FOR PILES IN PRELO EO CLAYS
..O FOR PILES IN SGNDS 90
.¼i 3!mbimummoment, 31' m! , sshe a ' :eductiohfactu
NC I'i411Y AORME0 CLAYS
L' 1
wA~
r■
2 •
ltedudionfutor, mtanb! obaintdfmm FIG 3gaf G; 3P11(Aa tu5FC2)•19 9(asshowninFigura35)
D •
'I
d'B j! ti+l{
u
l'alurofredvttlonfacbr, misde; Snadas 0.S3 D
0 LIP ,
W
v~ )
.. dualmasimummomnt, Ii ?OP,i4k1m t 0
0 OS I1 1'S 94 H
DESIGN OF PILE l~1R OR 11 Ji
D' diametarofpih 14Nmm , f,s ' dmsln oftonaete a 13k'7ma , d' 2 Clearroreroflongltudinalbaninpile a,Nmm
%Iwm mnunshe;sol:Dram±abt :equimdinpilels9 Spedis the number ofbasspmddtdinnainrdniarceanns ;
AREAOFSIEELPROVlDED
isperClaause~S,3?(cll•'lofi6u~d;:~b,d(amelerofbususedintansrrurdrloscemenl~ { WitoflongtSinalbe('9mm)
?6nm
HnttltspadngsprolldtdrolbtdtcLrdotnt : ® mm
PursutcahgotipsdioloFtiidiooygnmdF¢d6tulagyJas
tdG
Nakt(ssand, Sr ' ~j '
H
C tr,
Sr ^ 5ei& arirI'binrrO1J,im, JH ° hrighto(mgln'tt'I',IAm
pa ° r.melktraosrr6mdG~pnssg4trrS.dptholla}•rr't',1ak1/gm„
Q ° prergeSdteIAShtssIaZwer't'da fltbadacanganragkadng
o I cue+ 1G f
Qsopinaisnonrall ro;Aalldatrddar; . • —— ! (
S ~
,
° comprKSfoninncoflaec'i', G, lhe.Consolidationprnsu.e,k\1sgs
Rasmeatllid~deplh .ire,agrinceasell I RW
\0, Tvptof!od Hd tofLkve:
~ (! m mt (mm)
oflarl:Ik\(s ,ml p:cssusalk\fs,u,l
9ud o lie 3151 2773
ibid ssofpdecap;
sxaoEsttclrlquictdlntbe pile capfo:momantaboutl.Taus (Id steel shall Leo thdalongthe14Ssat the bottomof the pllecap)• 63193sgmm,>4336 sr. t.&.\r1mumattaofstaduathed
Ctameterofbssusedasmln:elnfocementfnpaecap:l5 ~I
.,11of steel nquitedin the pile cap for moment about t1ads(Tis steel shall Leo ntedalongthet•Txdsat the botiomof the pilecap)a ;R3smm>63,396sgmm,It.\ sdmumoeaofsteelmquisad
SpadagspsoiidcdtothertirdOmmG~tladls¢~oaolT•iausafb~dge; mm
WNIWBtt[10NMILESLVSR
5' 170Q St
CASE!: itt~121IF dPEG1~1GOG15IDEfl{EC&R(CL5ECii01'OFSFtEAlt
—I
Ypctlcra~d~atllstuueofQ9Xdfa~e&iofpdEle.yDruncrmmeout~d~ d~se<'tlon srdl'rontribnhib(uureattlnglnsluu,
N
Grit:. i1t41F1IF6?HE1rn011IDEi} CIN1G115ECnD10FSxL2
s
Pilaslcrdkdataba tDf09Xdfaa~4dpnaliammormoreWelhesxtlansrdlnotcmttlihutelnsluas.
CHECXiOR1WOWAT5NE4R ~s/
MI
—i
itlrelse~otiknc~a~ragsiceulslaandatadlstamecquitohal6ai'krff 4redip$upil6cap1.0.9:OmmfromkiA ofpicr 1 11111 1
5
sfStc :L,9i:, W \amfnhiskwcIresstt)` O61JIa
!4 1 Fknt4'k s '.1
SOTh:RW1I,VEL%%3OV!DIAORIMADICAfl$
CaMCAL SIMON POR•1Rro .WAY SHEAR
R PK AP
Pi44~9US,
CHECK FOR 01'F. {VAY SHEAR
Citltal secCOlfo: oat ,rarshtarislaattdaladistdraetycal beitcttie depth of pOttapLt 14 Qnun(mas tnefate of plc
s ,s,s
iI
1 1 1 1, 1
Shtarfone ittlsgathaidt is 5,73033 LX
ShttsSyettgtis of 11:7 coat,t;t sstds O.is 5 sled in pdt tap about T•T ads of badgt
1I/111
1 f 1
S
Xo~inalshearsba, t V, . 0i111a
ShtartcoO!11arot~:tltss7dto?S°isleelinpietapabouWt icofb7dgt
Ica$ 1
upe Tb1 i3o!1356;:00,FmVssibleshta•sCtss(t) 02;11Pa>Oi lIPa Htn;t OK
I
t'AOmm
L \
; I 'J
•Button!
/U arkurtc~
11
du61lD;ft iSmm
tky
IFt EE Next antd
rc J
urr?ar,;~nt lor~g
roarucfroraata
6.4 CONCLUSIONS
The analysis and design of well foundation and pile foundation for the provided details have
been performed. The software generates the output of result with diagrammatic representation.
All the guide line are given to user where necessary. The output of the software is compared with
the long hand calculations of the problem. The output of software resemble with the results of
long hand calculations. Hence, it is concluded that the software provides accurate results and
with in the short period of time.
1281Page
CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSIONS
7.1 CONCLUSIONS
The following conclusions are drawn on the basis of the software development work
,related to analysis and design of bridge structures carried out for this thesis.
1) It is possible to develope user friendly, interactive and handy computational tools for the
analysis and design of bridge substructure sing readily available software platforms.
2) The proposed software can be particularly useful for the design optimisation of bridge
foundations particularly in the context of unexpected subsoil conditions encountered
during construction. The program equips design engineers with a handy and convenient
software tool to quickly reconfigure and analyse and design bridge foundation in
response to field conditions for best performance and economy.
7.2 SCOPE FOR FURTHER WORK
The capabilities of the software developed can be further expanded to, include the
following additional aspects of substructure analysis and design:
1) The superstructure analysis for continuous spans on different types of bearings and of
different configuration can be included so as to broadbase the scope of application of the
software.
2) Options for pier design can be included for varying geometry pier. Option for analysis
and design of pier cap of hammerhead type of piers using strutandtie models can be
included in the software.
3) Options for different arrangement and layouts of pile in a pile group can be included in
the software
4) The software can be interfaced with standard CAD packages like AUTOCAD for
generating detailing and working drawings of the bridge substructure.
129 1 Page
CHAPTER 8
REFERENCES
1. IS: 456 2000; "Plain and Reinforced Concrete — Code of Practice (Fourth Revision) ";
BIS, New Delhi.
2. IS: 875 (Part 3) — 1987; "Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other than Earthquake) for
buildings and structures"; BIS, New Delhi.
3. IS: 2911 (Part I/Sec 2) — 1979; "Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Pile
Foundations, Concrete Piles, Bored Cast Insitu Piles (First Revision)'; BIS, New Delhi.
4. IS: 2911 (Part III) — 1980; "Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Pile
Foundations, Underreamed Piles (First Revision) "; BIS, New Delhi.
5. IS. 3955  1967; "Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Well Foundations";
BIS, New Delhi.
6. IRC: 6 — 2000; "Standard specifications and code of practice for road bridges, Section:
II, Loads and Stresses (Fourth Revision) "; The Indian Road Congress, New Delhi.
7. IRC: 45 — 1972; "Recommendations for estimating the resistance of soil below the
maximum scour level in the design of well foundations of bridges "; The Indian Road
Congress, New Delhi.
8. IRC: 78 — 2000; "Standard specifications and code of practice for road bridges, Section:
VI1, Foundations and Substructure "; The Indian Road Congress, New Delhi.
9. SP: 16 (1980); "Design Aids For Reinforced Concrete to IS: 4561978"; BIS, New
Delhi.
10.SP: 34 (S & T) (1980); "Hand Book on Concrete Reinforcement and.Detailirig"; BIS,
New Delhi.
.
11.Saran, S. (1996); "Analysis and Design of Substructure  Limit State Design (Second
Edition)'; Oxford & IHB Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.,
12. Victor, D. J. (1973); "Essentials of Bridge Engineering (F(th Edition) "; Oxford & IBH
Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
13.Jain, A. K. (1993); "Reinforced Concrete — Limit State Design (Fourth Edition) "; Nem
Chand & Bros., Roorkee, Fourth Edition.
14.Pillai, S. U. & Menon, D. (1999); "Reinforced Concrete Design "; Tata McGraw Hill,
New Delhi."
130 I P a g e
15. Das, B. M. (2004); "Principles of Foundation Engineering (Fifth Edition)"; Brook/Coles
Pub. Co., CA.
16.Singh, V. (1981); "Wells and Caissons (Second Edition) "; Neni Chand & Bros., Roorkee
17. Prakash, S. (1979); "Analysis and Design of Foundations And Retaining Structures";
Santa Prakashan, New Delhi.
18. Arora, K. R. (2003); "Soil Mechanics And Foundation Engineering (Sixth Edition) ";
Standard Publishers Distributors, New Delhi.
19. Ramamrutham, S. (2005); . "Theory of Structure (Eighth Edition) "; Dhanpat Rai
Publishing Company (P) Ltd., New Delhi.
20. Holzner, S. (2005); "Visual Basic .Net Programming Black Book"; Paraglyph Press,
USA.
21. Terzaghi, K. And Peck, R. B. (1976); "Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice "; John
Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.
22. De Beer, E. And Marten (1957); "Method of Computation on Upper limit for the
Influences of Heterogeneity of Sand Layers in the Settlement of Bridges"; Proc. 4th Int.
Conf. On SMFE, London, Vol. 1.
23. www.iricen.gov.in, website of Indian Railway Institute of Civil Engineering, Pune.
131 Page
APPENDIX — A
SUPPORTING LONG HAND CALCULATIONS FOR THE
ILLUSTRATVIE PROBLEM ON WELL FOUNDATION
Minimum top width of pier required = bearing spacing along longitudinal axis + bearing
dimension along longitudinal axis + 600 mm
= 900+300+ 600
= 1800 mm
Top width of pier provided: 1800 mm (= minimum top width of pier required. Hence OK.)
Minimum desirable length of pier (without cutwater) = bearing spacing along transverse axis
+ bearing dimension along transverse
axis+ 1200 mm
= 5500 t400I1200
= 7100 mm
Length of pier provided (without cutwater): 7100 mm (= minimum desirable length of pier.
Hence OK.)
Batter provided in pier: 1 in 20
Hence, bottom width of pier = 1800 + (2 X 7000 x) = 2500 mm
PIER CAP DETAILS
Span of bridge is 16 m i.e. less than 25 m. Hence, minimum thickness of pier cap should be 250
mm.
Thickness of pier cap provided: 500 mm (> 250 mm. Hence OK.)
Width of pier cap = top width pier cap + (2 * 75).>
= 1800+ 150
= 1950 mm
Length of pier cap = length of pier (including cutwater) + (2 * 75)
= 7100+1800+150
= 9050 mm
1321 Page
1800 nun
2500 inm
= 15.33 m2
4
Area at the bottom of pier = (2.5 X 7.1) + ( X 2.52)
= 22.66 m2
4
Area at the middle of pier = (2.15 X 7.1) + ( X 2.152 )
= 18.9 m2
133 Page
Pier hei
Pier Volume = ght (Area at the top of pier + Area at the bottom of pier + 4 X
Area at the middle of pier )
= 6(15.33 +22.66+4X18.9)
= 132.52m3
Pier cap volume = 9.05 X 1.95 X 0.5
= 8.82 m3
Total volume = 132.52 + 8.82 = 141.34 m3
Hence, total weight of pier & pier cap = 141.34 X 25 = 3533 kN
:• Stresses due to dead load of superstructure & weight of pier Sc pier cap = 3533+3000
22.66
= 288.34 kN/m2
2. Stresses due to eccentricity of live load
Moment of Inertia about X axis i.e. TT axis of bridge, I,~
^ 7.1X2.53 + rrX2.54
12 64
= 11.16 m4
Moment of Inertia about Y axis i.e. LL axis of bridge, Iy,
2.5X7.13 lrX2.54 + 7rX1.252 X /7_1 + 4X1.25 2
+2
12 [ 128 2 \ 2 3a ]
= 158.22 m4
(a) Due to eccentric live load about transverse axis of bridge
Vertical live load on pier, producing maximum stress about transverse axis = 763 kN, &
Moment due to live load eccentricity about transverse axis of bridge, producing maximum stress
about transverse axis = 180 kNm
:• Stress at the base of pier due to eccentricity of live load about transverse axis
M y
_ P+xx
A 1xx
X1.251
22.66 +(1806
/
= 53.84 kN/m2 or 13.57 kN/m2
(b) Due to eccentric live load about longitudinal axis of bridge
Vertical live load on pier, producing maximum stress due about longitudinal axis = 395 kN,
1341Page
Moment due to live load eccentricity about transverse axis of bridge, producing maximum
about longitudinal axis = 969 kNm
:. Stress at the base of pier due to eccentricity of live load about longitudinal axis
= P+_MYYX
A I
yy
395 + ( 969
X 4.8)
22.66 1158.22
+2138
%1.25
 11.16
= ±239.46 kN /m2
(b) Due to resistance at bearings
Coefficient of friction on the left side of bearing = 0.05
Coefficient of friction on the right side of bearing (reducing 5%) = 0.0475
Assume the combination of dead load & live load acting on the left side bearing and dead load
on right side bearing
Maximum live load reaction acting on the left side bearing = 648 kN
(as calculated from the program based on Excel Worksheet)
Total resistance to sliding on the left side bearing = 0.05 X (1500 + 648) = 107 kN &
Total reacting on the right side bearing = 0.0475 X 1500 = 71.25 kN
:• Unbalanced force = 36 kN
Moment due to unbalanced force at the base of pier = 36 X 7.8 = 282 kNm
1351Page
= 17.98m
According to the formula recommended by IRC: 782000$,
I
/ 62
Mean scour depth, dsm = 1.34 I 3
136jPage
Pressure along Iongitudinal axis of bridge = 0.5 X 1.5 X (V X 4 X sin 20)2
= 2.81 kN/ m2
& Pressure along transverse axis of bridge = 0.5 X 3 X (v X 4 X cos 20)2
= 9.42 kN/ m2
•Total Pressure along transverse axis of bridge = 10.67 + 9.42 = 20.09 kN/ m2
HFL=4 95 in an nn L\H......
2.81
(a) (b)
Fig. A2 Water Pressure Details (a) in transverse direction & (b) in longitudinal
direction of bridge
Moment about longitudinal axis of bridge
Pressure at HFL = 20.09 kN/ m 2 & Pressure at LWL = 15.38 kN/ m2
F(15.38X4X2)+((20.0915.36)X4X4X3)
lever arm ofresultant pressure from the base of pier — Zo..3e
o9 ~s
(15.38X4}+(~ Z )X4)
= 2.09
20:09+15.38) * (2A+2.$)
:• Moment at the base of pier = ( * 4 * 2.09 = 341 kN/m2
— 158.22 X 4.8
= ±10.33 kN/m2
1371Page
Moment about transverse axis of bridge
Pressure at HFL = 2.81 kN/ m2 & Pressure at LWL = 2.15 kN/ m2
[(2.15 X4XZ}+{ (&B122.151 X 4 X 4X3
1
lever arm of resultant pressure from the base of pier = X4) \+1 2.812.19) X 4) ]
(2.15 \\ z 1
= 2.09
2.15 +2.81) * (9.2:9.6) *
Moment at the base of pier = ( 4 * 2.09 = 195 kN/m2
1381Page
Moment at the base of pier = 168 X 8.8 = 1478.4 kNm
1391 Page
Moment at the base of pier about transverse axis = FzH
= 110kNm
For hydrodynamic force along transverse direction
H = 4 m, a = 1.25 Therefore,ay = 3.2
For seismic zone II, ah = 0.075
For value of H
a
= 3.2, Co = 0.69 & z = 0.415
F = CnahYwma2 H
= 0.69 X 0.075 X 9.81 X 1.252 X 4
= 10kN
Moment at the base of pier about longitudinal axis = FzH
= 6.5 kNm
Now,
140 I Page
Table A1 Calculation of Maximum Shear forces bearings
At hinge
No. Forces At roller support
support
I Vertical Reaction due to dead load, kN 750 750
2 Vertical Reaction due to live load, kN
176 323
(when live load at roller support is max.)
3 Total Vertical Reaction, kN 926 1073
Maximum horizontal force at roller 0.05 X 1073 =
4 
support, due to resistance at bearings, kN 53.7
5 Braking force at bearing level, kN 48.6. 48.6
Resultant horizontal forces, at roller
6  48.6
support for N Case loading, kN
Resultant horizontal forces, at roller 48.6 + 53.7 =
7 
support for N + T Case loading, kN 102.3
Resultant horizontal forces, at roller (1500 X 0.1) +
8 support for N + T + S Case loading, kN  ((323+176) X 0.1)
(No braking force) + 53.7 = 253.7 kN
Table A3 shows the summary of stresses calculated due to various forces acting on the
pier
141 I Page
Table A3 Summary of Stresses due to various forces acting on the Pier
Stresses due to Stresses due to
Stresses due to moment about moment about
No. Loads vertical forces, kN/m2 transverse axis of longitudinal axis of
bridge, kN/m2 bridge, kN/m2
DRY FLOODS DRY FLOODS DRY FLOODS
1 Dead load & self 288.34 288.34    
weight
2 Eccentric live load 33.67 33.67 ±20.16 ±20.16 ±29.4 ±29.4
Longitudinal force
3 (1) Braking effort  • ±239.56 ±239.56 
(2)Bearing resistance   ±31.56 ±31.56  
4 Wind load     ±44.85 ±44.85
6 Buoyancy 5.43 •
The summary of stresses due to horizontal shear forces is given in Table A2.
Now, considering stresses due to all the forces as calculated above, we will compute the
resultant maximum stresses at "A" & `B" on pier for different load combinations. The location
of "A" & `B" on pier are shown in Fig. A3.
The resultant compressive & tensile stresses acting at point "A" & `B" on pier for
different load combinations are shown in Table A4 & Table A5 respectively.
2300 m,,t 
I
Fig. A3 Location of "A" & `B" on pier
1421 Page
Table A4 Resultant Compressive Stresses at Point "A" & `B" on Pier
Resultant compressive stress at Resultant compressive stress at
No. Loads "A" on ier, MPa ' `B" on ier, MPa
DRY FLOOD DRY FLOOD
1 N Case 0.380 0.385 0.624 0.640
2 N + T Case 0.380 0.385 0.743 0.759
3 N + T + S Case 0.479 0.485 1.309 1.338
Table A5 Resultant Tensile Stresses at Point "A" & `B" on Pier
Resultant compressive stress Resultant compressive stress
No. Loads at "A" on pier,MPa at `B" on ier, MPa
DRY FLOOD DRY FLOOD
1 N Case 0.231 0.216 0.02 0.0072
2 N + T Case 0.231 0.216 0.081 0.108
3 N + T + S Case 0.132 0.116 0.649 1.338
143 I P a g e
ANALYSIS OF WELL FOUNDATION
Now, the dimensions of different components of well foundation are decided.
Maximum scour depth = 17.1 m (as calculated previously)
Maximum scour level = 442.4 m
Unsupported Iength of wel l is LWL — Maximum scour level = 455.5442.4 = 13.1 m
Providing the grip length of 10 m, the height of well is 23.1 m.
Diameter of well is assumed 12000 mm
Thickness of well cap = 1200 mm
Thickness of top plug = 500 mm
Minimum thickness of steining = KDi/E = 0.03 X 12 X V23.1 = 1.73 in = 1730 mm
Thickness of steining = 1750 mm > 1730 mm. Hence, OK.
Height of well curb = 2750 mm
•Height of steining = 23.11.22.75 = 19.15 m
Diameter of dredge hole = 12000 —(2 X 1750) = 8500 mm
Thickness of bottom plug = 2750 + 500 + 1000 = 4250 mm
Sand filling is done in well foundation up to the soffit of top plug
Density of sand filled in dredge hole = 24 kN/m3
144IPage
RL=335,3m L
145 Page
6. Weight of Steining = 4 X (122 _8.52) X 19.15 115 = 16161 kN
Volume of Well curb= [7rX (11.65 + 0.25)X 0.25 X 2.75] ins mm
•
:50 treat
508 mm
2750 mm
E3R 3~
1► 9i•I
(2.81+2.15)
Force along longitudinal axis = [ X (9 2 29 6) X 4 ] + [(25) X 12 X 13.1]
= 262 kN
2. Due to braking effect
Braking force acting at the base of pier = 194 kN
Moment at the base of pier = 6623 kNm
3. Due to resistance at bearing
Coefficient of friction on the left side of bearing = 0.05
Coefficient of friction on the right side of bearing (reducing 5%) = 0.0475
Assume the combination of dead load & live load acting on the left side bearing and dead load
on right side bearing
Maximum live load reaction acting on the left side bearing = 1296 kN
(as calculated from the program prepared on Excel worksheet)
Total resistance to sliding on the left side bearing = 0.05 X (3000 + 1296) = 214 kN &
Total reacting on the right side bearing = 0.0475 X 3000 = 142.5 kN
:. Unbalanced force = 72 kN
Moment due to unbalanced force at the base of pier = 72 X 30.87 = 2231 kNm
4. Stresses due to wind load
(a) Area of superstructure as seen in elevation = 70 m2
The height of exposed surface of bridge structure, when water level is at HFL = 5.8 m
For 5.8 m, the intensity of wind load is taken as 0.72 kN/ m2
Hence, Total wind force = 70 X 0.72 = 50.4 IN/m2
(b) Considering the wind load acting on moving live load having magnitude of 3 kN/m & acting
at 1.5 in above road way, I
Wind force against the moving load = 16 X 3 = 48 kN
(c) Total wind force as in (a) & (b) above = 48 + 50.4 = 98.4 kN
1471Page
(d) Minimum limiting load on deck at 4.5 kN/m = 16 X 4.5 = 72 kN
(e) Minimum limiting load on at 2.4 kN/m2 on exposed surface = 2.4 X 70 = 168 kN
Since force in (e) is maximum, this will be adopted. This force will be assumed to act at the
bearing level for the purpose of calculating the moment at the base of pier.
Moment at the base of pier = 168X31.7 = 5354.16 kNm
5. Due to eccentricity of live load
Moment due to live load eccentricity about transverse axis of bridge = 179.8 kNm
.Moment due to live load eccentricity about longitudinal axis of bridge = 968.9 kNm
6. Due to horizontal shear forces at bearing level
Table A6 Horizontal shear force at bearings & moments at the base of foundation
No. Load Combination Shear Force, kN Moment, kNm
1 N Case 48.6 1500
1481Page
Considering the forces and moments as calculated above,
Total moment about longitudinal axis = 63524.5 kNm
& Total moment about transverse axis = 60829.6 kNm
(b) Moment due to hydrodynamic forces
For hydrodynamic force along longitudinal direction
= 647.47 kN
Resultant hydrodynamic pressure on the pier = C3 F = 80.4 kN
Moment at the base of well = C3 FC4H = 1167.2 kNm
Total moment at the base ofwell about transverse axis of bridge = 6093 kNm
For hvdrodvnamic force alone transverse direction
H = 17.1 m, a= 1.25 Therefore, !L
a
= 13.65
For seismic zone II, ah = 0.075
For value of H
a
= 13.65 , Co = 0.9 & 2 = 0.45
149 1 Page
F = Coahyw7 ra2 H
= 55.49kN
F1 = C3 F = 6.89 kN
Moment at the base of well = F1C4 H = 105 kNm
Total moment at the base of well = 4925 + 105• = 5030 kNm
6. Due to tilt & shift
Moment due to tilt = Z x so X 45508 = 5634 kNm
1501 Page
The results of long hand calculations and as generated by software are almost same.
Hence, we will continue the problem considering the force and moments as generated by
software.
Hence, W = 45515 kN
H= HLL 2 +H,2 =6784 kN
M = IMLL Z +MTT 2 =105653kNm
STEP 2: Compute I = IB + rnl„ (1 + 21i'a)
Take, m = 1,
IB = n X 15
64
= 1069.7 m4
0.9 X 12 X 104
'v =64 =900m4
a = trX1210= 0.382
151IPage
cosp Z
= = 10.96
KP cos S sin(0+S) sin Ø}
_ cos 0 2
= 0.226
KA {toss+ sin(0+5)sin0}
mM = 1X 105653
=46.86
1 2254.5
A=X12.152 = 115.9m2
4
_ WWP MB _ 45515 0.414 X 8435.35 + 105653 X 12
A 21 115.9 2 X 2254.5
= 363.43+ 284.68 = 647.1 kN/»12 >675 kN/m2.
Hence, Safe.
& v2 = 77.7 kN/ m2 > 0. Hence, Safe.
All the above five steps are repeated for loads with combination of wind load &
neglecting seismic effect
STEP 1: The value of W, H & M is determined as follows:
W = 45508 kN
MLL = 40945.43 kNm & MTT = 17696 kNm
The values of forces and moments as calculated by the software are
W=45515 kN
HLL=630.8kN & HTT=1537.4kN
MLL = 40945.91 kNm & MTr = 17692.86 kNm
The results of long hand calculations and as generated by software are almost same.
Hence, we will continue the problem considering the force and moments as generated by
software.
Hence, W = 45515 kN
H = VHLL2 + HTT 2 = 1661.8 kN
M = IMLL2 + M,2 = 44605 kNm
152 Page
_ cos 4 2
cosh+ sin(0+8)sin0}
= 0.226
KA
mM —
1X44605
= 19.78
1 2254.5
y(K p — KA ) = 14(10.96 — 0.226) = 150.3
Hence, the condition is satisfied
153IPage
STEP 5: Calculate 01) = W—µ'P + n~a
Q2 A 21
M 44605
P= r = 12.53 = 3561.28 kN
A=. 4X12.152 = 115.9m2
_ Wµ'P + MB  45515 0.414X 3561.28 + 44605 X 12
A 21 115.9 2X2254.5
A=X12.152 = 115.9 m2
4
W _ 50461.6
= 435.2 kN/m2
A 115.9
c„ = 675 X 2.5 = 1687.5 kN/m2
Qu _ 1687.5
= 843,75 kN/m2
2 — 2
Hence, conditionA Z is satisfied
STEP 2: Calculate Mb & MM
Calculate Mb = QWBtan O
010=0.83
For ratio B = 0.83, Q = 0.262, (as obtained from Table 3.2 of Chapter 3)
W = 50461.6 kN
Mb = QWBtan 0 = 0.262 X 50461.6 X 12 X 0.754 = 119552 kNm
Ms = 0.10yD3(KP —KA )L
= 0.10X14X103(10.960.226)X0.9X12
= 162509 kNm
154 j P a g e
STEP 3: Calculate Mf = 0.11 y (Kp — K A)B2. D2 sin S
Mf = 0.11 X 14 X (10.96 — 0.226) X 122 X 101 X sin 22.5
= 91211.52 kNm
STEP 4: Calculate Mt = 0.7(Mb + Ms + Mf)
Mt = 0.7(119552 + 162509 + 91211.52) = 261291 kNm
STEP 5: Calculate Ma,
Ma = ( 1.25XMLL )2 +(1.25XMTT ) 2
= 132066 kNm
Mt Ma. Hence, OK.
DESIGN OF COMPONENTS OF WELL FOUNDATION
DESIGN OF WELL CURB
a—µcos 0) d
Well curb is designed for hoop tension, T = 0.75N (sin
`p sin o+cos of
Ex (122_o.52) 19.15X29
N = X (12+8.5) = 837.8
z
1551 Page
:. Total volume of reinforcement provided = 0.9121 m3 > 0.8972 m3 . Hence, OK.
16 mm dia. anchor bars are provided at 300 mm c/c
DESIGN OF WELL STEWING
Before designing the section of steining, stresses in steining are calculated at the level of
maximum scour as shown below:
1 A Z
W M
X (122_852) = 126.94m3
Z =64" (12/2)
156IPage
X 4 X (122 — 8.52)X 1
100
= 0.02254 m3 = 2.254 X 107 mm3
z•zs4x 107
Area of steel required on both face of'steining = u x (12+8.$)x 1000 = 700 mmz on'eaeh face
Thickness, t = flu. — f
157 Page
Maximum dispersion width available = a
z — ~()Z—~4zs\z=11.01m
C+ Length 2 dispersion
Mean length of dispersion = = 11.44 m
Mr 4a [1
1581 Page
Hence, Mr = Mt = ' 4rz'S [l + (1 + 0.18)In (1
8 4~~ = 833.1 kNm
(ii) For moments beneath unloaded area due to circular patch loading
Mr — (1+t9)ln(l)
4K
Mt —
Atsupport,d=h;l=d =1
_ 7324,5
Hence, Mr = 0 & Mt = [(10.18)— (1 + 0.18)In(1)] = 477.95 kNm
The radial and tangential moments in the well cap due to U.D.L. are given by
Mr = 64
Z
Mt = 4[(3
6 +19)  (1 +.3i9)e]
At centre, d = 0; =
hd = 0
h; i = h = 1
At support, d = d
Mr = 0
Mt = 30 X 22
[(3 + 0.18) — (1 + 3XO.18)X1] = 110.7 kNm
Condition 2: Well cap fully clamped at support
(i) For moments beneath loaded area due to circular patch loading
(1+ ~9)ln
Mr 4rrL la/J
Mt
7324.5 12
Mr = Mt [(1 + 0.18)ln (34)] = 250.2 kNm
=
(ii) For moments beneath unloaded area due to circular patch loading,
Mr —
z
Mt = a 1 _) '9(1 — i9) — (1 + 6)1n() — i9
(
At support, d = h; i; =
h
d =1
1591 Page
7324.5 r
8.34 12
[`zx1xlzl (1 — 0.18) —1] = —525.15 kNm
MT — 47t
7324.5 8.34 2
Mt = 47r R2 x 1 12) X 0.18 X (1— 0.18) — 0.18] = —94.53 kNm
The radial and tangential moments in the well cap due to U.D.L. are given by
Mr = 4
6 2 [(1 +D) — ( 3 +fl)e2 ]
Mt =
At centre, d = 0; j = h = 0
30X122
Mr = [(
64
1 + 0.18)] = 79.65 kN
Mt = 30k'1 22
[(1 + 0.18)] = 79.65
At support, d = h; 4= d
h
=I
Mr =
30 X 12 2
64
[(1 + 0.18) — (3 +0.18) X 12] = —135 kNm
Mt = 30X6122
[(1 + 0.18) — (1 + 3 X 0.18)X 12 ) = — 24.3 kNm
Si
1
V
(a) Moments due to Patch load (b) Moments due to Self weight load
Fig. A8 Moments in wellcap when freely supported
160 Page
Fl
1Z T I
(a) Moments due to Patch load (b) Moments due to Self weight load
Fig. A9 Moments in wellcap when fully clamped
Maximum moment at the centre of well cap due to moments transferred form pier
=±5 18 ,where M1 = =
8865,26
1248.6 kNm
+5'1248.6
±780.4 kNm
Maximum moment at the. edges of well cap due to moments transferred from pier
r

 9
_ ± 1248.6
e = ±156.1
Total moment at the centre of wellcap
833.1+250.2
Due to patch loads = 2
= 541.5 kNm
79.65+1
Z"
Due to self weight of well cap = = 147.15 kNm
Due to moment from pier & superstructure = ±780.4 kNm
Hence, total sagging moment = 541.5 + 147.15 + 780.4 = 1469'kNm &
total hogging moment = 780.4 kNm
Total moment at the support of wellcap
Due to patch loads = o+(— Zzs.15) = — 262.6 kNm
Due to self weight of well cap ='_"s
2
= —67.5 kNm
Due to moment from pier & superstructure = ±156.08 kNm
Hence, total hogging moment = 262.6 + 262.6 + 156.08 = 486.16 kNm &
• Total hogging moment at the centre of well cap = 780.4 kNm
1611Page
Total sagging moment at the centre of well cap = 1469 kNm &
Total hogging moment at the support of well cap = 486.2 kNm
Now, the reinforcement of the well cap is calculated.
Bottom reinforcement of the well cap will be designed for total sagging moment at the
centre of well cap = 1469 kNm
MM _ 1.5 X 1469 X 106
=13
bdz 1000X1137.52
r _ 4.6 Mu
Pt = 50 11 o
f f =0.515%
v ckI
A bXdXpt _ 1000 X 1137.5 X 0.515
=5$58 T]7.,rriz
St = 100 100
300 mm
Spacing provided to 28 mm dia. bars = 100 mm <
k X e f f ective depth of steining
Top reinforcement of the well cap will be designed for total hogging moment at the
centre of well cap = 780.4 kNm
Mu. _ 1.5 X 780.4 X 106 = 0.905
bd? 1000X1137.52
4.6 Mu
f — 1— f
c
Pt = 50 fy =0.262%
~cki
A b X d X pr = 1000 X 1137.5 X 0.515
sr = = 2982 mm2
100 100
25 mm dia. bars are used at the top of well'cap,
rz 2
162 I P a g e
Check for Punching Shear
Total vertical load acting on the well cap = 3533 + 3000 +791 = 7324 kN
Hence, Shear stress acting on the wellcap = is 4X 7324 X 1000 _ 0.39 N/mm2
n X(83 0+(1137.5X0.5))
Maximum shear stress for M25 Grade concrete = 3.1 > 0.39N/mm2
Hence, Safe
Wea cap
26 . dia ban
163 1 P a g e
APPENDIX — B
SUPPORTING LONG HAND CALCULATIONS FOR THE
ILLUSTRATVIE PROBLEM ON PILE FOUNDATION
Width of pier cap = 4000 mm
Length of pier cap = Bearing Spacing(S2) + dimension of bearing along transverse axis +
1200
= 4500+400+ 1200
=6100mm
R[
1641Page
4(4X8)
= 100.53 m3
(6'1 x 42+(4 x 4~
Volume of tapered portion of Pier cap = X 0= 10.1 m3
.5
Volume of rectangular portion of Pier cap = 12.2 m3
Total volume of pier & pier cap = 122.83 m3
Hence, total weight of pier & pier cap = 122.83 X 25 = 3070.8 kN
C/s area of pier = 12.57 m2
3070.8 +3000
Stresses due to dead load of superstructure & weight of pier & pier cap = 12.57
= 483.1 kN/m2
2. Stresses due to_eccentricity of live load
Moment of Inertia about X axis i.e. TT axis of bridge,
= Moment of Inertia about Y axis i.e. LL axis of bridge, I},~,
=x44=12.57 m4
64
A 1xx
385 + /192.5 .X
21
12.57  1\12.57
1651Page
397.5 + (377.6
X z)
12.57 12.57
_ +1000
X2
 12.57
_ ±159.16 kN/m2
(b) Due to resistance at hearings
Coefficient of friction on the left side of bearing = 0.05
Coefficient of friction on the right side of bearing (reducing 5%) = 0.0475
Assume the combination of dead load & live load acting on the left side bearing and dead load
on right side bearing
Maximum live load reaction acting on the left side bearing = 385 kN
(as calculated on program prepared in Microsoft Excel Worksheet)
Total resistance to sliding on the left side bearing = 0.05 X (1500 + 385) = 94.25 kN &
Total reacting on the right side bearing = 0.0475 X 1500 = 71.25 kN
:• Unbalanced force = 23 kN
Moment due to unbalanced force at the base of pier = 23 X 9.3 = 213.9 kNm
:• Stress at the base of pier = ±M
XX y = F 21 s X2 = ±34.04 kN/m2
—5.43 kN/m2
4. Stresses due to wind load
(a) Area of superstructure as seen in elevation = 70 m2
166IPage
The height of exposed surface of bridge structure = 10.3 m
For 10.3 m, the intensity of wind load is taken as 0.92 kN/ m2
Hence, Total wind force = 70 X 0.92 = 64.37 kN/ m2
(b) Considering the wind load acting on moving live load having magnitude of 3 kN/m & acting
at 1.5 m above road way,
Wind force against the moving load = 1.2 X 3 = 4.2 kN
(c) Total wind force as in (a) & (b) above = 68.57 kN
(d) Minimum limiting load on deck at 4.5 kN/m = 1.2 X 4.5 = 5.4 kN
(e) Minimum limiting load on at 2.4 kN/m2 on exposed surface = 2.4 X 70 = 168 kN
Since force in (e) is maximum, this will be adopted. This force will be assumed to act at the
bearing level for the purpose of calculating the moment at the base of pier.
Moment at the base of pier = 168 X 10.3 = 1730.4 kNm
=8.3m
Hence, total seismic moment due to mass of bridge components & live load about longitudinal
axis = ((397.5 X 12.5) + (305 X 8.75) + (252.5 X 8.3) + (252.5 X 8.3) + (2513 X
4) + (1500 X 10.3.X 2)) X 0.1
= 5068.7 kNm
Total seismic moment due to mass of bridge components & live load about transverse axis
=((305X 8.75) + (252.5 X 8.3)+(252.5 X 8.3) + (2513 X4)+(1500 X 10.3 X 2)) X 0.1
= 4571.8 kNm
Resultant stress due to seismic effect about transverse axis = ± Lxx y
fxx
_ + (4571.8) X2
 12.57
±727.6 kN /m2
167 I P a g e
vx
Resultant stress due to seismic effect about longitudinal axis = ± M!
ry
_ + so"'7
12.57
X2
= ±806.7 kN/m2
6. Stresses due to horizontal shear forces
Maximum horizontal shear force at roller support is calculated for N Case, N + T Case &
N + T + S Case. For these maximum shear forces, resultant stresses at the base of pier are
calculated for different load combinations.
No. At hinge
Forces At roller support
support
I Vertical Reaction due to dead load, kN 750 750
Vertical Reaction due to live load, kN
2 0 385
(when live load at roller support is max.)
3 Total Vertical Reaction, kN 750 1135
Maximum horizontal force at roller 0.05 X 1135=
4 
support, due to resistance at bearings, kN 56.75
5 Braking force at bearing level, kN 40 40
Resultant horizontal forces, at roller
6  40
support for N Case loading, kN
Resultant horizontal forces, at roller
7
support for N + T Case loading, kN  40+ 56.75= 96.75
158IPage
Table B2 Stresses due to horizontal shear force at bearings
No. Load Combination Shear Force, kN Moment, kNm Stress, kN/m2
Table B3 shows the summary of stresses occurring due to various forces acting on the
pier, as calculated above.
Table B3 Summary of Stresses due to various forces acting on the Pier
Longitudinal force
3 (a) Braking Effort  ±159.16 
(b)Due to resistance at bearing  ±34.04 
The summary of stresses due to horizontal shear forces is given in Table B2.
Now, considering stresses due to all the forces as calculated above, we will compute the
resultant maximum stresses at "A" & `B" on pier for different load combinations.
Fig. B2 shows the location of "A" & `B" on pier.
169 I P a g e
Fig. B2 Location of "A" & "B" on Pier
The resultant compressive & tensile stresses acting at "A" & "B" on pier for different
load combinations are shown in Table B4 & Table B5 respectively.
Table B4 Resultant Compressive Stresses at "A" & "B" on Pier
170 1 Page
• Maximum compressive stress under "N" Case loading = 0.85 MPa < 6 MPa. Hence,
Safe.
• Maximum compressive stress under "N + T" Case loading = 0.886 MPa < 6.9 MPa (15%
increase). Hence, Safe.
• Maximum compressive stress under "N + T + S" Case loading = 1.845 MPa < 9 MPa
(50% increase). Hence, Safe.
• Maximum tensile stress under "N + T + S" Case loading = 0.708 MPa < 1.35 MPa (50%
increase). Hence, Safe.
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF PILE FOUNDATION
The pile cap in foundation is embedded into the ground such that the top of pile cap is at
ground level. The thickness of pile cap is assumed as 1500 mm. Piles used in the foundation are
bored castinsitu pile.
The diameter of pile is taken as 900 mm & pile length is taken as 13 m.
SAFE BERING CAPACITY OF PILE
To estimate the safe bearing capacity of pile, the ultimate bearing capacity of pile is
calculated. Static formulae are used in estimating ultimate bearing capacity of pile:
Ultimate bearing capacity of a pile Qu = Qs + Q,,
= fsAs + 4pAp ,
The pile is penetrated into the two soil layers. Hence, its ultimate bearing capacity is
dependent on the properties of both the soils,
For soil layer I
Skin frictional resistance due to soil layer 1, Qst = fsiAsi
As the soil layer 1 is Clay,
Al = ac u , where a =adhesion factor, is obtained fxom Figure 4.9 of Chapter 4
= 0.415
undrained cohesion of soil, cll = 120 kN/m2
fsi =49.82kN/m2 & AS1 =,rX0.9X5.5=15.55m2
Qsi = fsiAsi
= 49.82 X 15.55
= 774.78 kN
171IPage
1500 mm
water level _
j
7m 5.5, m
SOIL LAYER 1
kN/sq.m.
9m 7.5 m
SOn.LAYER2
PILE
172IPage
Hence, f52 = KsPv tan S
= 0.289 X127.75 X tan 24°
= 16.41 kN/m2
A52 =rrX 0.9X7.5= 21.2m2
Q52 = fs2As2
= 16.41 X 21.2
= 348.03 kN
Point bearing resistance of pile, Qp = gpAp
For sand,
qp =
where,
pv = Effective overburden pressure at the tip of pile
= 176.5 kN/m2
For 4) = 36°, value of bearing capacity factor Nq = 60 (obtained from Fig. 1 of IS: 2911 (Part 1)
—19793)
qp = (Nq — 1)
= 176.5 X (60 — 1)
= 10413.5 kN/m2
Area of pile at the tip, Ap = it X 0.25 X 0.92 = 0.636 m2
Qp = gpAp
= 10413.5 X0.636
= 6624.8 kN
Hence, Ultimate bearing capacity of a pile Qu = Q, + Qp
= Qsl + Qs2 + Qp
= 774.78 + 348.03 + 6624.8
= 7747.6 kN
Taking Factor of safety as 3, safe bearing capacity of pile, Qsa fe = 4°
=2583 Kn
173 1 Page
ARRANGEMENT OF PILES IN FOUNDATION
Total vertical load acting on the pile foundation = Dead load from the superstructure + Live
load acting on the bridge + weight of pier +
weight of pier cap
= 3000 + 3070.8 + 397.5
= 6468.3 kN
total vertical load acting on the foundation
Number of pile required in foundation =
safe bearing capacity of single pile
6468.3
2583
0 0 0 O O 2700 mm
00000&
T 0 0 0 0 0 0 r 1{.^. m
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0. 0
900mm 0 0 0
1741 Page
Width of pile cap = (2700 X 5) + 900 + 300 = 14700 mm
DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS ON PILE
Effective overburden pressure at mid of the pile group penetration in soil layer 2, p, ,
= 127.75 kN/m2
\KS = 1— sin 36°
Hence, fs2 = Ks p„ tan 0
= (1 — sin 36°) X127.75 X tan 36°
= 38.26 kN/m2
AS2 =4X14.4X7.5=432m2
QS2 = fs2As2
= 38.26X 432
= 16528 kN
Point bearing resistance of pile group, QP = g pA p
For sand,
qp = Pv(Nq — 1),
where,
p„ = Effective overburden pressure at the bottom of pile group
= 176.5 kN/m2
1761 Page
For 4) = 36°, value of bearing capacity factor Nq = 60 (obtained from Fig. 1 of IS: 2911
(Part 1) — 19793)
qp = Pv(Nq — 1)
= 176.5X(601)
= 10413.5 kN/m2
Area of pile group at the bottom, Ap = 14.4 X 14.4 = 207.4 rriz
Qp = gpAp
= 10413.5 X 207.4
= 2159343 kN
Hence, Ultimate bearing capacity of a pile group Qg = Qs + Qp
= Qsl + Qs2 + Qp
= 38016+1652842159343
= 2213887 kN
Safe bearing capacity of pile group shall be taken as smaller of the two values given below:
rlQu — 36X 7747.6
=92971
FOS 3
Qg _ 2213887
= 737963
FOS 3
Hence, the Safe bearing capacity of pile group is 92971 kN > Total vertical load acting on the
pile. Hence, Safe.
LATERAL LOAD ANALYSIS OF PILE
The lateral load capacity of the pile is estimated as per the layer of soil situated at the
ground level as it will have the major contribution in the lateral load capacity of pile.
As the top most soil layer is normally consolidated clay,
5 Ef
T= El
Ylh
1771 Page
1 =0
L
T
From Figure 2 of IS: 2911 (Part 1)19793, depth of fixity Lr= 9.72 m
Here, number of piles provided in foundation is 36 i.e. more than 3
:• The pile head is considered as fixed head pile
Lateral load capacity of fixed head pile is calculated as,
12EIY
— (Li+Lf )3
p = 0.005
fck
Hence, p = 0.125%
Area of steel required = 0.1zs X '—` X 900' = 792 mm2
100 4
1781Page
Minimum area of steel = 0.4% of grosssectional area of pile
0.4
ioo X 4
X 9002 = 2545 mm2
:. Minimum area of steel governs,
Provide 20 mm dia. bars as longitudinal reinforcement in pile
2545
Number of 20 mm dia. bars required = 4 x202
=8
Hence, 9 bars of 20 mm diameter are provided in piles as longitudinal reinforcement
Lateral ties of 6 mm are provided at the spacing of 300 mm
Diameter of lateral ties i.e. 6mm < 5 mm, and,
96mm.
Spacing between lateral: 900 mm, and,
ties ' 320 mm, and,
300 mm.
SETTLEMENT OF PILE GROUP
The point bearing resistance of pile has major contribution in bearing capacity of pile.
Hence, the piles are considered as end bearing piles.
As shown in Fig. B5, the fictitious raft is situated in sand layer at the depth of 12 m
depth below ground level. On the basis of 11I: 2V dispersion of load, the plan dimensions of raft
are decided as:
Length of raft = 14.4 + 5 = 19.4 in
Width of raft = 14.4 + 5 = 19.4 m
The soil below the raft is sand. Hence, DeBeer and Marten method (1957)22 is used for
estimating settlement of pile group in sand.
St = 2.303 C
log10 (p" +API
Pt, J
where, p„ = mean effective overburden pressure for the layer,
144+196
= 170 kN/m2
2
_ 14571.66 _ 2
p (19.4+2)x(19.4+2)
31.82 kN/rn
C = 1.5q, _ 1.5X2800
Ap 31.82
= 132
1og10 ((1701701.62)
Sj = 2.303X X
132
1791 Page
= 27.8= 28 mm
:ROUP
180IPage
n y
:.Spacing required for 25 mm dia. bars = A° X 14700 =
651 97 X 14700 = 111 mm
300 ritm
Spacing provided to 25 mm dia. bars = 90 mm <
{3 X of fective depth of steining
Moment in the pie cap about the longitudinal axis of bridge, MLL = 16634 kNin.
(as obtained from table B — 6)
Mu _ 1.5 X 16634 X 10 6 = 0.82
bd2 14700 X 1440 2
1 .6 Mn
50k — 1 44
pt = ` =0.236%
Vck/
A _ bXdXpt — 1470OX1440X0.236
st — 100 100 _ 49956mm2
Ast,mtn _ 0.85
lid fy
A _ CASX14700X1440
st,min — 415 = 43356mm2 <AstHence`OK.
s
181 I Page
Table B6 Moment about longitudinal axis in pile cap from the critical section
MOMENT FROM
X COORDINATE Y COORDINATE LOAD
NUMBER FACE OF PIER
OF PILE OF PILE ON PILE
ON INDIVIDUAL PILE
182IPage
Check of twoway shear
The critical section for two way shear is effective depth/2 i.e. 720 mm away from the face
of pier. The two way shear developed in pile cap is as calculated in Table B7.
Hence, for twoway shear
Shear force = 12952 kN
12452 X 1000
Nominal Shear Stress = = 0.62 N/mm2
4 X (4090+1440)X1440
183IPage
Table B7 Calculation of twoway shear force
X COORDINATE YCOORDINATE LOAD CONTRIBUTION OF
NO. OF PILE ON PILE PILE IN SHEAR FORCE
OF PILE
1 1.35 6.75 496.4043474 496.4043474
2 1.35 4,05 460.0163404 460.0163404
3 1.35 1.35 423.6283333 0
4 1.35 1.35 387.2403263 0
5 1.35 4.05 350.8523192 350.8523192
6 1.35 6.75 314.4643122 314.4643122
7 4.05 6.75 497.7363404 497.7363404
8 4.05 4.05 _ 461.3483333 461.3483333
9 4.05 1.35 424.9603263 424.9603263
10 4.05 1.35 388.5723192 388.5723192
11 4.05 4.05 352.1843122 352.1843122
12 4.05 6.75 315.7963051 315.7963051
13 6.75 6.75 499.0683333 499.0683333
14 6.75 4.05 462.6803263 462.6803263
15 6.75 1.35 426.2923192 426.2923192
16 6.75 1.35 389.9043122 389.9043122
17 6.75 4.05 353.5163051 353.5163051
18 6.75 6.75 317.1282981 317.1282981
19 1.35 6.75 495.0723545 495.0723545
20 1.35 4.05 458.6843474 458.6843474
21 1.35 1.35 422.2963404 0
22 1.35 1.35 385.9083333 0
23 1.35 4.05 349.5203263 349.5203263
24 1.35 6.75 313.1323192 313.1323192
25 4.05 6.75 493.7403616 493.7403616
26 4.05 4.05 457.3523545 457.3523545
27 4.05 1.35 420.9643474 420.9643474
28 4.05  1.35 384.5763404 384.5763404
29 4.05 4.05 348.1883333 348.1883333
30 4.05 6.75 311.8003263 311.8003263
31 6.75 6.75 492.4083686 492.4083686
32 6.75 4.05 456.0203616 456.0203616.
33 6.75 1.35 419.6323545 419.6323545
34 6.75 1.35 383.2443474 383.2443474
35 6.75 4.05 346.8563404 346.8563404
36 6.75 6.75 310.4683333 310.4683333
TOTAL
12952.58667
SHEAR
184IPage
Table B8 Calculation of oneway shear force at critical section along LL axis of bridge
X COORDINATE Y COORDINATE LOAD CONTRIBUTION OF
OF PILE OF PILE ON PILE PILE IN SHEAR FORCE
1 1.35 6.75 496.4043474 0
2 1.35 . 4.05 460.0163404 0
3 1.35 1.35 423.6283333 0
4 1.35 1.35 387.2403263 0
5 1.35 4.05 350.8523192 0
6 1.35 6.75 314.4643122 0
7 4.05 6.75 497.7363404 497.7363404
8 4.05 4.05 461.3483333 461.3483333
9 4.05 1.35 424.9603263 424.9603263
10 4.05 1.35 388.5723192 388.5723192
11 4.05 4.05 352.1843122 352.1843122
12 4.05 6.75 315.7963051 315.7963051
13 6.75 6.75 499.0683333 499.0683333
14 6.75 4.05 462.6803263 462.6803263
15 6.75 1.35 426.2923192 426.2923192
16 6.75 1.35 389.9043122 389.9043122
17 6.75 4.05 353.5163051 353.5163051
18 6.75 6.75 317.1282981 317.1282981
19 1.35 6.75 495.0723545 0
20 1.35 4.05 458.6843474 0
21 1.35 1.35 422.2963404 0
22 1.35_ 1.35  385.9083333 0
23 1.35 4.05 349.5203263 0
24 1.35 6.75 313.1323192 0
25 4.05 6.75 493.7403616 0
26 4.05 4.05 457.3523545 0
27 4.05 1.35 420.9643474 0
28 4.05 1.35. 384.5763404 Q _
29 4.05 4.05 348.1883333 0
30 4.05 =6:75 811.8003263  0
31 6.75 6.75 492.4083686 0'
32 6.75 4.05 456.0203616 0
33 6.75 1.35 419.6323545 0'
34 6.75 1.35 383.2443474 0
35 6.75 4.05 346.8563404 . 0,
36 . 6.75 6.75 310.4683333 0
TOTAL
4889.187831
SHEAR
185 I P a g e
25mm a 180mm c/c Pier
Fileleap
25mm 2 230 mm S/c \ 25m¢t 4 90mm c/< 23nunt120mm c c
500 mm
4
12mw a 150mm c%
Pile
Tmm thick concrete
1861 Page