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DYNAMIC EFFECTS OF THE INTERFERENCE FIT OF MOTOR ROTOR ON THE

STIFFNESS OF A HIGH SPEED ROTATING SHAFT


Shin-Yong Chen1, Chieh Kung2, Te-Tan Liao3, Yen-Hsien Chen3
1
Department of Automation and Control Engineering, Far East University, Taiwan
2
Department of Computer Application Engineering, Far East University, Taiwan
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Far East University, Taiwan
E-mail: sychen88@cc.feu.edu.tw; julius@cc.feu.edu.tw; ttliao@cc.feu.edu.tw

Received October 2009, Accepted April 2010


No. 09-CSME-68, E.I.C. Accession 3154

ABSTRACT
Developing a motor-built-in high speed spindle is an important key technology for domestic
precision manufacturing industry. The dynamic analysis of the rotating shaft is the major issue
in the analysis for a motor-built-in high speed spindle. One of the major concerns is how the
motor rotor is mounted on the shaft, by interference (shrink) fit or else. In this study, dynamical
analyses are carried out on a motor-built-in high speed spindle. The motor rotor is mounted on
the spindle shaft by means of interference fit. Modal testing and numerical finite element
analyses are conducted to evaluate the dynamical characteristics of the spindle. The stiffness of
the shaft accounting for the interference fit is investigated for the finite element model of the
spindle. This study also proposes an analysis procedure to dynamically characterize the high
speed spindle with a built-in motor. Based on the results of modal testing and the numerical
analyses, it may conclude that the proposed procedure is feasible for the spindle and is effective
for other similar applications.

EFFETS DYNAMIQUES DE L’AJUSTEMENT DE L’INTERFÉRENCE D’UN ROTOR


DE MOTEUR SUR LA RAIDEUR D’UN ARBRE DE ROTATION À GRANDE
VITESSE

RÉSUMÉ
Le développement d’électrobroches à haute vitesse avec moteur intégré est une technologie clé
pour l’industrie domestique de fabrication d’outils de précision. L’analyse dynamique de l’arbre
de rotation est le point principal dans l’analyse d’électrobroches à haute vitesse avec moteur
intégré. Une des préoccupations majeures est la façon que le rotor du moteur est monté sur
l’arbre de rotation, soit par ajustement d’interférence ou autrement. Nous avons procédé à des
analyses dynamiques sur des électrobroches à haute vitesse avec moteur intégré. Le rotor du
moteur est monté sur la tige de l’électrobroches par ajustement d’interférence. Des tests sur un
modèle et des analyses numériques des éléments finis sont fait pour évaluer le caractéristiques
dynamiques de l’électrobroches. La raideur de l’arbre de rotation qui est importante dans
l’ajustement de l’interférence est étudiée et optimisée pour le modèle d’éléments finis de
l’électrobroches. La proposition présenté également une procédure d’analyse pour définir la
dynamique de l’électrobroche à grande vitesse avec moteur intégré. En conclusion, en nous
basant sur les résultats obtenus sur le modèle et sur l’analyse numérique, la procédure préposée
pourrait servir pour l’électrobroche, et être utiles dans des applications similaires.

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Nomenclature x(t), response vector in time domain for
damped system
M, mass matrix
r Qj , the j-th component of the r-th mode
K, stiffness matrix shape vector
f(t), force vector in time domain v, frequency of excitation
f(v), force vector in frequency domain  r , the r-th natural frequency of the system
v
H(v), normal frequency response function [.]21, inverse of a matrix
matrix

1. INTRODUCTION
Recently rotary shaft assemblies have become popular in engineering applications ranging
from high-tech products such as jet engines and computer hard disk drives (HDD), to
household appliances, such as washing machines and refrigerator compressors. A rotary shaft
assembly consists of a rotating part (rotor), a stationary part (stator), and multiple bearings
connecting the rotor and the stator. The rotor varies in its geometry for various applications.
One application is that the rotor made of stacked steel sheet annuli is mounted on a hollow
shaft by means of interference fit. This unique application posts a challenge to engineers on
determination of the stiffness of the rotor-shaft assembly. Chen, et al. [1] suggested the stiffness
of a rotor-solid shaft assembly is proportional to the interference fit. However, the stiffness of a
rotor-hollow shaft assembly is yet to be studied. The stiffness of a rotor-hollow shaft assembly
plays a major role in the subsequent analyses of dynamical characterization of its final form in
which other accessories including bearings are added. Thus, it is crucial to determine the
stiffness of the rotor-hollow shaft assembly as a priori.
In the past many efforts had been devoted to the study of rotary machines. Perhaps Prohl [2]
was the first who applied the FEA to the analysis of a rotor-bearing system. Ruhl and Booker
[3] applied the finite element method to analyzing the steady-state of turbo-rotor systems. In
their study the influences of the rotary inertia, gyroscopic moment, bending, shear deformation,
axial load and internal damping were neglected to simplify the model. On the other hand,
Nelson and McVaugh [4] introduced Rayleigh beam elements to their rotating shaft model and
derived the motion equations for the shaft. The effects of translational and rotary inertia, axial
load, and gyroscopic moments were considered. In addition, numerous finite element models
and procedures have been proposed, such as by Nelson [5] and Özgüven and Özkan [6], in an
effort to generalize and optimize the stability of the rotor-shaft system. Studies on revising
numerical models cooperated with the modal testing were also suggested. The revision strategies
were based on the homogenous motion equations and orthogonality of the rotary shaft system.
For example, Chen [7] presented a direct identification procedure based on the modal testing.
The procedure enables the mass and stiffness matrices to be obtained from calculated
eigenvalues and eigenvectors incurred from the test data. The procedure was based on the
theory of matrix perturbation in which the correct mass and stiffness matrices are expanded in
terms of analytical values and a modification matrix. In 1996, Chen et al. [8] developed a
frequency-domain method to estimate the mass, stiffness and damping matrices of the model of
a structure. Furthermore, Chen and Tsuei [9], Ibrahim and Fullekrug [10] extracted the
normalized mode shapes as the basis of a non-damped oscillation experiment. There were
deviations reported in the studies due the model elements and the structural parameters such as
the Young’s modulus, material density, and the assembling conditions. Chu [11] considered a
shaft model with a regional enlarged diameter to account for the interference fit between the

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rotor and the shaft. The model with the regional enlarged diameter of the shaft results in a
mismatch of the mass and mass moment with those of the test shaft. On the other hand, in the
study by Huang [12], the Young’s modulus was modified locally to account for the interference
fit of the rotor. The Young’s modulus was fine-tuned so that the natural frequencies and
frequency response functions by the FEA were matched with those obtained from the modal
testing. There was little difference reported in the results. More recently, Altintas and Cao [13]
employed a general finite element method to predict the static and dynamic behavior of spindle
systems. The spindle and housing were modeled by Timoshenko beam elements. Their
simulation showed that the rotational speed of the spindle shaft had a larger influence on the
lower natural frequencies. Erturka, et al. [14–16] presented an analytical method that used
Timoshenko beam theory for calculating the tool point frequency response function (FRF) of a
spindle–holder–tool combination by using the receptance coupling and structural modification
methods. They proposed a mathematical model, as well as the details of obtaining the system
component (spindle, holder and tool) dynamics and coupling them to obtain the tool point
FRF. The model could be used in predicting and following the changes in the tool point FRF
due to possible variations in tool and holder types and/or tool length very quickly and in a very
practical way. Also, through the model, the stability diagram for an application could be
modified in a predictable manner in order to maximize the chatter-free material removal rate by
selecting favorable system parameters. Ozasahin, et al. [17] presented a new method for
identifying contact dynamics in spindle–holder–tool assemblies from experimental measure-
ments. They extended a previously developed elastic receptance coupling equations to give the
complex stiffness matrix at the holder–tool and spindle–holder interfaces in a closed-form
manner.
In this study, dynamical analyses are carried out on a motor-built-in high speed spindle. The
motor rotor is made of stacked steel sheet annuli and is mounted on a hollow shaft by means of
interference fit. Modal testing and numerical finite element analyses are conducted to evaluate
the dynamical characteristics of the spindle. A simplified finite element model is proposed. The
equivalent stiffness of finite element model representing the rotor-shaft assembly accounting for
the interference fit is studied. The proposed model is verified with modal test results.

2. MODAL ANALYSIS
In this study, the frequency response function (FRF) and modal parameters obtained
through a modal testing are used as a benchmark to establish a finite element analysis (FEA)
model for subsequent dynamical analyses. In general, the FRF is derived for an un-damped
dynamic system. Consider an un-damped dynamic system, the governing equation of the
motion of the system is

xðtÞzKxðtÞ~f ðtÞ
M€ ð1Þ

where M, K[Rn6n are the mass matrix and the stiffness matrix, respectively, of the dynamic
system, and x, f[Rn are, respectively, the vectors of displacement responses and externally
applied excitations. Taking Laplace transformation of Eq. (1) with zero initial conditions, one
obtains

s2 MXðsÞzKXðsÞ~FðsÞ ð2Þ

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the motion of the system can be evaluated in frequency domain by letting s 5 jv. Thus, Eq.(2)
becomes
 
{v2 MzK XðvÞ~FðvÞ ð3Þ

or

XðvÞ~HðvÞFðvÞ ð4Þ

where
 {1
H ðvÞ~ K{v2 M ð5Þ

is denoted as the normal FRF. Through variable transformation and orthogonal equation, we
obtain
 
X
N r Qj ðr Qk Þ
hjk ðvÞ~ ð6Þ
r~1
 2r {v2
v

in which hjk is the FRF of j-th node corresponding to the excitation at the k-th node, r Qj is the
j-th component of the r-th mode shape vector, v  r is the r-th natural frequency of the system,
and N is number of the total natural frequencies considered in calculating the response. In this
study, both r Qj and v  r are obtained through FEA. The frequency response functions are
determined using Eq. (6) and are compared with those through the modal testing.
The FEA involve a modal analysis whose main purpose is to characterize the vibration
characters of mechanical elements of the shaft. The FEA model is posted with a boundary
condition of ‘‘soft suspension’’, which is an idealized free-free beam boundary condition. The
parameters of interest of the modal analysis include the natural frequencies, mode shapes and
the damping ratio of the shaft system. Prior to the FEA, a modal testing is performed for the
shaft structure. The test apparatus consists of an excitation source, a signal acquisition device, a
signal analyzer, and frequency response function generator. To comply with the soft-suspension
boundary condition, the shaft is suspended with rubber bands during the modal testing. Fig. 1
shows the diagram of experiment apparatus.
For a high speed rotating shaft with the motor rotor interference fitting to the shaft, the
fitting condition has a significant influence on the stiffness of the shaft[1]. An improper
interference fit will result in an unpredictable stiffness of the shaft; thus, the natural frequency
might be within the proximity of the operating frequency. In this study, the effect of the fitting
amount on the stiffness of the spindle is not known as a priori. To best qualify the effect for the
FEA model, the modal testing offers a measure to characterize the interference fit for the shaft
and to verify the FEA model. The flow chart shown in Fig. 2 illustrates the procedures of
construction and modification of the FEA model based on the results of the modal testing.
To begin with the procedure, a modal testing is performed on a bare hollow shaft. The results
of the modal parameters are recorded. Meanwhile, an FEA model using PIPE16 line elements
representing the bare shaft is created and the modal analysis is carried out. The purpose of this
step is to confirm the dimensions and the material properties for the FEM model. Next, the

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Fig. 1. Schematic of the experiment apparatus.

modal testing is performed on the shaft with a fitted motor rotor. An amount of 0.022 mm
interference fit is designated. The resulting modal parameters are then recorded. An FEA model
of the rotor-shaft assembly is also created concurrently. This FEA model employs PIPE16
elements as a simplified model representing the rotor-shaft assembly. To account for the
interference fit, a segment on the model is partitioned wherein a localized Young’s modulus is
obtained as the local stiffness of the line model; the value of the Young’s modulus of the rest

Fig. 2. The flow of creating and modifying the finite element model.

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Fig. 3. Schematic of the hollow shaft.

segments is the one confirmed in the first step. In this step, the effects of interference fit on the
local stiffness are also investigated. Finally, the FEA model is expanded to model the fully
equipped spindle assembly by adding additional MASS21 point mass elements representing all
necessary accessory components. Dynamical analyses are then conducted on the fully equipped
spindle assembly model.

3. ILLUSTRATION STUDY EXAMPLE


In this study, numerical and experimental modal analyses are carried out on a motor built-
in high speed spindle featured with 4.6 KW/30000 rpm and an automatic tool changer
(ATC). Finite element analysis software, ANSYSTM, is employed to perform the numerical
analysis. The study consists of three stages of evaluations, that is, evaluations of a bare
hollow shaft model, a hollow shaft model with an interference fit rotor (rotor-shaft) model,
and a fully equipped rotor-shaft model in which other accessory components are mounted.
Fig. 3 shows the longitudinal cross section of the hollow shaft. The segmental length, inner
radius and outer radius along the shaft are listed in Table 1. The rotor is composed of
stacked steel sheet annuli with outer diameter 39.5 mm and inner diameter 23.982 mm. Its

Table 1. Segmental dimension along the shaft. (unit: mm).

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Fig. 4. Schematic of the rotor-shaft assembly.

longitudinal length is 80 mm. The location of the rotor mounted on the shaft is shown in
Fig. 4.

3. 1. The hollow shaft modeling and modification


In the first stage of this study, a bare hollow shaft without a motor rotor is considered and the
analysis is described in this section.
First, a modal testing is conducted on the bare hollow shaft. The shaft is suspended at its two
ends with rubber bands. A hammer is used to create excitation at each of the 11 locations shown
in Fig. 3. At each location, five FRFs are measured and are averaged. The first two natural
frequencies of the shaft are then recorded as 1535.35 Hz and 3720.38 Hz, respectively. Next, a
numerical modal analysis is performed. Because the shaft (290 mm long) is a bare hollow tube
as shown in Fig. 3, a simplified finite element model with line elements, PIPE16, is therefore
constructed using the ANSYSTM. PIPE16 is a uni-axial element with tension-compression,
torsion, and bending capabilities. The element has six degrees of freedom at two nodes:
translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions and rotations about the nodal x, y, and z axes.
This element is simplified due to its symmetry and standard pipe geometry. The segmental
length, inner radius and outer radius along the shaft as seen in Fig. 3 are listed in Table 1. The
structural nodes along the finite element model are created in a manner of 1 mm spacing to
comply with the aforementioned excitation locations. For the segment where tapering exists, the
segment is further evenly divided with two additional intermediate nodes. Different real
constants, required by the ANSYSTM, are assigned to account for the variation of segment
radius as well as tapering along the shaft. The material considered for the shaft has a density of
7950 kg/m3, Young’s modulus of 210GPa, and Poisson’s ratio of 0.3. The model has a free-free
end boundary condition. The numerical results show that the first two significant frequencies
are 1587.07 Hz and 3844.01 Hz, respectively.
Comparing the simulated frequency results with the experimental ones, one may see that both
simulated frequencies are about 3.3% higher. It might suggest that the deviations be resulted
from the simplified finite element model.
It is acknowledged that parameters that influence the natural frequencies of a structure
include density, Poisson’s ratio, and Young’s modulus of the material and the boundary
conditions of the structure. In this study, the density is calculated based on the real mass and
volume of the shaft; therefore, the density of the shaft is considered constant. The boundary
conditions as described previously are kept in a free-free end condition. Thus, it may be
appropriate to evaluate the effects of Poisson’s ratio and/or Young’s modulus to account for the
deviations of the natural frequencies. Our results show that the effects of the Poisson’s ratio on
natural frequency are insignificant. On the other hand, by fine tuning the Young’s modulus
from original 210 GPa to 192.69 GPa, we obtain an optimal condition where both simulated

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Table 2. Numerical values of the shaft parameters before and after modification of the Young’s modulus.

frequencies fall into a region of the least deviation from the experimental natural frequencies.
Table 2 lists the numerical values of the density, spindle length, Poisson’s ratio and the Young’s
modulus of the shaft before and after the modification of the Young’s modulus. Noted that the
Young’s modulus in Table 2 is intentionally denoted as E1 so as to distinguish itself from E2
which represents the local Young’s modulus accounting for the interference. The results
accounting for the modification are summarized in Table 3. The results in Table 3 indicate that
both simulated frequencies are closed to experimental ones less than 0.2%. Comparisons of
frequency response functions (FRF) h1–11and h10–11due to the modification of Young’s
modulus are shown in Figs. 5(a) and 6, respectively. Fig. 5(b) is the callout of Fig. 5(a) showing
finite FRF values near zero frequency. Comparisons of the experimental mode shapes due to
tuning the Young’s modulus are shown in Figs. 7 and 8, for the 1st and the 2nd natural
frequencies, respectively. It can be seen that these figures reveal closeness of the FRF curves and
mode shapes for both experimental results and modified numerical model results, the Young’s
modulus of the shaft will then be considered as 1.926961011 N/m2 (E1) in the subsequent
analyses of the study.

3. 2. The rotor-shaft modeling and modification


In the second stage of the study, the hollow shaft with an interference fit motor rotor is
considered. The relative position of the rotor on the shaft has been shown in Fig. 4. Previous
study [1] has indicated that although the use of a point mass element helps simplify constructing
a finite element model with interference fit components, the effect of the components on the
stiffness of the shaft should also be involved. The local stiffness of a shaft due to an interference

Table 3. Comparison of natural frequency results before and after modifying finite element model of
the shaft.

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Fig. 5. (a). Comparison of the experimental FRF h1–11 results with that of numerical results before
and after modifying the Young’s modulus for the bare hollow shaft, (b). The callout of Fig. 5 (a)
showing finite values of FRF near zero frequency for the bare hollow shaft.

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Fig. 6. Comparison of the experimental FRF h10–11 results with that of numerical results before and
after modifying the Young’s modulus for the bare hollow shaft.

fit rotor tends to be higher. To account for the increase of the stiffness, one should introduce
both mass and mass inertia values to the finite element model. In addition, the study [11]
suggests that to account for the increase of the bending stiffness due to an additional

Fig. 7. Comparison of the experimental mode shape (frequency 1535.35 Hz) with that of numerical
results before and after tuning the Young’s modulus E1 for the bare hollow shaft.

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Fig. 8. Comparison of the experimental mode shape (frequency 3720.38 Hz) with that of numerical
results before and after tuning the Young’s modulus E1 for the bare hollow shaft.

interference fit rotor, the shaft should be ‘‘enlarged’’ locally by increasing the radius of the
segment where the rotor is fitted. Nevertheless, their results show that there is a deviation of 6%;
that is, errors exist in the mass and mass inertia. In our study, an equivalent Young’s modulus is
proposed as the local stiffness to account for the additive interference fit rotor.
First, a modal testing is carried out on the rotor-shaft structure. The amount of interference is
0.022 mm. The procedure of obtaining the averaged FRFs is the same as described in the first
stage. The fundamental natural frequency is found to increases from 1535.35 Hz for the bare
shaft to 1640.96 Hz, an addition of 105.61 Hz, and the second natural frequency becomes
3371.92 Hz.
A numerical modal simulation then follows. The finite element model consists of PIPE16 line
elements and point mass elements, MASS21, to account for the interference fit rotor. The line
elements are modeled with E151.926961011 N/m2 as the Young’s modulus. The mass elements
are characterized by the mass and the mass inertia. A free-free end boundary condition is posted
on the model. The fundamental natural frequency from the modal analysis becomes 1249.07 Hz,
a decrease of 392 Hz comparing with that of 1640.96 Hz. To compensate the deviation, an
equivalent local Young’s modulus is proposed to account for the increase of local stiffness due
to the interference fit rotor. It is emphasized that the line elements carrying no rotor are
remained with E151.926961011 N/m2 as the Young’s modulus. The equivalent Young’s
modulus is E254.9050 6 1011 N/m2, and the first two natural frequencies become 1640.05 Hz,
and 3372.86 Hz, respectively. These two natural frequencies are less than 0.1% off the
experimental natural frequencies (1640.96 Hz and 3371.92 Hz, respectively). Comparisons of
frequency response functions h1–11 and h10–11 based on the equivalent local Young’s modulus are
shown in Figs. 9 and 10, respectively. Comparisons of the experimental mode shapes due to the
equivalent local Young’s modulus are shown in Figs. 11 and 12, for the 1st and the 2nd natural
frequencies, respectively. It is seen that these figures reveal the closeness of the FRF curves and
mode shapes for both simulated and experimental results, it may conclude that the proposed
equivalent Young’s modulus to account for the interference fit rotor is advisable to accurately
model the rotor-shaft assembly.
It is noted that the amount of interference due to the interference fit also contribute the
variation to the stiffness of the shaft [1]. In this study, the influence of the amount of
interference fit on the dynamical characters of the shaft is also investigated. We consider the
amount of interference fit to be: 0.011 mm, 0.022 mm, 0.026 mm, and 0.03 mm, respectively.
The frequency results associated with 0.022 mm interference have been stated above.

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Fig. 9. Comparison of the experimental FRF h1–11 results with that of numerical results before and
after modifying local Young’s modulus due to interference fit of the rotor.
Summarized in Table 4 are the influences of the interference fit on the natural frequencies. The
values under the column E2 represent the local Young’s modulus accounting for the amount of
interference fit. To ease comparison, these values are graphed versus the amount of interference
in Fig. 13. The curve shown in Fig. 13 suggests that for the rotor-hollow shaft considered
herein, the equivalent Young’s modulus increase with the amount of interference, indicating an
increase of stiffness with the interference amount; however, the stiffness decreases as the
amount of interference become greater, in our case around 0.018 mm.

3. 3. The fully-equipped shaft model


In the third stage of the study, the fully equipped shaft is considered. The approach described
above is now applied to the shaft herein. The fully equipped shaft consists of the hollow shaft,
the motor rotor with a 0.022 mm interference fit, and other accessory components including the
press ring, the front spacer, and the inner spacer of the frontal bearing, the inner ring of the
frontal/rear bearing, the press ring of the rear bearing, and the precision tight nuts. The
schematic of the fully equipped shaft is illustrated in Fig. 14. As these accessory components are
sliding-fitting with the shaft, it is reasonably to consider they contribute no effects to the
stiffness of the shaft. Thus, in the numerical modal analysis, these components are modeled with
point mass elements, MASS21.

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Fig. 10. Comparison of the experimental FRF h10–11 results with that of numerical results before
and after the modifying local Young’s modulus due to an interference fit of the rotor.

Prior to the numerical modal analysis, a modal testing is conducted. The experiment
procedure has been described in previous sections except that the fully equipped shaft is
considered. The fundamental natural frequency is found to be 1249.70 Hz and the second

Fig. 11. Comparison of the experimental mode shape (frequency 1640.05 Hz) with that of numerical
results before and after modifying the local Young’s modulus E2 of the rotor-shaft assembly.

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Fig. 12. Comparison of the experimental mode shape (frequency 3372.86 Hz) with that of numerical
results before and after modifying the local Young’s modulus E2 of the rotor-shaft assembly.
natural frequency 2886.49 Hz. Comparing this value with the one obtained in the last section,
one may find the frequencies decrease from 1640.05 Hz to 1249.70 Hz, and 3372.86 Hz
to 2886.49 Hz. These drops are expected as additional mass representing the accessory
components is added on the shaft assembly.
Following the modal testing, the numerical modal analysis is accomplished. The numerical
model contains the model described in Section 3.2 and additional mass points to account for the
accessory components. The input to the mass points is the mass only. The first natural
frequency from the numerical analysis is 1225.29 Hz, an error of 1.95 %, and the second natural
frequency of 2846.96 Hz shows an error of 1.37%. Comparisons of frequency response
functions h1–11 and h10–11 based on the results are shown in Figs. 15 and 16, respectively.

Table 4. Variation of the natural frequencies corresponding to the modified Young’s modulus.

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Fig. 13. The effects of the amount of interference fit on the equivalent Young’s modulus.
Fig. 15(b) is the callout of Fig. 15(a) showing finite FRF values near zero frequency.
Comparisons of the experimental mode shapes are shown in Figs. 17 and 18, for the 1st and the
2nd natural frequencies, respectively. It is seen that in these figures, the curves representing test
results and simulation results coincide closely. It may therefore conclude again that the
proposed local equivalent Young’s modulus to account for the interference fit rotor is advisable
to accurately model the rotor-shaft assembly.

4. CONCLUSIONS
In this study, an approach of local equivalent Young’s modulus is proposed to enable better
finite element predictions of the dynamical characters of a motor built-in high speed hollow
rotating shaft. Both numerical and experimental modal analyses are carried out on the shaft
featured with 4.6 kw/30000 rpm and an automatic tool changer (ATC). The effects of
interference fit are also investigate. Some conclusions are drawn as below:

Fig. 14. Schematic of the fully-equipped shaft.

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Fig. 15. (a). Comparison of the test FRF h1–11 with the numerical FRF of the fully-equipped shaft,
(b). The callout of Fig. 15(a) showing finite values of FRF near zero frequency FRF of the fully-
equipped shaft.

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Fig. 16. Comparison of the test FRF h10-11 with the numerical FRF of the fully-equipped shaft.

1. The bending stiffness of a shaft mounted with a rotor via hot-fitting tends to be increased
due to intereference. To account for the increase of stiffness, the approach of local
equivalent Young’s modulus proposed herein offers better prediction on the natural
frequencies of the shaft (within 1%) and enables facilitating finite element modeling.
2. The dynamical stiffness of a shaft equipped with an interference fit rotor increases with the
amount of the interference. The stiffness of the shaft decrease when the amount of
interference is greater than, in this study, about 0.018 mm. It is emphasized that there found
a peak stiffness suggests that an optimal amount of interference fit should sought for the
application of rotor-shaft assembly.
3. The results have indicates that a motor-built-in spindle presents higher natural frequencies
than a bare shaft because the local stiffness of the spindle is increased due to the rotor. Thus,

Fig. 17. Comparison of the experimental mode shape (frequency 1225.29 Hz) with that of numerical
results for the fully equipped rotor-shaft assembly.

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Fig. 18. Comparison of the experimental mode shape (frequency 2846.96 Hz) with that of numerical
results for the fully equipped rotor-shaft assembly.

without considering the rotor, the characterizing the dynamical effect of a spindle is
incomplete and the design will become too conservative.
4. A simplified finite element model where 1-D PIPE16 elements are employed is established in
this research. This simplified model could enable the designers to quickly obtain the first
engineering estimation on dynamical characteristics at the beginning stage of spindle design.
5. The study suggests that the dynmical stiffness of a shaft can be increased with added a long
dynamic balancing ring based on the evidence that the natural frequency decreases as more
accessory components are added.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors are grateful to the assistance by Parfaite Company on offering the drawings,
parts/components, and working assemblies.

REFERENCES

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2005.
2. Prohl, M.A., ‘‘A General Method for Calculating Critical Speeds of Flexible Rotors,’’ ASME J.
of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 142–148, 1945.
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