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Shin-Yong Chen1, Chieh Kung2, Te-Tan Liao3, Yen-Hsien Chen3

1

Department of Automation and Control Engineering, Far East University, Taiwan

2

Department of Computer Application Engineering, Far East University, Taiwan

3

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Far East University, Taiwan

E-mail: sychen88@cc.feu.edu.tw; julius@cc.feu.edu.tw; ttliao@cc.feu.edu.tw

No. 09-CSME-68, E.I.C. Accession 3154

ABSTRACT

Developing a motor-built-in high speed spindle is an important key technology for domestic

precision manufacturing industry. The dynamic analysis of the rotating shaft is the major issue

in the analysis for a motor-built-in high speed spindle. One of the major concerns is how the

motor rotor is mounted on the shaft, by interference (shrink) fit or else. In this study, dynamical

analyses are carried out on a motor-built-in high speed spindle. The motor rotor is mounted on

the spindle shaft by means of interference fit. Modal testing and numerical finite element

analyses are conducted to evaluate the dynamical characteristics of the spindle. The stiffness of

the shaft accounting for the interference fit is investigated for the finite element model of the

spindle. This study also proposes an analysis procedure to dynamically characterize the high

speed spindle with a built-in motor. Based on the results of modal testing and the numerical

analyses, it may conclude that the proposed procedure is feasible for the spindle and is effective

for other similar applications.

DE MOTEUR SUR LA RAIDEUR D’UN ARBRE DE ROTATION À GRANDE

VITESSE

RÉSUMÉ

Le développement d’électrobroches à haute vitesse avec moteur intégré est une technologie clé

pour l’industrie domestique de fabrication d’outils de précision. L’analyse dynamique de l’arbre

de rotation est le point principal dans l’analyse d’électrobroches à haute vitesse avec moteur

intégré. Une des préoccupations majeures est la façon que le rotor du moteur est monté sur

l’arbre de rotation, soit par ajustement d’interférence ou autrement. Nous avons procédé à des

analyses dynamiques sur des électrobroches à haute vitesse avec moteur intégré. Le rotor du

moteur est monté sur la tige de l’électrobroches par ajustement d’interférence. Des tests sur un

modèle et des analyses numériques des éléments finis sont fait pour évaluer le caractéristiques

dynamiques de l’électrobroches. La raideur de l’arbre de rotation qui est importante dans

l’ajustement de l’interférence est étudiée et optimisée pour le modèle d’éléments finis de

l’électrobroches. La proposition présenté également une procédure d’analyse pour définir la

dynamique de l’électrobroche à grande vitesse avec moteur intégré. En conclusion, en nous

basant sur les résultats obtenus sur le modèle et sur l’analyse numérique, la procédure préposée

pourrait servir pour l’électrobroche, et être utiles dans des applications similaires.

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2010 243

Nomenclature x(t), response vector in time domain for

damped system

M, mass matrix

r Qj , the j-th component of the r-th mode

K, stiffness matrix shape vector

f(t), force vector in time domain v, frequency of excitation

f(v), force vector in frequency domain r , the r-th natural frequency of the system

v

H(v), normal frequency response function [.]21, inverse of a matrix

matrix

1. INTRODUCTION

Recently rotary shaft assemblies have become popular in engineering applications ranging

from high-tech products such as jet engines and computer hard disk drives (HDD), to

household appliances, such as washing machines and refrigerator compressors. A rotary shaft

assembly consists of a rotating part (rotor), a stationary part (stator), and multiple bearings

connecting the rotor and the stator. The rotor varies in its geometry for various applications.

One application is that the rotor made of stacked steel sheet annuli is mounted on a hollow

shaft by means of interference fit. This unique application posts a challenge to engineers on

determination of the stiffness of the rotor-shaft assembly. Chen, et al. [1] suggested the stiffness

of a rotor-solid shaft assembly is proportional to the interference fit. However, the stiffness of a

rotor-hollow shaft assembly is yet to be studied. The stiffness of a rotor-hollow shaft assembly

plays a major role in the subsequent analyses of dynamical characterization of its final form in

which other accessories including bearings are added. Thus, it is crucial to determine the

stiffness of the rotor-hollow shaft assembly as a priori.

In the past many efforts had been devoted to the study of rotary machines. Perhaps Prohl [2]

was the first who applied the FEA to the analysis of a rotor-bearing system. Ruhl and Booker

[3] applied the finite element method to analyzing the steady-state of turbo-rotor systems. In

their study the influences of the rotary inertia, gyroscopic moment, bending, shear deformation,

axial load and internal damping were neglected to simplify the model. On the other hand,

Nelson and McVaugh [4] introduced Rayleigh beam elements to their rotating shaft model and

derived the motion equations for the shaft. The effects of translational and rotary inertia, axial

load, and gyroscopic moments were considered. In addition, numerous finite element models

and procedures have been proposed, such as by Nelson [5] and Özgüven and Özkan [6], in an

effort to generalize and optimize the stability of the rotor-shaft system. Studies on revising

numerical models cooperated with the modal testing were also suggested. The revision strategies

were based on the homogenous motion equations and orthogonality of the rotary shaft system.

For example, Chen [7] presented a direct identification procedure based on the modal testing.

The procedure enables the mass and stiffness matrices to be obtained from calculated

eigenvalues and eigenvectors incurred from the test data. The procedure was based on the

theory of matrix perturbation in which the correct mass and stiffness matrices are expanded in

terms of analytical values and a modification matrix. In 1996, Chen et al. [8] developed a

frequency-domain method to estimate the mass, stiffness and damping matrices of the model of

a structure. Furthermore, Chen and Tsuei [9], Ibrahim and Fullekrug [10] extracted the

normalized mode shapes as the basis of a non-damped oscillation experiment. There were

deviations reported in the studies due the model elements and the structural parameters such as

the Young’s modulus, material density, and the assembling conditions. Chu [11] considered a

shaft model with a regional enlarged diameter to account for the interference fit between the

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2010 244

rotor and the shaft. The model with the regional enlarged diameter of the shaft results in a

mismatch of the mass and mass moment with those of the test shaft. On the other hand, in the

study by Huang [12], the Young’s modulus was modified locally to account for the interference

fit of the rotor. The Young’s modulus was fine-tuned so that the natural frequencies and

frequency response functions by the FEA were matched with those obtained from the modal

testing. There was little difference reported in the results. More recently, Altintas and Cao [13]

employed a general finite element method to predict the static and dynamic behavior of spindle

systems. The spindle and housing were modeled by Timoshenko beam elements. Their

simulation showed that the rotational speed of the spindle shaft had a larger influence on the

lower natural frequencies. Erturka, et al. [14–16] presented an analytical method that used

Timoshenko beam theory for calculating the tool point frequency response function (FRF) of a

spindle–holder–tool combination by using the receptance coupling and structural modification

methods. They proposed a mathematical model, as well as the details of obtaining the system

component (spindle, holder and tool) dynamics and coupling them to obtain the tool point

FRF. The model could be used in predicting and following the changes in the tool point FRF

due to possible variations in tool and holder types and/or tool length very quickly and in a very

practical way. Also, through the model, the stability diagram for an application could be

modified in a predictable manner in order to maximize the chatter-free material removal rate by

selecting favorable system parameters. Ozasahin, et al. [17] presented a new method for

identifying contact dynamics in spindle–holder–tool assemblies from experimental measure-

ments. They extended a previously developed elastic receptance coupling equations to give the

complex stiffness matrix at the holder–tool and spindle–holder interfaces in a closed-form

manner.

In this study, dynamical analyses are carried out on a motor-built-in high speed spindle. The

motor rotor is made of stacked steel sheet annuli and is mounted on a hollow shaft by means of

interference fit. Modal testing and numerical finite element analyses are conducted to evaluate

the dynamical characteristics of the spindle. A simplified finite element model is proposed. The

equivalent stiffness of finite element model representing the rotor-shaft assembly accounting for

the interference fit is studied. The proposed model is verified with modal test results.

2. MODAL ANALYSIS

In this study, the frequency response function (FRF) and modal parameters obtained

through a modal testing are used as a benchmark to establish a finite element analysis (FEA)

model for subsequent dynamical analyses. In general, the FRF is derived for an un-damped

dynamic system. Consider an un-damped dynamic system, the governing equation of the

motion of the system is

xðtÞzKxðtÞ~f ðtÞ

M€ ð1Þ

where M, K[Rn6n are the mass matrix and the stiffness matrix, respectively, of the dynamic

system, and x, f[Rn are, respectively, the vectors of displacement responses and externally

applied excitations. Taking Laplace transformation of Eq. (1) with zero initial conditions, one

obtains

s2 MXðsÞzKXðsÞ~FðsÞ ð2Þ

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2010 245

the motion of the system can be evaluated in frequency domain by letting s 5 jv. Thus, Eq.(2)

becomes

{v2 MzK XðvÞ~FðvÞ ð3Þ

or

XðvÞ~HðvÞFðvÞ ð4Þ

where

{1

H ðvÞ~ K{v2 M ð5Þ

is denoted as the normal FRF. Through variable transformation and orthogonal equation, we

obtain

X

N r Qj ðr Qk Þ

hjk ðvÞ~ ð6Þ

r~1

2r {v2

v

in which hjk is the FRF of j-th node corresponding to the excitation at the k-th node, r Qj is the

j-th component of the r-th mode shape vector, v r is the r-th natural frequency of the system,

and N is number of the total natural frequencies considered in calculating the response. In this

study, both r Qj and v r are obtained through FEA. The frequency response functions are

determined using Eq. (6) and are compared with those through the modal testing.

The FEA involve a modal analysis whose main purpose is to characterize the vibration

characters of mechanical elements of the shaft. The FEA model is posted with a boundary

condition of ‘‘soft suspension’’, which is an idealized free-free beam boundary condition. The

parameters of interest of the modal analysis include the natural frequencies, mode shapes and

the damping ratio of the shaft system. Prior to the FEA, a modal testing is performed for the

shaft structure. The test apparatus consists of an excitation source, a signal acquisition device, a

signal analyzer, and frequency response function generator. To comply with the soft-suspension

boundary condition, the shaft is suspended with rubber bands during the modal testing. Fig. 1

shows the diagram of experiment apparatus.

For a high speed rotating shaft with the motor rotor interference fitting to the shaft, the

fitting condition has a significant influence on the stiffness of the shaft[1]. An improper

interference fit will result in an unpredictable stiffness of the shaft; thus, the natural frequency

might be within the proximity of the operating frequency. In this study, the effect of the fitting

amount on the stiffness of the spindle is not known as a priori. To best qualify the effect for the

FEA model, the modal testing offers a measure to characterize the interference fit for the shaft

and to verify the FEA model. The flow chart shown in Fig. 2 illustrates the procedures of

construction and modification of the FEA model based on the results of the modal testing.

To begin with the procedure, a modal testing is performed on a bare hollow shaft. The results

of the modal parameters are recorded. Meanwhile, an FEA model using PIPE16 line elements

representing the bare shaft is created and the modal analysis is carried out. The purpose of this

step is to confirm the dimensions and the material properties for the FEM model. Next, the

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2010 246

Fig. 1. Schematic of the experiment apparatus.

modal testing is performed on the shaft with a fitted motor rotor. An amount of 0.022 mm

interference fit is designated. The resulting modal parameters are then recorded. An FEA model

of the rotor-shaft assembly is also created concurrently. This FEA model employs PIPE16

elements as a simplified model representing the rotor-shaft assembly. To account for the

interference fit, a segment on the model is partitioned wherein a localized Young’s modulus is

obtained as the local stiffness of the line model; the value of the Young’s modulus of the rest

Fig. 2. The flow of creating and modifying the finite element model.

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2010 247

Fig. 3. Schematic of the hollow shaft.

segments is the one confirmed in the first step. In this step, the effects of interference fit on the

local stiffness are also investigated. Finally, the FEA model is expanded to model the fully

equipped spindle assembly by adding additional MASS21 point mass elements representing all

necessary accessory components. Dynamical analyses are then conducted on the fully equipped

spindle assembly model.

In this study, numerical and experimental modal analyses are carried out on a motor built-

in high speed spindle featured with 4.6 KW/30000 rpm and an automatic tool changer

(ATC). Finite element analysis software, ANSYSTM, is employed to perform the numerical

analysis. The study consists of three stages of evaluations, that is, evaluations of a bare

hollow shaft model, a hollow shaft model with an interference fit rotor (rotor-shaft) model,

and a fully equipped rotor-shaft model in which other accessory components are mounted.

Fig. 3 shows the longitudinal cross section of the hollow shaft. The segmental length, inner

radius and outer radius along the shaft are listed in Table 1. The rotor is composed of

stacked steel sheet annuli with outer diameter 39.5 mm and inner diameter 23.982 mm. Its

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2010 248

Fig. 4. Schematic of the rotor-shaft assembly.

longitudinal length is 80 mm. The location of the rotor mounted on the shaft is shown in

Fig. 4.

In the first stage of this study, a bare hollow shaft without a motor rotor is considered and the

analysis is described in this section.

First, a modal testing is conducted on the bare hollow shaft. The shaft is suspended at its two

ends with rubber bands. A hammer is used to create excitation at each of the 11 locations shown

in Fig. 3. At each location, five FRFs are measured and are averaged. The first two natural

frequencies of the shaft are then recorded as 1535.35 Hz and 3720.38 Hz, respectively. Next, a

numerical modal analysis is performed. Because the shaft (290 mm long) is a bare hollow tube

as shown in Fig. 3, a simplified finite element model with line elements, PIPE16, is therefore

constructed using the ANSYSTM. PIPE16 is a uni-axial element with tension-compression,

torsion, and bending capabilities. The element has six degrees of freedom at two nodes:

translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions and rotations about the nodal x, y, and z axes.

This element is simplified due to its symmetry and standard pipe geometry. The segmental

length, inner radius and outer radius along the shaft as seen in Fig. 3 are listed in Table 1. The

structural nodes along the finite element model are created in a manner of 1 mm spacing to

comply with the aforementioned excitation locations. For the segment where tapering exists, the

segment is further evenly divided with two additional intermediate nodes. Different real

constants, required by the ANSYSTM, are assigned to account for the variation of segment

radius as well as tapering along the shaft. The material considered for the shaft has a density of

7950 kg/m3, Young’s modulus of 210GPa, and Poisson’s ratio of 0.3. The model has a free-free

end boundary condition. The numerical results show that the first two significant frequencies

are 1587.07 Hz and 3844.01 Hz, respectively.

Comparing the simulated frequency results with the experimental ones, one may see that both

simulated frequencies are about 3.3% higher. It might suggest that the deviations be resulted

from the simplified finite element model.

It is acknowledged that parameters that influence the natural frequencies of a structure

include density, Poisson’s ratio, and Young’s modulus of the material and the boundary

conditions of the structure. In this study, the density is calculated based on the real mass and

volume of the shaft; therefore, the density of the shaft is considered constant. The boundary

conditions as described previously are kept in a free-free end condition. Thus, it may be

appropriate to evaluate the effects of Poisson’s ratio and/or Young’s modulus to account for the

deviations of the natural frequencies. Our results show that the effects of the Poisson’s ratio on

natural frequency are insignificant. On the other hand, by fine tuning the Young’s modulus

from original 210 GPa to 192.69 GPa, we obtain an optimal condition where both simulated

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2010 249

Table 2. Numerical values of the shaft parameters before and after modification of the Young’s modulus.

frequencies fall into a region of the least deviation from the experimental natural frequencies.

Table 2 lists the numerical values of the density, spindle length, Poisson’s ratio and the Young’s

modulus of the shaft before and after the modification of the Young’s modulus. Noted that the

Young’s modulus in Table 2 is intentionally denoted as E1 so as to distinguish itself from E2

which represents the local Young’s modulus accounting for the interference. The results

accounting for the modification are summarized in Table 3. The results in Table 3 indicate that

both simulated frequencies are closed to experimental ones less than 0.2%. Comparisons of

frequency response functions (FRF) h1–11and h10–11due to the modification of Young’s

modulus are shown in Figs. 5(a) and 6, respectively. Fig. 5(b) is the callout of Fig. 5(a) showing

finite FRF values near zero frequency. Comparisons of the experimental mode shapes due to

tuning the Young’s modulus are shown in Figs. 7 and 8, for the 1st and the 2nd natural

frequencies, respectively. It can be seen that these figures reveal closeness of the FRF curves and

mode shapes for both experimental results and modified numerical model results, the Young’s

modulus of the shaft will then be considered as 1.926961011 N/m2 (E1) in the subsequent

analyses of the study.

In the second stage of the study, the hollow shaft with an interference fit motor rotor is

considered. The relative position of the rotor on the shaft has been shown in Fig. 4. Previous

study [1] has indicated that although the use of a point mass element helps simplify constructing

a finite element model with interference fit components, the effect of the components on the

stiffness of the shaft should also be involved. The local stiffness of a shaft due to an interference

Table 3. Comparison of natural frequency results before and after modifying finite element model of

the shaft.

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2010 250

Fig. 5. (a). Comparison of the experimental FRF h1–11 results with that of numerical results before

and after modifying the Young’s modulus for the bare hollow shaft, (b). The callout of Fig. 5 (a)

showing finite values of FRF near zero frequency for the bare hollow shaft.

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2010 251

Fig. 6. Comparison of the experimental FRF h10–11 results with that of numerical results before and

after modifying the Young’s modulus for the bare hollow shaft.

fit rotor tends to be higher. To account for the increase of the stiffness, one should introduce

both mass and mass inertia values to the finite element model. In addition, the study [11]

suggests that to account for the increase of the bending stiffness due to an additional

Fig. 7. Comparison of the experimental mode shape (frequency 1535.35 Hz) with that of numerical

results before and after tuning the Young’s modulus E1 for the bare hollow shaft.

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2010 252

Fig. 8. Comparison of the experimental mode shape (frequency 3720.38 Hz) with that of numerical

results before and after tuning the Young’s modulus E1 for the bare hollow shaft.

interference fit rotor, the shaft should be ‘‘enlarged’’ locally by increasing the radius of the

segment where the rotor is fitted. Nevertheless, their results show that there is a deviation of 6%;

that is, errors exist in the mass and mass inertia. In our study, an equivalent Young’s modulus is

proposed as the local stiffness to account for the additive interference fit rotor.

First, a modal testing is carried out on the rotor-shaft structure. The amount of interference is

0.022 mm. The procedure of obtaining the averaged FRFs is the same as described in the first

stage. The fundamental natural frequency is found to increases from 1535.35 Hz for the bare

shaft to 1640.96 Hz, an addition of 105.61 Hz, and the second natural frequency becomes

3371.92 Hz.

A numerical modal simulation then follows. The finite element model consists of PIPE16 line

elements and point mass elements, MASS21, to account for the interference fit rotor. The line

elements are modeled with E151.926961011 N/m2 as the Young’s modulus. The mass elements

are characterized by the mass and the mass inertia. A free-free end boundary condition is posted

on the model. The fundamental natural frequency from the modal analysis becomes 1249.07 Hz,

a decrease of 392 Hz comparing with that of 1640.96 Hz. To compensate the deviation, an

equivalent local Young’s modulus is proposed to account for the increase of local stiffness due

to the interference fit rotor. It is emphasized that the line elements carrying no rotor are

remained with E151.926961011 N/m2 as the Young’s modulus. The equivalent Young’s

modulus is E254.9050 6 1011 N/m2, and the first two natural frequencies become 1640.05 Hz,

and 3372.86 Hz, respectively. These two natural frequencies are less than 0.1% off the

experimental natural frequencies (1640.96 Hz and 3371.92 Hz, respectively). Comparisons of

frequency response functions h1–11 and h10–11 based on the equivalent local Young’s modulus are

shown in Figs. 9 and 10, respectively. Comparisons of the experimental mode shapes due to the

equivalent local Young’s modulus are shown in Figs. 11 and 12, for the 1st and the 2nd natural

frequencies, respectively. It is seen that these figures reveal the closeness of the FRF curves and

mode shapes for both simulated and experimental results, it may conclude that the proposed

equivalent Young’s modulus to account for the interference fit rotor is advisable to accurately

model the rotor-shaft assembly.

It is noted that the amount of interference due to the interference fit also contribute the

variation to the stiffness of the shaft [1]. In this study, the influence of the amount of

interference fit on the dynamical characters of the shaft is also investigated. We consider the

amount of interference fit to be: 0.011 mm, 0.022 mm, 0.026 mm, and 0.03 mm, respectively.

The frequency results associated with 0.022 mm interference have been stated above.

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2010 253

Fig. 9. Comparison of the experimental FRF h1–11 results with that of numerical results before and

after modifying local Young’s modulus due to interference fit of the rotor.

Summarized in Table 4 are the influences of the interference fit on the natural frequencies. The

values under the column E2 represent the local Young’s modulus accounting for the amount of

interference fit. To ease comparison, these values are graphed versus the amount of interference

in Fig. 13. The curve shown in Fig. 13 suggests that for the rotor-hollow shaft considered

herein, the equivalent Young’s modulus increase with the amount of interference, indicating an

increase of stiffness with the interference amount; however, the stiffness decreases as the

amount of interference become greater, in our case around 0.018 mm.

In the third stage of the study, the fully equipped shaft is considered. The approach described

above is now applied to the shaft herein. The fully equipped shaft consists of the hollow shaft,

the motor rotor with a 0.022 mm interference fit, and other accessory components including the

press ring, the front spacer, and the inner spacer of the frontal bearing, the inner ring of the

frontal/rear bearing, the press ring of the rear bearing, and the precision tight nuts. The

schematic of the fully equipped shaft is illustrated in Fig. 14. As these accessory components are

sliding-fitting with the shaft, it is reasonably to consider they contribute no effects to the

stiffness of the shaft. Thus, in the numerical modal analysis, these components are modeled with

point mass elements, MASS21.

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2010 254

Fig. 10. Comparison of the experimental FRF h10–11 results with that of numerical results before

and after the modifying local Young’s modulus due to an interference fit of the rotor.

Prior to the numerical modal analysis, a modal testing is conducted. The experiment

procedure has been described in previous sections except that the fully equipped shaft is

considered. The fundamental natural frequency is found to be 1249.70 Hz and the second

Fig. 11. Comparison of the experimental mode shape (frequency 1640.05 Hz) with that of numerical

results before and after modifying the local Young’s modulus E2 of the rotor-shaft assembly.

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2010 255

Fig. 12. Comparison of the experimental mode shape (frequency 3372.86 Hz) with that of numerical

results before and after modifying the local Young’s modulus E2 of the rotor-shaft assembly.

natural frequency 2886.49 Hz. Comparing this value with the one obtained in the last section,

one may find the frequencies decrease from 1640.05 Hz to 1249.70 Hz, and 3372.86 Hz

to 2886.49 Hz. These drops are expected as additional mass representing the accessory

components is added on the shaft assembly.

Following the modal testing, the numerical modal analysis is accomplished. The numerical

model contains the model described in Section 3.2 and additional mass points to account for the

accessory components. The input to the mass points is the mass only. The first natural

frequency from the numerical analysis is 1225.29 Hz, an error of 1.95 %, and the second natural

frequency of 2846.96 Hz shows an error of 1.37%. Comparisons of frequency response

functions h1–11 and h10–11 based on the results are shown in Figs. 15 and 16, respectively.

Table 4. Variation of the natural frequencies corresponding to the modified Young’s modulus.

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2010 256

Fig. 13. The effects of the amount of interference fit on the equivalent Young’s modulus.

Fig. 15(b) is the callout of Fig. 15(a) showing finite FRF values near zero frequency.

Comparisons of the experimental mode shapes are shown in Figs. 17 and 18, for the 1st and the

2nd natural frequencies, respectively. It is seen that in these figures, the curves representing test

results and simulation results coincide closely. It may therefore conclude again that the

proposed local equivalent Young’s modulus to account for the interference fit rotor is advisable

to accurately model the rotor-shaft assembly.

4. CONCLUSIONS

In this study, an approach of local equivalent Young’s modulus is proposed to enable better

finite element predictions of the dynamical characters of a motor built-in high speed hollow

rotating shaft. Both numerical and experimental modal analyses are carried out on the shaft

featured with 4.6 kw/30000 rpm and an automatic tool changer (ATC). The effects of

interference fit are also investigate. Some conclusions are drawn as below:

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2010 257

Fig. 15. (a). Comparison of the test FRF h1–11 with the numerical FRF of the fully-equipped shaft,

(b). The callout of Fig. 15(a) showing finite values of FRF near zero frequency FRF of the fully-

equipped shaft.

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2010 258

Fig. 16. Comparison of the test FRF h10-11 with the numerical FRF of the fully-equipped shaft.

1. The bending stiffness of a shaft mounted with a rotor via hot-fitting tends to be increased

due to intereference. To account for the increase of stiffness, the approach of local

equivalent Young’s modulus proposed herein offers better prediction on the natural

frequencies of the shaft (within 1%) and enables facilitating finite element modeling.

2. The dynamical stiffness of a shaft equipped with an interference fit rotor increases with the

amount of the interference. The stiffness of the shaft decrease when the amount of

interference is greater than, in this study, about 0.018 mm. It is emphasized that there found

a peak stiffness suggests that an optimal amount of interference fit should sought for the

application of rotor-shaft assembly.

3. The results have indicates that a motor-built-in spindle presents higher natural frequencies

than a bare shaft because the local stiffness of the spindle is increased due to the rotor. Thus,

Fig. 17. Comparison of the experimental mode shape (frequency 1225.29 Hz) with that of numerical

results for the fully equipped rotor-shaft assembly.

Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2010 259

Fig. 18. Comparison of the experimental mode shape (frequency 2846.96 Hz) with that of numerical

results for the fully equipped rotor-shaft assembly.

without considering the rotor, the characterizing the dynamical effect of a spindle is

incomplete and the design will become too conservative.

4. A simplified finite element model where 1-D PIPE16 elements are employed is established in

this research. This simplified model could enable the designers to quickly obtain the first

engineering estimation on dynamical characteristics at the beginning stage of spindle design.

5. The study suggests that the dynmical stiffness of a shaft can be increased with added a long

dynamic balancing ring based on the evidence that the natural frequency decreases as more

accessory components are added.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors are grateful to the assistance by Parfaite Company on offering the drawings,

parts/components, and working assemblies.

REFERENCES

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Motor Rotor and its Finite Element Modeling for a High Speed Spindle,’’ Proc. of the 22nd

CSME National conference on Mechanical Engineering, 25,26 November, Taiwan, pp.859–863,

2005.

2. Prohl, M.A., ‘‘A General Method for Calculating Critical Speeds of Flexible Rotors,’’ ASME J.

of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 142–148, 1945.

3. Ruhl, R.L. and Booker, J.F., ‘‘A Finite Element Models for Distributed Parameter Turborotor

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