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AP® CHEMISTRY

2011 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)

Question 2
(9 points)
An 8.55 mol sample of methanol, CH3OH, is placed in a 15.0 L evacuated rigid tank and heated to 327°C.
At that temperature, all of the methanol is vaporized and some of the methanol decomposes to form carbon
monoxide gas and hydrogen gas, as represented in the equation below.
→ CO(g) + 2 H (g)
CH3OH(g) ← 2

(a) The reaction mixture contains 6.30 mol of CO(g) at equilibrium at 327°C.

(i) Calculate the number of moles of H2(g) in the tank.

2 mol H 2
6.30 mol CO × = 12.6 mol H2 1 point is earned for the correct number of moles.
1 mol CO

(ii) Calculate the number of grams of CH3OH(g) remaining in the tank.

1 mol CH3OH
6.30 mol CO × = 6.30 mol CH3OH reacted
1 mol CO
1 point is earned for the
8.55 mol CH3OHinitial − 6.30 mol CH3OHreacted = 2.25 mol CH3OH correct number of grams.
32.042 g
2.25 mol × = 72.1 g
1 mol

(iii) Calculate the mole fraction of H2(g) in the tank.

12.6 mol H 2
2.25 mol CH3OH + 6.30 mol CO + 12.6 mol H 2 1 point is earned for the correct setup.

12.6 1 point is earned for the correct answer.


= = 0.596
21.15

(iv) Calculate the total pressure, in atm, in the tank at 327°C.

nRT
PV = nRT ⇒ P =
V 1 point is earned for the correct setup.
L atm
(21.15 mol)(0.0821 )(600 K)
= mol K
15.0 L 1 point is earned for the correct answer.
= 69.5 atm

© 2011 The College Board.


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AP® CHEMISTRY
2011 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)

Question 2 (continued)

(b) Consider the three gases in the tank at 327°C: CH3OH(g), CO(g), and H2(g).
(i) How do the average kinetic energies of the molecules of the gases compare? Explain.

The average kinetic energies are the same because all three gases 1 point is earned for the
are at the same temperature. correct answer and explanation.

(ii) Which gas has the highest average molecular speed? Explain.

1 2
KE = mv , so at a given temperature the molecules with the
2 1 point is earned for the
lowest mass have the highest average speed. Therefore the correct answer and explanation.
molecules in H2 gas have the highest average molecular speed.

(c) The tank is cooled to 25°C, which is well below the boiling point of methanol. It is found that small
amounts of H2(g) and CO(g) have dissolved in the liquid CH3OH . Which of the two gases would you
expect to be more soluble in methanol at 25°C? Justify your answer.

The only attractive forces between molecules of H2 and CH3OH


would be due to weak London dispersion forces (LDFs). In
contrast, the LDFs are stronger between CO molecules and
CH3OH molecules because CO has more electrons than H2 . In
1 point is earned for the
addition CO is slightly polar; thus intermolecular dipole-dipole correct answer and justification.
attractions can form between CO molecules and CH3OH
molecules. With stronger intermolecular interactions between
molecules of CO and CH3OH, CO would be expected to be
more soluble in CH3OH than H2 .

© 2011 The College Board.


Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.
AP® CHEMISTRY
2002 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)

Question 2

10 points

2. A rigid 8.20 L flask contains a mixture of 2.50 moles of H2 , 0.500 mole of O2 , and sufficient Ar
so that the partial pressure of Ar in the flask is 2.00 atm. The temperature is 127ºC.

(a) Calculate the total pressure in the flask.

 L·atm 
nH2RT  (2.50 mol)( 0.0821 )(400 K )  1 point earned
PH =   = mol·K  = 10.0 atm
2  V   8.20 L  for the partial



 pressure of H2
 L·atm 
nO2RT  (0.500 mol)( 0.0821 )(400 K ) 
PO =   = mol·K  = 2.00 atm
2  V  1 point earned
 8.20 L 
  for the partial
  pressure of O2
PAr = 2.0 atm

1 point earned for


PT = PH + PO + PAr = 10.0 atm + 2.0 atm + 2.0 atm = 14.0 atm the total pressure
2 2

(b) Calculate the mole fraction of H2 in the flask.

 molH 
 2 
Mol fractionH =
2  molH + molO + molAr
 2 2 
molH = 2.50 mol
2
molO = 0.500 mol
2
 
 (2.00 atm)(8.20 L)  1 point earned
PV
molAr =   =   = 0.500 mol Ar for mol Ar
RT  L·atm 
 (0.0821 )(400 K ) 
 mol·K 
molH + molO + molAr = 2.50 mol + 0.500 mol + 0.500 mol
2 2
= 3.50 mol total
1 point earned
 molH   2.50 mol  for mol fraction
 2  =
Mol fractionH =  3.50 mol  = 0.714 of H2
2  molH + molO + molAr
 2 2   

Copyright © 2002 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved.


Advanced Placement Program and AP are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board.

5
AP® CHEMISTRY
2002 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)

Question 2 (cont’d.)

(c) Calculate the density (in g L–1) of the mixture in the flask

2.016 g H2
2.50 mol H2   = 5.04 g H2
 1 mol H2 
32.0 g O2
0.500 mol O2   = 16.0 g O2
 1 mol O2  1 point earned
40.0 g Ar  for mass of
0.500 mol Ar  = 20.0 g Ar
 1 mol Ar  all species

total mass = 5.04 g + 16.0 g + 20.0 g = 41.0 g


1 point earned
for density
 total mass   41.0 g 
density =   =  8.20 L = 5.00 g L–1
 volume 

The mixture in the flask is ignited by a spark, and the reaction represented below occurs until one of the
reactants is entirely consumed.

2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(g)

(d) Give the mole fraction of all species present in the flask at the end of the reaction.

2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2O(g)


I 2.50 0.500 0 1 point earned for 1.00 mol H2O
C – 1.00 − 0.500 2(+0.500)
E 1.50 0 1.00

total moles after reaction = molH + molH O + molAr = 1.50


2 2
1 point earned for total moles
mol + 1.00 mol + 0.500 mol
= 3.00 mol total

 1.50 mol H 2 
mol fractionH =   = 0.500
2 3.00 mol
 
 0 mol O 2  1 point earned for any two mol
mol fractionO =   = 0 (not necessary) fractions, excluding O2
2
 3.00 mol 
 0.500 mol Ar 
mol fractionAr =   = 0.167
 3.00 mol 
 1.00 mol H 2 O 
mol fractionH O =   = 0.333
2 3.00 mol
 

Copyright © 2002 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved.


Advanced Placement Program and AP are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board.