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CRIMINALISTICS

FORENSIC BALLISTICS
BALLISTICS
- It is the science of the motion of the projectile and the condition that affects their motion. It is a science for it is an orderly
arranged knowledge, which is a product of series of experimentation, observation, and testing. Ballistics is not an exact
science rather it is applied physics or applied science, which is subject to changes and improvement depending upon the
demands of the modern civilization.

MOTION
- It refers to the mobility or movement of the projectile from the time it leaves the shell empty, it leaves the gun muzzle and
until it reaches its target or fall in the ground.

PROJECTILE
- It is any metallic on non-metallic ball which is propelled from a firearm.

3 TYPES OF MOTION
1. Direct
2. Rotatory
3. Translational

DIRECT MOTION
- It is the forward motion of the bullet or shots out of the shell by the action of the expansive force of gases from a burning
gunpowder.

ROTATORY MOTION
- It is the action of the bullet passing through a rifled bore barrel firearm which is either twisted to the left or to the right.

TRANSLATIONAL
- It is the action of bullet once it hits a target and subsequently ricocheted.

BALLO
- It is a Greek word that means ‘to throw’.

BALLEIN
- It is a Greek word which literally means “to throw”.

BALLISTA
- It is a Roman war machine, a gigantic catapult that was used to furl missiles or large object at a distance like stone, dead
animal or even dead person.

FORENSIC BALLISTICS
- It is the use of ballistics in solving problems about the administration of justice particularly cases involving firearms and
ammunition which is termed as.

BRANCHES OF BALLISTICS
1. Interior
2. Exterior
3. Terminal
4. Forensic

INTERIOR (INTERNAL) BALLISTICS


- It treats of the motion of the projectile while it is still inside the firearm (chamber /barrel) which extends from the breech
to the muzzle.

CONDITIONS ATTRIBUTED TO INTERNAL BALLISTICS


1. Firing pin hitting the primer
2. Ignition of the priming mixture
3. Combustion of the gun powder/powder charge or propellant.
4. Expansion of heated gas.
5. Pressure developed
6. Energy generated
7. Recoil of the gun
8. Velocity of the bullet inside the barrel
9. Rotation of the bullet inside the barrel
10. Engraving of the cylindrical surface of the bullet
CRIMINALISTICS
FORENSIC BALLISTICS
PERCUSSION ACTION
- It is the ignition of priming mixture upon the striking effect of the firing pin.

PRIMING MIXTURE
- It is composed of the KCLO3, sulfur and carbon, located either at the cavity rim or at the center of the primer.

RECOIL OF THE GUN


- It is the equal and opposite reaction of the gun against the forward movement of the bullet upon explosion. The backward
or rearward movement of the gun in relation to the forward movement of the bullet.

JUMP
- It is another portion of the recoil action characterized as the backward and upward movement of that takes place before the
bullet leaves the muzzle.

VELOCITY OF THE BULLET INSIDE THE BARREL


- It is the relative speed of the bullet per unit of time while it is still inside the barrel expressed in feet per second.

EXTERIOR (EXTERNAL) BALLISTICS


- It treats of the attributes or movement of the projectile after leaving the gun muzzle.

CONDITIONS ATTRIBUTED TO INTERNAL BALLISTICS


1. Muzzle Blast
2. Muzzle Energy
3. Trajectory
4. Range
5. Velocity
6. Pull of gravity
7. Air resistance

MUZZLE BLAST
- It refers to the noise created at the muzzle point of the gun.

MUZZLE ENERGY
- It refers to the energy generated at the muzzle point measured in foot-pound.
TRAJECTORY
- It refers to the parabola-like flight of the projectile from the time it leaves the muzzle until it hits the target. It is also
described as the actual curve path taken by a bullet during its.

RANGE
- It refers to the imaginary straight distance between the muzzle of the gun and the target.

ACCURATE RANGE
- It refers to the distance within which the shooter or gunner has control of his shots.

EFFECTIVE RANGE
- It refers to the distance within which when the bullet was fired it is still capable of inflicting fatal injury.

MAXIMUM RANGE
- It refers to the distance that a projectile can be propelled from a firearm. The farthest distance the bullet could travel.

VELOCITY
- It refers to the rate of speed of the bullet (during its flight) per unit of time usually express is feet per second (ft./sec.).

PULL OF GRAVITY
- It is the downward reaction of the bullet towards the earth surface due to its weight.

AIR RESISTANCE
- It refers to the force of the air encounter by the bullet in its flight.

Terminal Ballistics
- It is that branch of Ballistics which deals with the effects of the impact of the projectile on the target.
CRIMINALISTICS
FORENSIC BALLISTICS

CONDITIONS ATTRIBUTED TO INTERNAL BALLISTICS


1. Terminal Accuracy
2. Terminal Energy
3. Terminal Velocity
4. Terminal Penetration

TERMINAL ACCURACY
- It refers to the size of the bullet grouping on the target.

TERMINAL ENERGY
- It refers to the energy or force of the projectile when it strikes the target same as striking energy.

TERMINAL VELOCITY
- It refers to the speed of the bullet upon striking the target.

TERMINAL PENETRATION
- It refers to the depth of entry of the bullet in the target.

FORENSIC BALLISTICS
- This branch of ballistics is the product of the application of the ballistics to law.
- It is defined as the study of the motion of the projectile as applied to law or simply the science of firearm identification by
means of the ammunition fired through them.

FORUM
- It is a Latin word meaning a “market place” where people gathered for public disputation or public discussion.

SCOPE OF FORENSIC BALLISTICS


1. Field Investigation
2. Ballistics Technical Examination of the Exhibits
3. Legal Proceeding

JOHN M. BROWNING
- He was the wizard of the modern firearms and pioneered the breech loading single shot rifled which was adopted by
Winchester.

SAMUEL COLT
- He patented the first practical revolver and maker of the Colt Peace Maker, a famous revolver in the history.

ALEXANDER JOHN FORSYTH


- He is considered the father of the percussion powder.

MAJOR UZIEL GAL


- He is an Israeli army who designed UZI (Israel) in the year 1950.

COL. CALVIN H. GODDARD


- He is considered as the Father of Modern Ballistics.

JOHN C. GARAND
- He designed and invented the semi-automatic U.S. Rifle Cal. 30, M1 Garand.

GEORGE HYDE
- He is a well-known expert in the field of SMG, (also known as grease gun) developed in 1941, M3A1 (USA).

MICHAEL KALASHNIKOV
- He designed the AK (Automat Kalashnikova) 47 (Soviet Union) adopted by the Russian Army in the year 1951.

HORACE SMITH
- He founded the great firm of Smith and Wesson and pioneered in making breech loading rifles.

EUGENE STONER
- He designed the U.S. M16 Armalite under licensed by Colt Company from July 1959 onwards.
CRIMINALISTICS
FORENSIC BALLISTICS
L.C. SMITH``
- He developed shotgun bearing his name now the Ithaca gun Company.

JOHN T. THOMPSON
- He developed during WW1 the Thompson M1A1 and model of 1928 A1 (USA). He also pioneered the making of
Thompson sub-machine gun.

DANIEL B. WESSON
- He is one of the associates of Horace Smith in the making of Revolver.

DAVID “CARBINE” WILLIAMS


- He is the maker of the first known Carbine.

OLIVER WINCHESTER
- He is one of the earliest rifle and pistol maker.

IMPORTANT DATES IN THE EVOLUTION OF FIREARMS

1242 A.D
- Roger Bacon published the “De Mirabili Potestate Artis et Naturae” (On the Marvelous Power of Arts and Nature), which
noted black powder formula.
1498
- Introduction of the rifling and sights became better and breech loaders were attempted although never succeeded yet
even multi shots arms due to lack of good ignition system.

1500’s
- The development of the Wheel Lock, operates in the same principle as the modern-day cigarette lighter. At mid of 1500’s
“snaphaunce” was developed.

1575
- Paper Cartridge was developed. Ball and powder charged were wrapped in chemically treated paper to allow the carrying
of numerous pre-measured charges or pre-loaded rounds.

1750
- The development of Breech-loading firearms leading to the making of FERGUSON Rifle of Major Patrick Ferguson,
COLLIER Rifle, which is a flint lock repeating rifle operated on a revolving principle and, the HALL Rifle patented in
1811 by Col. John Hall and was the 1st breechloader adopted by the U.S. Army.

1805
- The Percussion System. Alexander John Forsyth discovered a compound that would ignite upon blow that would ignite
the powder charge. In 1840, it replaces the flintlock ignition and was adopted in 1838 by the British and in 1842 by the
American.

1835
- The first real cartridge was developed “The Flobert Cap” same as the BB and was considered the forerunner of .22 short
cartridge.

1835
- Samuel Colt patented the first revolver and marketed in 1872, a breech loading revolver.

1836
- Pin fire Cartridge, was developed by Le Faucheux. A much real pin fire cartridge was also developed in the same year
by Houiller.

1845
- Rim fire cartridge, Flobert developed the BB (bullet breech) cap, which was considered the forerunner of the .22 cal
cartridge. In the same year, New Havens Arms Company owned by Oliver F. Winchester, through the effort of Tyler
Henry developed a .44 cal rim fire cartridge for Henry Rifle.

1846
- Smokeless powder was discovered. It was used in shotgun first in the year 1864 by Capt. Eschultze of Prussian Army
and in Rifle by the year 1884 by M. Vieille of France.

1873
CRIMINALISTICS
FORENSIC BALLISTICS
- Colt Peace Maker, model 1873, .45 cal. The most famous revolver in history and legend was manufactured.

1884
- Automatic Machine Gun. Hiram Maxim developed the first fully automatic gun.

FIREARMS (LEGAL DEFINITION, SEC 877 REVISED ADMINISTRATIVE CODE/ SEC. 290 NATIONAL INTERNAL
REVENUE CODE)
- These as herein used, includes rifles, muskets, carbines, shotgun, pistol, revolvers, and all other deadly weapons, to which
a bullet, ball, shot, shell, or other missiles maybe discharge by means of gun powder or other explosives. This term also
includes air rifle, except such of being of small caliber and limited range used as toys. The barrel of any firearm shall be
considered a complete firearm for all purposes hereof.

FIREARMS (TECHNICAL DEFINITION)


- IT IS AN INSTRUMENT USED for the propulsion of projectile by means of the expansive force gases coming from
burning gunpowder. (FBI manual of Firearms Identification).

CLASSIFICATION OF FIREARMS
1. According to Interior Barrel Construction
2. According to the Caliber of the projectile propelled
3. According of Mechanical Construction

TWO GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF FIREARMS (ACCORDING TO INTERIOR BARREL CONSTRUCTION)


1. Smooth-bore
2. Rifled-bore

SMOOTH BORE FIREARMS


- These are firearms that have no rifling (lands and grooves) inside their gun barrel. (Examples: Shotguns and Musket)

RIFLED BORE FIREARMS


- These are firearms that have rifling inside their gun barrel. (Examples: Pistols, Revolvers, and other modern weapons.)

MAIN TYPES OF FIREARMS (ACCORDING TO THE CALIBER OF THE PROJECTILE PROPELLED)


1. Artillery
2. Small Arms

ARTILLERY
- It refers to those type of firearms that propels projectile with more than one-inch diameter. (Examples: Cannons, Mortars,
and Bazookas)

SMALL ARMS
- These are firearms that propels projectile with less than one-inch diameter and it can be handled, moved, and operated by
one man. (Examples: Machine gun, shoulder arms and handguns.)
MACHINE GUNS
- It is a type of firearm that is primarily designed for military use. Even in investigation of shooting cases done in the city, it
is not usual or common to encounter this type of firearm having been used. It can be grouped in three general types:

SUB MACHINE GUN


- It is a light, portable form of machine gun, utilizing a pistol size ammunition, having a shoulder stock that may or may not
be folded and designed to be fired with both hands.

SHOULDER ARMS
- These are those types of firearm that were normally fired from the shoulder.

RIFLES
- It is a shoulder weapon designed to fire a projectile with more accuracy through a long-rifled bore barrel, usually more
than 22 inches.

CARBINE
- It is a short barrel rifle, with its barrel rifle, measuring not longer than 22 inches. It fires a single projectile though a rifle-
bore either semi-automatic or fully automatic, for every press of the trigger.

MUSKETS
- It is an ancient smoothbore and muzzle loading military shoulder arms designed to fire a shot or a single round lead ball.
A more detailed discussion of musketeers can be found on chapter 8 in the discussion of ignition system.
CRIMINALISTICS
FORENSIC BALLISTICS
SHOTGUN
- It is a smooth bore and a breech loading shoulder arms designed to fire many lead pellets or a shot in one charge (FBA
Manual).

CYLINDER BORE TYPE


- It is a kind of firearm which has a bore size that is the same throughout the barrel.

CHOKE BORED GUN


- It is a kind of firearm designed with a diminishing or reducing bore diameter type towards the muzzle. This type is designed
to cause an effect to the travel of the shots. It makes the shots travel longer before it spreads.

PARADOX GUN
- It is a kind of firearm that are still in a very rare occasion. It is another type of shotgun can be observed to be having rifling
only a few inches from its muzzle points.

HANDGUNS
- It is a type of firearm that are designed or intended to be fired using one hand. (Ex. Pistols and Revolvers)

PISTOL
- In early firearm history, all handguns are generally called this.

THREE CLASSES OF PISTOL


1. single shot pistol
2. the semi-automatic
3. the revolving pistols now known as the revolver

REVOLVER
- It is a type of firearm designed to position cartridge into position for firing with the aid of a rotating cylinder serving as its
chamber. There are two types of revolvers according to its mechanical firing action. T

SINGLE ACTION
- It is a type of revolver that needs a manual cocking of the hammer before squeezing the trigger.

DOUBLE ACTION
- It is a type of revolver that does not need manual cocking. Just press the trigger and it both cocked and released the hammer
causing a much faster firing.

TYPES OF FIREARMS (ACCORDING OF MECHANICAL CONSTRUCTION)


1. Single shot firearms
2. Repeating Arms
3. Automatic F/A
4. Slide Action type
5. Bolt Action Type
6. Lever type (Break type)

SINGLE SHOT FIREARMS


- It is a type of firearms designed to fire only one shot every loading. (Examples: Single shot pistols, Revolvers, and
shotguns.)

REPEATING ARMS
- It is a type of firearms designed to fire several loads (shot) in one loading. Examples: Automatic pistols revolvers rifles
and shotguns.

AUTOMATIC F/A
- It is a type of firearms that constitutes a continuous firing in a single press of the trigger and while the trigger is press.
(Examples: Machine guns and rifles)

SLIDE ACTION TYPE


- It is a type of firearms in which loading take place by back and forth manipulation of the under/over forearms of the gun.
(Examples: Shotgun and pistols)

BOLT ACTION TYPE


CRIMINALISTICS
FORENSIC BALLISTICS
- It is a type of firearms in which reloading takes place by manipulating the both back and forth. (Examples: Rifles, shotguns,
and machine guns.)

LEVER TYPE (BREAK TYPE)


- It is a type of firearm in which the loading takes place by lever action on the firearms. (Examples: Rifles and shotguns.)

MISCELLANEOUS TYPES OF GUN


1. Cane gun, knife pistols, cellphone gun, etc
2. Flare gun
3. Freakish gun
4. Gas gun
5. Harpoon guns
6. 5.Liberator
7. Multi –Barreled gun
8. Paradox
9. Tools
10. Traps
11. Zip Gun

CANE GUN, KNIFE PISTOLS, CELLPHONE GUN, ETC.


- These are devices principally designed for other purpose to which a gun mechanism is incorporated also called as Freakish
gun.

FLARE GUN
- These are designed for tracing or sending signals or locating enemy troops.

FREAKISH GUN
- These are tools in which firearm mechanism is attached to prevent easy identification.

GAS GUN
- These are generally referring to all gun designed from firing tear gas.

HARPOON GUNS
- It refers to a barbed spear in hunting large fish.

5.LIBERATOR
- These are U.S. government made smooth bore guns used in Europe during war designed to fire an automatic colt pistol
cartridge caliber .45.

MULTI –BARRELED GUN


- It refers to all types of gun containing several barrels.

PARADOX GUN
- This is a type of gun which contains lands and grooves a few inches from the muzzle point.

TOOLS
- These are those devices which resembles a gun designed but are generally used for construction of furniture.

TRAPS
- It refers to gun used for trapping animals that are fired to woods.

ZIP GUN
- It refers to all type of homemade guns.

AMMUNITION (LEGAL DEFINITION, CHAPTER VII, SEC.290 OF NIRC AS WELL AS SEC 877 RAC)
- It refers to loaded shell for rifles, muskets, carbine, shotgun, revolvers, and pistols from which a ball, shot shell or other
missiles maybe fired by means of gun powder or other explosives. The term also includes ammunition for air rifles as
mentioned elsewhere in the code.

AMMUNITION (TECHNICAL DEFINITION)


- It refers to a group of cartridges or to a single cartridge. Cartridge is a complete unfired unit consisting of bullet (ball),
primer (cap), cartridge case (shell) and gunpowder (propellant).

CHARTA
CRIMINALISTICS
FORENSIC BALLISTICS
- It is a Latin word meaning a “paper”. This indicates that the first type of cartridge was made up of a rolled paper. It was
about the turn of the 16th century that the term “cartridge” comes to use.

CARTOUCHE
- It is a French word meaning – a rolled paper. This indicates that the first type of cartridge was made up of a rolled paper.
It was about the turn of the 16th century that the term “cartridge” comes to use.

GENERAL TYPES OF AMMUNITION


1. Dummy (used as a model)
2. Drill Ammunition (without gun powder)
3. Black Ammunition (without bullet)
4. Live Ammunition

CLASSIFICATION OF CARTRIDGE
1. According to the Location of the Primer
2. According to Rim Diameter
3. According Caliber

CLASSIFICATION OF CARTRIDGE (ACCORDING TO THE LOCATION OF THE PRIMER)


1. Pin-fire
2. Rim-fire
3. Center-fire

PIN-FIRE
- It is a type of cartridge in which the ignition cap (primer) is concealed inside the cartridge case and has a pin resting upon
it.

RIM FIRE
- It is a type of cartridge in which the priming mixture is located at the hallow rim of the case can be fired if the cartridge is
tuck by the firing pin on the rim of the case (cavity rim).

CENTER FIRE
- It refers to a cartridge in which primer cup (ignition cap) is centrally placed in the base of the cartridge case and the priming
mixture is exploded by the impact of the firing pin and with the support of the anvil.

CLASSIFICATION OF CARTRIDGE (ACCORDING TO RIM DIAMETER)


1. Rimmed Case type.
2. Semi-Rimmed type
3. Rimless type
4. Rebated type
5. Belted type

REBATED TYPE
- It refers to the cartridge with rimless pattern, but which has a rim diameter smaller than the body of the case

BELTED TYPE
- It refers to a cartridge with a prominent raise belt around its body just in front of the extraction groove.

CLASSIFICATION OF CARTRIDGE (ACCORDING CALIBER)

Inches MM.
Cal. .22 about 5.59 mm- used in revolver, pistol, and rifles
Cal. .25 about 6.35 mm- used in pistols and rifles.
Cal. .30 about 7.63 mm- (Mauser) – for carbines and other rifles
Cal. .30 about 7.63 mm (luger)
Cal. .32 about 7.65 mm for automatic pistols and revolvers
Cal. .380 about 9 mm- used for pistols
Cal. .357 used in magnum .357 revolvers
Cal. .45 about 11 mm – used in automatic pistols
Cal. .50 used in .50 cal. Machine gun

SHOTGUN CARTRIDGE
- It refers to a complete unit of unfired cartridge consisting of the pellets, primer, case, wads, and gunpowder.
CRIMINALISTICS
FORENSIC BALLISTICS
GAUGE OF SHOTGUN
Compared with other types of firearms, shotgun has very unique characteristics in terms of its diameter designation both for its
firearm and cartridge use. The unit of measurement used in shotgun is expressed in Gauge. This is determined by the number of
solid lead balls of pure lead, each with diameter of the barrel that can be prepared from one pound of lead. At present the 10-gauge
shotgun is considered with the biggest diameter while the .410 as the smallest one. Listed below are the equivalents of diameter in
gauge to inch.
Gauge Inch
10 .775 inch
12 .729 inch
16 .670 inch
20 .615 inch
28 .550 inch
.410 .410 inch

TYPES OF SHOTS
1. Soft or Drop Shots
2. Chilled or Hard Shot
3. Coated or Plated Shot
4. Buck Shot

SOFT OR DROP SHOTS


- These are made by pure or nearly pure lead, to which a small amount of arsenic has been added to make it take on the form
of a spherical drop as it falls down the shot tower. This type is easy to deformed or flattened, loose their velocity quicker,
low penetrating power and string out more.

CHILLED OR HARD SHOT


- It is a type of shot with a small amount of antimony mixed with lead to increase hardness. It does no deform easily, better
patterns, less string and more uniform velocity and penetration.

COATED OR PLATED SHOT


- These are also called as “lubaloy” shot. A chilled shot coated with thin copper through electroplating design for greater
strength and elasticity, great resistance to deformation and leading and better pattern.

BUCK SHOT
- This is a large size lead shot for used in shotgun.

BOULLETTE
- It is a French word which means a small ball.

BULLET
- This term is generally used when we are referring to projectile fired from any small arms, which has a variety of form,
especially during the earlier history.
- In a more technical sense, it refers to a metallic or non-metallic cylindrical ball propelled from a firearm it is sometimes
called as shots or slugs.

GENERAL TYPES OF BULLETS


1. Lead Type
2. Jacketed Type

LEAD TYPE
- It is a type of a bullet that is basically composed of lead metal. Its used was due to its density; having a good weight is a
small size and easy for casting.
JACKETED TYPE
- It is a type of bullet consisting of the regular lead core, coated with a copper alloy to prevent lead fouling of the barrel and
is generally used in pistols and other high-power guns.

TYPES OF BULLER ACCORDING TO THEIR MAXIMUM EFFECT TO THEIR TARGETS


1. Ball type
2. Armor Piercing
3. Explosive
4. Incendiary
5. Tracer
CRIMINALISTICS
FORENSIC BALLISTICS
BALL TYPE
- It is a type of bullet, which is intended for anti-personnel and general use.

ARMOR PIERCING
1. It is a type of military bullet designed to penetrate light steel armor. Its mechanical construction makes it capable of
penetrating through some light vehicles.

EXPLOSIVE BULLET
2. It is a small bullet containing a charge of explosive, which will detonate on impact.

INCENDIARY BULLET
3. It is type of military bullet used to cause fire in a target, generally designed to use by aircraft armament for the fuel tanks
to ignite.

TRACER BULLET
4. It is type of military bullet capable of leaving visible marks or traces while in flight giving the gunner the chance to observe
the strike of the shot or adjust in the event of a miss

CARTRIDGE CASE
- It is the metallic or non-metallic tabular container usually of brass (70% copper and 30% zinc) designed to unite the bullet,
primer, and the gunpowder into one unit. It is also known as shell or casing.

FUNCTIONS OF THE CARTRIDGE CASE


1. It locates the bullet properly relative to the bore of the firearm.
2. It is used to carry the means of ignition.
3. It provides gas seals at the breech against an unwanted escape of propellant gas upon firing.
4. Serves as waterproof container for the propellant or powder charge.
5. Acts as the insulator between the propellant and the hot walls of the chamber in a rapid firing of firearms.

PARTS OF THE CARTRIDGE CASE


1. Base
2. Rim
3. Extracting grooves
4. Primer Pocket
5. Body
6. Shoulder
7. Cannelure
8. Neck
9. Crimp
10. Vent or Flash hole

BASE
- It is the bottom portion of the cartridge case which contains the head stamp marking on the base of the shell containing the
caliber, manufacturer and in some cases including the date, trade name, and batch number.
RIM
- It is the part of the cartridge designed to limit the forward movement of the cartridge to chamber.

EXTRACTING GROOVES
- It is the circular groove near the rim of the shell designed for automatic withdrawal of the case from the chamber.

PRIMER POCKET
- It is that part of the shell which provides the means for the primer to be put in the central position. Its function is extended
to: (a) hold the primer in place; (b) to provide means to prevent the escape of gas; (c) to provide solid support for primer
anvil.

BODY
- It is the cylindrical part of the shell which house the gunpowder.

SHOULDER
- It is that part of the cartridge case which support the neck of the cartridge which is evident in a bottleneck type.

CANNELURE
- It is the cylindrical groove in the outer surface of the cartridge case designed to secure the shell to the chamber as well as
prevent bullet from being push down to the powder charge. In some instance it is even being utilized for identification.
CRIMINALISTICS
FORENSIC BALLISTICS
NECK
- It is that part of the shell which is occupied by the bullet. This is obvious in a bottleneck type of shell but not with the
straight type.

CRIMP
- It is the cylindrical groove on the mouth of the shell designed for two purposes: One (1) is to hold the bullet and prevent it
from being pull out from the shell and Two (2) to resists the bullet out of the neck to ensure burning of the gun powder.

VENT OR FLASH HOLE


- It is the hole at the bottom of the primer pocket as the passage way for the priming mixture to impart an ignition to the
propellant charge.

PRIMER
- It (also called CAP) is the ignition system of the cartridge used in a center fire type, containing a highly sensitive chemical
compound that would easily ignite or bursts into flame when struck by the firing pin. It may either be Berdan or Boxer
type. It is also known as the percussion cup.

BERDAN
- It is a type of primer construction, which was designed in 1860s by Colonel Hiram S. Berdan of the U.S Army Ordinance
Department.

BOXER
- It is, on the other hand, was developed by Col. Edward M. Boxer of the Royal Laboratory at Woolwich Arsenal in the year
1866

PARTS OF THE PRIMER


1. Primer Cup
2. Priming Mixture
3. Anvil
4. Disc

PRIMER CUP
- It is the brass gilding metal cup which contains the priming mixture, the disc, and the anvil.

PRIMING MIXTURE
- It is the highly sensitive chemical compound which ignites by the mechanical blow of the firing pin. It is also called as
percussion powder.

ANVIL
- It is that portion of the primer which provides solid support and absorbs the blow of the firing pin causing friction that
would initiates ignition.

DISC
- It is a thin paper or foil which is pressed over the priming mixture to protect it from moisture attack.

GUN POWDER
- It (also called as propellant or Power Charge) is that mixture of chemicals of various compositions designed to propel the
projectile by means of its expansive force of gas when burned.

ROGER BACON, (1242 A.D.)


- He is a Franciscan monk, who wrote the ---“De Mirabili Potestate Artis et Naturae” (On the Marvelous Power of Art and
Nature), including an anagram.

BERTHOLD SCHWARTZ (CONSTANTIN ANKLITZEN)


- He is a mysterious monk of Freiburg, who according to legend that is supported by an engraving dated 1643, while
experimenting on some powder in a cast iron vessel, he ignited a charge and thus blew off the lid, and from this deduced
the principle of containing a charge in a tube and propelling a shot (Encyclopedia of ammunition).

THE BLACK POWDER


- It is the oldest known explosive, was initially made from saltpeter (75%), charcoal (15%) and sulfur (10%).

CAPTAIN E. SCHULTZE
- He is a member of the Prussian Army who made the 1st successful used of smokeless powder in shotgun in the year 1864.
CRIMINALISTICS
FORENSIC BALLISTICS
1846
- The year nitroglycerine compound was first discovered.

SMOKELESS POWDER
- Its basic ingredient used is a nitrocellulose that was first produced by adding a nitric acid to cellulose fiber.

POUDRE B
- It is the name of the first smokeless powder for rifle, developed by M. Vieilee and named after Gen. Boulanger.

M. VIEILLE
- He is a French who developed the first smokeless powder for rifle in the year 1884 and named it “poudre B” taken after
Gen. Boulanger’s name.
ALFRED NOBEL
- In 1887, he invented a smokeless powder with nitroglycerine (40%0 and nitrocellulose (60%) as the main composition and
called it “Ballistite”.

LYDDITE
- In Great Britain, they utilized picrid acid in addition to cellulose powder.

TNT (TRI-NITROLOLEUNE)
- In Germany, it was the one used, more powerful than picric acid but much difficult to detonate.

PROF. ABEL
- In the year 1889, he is a British War Dept. Chemist who developed “Cordite” a smokeless powder with same composition
as Nobel in the form of cords or sticks.

CORDITE
- It is a smokeless powder with same composition as Nobel in the form of cords or sticks, developed by Prof. Abel.

1890
- By this year, smokeless powder had replaced black powder and became uniformly used worldwide.

BALLISTITE
- It is a smokeless powder with nitroglycerine (40%0 and nitrocellulose (60%) as the main composition, made by Alfred
Nobel in 1887.

STAGES IN THE MANUFACTURE OF BARREL


1. Drilling
2. Reaming
3. Rifling
4. Lapped

RIFLING
- This process necessary for the making of the helical groves inside the barrel and such can be performed in any of the
following methods:
1. Hook – cutter system (cutter)
2. Scrape – cutter system (scraper)
3. Broaching system – (broach)
4. Button – system (button)

CHARACTERISTICS OF FIREARMS
1. Class
2. Individual

CLASS CHARACTERISTICS
- These are properties or attributes of a firearms which can be determined even before the manufacture of the gun. This is
true for such characteristics are a manufacture’s designs or specifications and security.
1. Bore diameter
2. Number of lands and grooves
3. Width of the lands
4. Width of the Grooves
5. Direction of Twist
6. Pitch of Rifling
CRIMINALISTICS
FORENSIC BALLISTICS
7. Depth of the Grooves

BORE DIAMETER (CALIBER OR GAUGE)


- It is diameter to which the bore was reamed. The distance measured between two opposite lands inside the bore in a
hundredths or thousandths of an inch. In most express in either caliber in inch or in millimeters.

NUMBER OF LANDS AND GROOVES


- It is the number of lands and grooves inside the barrel of a given firearm are always the same or equal. It may run from 3
to 8, but the most in the modern firearm are five and six.

LANDS
- These are the elevated portion of the bore of the firearm.

GROOVES
- These are the depressed portion of the bore between the lands.

WIDTH OF THE LANDS


- It is dependent upon the bore diameter of the gun, grooves, width, and number. The lands are the remainders of the
circumference after subtracting all the grooves width.

WIDTH OF THE GROOVES


- It is measured as the shortest distance between the two dies or edge of a grooves.

DIRECTION OF TWIST
- The rifling inside the barrel of the gun is either twisted to the left or to the right which cause bullet to rotate as it passes
through the bore, to ensure gyroscopic stability in its flight.

PITCH OF RIFLING
- It is the measure of the twisting of the lands and grooves. It refers to the measure of the distance advance by the rifling to
make a complete turn inside the barrel.

DEPTH OF THE GROOVES


- It is the groove’s depth if measured on a radius of the bore. Grooves are usually few thousandths of an inch deep, which
equal to the height of the lands.

INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS
- These are meant for those characteristics which are being determined only after the firearm was already been manufactured.
They are the product of machine imperfections and some later due to the used of the firearms.

TYPES OF RIFLING
1. Steyer Type
2. Carbine Type
3. Smith and Wesson
4. Colt
5. Browning
6. Webley
7. Winchester

STEYER TYPE
- It is the type of rifling having four (4) lands and grooves, right twist and the width of the lands grooves. (4 RG=L)

CARBINE TYPE
- It is the type of rifling having (4) lands and grooves, right twist, the width of the grooves is two (2) times the width of the
lands (4RG2X).

SMITH AND WESSON


- It is the type of rifling having (5) lands and grooves, right hand twist, the width of the land and grooves are equal. (5RG=L)

COLT
- It is the type of rifling having six (6) lands and grooves, left twist, the width of the grooves is twice (2) the width of the
lands. (6LG2X)

BROWNING
CRIMINALISTICS
FORENSIC BALLISTICS
- It is the type of rifling having (6) lands and grooves, right hand twist, the width of the grooves is twice the width of the
lands. (6RG2X)

WEBLEY
- It is the type of rifling having seven (7) lands and grooves, right hand twist, the width of the groove is three time larger
than the boarder of the lands. (7RG3X)

WINCHESTER
- It is the type of rifling having six (6) lands and grooves, right hand twist, the width of the grooves is three time larger the
width of the lands.

INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS IN FIREARMS


- These are usually determined by the test firing which will give us both the test bullet and the test shell that will show the
individuality of its property based on the left marks on every bullet and shell fired from it. Such marks are so minute that
the use of the lens with high magnification is necessary to discover individuality.

MARKS FOUND OF FIRED BULLETS


1. Land Marks
2. Groove Marks
3. Skid Marks
4. Stripping Marks
5. Shaving Marks
6. Slippage Marks

LAND MARKS
- These are marks left on a fired bullet caused by its contact to the elevated portion (lands) of the bore of the firearm. It
appears as slight depressions or scratches the cylindrical surface of the fired bullet.

GROOVE MARKS
- These are marks found on a fired bullet caused by the grooves of the barrel which is the same number as that of the
landmarks.

SKID MARKS
- These are marks that are generally found on fired bullet from a revolver. It is located at the anterior portion of the fired
bullet due to its forward movement from the chamber to the barrel of the gun before it initially rotates.

STRIPPING MARKS
- These are marks found on those bullets fired from a “loose-fit” barrel wherein the rifling is already being badly worn-out.

WORN-OUT IN THE RIFLING OF THE FIREARMS


- It can be cause by either chemical reaction brought about by rust (corrosion) or through excessive use (erosion)

SHAVING MARKS
- These are marks commonly found on bullet fired from a revolver cause by its forward movement to the barrel that is poorly
aligned to the cylinder.

SLIPPAGE MARKS
- These are marks found on fired bullets passing through either on oily or oversize barrel.

MARKS FOUND ON FIRED SHELLS


1. Firing Pin Mark
2. Breech Face Mark
3. Extractor Mark
4. Ejector mark
5. Shearing Mark
6. Magazine Lip Mark
7. Chamber Mark

FIRING PIN MARK


- These are marks generally found at the base portion of the cartridge case more specifically near center of the primer cup in
a center fire cartridge or at the rim cavity of a rim-fire cartridge. Considered as one of the most important marks for
identification of firearms using fired shell.
CRIMINALISTICS
FORENSIC BALLISTICS
BREECH FACE MARK
- These are marks found at the base portion of the shell cause by backward movement to the breech face of the block of the
firearm.

EXTRACTOR MARK
- These are marks mark mostly found at the extracting groove of the fired cartridge case. Cause by its withdrawal from the
chamber.

EJECTOR MARK
- These are marks generally found on cartridge case fired from an automatic firearm. It is located near the rim of the case
cause by the throwing of shell from the firearm to the area of shooting.

SHEARING MARK
- These are sometimes called “Secondary Firing Pin mark” found in the primer near the firing pin mark.

MAGAZINE LIP MARK


- These are marks found at the two sides of the rim cause by the magazine lips during the loading of the cartridge into the
magazine for firing.

CHAMBER MARK
- These are marks mostly found around the body of the fired cartridge case cause by the irregularities of nips inside the walls
of the chamber.

BASIS FOR INDENTIFICATION USING MARKS FOUND ON FIRED SHELLS


- In fired cartridge case either of the Firing pin mark and the Breech face marks can be used as basis for identification, in the
absence or none use of these two, both the ejector and extractor marks can be utilized as secondary choice.

PROBLEMS IN FORENSIC BALLISTICS


1. Given a fired bullet to determine the caliber, type; make of firearm from which it was fired.
2. Given a fired shell to determine the caliber, type, and make of firearm from which it was fired.
3. Given a fired bullet and a suspected firearm, to determine whether the fired bullet was fired from the suspected firearm.
4. Given a fired shell and a suspected firearm, to determine whether the fired bullet was fired from the suspected firearm.
5. Given two or more fired bullets, to determine whether they were fired from the same firearm.
6. Given two or more fired shell/cartridge case, to determine whether they were fired from the same firearm.

SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENT USED IN FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION


1. Analytical or Torsion Balance
2. Bullet Comparison Microscope
3. Bullet Recovery box
4. Chronograph
5. Caliper
6. CP-6 Comparison Projector
7. Electronic Gun maker
8. Helixometer
9. Micrometer
10. Onoscope
11. Shadowgraph
12. Stereoscopic Microscope
13. Taper Gauge
14. Torsion Balance