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Damage & Fracture Mechanics VI, C.A. Brebbia, A.P.S.

Selvadurai, (Editors)
© 2000 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISBN 1-85312-812-0

Stress intensity factors for two critical angular


positions of semi-elliptical surface cracks in
shafts

M. A. da Fonte* & M. M. de Freitas^


' Nautical School, Portugal
" ICEMS, Institute Superior Tecnico, Portugal

Abstract

Many power transmission devices run under load bending combined with steady
torsion. After crack initiation the crack front profile usually grows with a semi-
elliptical surface shape. During the rotation of a shaft, the crack growth of a
semi-elliptical surface crack depends on the two crack angular positions: one is
when the load bending direction is perpendicular to semi-elliptical crack front
profile; another one is an oblique position whenever one of two external points
are on the load bending direction. The present study is based on 3D finite
elements in order to obtain Stress Intensity Factors (SIF) for semi-elliptical
surface cracks, taking into account the two critical angular positions of the crack
front when a round bar or a shaft rotate in operating conditions. Results have
shown that SIF present the maximum values for these two critical positions and
at each rotation. On the other hand there is an increasing or a decreasing on KI
values due to the effect of the torsion when it is superimposed to bending,
depending on the direction of the applied torsion. When the analysis is
performed for combined bending and torsion, different SIF are obtained at both
sides where the crack front intersects the free shaft surface. This result explains
clearly the rotation of the crack front experimentally observed whenever a steady
torsion is superimposed to the reversed or rotary bending.

1 Introduction

There are a large number of power plant systems running with a general steady
torsion combined with cyclic bending stress due to the self-weight bending
during rotation or possible misalignment between journal bearings.
Damage & Fracture Mechanics VI, C.A. Brebbia, A.P.S. Selvadurai, (Editors)
© 2000 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISBN 1-85312-812-0

492 Damage and Fracture Mechanics VI

Crack propagation under mixed-mode loading on rotor shafts is the reason


for many failures occurring under cyclic Mode I (AKi) combined with steady
Mode III (Km). Some of experimental studies have been performed on shafts and
cylindrical specimens in multiaxial fatigue [1-6].
Most of mechanical failures by fatigue process on rotor shafts have origin on
surface cracks that grow with semi-elliptical shape. In order to predict crack
growth behaviour, the linear elastic fracture mechanics can usefully be applied
since the respective Stress Intensity Factor solutions (SIF) are available.
In Mode I loading conditions, and for this type of cracks, several solutions
have been proposed by Raju and Newman [7], Shiratori et al. [8], Carpinteri et
al. [9,10]. Stress Intensity Factors solutions for shafts under torsion loading
(Mode III) are less commons than for Mode I loading. Some of them were
recently presented for semi-elliptical surface cracks in round bars [11,12].
During the rotation of a shaft, the crack growth of a semi-elliptical surface
crack depends on the two crack angular positions: one is when the load bending
direction is perpendicular to semi-elliptical crack front profile; another one is an
oblique position whenever one of two external points are on the load bending
direction.
In present study Stress Intensity Factors for semi-elliptical surface cracks is
based on 3D finite element analysis, taking into account the two critical angular
positions of the crack front when a round bar or a shaft rotate in operating
conditions, i.e. bending combined with torsion loading.

2 Stress Intensity Factor calculations

A three-dimensional finite element analysis was performed to obtain the Stress


Intensity Factors (SIF) Kj due to bending, and Kn and Km due to bending and
torsion loading, along eight semi-elliptical surface cracks in a round bar. The
surface crack is oriented on a plane normal to the axis of the round bar. The
elliptical profile of the crack front is assumed to present a constant crack depth/
crack length ratio, b/s, as shown in Figure land Table I.

Figure 1: Geometric parameters for each semi-elliptical surface cracks.


Damage & Fracture Mechanics VI, C.A. Brebbia, A.P.S. Selvadurai, (Editors)
© 2000 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISBN 1-85312-812-0
Damage and Fracture Mechanics VI 493

Table 1: Semi-ellipse geometric parameters.

Semi-Ellipse e b/r b/a b/s


1 10" 0.111 0.6338 0.6366
2 20" 0.222 0.6253 0.6366
3 30" 0333 0.6104 0.6366
4 40" 0.444 0.5878 0.6366
5 50" 0.555 0.5555 0.6366
6 60" 0.666 0.5091 0.6366
7 70" 0.777 0.4413 0.6366
8 80" 0.888 0.3325 0.6366

(1)

r.senO
with 8=s/r (2)

The eqn (1) allows to obtain the crack depth b whenever the total arc length
2s is known, see Figure 1. It was experimentally obtained in rotary bending and
reversed bending [5,6]. The major semi-axis of the ellipse a is obtained
according to eqn (2) which was deducted. Table 1 presents the geometric
parameters for eight semi-elliptical surface cracks studied.
Symmetry conditions could only be used to obtain the SIF K[ in bending. Due
to the torsion loading and a semi-elliptical surface crack, it is necessary to model
the complete shaft geometry with the semi-elliptical cracks placed at the mid-
distance of the applied loading and on the plane of the cracks, as is shown in
Figure 2 (a) and (b).

(a) (b)

Figure 2: Finite element mesh (a) with the cracks at middle of the complete
round bar; plane of eight semi-elliptical surface cracks (b).
Damage & Fracture Mechanics VI, C.A. Brebbia, A.P.S. Selvadurai, (Editors)
© 2000 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISBN 1-85312-812-0
494 Damage and Fracture Mechanics VI

In this study the numerical analysis is carried out using the three-dimensional
finite element method through the commercial COSMOS/M (1.75A) program.
As first step, Stress Intensity Factors are computed for Mode I and compared
with available results in the literature [7-9] in order to validate the proposed
model; finally, SIF due to torsion (Mode III) and mixed-mode (I+III) loading are
computed.
This finite element analysis uses 20 node isoparametric solid elements. The
stress square-root singularity is modelled by shifting the finite element mid-side
nodes near the crack front to quarter-point positions [13,14]. Elastic material
properties are assumed to be equal to E = 207000 MPa and 0.3 Poisson's ratio.
The present finite element mesh was developed with a total of 3000 elements and
14000 nodes approximately, depending on the size of the considered ellipse. The
applied bending stress (Bs) and torsion stress (Ts) were the same for both cases,
200 MPa. The effect of torsion loading in SIF K, was studied for 25%, 50%,
75% of nominal torsion stress (200 MPa) in previous study.
Assuming that the crack has always an elliptical shape, the points at the
deepest crack depth (point A) and where the crack front intersects the free
surface of the shaft (points B and C), are the most important ones. Therefore the
comparison will be only presented at these particular points.
The eqn (3) [8] was used to obtain SIF Kj under pure bending, and bending
combined with torsion (Mil). Taking into account that for shafts (rotating
bending and steady torsion) only Mode I is the cause of crack growth by fatigue,
it is important to determine the bending and torsion contribution to Kj. The
contribution of steady torsion loading in cracked shafts to SIF K; is due to the
fact that the crack surface doesn't remain flat [15] and therefore Mode I SIF is
obtained for all points of the crack front profile except point A [12].

(3)

where BS is the remote applied bending stress, s is the half-arc crack length and
FI [8] is the boundary correction factor for Mode I, which is a function of the
elliptical crack shape (b/a), the shaft radius r and the position along the crack
front, determined through the parametric angle <j>, see Figure 1 .
When analysing a crack in 3D geometry, numerical problems may be present
at free boundaries, as it was shown by Carpinteri and Brighenti [9,10] and Pook
[16]. It has been shown theoretically, from fracture energy considerations, that
the singularity power at border (points B and C of the crack front) depends on
the material Poisson's ratio v and on the intersection angle |3 between crack front
and external surface. In present study (3=87° and it is constant for each ellipse.
For Mode I [10] loading and v=0.3 the necessary singularity of !& is obtained for
about p= 100.4°, but for Mode II and III loading [3=67°
The use of quarter point finite element (square-root singularity) does not
generally produce reliable results in a boundary layer at points B and C. This
effect is confined only to a small zone and within this region it is only possible to
define KI, KH and Km in an asymptotic sense [16]. Corner points values of SIF
Damage & Fracture Mechanics VI, C.A. Brebbia, A.P.S. Selvadurai, (Editors)
© 2000 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISBN 1-85312-812-0

Damage and Fracture Mechanics VI 495

(Kj) obtained from finite elements analysis are extrapolations whose precise
values depend on details of method used, such as the element size Then we can
use the nearest nodes in the mesh for points B and C in order to obtain the
approximate results for Kj, KH and Km, and this is a procedure that is usually
made. Therefore the considered results are only presented for these particular
points, A, B* andC*.
In 3D finite element analysis Mode II and Mode III displacements and KH
and Km values cannot exist in isolation in the vicinity of a corner point: the
presence of one mode always induces the other in a fixed ratio [16]. In an other
work [11,12] Stress Intensity Factors KH and Km were obtained by employing the
same geometric parameters used for Mode I (bending)

3 Two critical angular positions of the crack

When a semi-elliptical crack in a shaft or round bar rotates, the surface crack
passes by two critical positions during a cycle, which means that points B and C
experiment the nominal bending stress, see Figure 3 (a) and (b). Therefore, as the
crack growth depends on the maximum values of Stress Intensity Factors K at
these points, they are the most important ones on this study.

Figure 3: Two critical angular positions of semi-elliptical crack, (a) and (b).

The shafts were subjected to either remote bending or a remote torsion, as well
as remote bending combined with torsion loading

4 Results

4.1 Bending case, (a) angular position

For obtaining SIF (Ki) with accuracy results in mixed-mode, first it is necessary
to validate the proposed model, comparing the present values with available
results in the literature. This step is the first condition to advance for mixed-
mode loading. Figure 4 and Figure 5 show the model validation at point A and
points B* and C* respectively.
Damage & Fracture Mechanics VI, C.A. Brebbia, A.P.S. Selvadurai, (Editors)
© 2000 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISBN 1-85312-812-0
496 Damage and Fracture Mechanics VI

Authors
Shiratori
Murakami
Raju & New man j
Carpinteri

0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0

Figure 4: SIF (F; =Kj/Ko) at deepest point A for pure bending.

1,0
|
0,9
!
0,8 I'
0,7 . i
0,6 . __—#--
I — . ,_^— -Uo--— B— ~~ v =
Ckc-— -n
£ 0,5 PCZTr-^\
"^ Il * — *— .. 1^
i o O—""
-^ i '
% 0,4 i
— <>_ Authors
0,3 >fi
^ ^r —4>_ Shiratori
0,2 J\ |
J\ —C>_ Raju & Newman
0,1
\ i —1> Carpinteri
00 ^H-^ ^J r
0,0 0,1 02 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 07 0,8 0,9 1,0
b/r

Figure 5: SIF (Fj =Ki/Ko) at points B* and C* for pure bending.


Damage & Fracture Mechanics VI, C.A. Brebbia, A.P.S. Selvadurai, (Editors)
© 2000 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISBN 1-85312-812-0

Damage and Fracture Mechanics VI 497

4.2 Mixed-mode (Mil) case, in (a) angular position

Figure 6 shows de SIF (F/) for semi-elliptical surface crack in a round bar under
bending combined with torsion. TB* and TC* represent the total FI* contribution
due to torsion at points B* and C*, depending on the direction of applied torsion
loading. T* is the contribution of the torsion to induce KI at these points (B* and
C*) and for each ellipse b/r. Figure 7 shows the deformed mesh for the crack
front n° 5 in Mode I (a), Mode III (b) and mixed-mode (I+III) (c).

0,4 0,6 0,8 0,9


b/r

Figure 6: SIF (F/) for each semi-elliptical crack in mixed-mode (I+III).

Figure 7: Deformed mesh for crack front n° 5 in Mode I (a), Mode III (b)
and mixed-mode (I+III) (c).
Damage & Fracture Mechanics VI, C.A. Brebbia, A.P.S. Selvadurai, (Editors)
© 2000 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISBN 1-85312-812-0
498 Damage and Fracture Mechanics VI

4.3 Bending and mixed-mode (I+IH) case, in (b) angular position

Figures 8 and 9 show the SIF (F/ ) under pure bending and bending combined
with torsion, respectively, for each semi-ellipse at points B*, A and C*.

0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9

Figure 8: SIF (F; ) under pure bending load conditions, Mode I.

0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4u/.0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1

Figure 9: SIF (F/) under bending combined with torsion, mixed mode (Mil).
Damage & Fracture Mechanics VI, C.A. Brebbia, A.P.S. Selvadurai, (Editors)
© 2000 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISBN 1-85312-812-0
Damage and Fracture Mechanics VI 499

Figure 10 shows the deformed mesh for the crack front n° 4 under Mode I (a),
Mode III (b) and mixed-mode (I+III) (c).

Figure 10: Deformed mesh for the crack front n° 4 under bending (a), torsion (b)
and bending combined with torsion (c).

fast crack growth


slow crack growth
Mode I

50 100 150 200 250 300


Thousand of cycls
Figure 11: Crack growth under Mode I and mixed-mode (I+III).

5 Conclusions

Stress Intensity Factors for semi-elliptical surface cracks in round bars have been
obtained by a 3D finite element analysis. The round bar was subjected to either
remote bending or remote torsion, as well as to combined remote bending and
torsion loading. For the remote applied torsion new results have been obtained:
the torsion induces Mode I at points B and 0 which means that K% value at these
points depends on the applied torsion direction and of its value. For combined
bending and torsion, results have shown that Mode I SIF at point B is different
from that at point C. This fact helps us to clarify the experimental results
obtained in fatigue crack growth tests where two different crack growth rates are
observed at points B and C, as is shown in Figure 11.
Damage & Fracture Mechanics VI, C.A. Brebbia, A.P.S. Selvadurai, (Editors)
© 2000 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISBN 1-85312-812-0

500 Damage and Fracture Mechanics VI

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