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Anuradha Dissanayake

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Anuradha Dissanayake

Contents
1.0 Data Collection Analysis-(Precisely) ................................................................................................... 4
1.1 Country-Ghana ................................................................................................................................. 4
1.2 Overview- ........................................................................................................................................... 4
1.3 Related environmental factors- PEST analysis .............................................................................. 4
1.3.1 Political ........................................................................................................................................ 4
1.3.2 Economic ..................................................................................................................................... 4
1.3.2 Social............................................................................................................................................ 5
1.3.3 Technical ...................................................................................................................................... 5
1.4 Current Infrastructure and other resources available .................................................................. 5
1.5 Factors affecting growth of E commerce activities ........................................................................ 6
1.7 Identified Opportunities ................................................................................................................... 7
1.8 Identified Threats/barriers............................................................................................................... 7
1.9 Other Related Facts-Current Trends-Competitors ....................................................................... 8
2.1 Country-Nigeria .............................................................................................................................. 10
2.2 Overview .......................................................................................................................................... 10
2.3 Related environmental factors- PEST analysis ............................................................................ 11
2.3.1 Political ...................................................................................................................................... 11
2.3.2 Economic ................................................................................................................................... 11
2.3.2 Social.......................................................................................................................................... 12
2.3.3 Technical .................................................................................................................................... 12
2.4 Current Infrastructure and other resources available ................................................................ 13
2.5 Factors affecting growth of E commerce activities ...................................................................... 13
2.7 Identified Opportunities ................................................................................................................. 14
2.8 Identified Threats/barriers............................................................................................................. 15
2.9 Other Related Facts-Current Trends-Competitors ..................................................................... 16
3.1 Country-Kenya.................................................................................................................................... 17
3.2 Overview .......................................................................................................................................... 17
3.3 Related environmental factors- PEST analysis ............................................................................ 18
3.3.1 Political ...................................................................................................................................... 18
3.3.2 Economic ................................................................................................................................... 18
3.3.2 Social.......................................................................................................................................... 18
3.3.3 Technical .................................................................................................................................... 19

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3.4 Current Infrastructure and other resources available ................................................................ 19


3.5 Factors affecting growth of E commerce activities ...................................................................... 19
3.7 Identified Opportunities ................................................................................................................. 20
3.8 Identified Threats/barriers............................................................................................................. 20
3.9 Other Related Facts-Current Trends-Competitors ............................................................... 22
4.1 Country-Democrotic Republic of Congo .......................................................................................... 23
4.2 Overview .......................................................................................................................................... 23
4.3 Related environmental factors- PESTEL analysis ....................................................................... 23
4.3.1 Political ...................................................................................................................................... 23
4.3.2 Economic ................................................................................................................................... 23
4.3.2 Social.......................................................................................................................................... 24
4.3.3 Technical .................................................................................................................................... 24
4.4 Current Infrastructure and other resources available ................................................................ 24
4.5 Factors affecting growth of E commerce activities ...................................................................... 24
4.7 Identified Opportunities ................................................................................................................. 25
4.8 Identified Threats/barriers............................................................................................................. 25

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1.0 Data Collection Analysis-(Precisely)


1.1 Country-Ghana
1.2 Overview-
 Ghana, is in the status of a developing country in Sub Saharan African continent
 It is in a nascent stage of creating their technology, communication and their level of
education.

1.3 Related environmental factors- PEST analysis


1.3.1 Political
 Thriving democracy which can be taken as a strength.
Ghana’s fourth attempt at multiparty democracy since independence in 1957
 Legal framework related to the security issues are lacking.
 Fair Information practice act.
 Lack of continuation of Technological based projects by government(Encouragement).

1.3.2 Economic
 Professional IT related labor force is cheap when compared with developed countries.
 Relatively high price for internet access.
-The cost of using IT technology based resources are still high for the citizens because to
the general.
-per-capita GDP in Ghana is low; therefore, access to the internet is very expensive.
-People are charged a metered rate when utilizing, which is contrast to the flat rate fees in
developed countries.
 Accessibility towards e-commerce platform-
-Increasing competition among various companies which provides voice and data
communication services
For an Instance-Vodafone & MTN

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1.3.2 Social

 Lifestyle changes-
 Growth of IT literacy
 The growing interest in ICT-related courses within trade institutions & universities and
the incorporation of ICT in early education programs.

 But it should be noted that the average Ghanaian uses the internet only to read and send
email and they rarely access to use for other purposes.

 Resistance towards the changing related to technology.


 A large number of older people, majorly who are working within the government
institutions, are still computer illiterate and they are discouraged by
computer-related issues.
 The digital divide
People in rural areas-*The gap of accessibility

1.3.3 Technical

 Even though there are increasing number of technological programs like e-commerce;
still the endemic IT expertise in Ghana is lacking.
 Due to poor ICT infrastructure in Ghana; the use of expatriate expertise should be
required.

1.4 Current Infrastructure and other resources available


 Even though ICT infrastructure in Ghana is generally poor related to e-commerce, ICT
infrastructure within the major metropolitan areas is good (Williams et al., 2011).
 Ghana has installed wireless payphone kiosks to help people in rural areas have
access to phones (Foster et al., 2004).

*A plus factor
Ghana is a developing country with low per-capita income.

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 Therefore, there is an issue related to scarce resources in the sectors of health and
education.

-Poor remuneration and lack of jobs

-Continual outflow of talent

1.5 Factors affecting growth of E commerce activities

 It is to be considered that 26.5 per cent of Africans are connected to the internet, while the
United Nations reveal that only eight of the 10 countries with the lowest levels of internet
availability in the world are in Sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana.
 Therefore, it is very clear that the size of the targeted market is small and it directly hinders
the growth of the E-commerce activities.
 Lack of adequate logistics infrastructure
 Overcome skepticism in terms of buying Online-Security issues
 Availability of niche e-commerce sites
 Shipping barriers-The government should improve the road infrastructure and labeling in
order to allow directions to any place for quick delivery.
 Lack of a safe and secure online payments system-
The emergence of financial malpractices which derives as ‘sakawa’ have created a lot of
mistrust in fellow Ghanaians
 1.6 Facts related to consumer expectations

While considering the competitor analysis; it is apparent that the consumers in Ghana are in the
economical range; therefore, their affordable range has been reconsidered by the competitors when
generating the business ideas.

 Instance- carmudi.com.gh-e-commerce platform for second hand cars which is


affordable

Moreover, trustworthiness is highly expected by the consumers since many fraud activities were
detected within the transaction procedures related to the online process in Ghana.
The quality of the products and the best service until the process of delivery is expected.

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1.7 Identified Opportunities

 Fair Information Practice Act can be used in order to address privacy and security issues
 Investments initiated by the government in Ghana for ICT graduates and programs-
increase the IT literacy of people, therefore the limited market will expand further.
 Enhance investment environment for telecommunication companies in order to provide
mobile systems for citizens majorly in the rural areas
 IT services provided by other media companies opens up a new platform for e-commerce.
 Availability of alternative IT network infrastructure
 Outbursts of IT programs with potential to supply IT labor
 Growth of the technology-
Ghana -iGDP of 1.1% President of Ghana plans ahead to build an IT city near Accra –
the capital – with a total investment of about $5.2 bn

1.8 Identified Threats/barriers

Political threats
 Lack of continuity and commitment related to technological based programs-online begun
by previous governments-
 GCNet project became a failure with the changing of the government. (Schuppan, 2009).
National Identification Registration (NIR) project-
Database system failure-new government did not prioritize.

Economical threats
 Global economic crisis
 Government depends on foreign investment

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Challenges
 The lack of funding and investment for ICT related projects and online programs
Unemployment and high disparity in income between developed and developing nations
within Ghana
 Local graduates enter the labor force in other countries-brain drain
 Global terrorism and security risks
 Use of the internet to commit fraud is a general problem. (Andoh Baidoo and Osatuyi,
2009; Foster et al., 2004).

1.9 Other Related Facts-Current Trends-Competitors


 Tisu.com.gh-Leaders of Ghanaian E-commerce for over 4 years.
 New Features-They have introduced a new mobile app
 Their expectation is to serve the top quality products while offering the best service on
every purchasing item.
 Increase brand loyalty
 Mobile application is available on both Android and iOS platforms.
 Availability of various payment platforms-
 Collaborated with MPower Payment Gateway, SlydePay and all other mobile money
platforms -MTN Mobile Money, Airtel Money, TigoCASH
 Availability of Visa and MasterCard.
 Allow users to use Tisu's Cash on Delivery checkout option.
 Expose a shopping experience with large discounts on household items, electronics,
mobile phones and services.
 Ringier Africa Deals Group also joined the e-commerce recently.

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eShopAfrica.com-
Creates sustainable businesses for traditional African artisans
 Based in Accra, Ghana.
 Trading online since 2001 and was one of the first e-Commerce sites based in Africa.
 Registered in Ghana as an export only company while promoting products from the non-
traditional sector.
 Strategy Implementation-Invest in their artisans enabling them to find new markets and
grow their businesses in a sustainable way.
 Tonaton.com-
 Given the accessibility to clients- completely free to publish a classified ad on
Tonaton.com
 Time efficiency- Takes less than 2 minutes.
 Given the privilege of selection of popular second hand items around Ghana
 carmudi.com.gh
 Their aim is to strengthening the position of consumers by providing information
on the car market, contacting with individuals and professional sellers while
offering the best online market place for vehicles in Ghana-second hand cars
 Assuring reliability and trustworthiness
 Heel The World(HTW)
url: http://www.htwshoes.com
 Aims on high-end bespoke men’s shoes and leather accessories while supporting
people in the start-up space
 collaborate with younger fashion brands, paid internships annually.

References –URL Link

http://www.dreamoval.com/can-e-commerce-succeed-in-ghana-2/
http://disrupt-africa.com/2015/03/african-e-commerce-long-game/
https://www.modernghana.com/news/640481/ecommerce-report-ghanas-top-20-ecommerce-
websites.html
http://ventureburn.com/2014/12/7-african-countries-booming-ecommerce-markets/\
http://www.pulse.com.gh/news/business/tisu-ghana-e-commerce-platform-launches-new-mobile-app-for-
ios-and-android-id4879527.html

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2.1 Country-Nigeria
2.2 Overview

Nigeria can be recognized as one of the developing countries which have experienced a steady
increase in e-commerce- Nigeria began about 2 decades ago and by 2013 itself e-commerce
platforms have developed up to 75. Therefore, it is very much clear that they have a great progress
related to the growth of e-commerce.

e-commerce in Nigeria began in the era where Automated Teller Machines were the used as the
main mediums of transaction, and now the platforms have grown up to the current state of modified
internet technologies for various e-business transactions including order placement, processing,
fulfillment & delivery and payment options.

The success was solely based on the reason of adoption of e-commerce in Nigeria which can be
evaluated from the level of adoption of information technology within the Country-Growth of the
IT literacy of the individuals.

As an example, within the years 2000 – 2013, internet penetration has moved from 0.06 to 38.00
per 100 inhabitants

Moreover, within years 2000 to 2012, the mobile subscription base in the country had risen rapidly
from 2% to 67.68% which can be recognized as a positive factor for the growth of the e-commerce.

When researching; it was noted that that the most popular e-commerce sites in Nigeria are,
jumia.com.ng and konga.com.ng which offer a variety of products and services in a diverse range
covers products based on technology, health and fashion.

Some competitors obeezi.com and ochala.com act as online retailers whom only focus on specific
aspects of business; specializing on the theme fashion.

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2.3 Related environmental factors- PEST analysis


2.3.1 Political
 New Legal acts were imposed by the new federal Government-Implication of legal
legislations by the new political party

e-commerce Intellectual Property Rights

 In 2015, the Federal Government signed the Cybercrime bill into law which prohibit and
prevent fraud in electronic commerce.
 The main purpose of the Cybercrimes Act of 2015 extends beyond prohibiting,
preventing and criminalizing online fraud, but also prescribes punishments and sets the
institutional framework for enforcement.
 The ultimate goal is to protect e-business transactions, company copyrights, domain
names and other electronic signatures in relation to electronic transactions in Nigeria-
which is a positive factor to win over customer’s trust.

2.3.2 Economic
 Nigeria’s economy is gradually becoming cashless, since the digital payment and
electronic banking are implemented in phases across 27 states of the federation, which was
initiated in Lagos.
 The cashless policy has caused in increasing demand for ATM services deployed in main
cities and commercial centers across Nigeria, including Lagos, Port Harcourt, Enugu,
Onitsha, Ibadan, Kaduna, Kano, and Calabar, which directly facilitate electronic banking
and financial services within Nigeria
 Current-Commerce platforms has contributed to the growth of the Nigerian economy.
 According to the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), e-commerce is creating jobs for the
country’s over 20 million unemployed youth

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2.3.2 Social
 Lifestyle Changes-Internet users have grown rapidly.
 As an Example-
 Compared to 2006, internet users in 2009 grew from 3.1 per cent of the total
population to 16.1 per cent which can be considered as an impressive improvement.
 In 2014 there were 55 million Internet users in Nigeria while 30 million of which buyer
goods online.
 The ecommerce market in Nigeria was reportedly worth $3 billion in 2013.
 Increasing number of people who are gaining internet access and inhabitants are
becoming IT literate, with the accessibility of mobile phones
 It should be noted that still many people have fully adopted the new purchasing
technology
According to the statistical interpretation, out of 70 per cent o f respondents who
know about e-Commerce, approximately only 32% of them use it.
 The current trend of common online activities of Nigerians in percentage are ;
browsing and searching-74%
 Selecting of a product, -56%
paying online-15 %
paying offline, 82% and online checking of results were recorded out of the whole
as 43%
 More usage by youth population

2.3.3 Technical
 The growth of telecommunication facilities
 Within 2006, itself Nigeria was reported as Africa’s fastest growing nation in the
context of telecommunications

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2.4 Current Infrastructure and other resources available


 Lack of e-commerce infrastructure
 Improper methods of authentication and encryption mechanisms, privacy seals and
disclosures, and firewalls has caused the distrust of the customers
 Therefore, reliability of the payment instrument, and by extension and the whole
ecommerce infrastructures, will have the positive influence
 Web retailers should integrate technologies which provides security into their online
retail platforms

2.5 Factors affecting growth of E commerce activities


 The success of e-commerce, as it directly relates to technology, depends mainly on the
basis of the acceptance by the potential customers. Ecommerce acceptance is judged by
two aspects including obtaining information from an e-commerce site and actual
transaction by purchasing from the site.
 Therefore, web retailers target on buyers and not just random visitors who surf the web
pages.
 The major factor which directly contributes towards the growth of the E-commerce
activities is the acceptance of e-commerce platforms by the customers which is based on
winning their trust.
 Trust should be earned as the fundamental approach to adoption of e-commerce since
online transactions have higher uncertainties associated with them.
 By considering all the facts; it is clear that building trust is the main core reason towards
the growth of e-commerce

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2.7 Identified Opportunities

 Economic growth and development due to technological advancement


 Changing of the Trend-People seek beyond the traditional methods of shopping where the
goods are delivered with either in-house or partner courier service providers including
electronic products like eBooks, videos, and audios which are delivered electronically;
which is more affordable.
 According to the statistical data presented by Business Day; reported that the current
market opportunity for electronic commerce in Nigeria is over N255 billion annually.
 Therefore, it is clear that the market is equally growing at the rapid rate of 25 percent
annually.
 Rapid growth of youth population towards accessing e-commerce platforms
 The ICT industry directly contributed 10.44 per cent to Nigeria’s 2013 Gross Domestic
Product (GDP).
 Moreover, ICT’s contributions to other sectors of the economy are growing as well.
 New amendments- Over checking cyber-crimes- Section 37 of the 1999 Constitution of the
Federal Republic of Nigeria to secure privacy
 Data protection and intellectual property rights protection
 Copyrights protection under the Nigerian Copyrights Act /Cyber-squatting
.

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2.8 Identified Threats/barriers

Challenges
 Insecurity
 Poor electricity conditions
 Inadequate Infrastructure availability
 Essential legislations have not implemented related to technological policies
 Low IT literacy
 Lack of awareness
 Language barriers- Non-availability of local language websites
 Lack of adequate e-commerce experts
 Lack of trust in the ecommerce infrastructure, poor website design, inability to complete
transaction using credit/debit card option and slow internet speed
 Lack of trust in the government of the country- failed promises
 Online fraud among Nigerians
 Perception of the Customers-Customers are fear of providing financial details on e-
commerce sites and fear of multiple deductions from account
 Privacy and security risks- architecture of the internet, does not support security
sufficiently.
 Recorded unethical behaviors- Violating Data Protection Act
Monitoring the visitors’ and customers’ likelihoods via cookies without their knowledge.
And passing the customers’ private information to the third party without their consent.
 High cost of shipping goods to and from Nigeria
 Low penetration of credit cards which required to shop online

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2.9 Other Related Facts-Current Trends-Competitors


Some of the major competitors’ details are given below in the figure 2.9.1

 Jumia.com.ng
 Konga.com
 Kaymu.com.ng
 Dealdey.com
 Yudala.com
 Checki.com.ng
 Payporte.com
 Kara.com.ng

Figure 2.9.1
References-URL link
http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1755/169-176.pdf
http://punchng.com/prospects-and-challenges-of-e-commerce-in-nigeria/
http://twoschmucks.com/country/nigeria-e-commerce-data/
http://nigerianlawtoday.com/e-commerce-evolution-in-nigeria-opportunities-and-threats/

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3.1 Country-Kenya
3.2 Overview
Kenya’s population consists of around 43 million and therefore, can be categorized as the seventh
largest country in terms of population within African continent. For an instance, the statistical data
related to the population growth rate in 2010 was nearly estimated at 2.6% per annum, among the
world’s highest, and due to that particular reason; about 45% of Kenyans are aged 16 and under.
(Souter & Kerretts-Makau, 2012).

The United Nations report in 2012 has declared that the current e-commerce platforms have
directly or indirectly contributed towards creating jobs by providing employment opportunities
within the young crowd in Kenya who have possess high skills.

Internet companies are interested towards the current e-commerce platforms since it has low setup
costs compared to traditional brick and mortar business models or infrastructures.

But, it should be noted that in some instances online customer acquisition costs can be as much as
4 times as high as offline and when initiating the e-commerce platforms complex hurdles related
to taxation within Kenya also should be taken into account.

Moreover, different ways of approaching the targeted customers via e-commerce platforms can be
pointed out as well. For an instance Businesses-to-Consumers (B2C e-commerce) where e-
commerce involves retailing transactions within organizations and individual shopper; B2C
receives a lot of media attention and many people are familiar with online retailers. Some of the
e-commerce platforms which belong to this category are amazon direct and target.com. Secondly,
consumer-to-Consumer (C2C e-commerce) involves transactions between consumers, the
ecommerce website serves which facilitates the transaction, while the seller needs to pay a fixed
fee to the online auction house to sell their products, the buyer can bid without paying any fee.
Best examples for those kinds of auction sites are eBay and www.bazee.com. Thirdly, consumer-
to-Business (C2B e-commerce) allows consumers to sell products and services to businesses,
freelancer sites such as Task Rabbit and www.monster.com.

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3.3 Related environmental factors- PEST analysis


3.3.1 Political

 New governmental regulations were imposed


Example-

The authority through the ICT ministry will be engaging the government on customs and taxes for
low valued e-commerce items, with a view of lowering the duties and taxes currently charged.

3.3.2 Economic
 Current e-commerce trends have reduced information search costs and transactions costs
 The online sales made by e-commerce websites in Kenya are extremely modest when
compared to similar business types in developed countries.
 The internet penetration rate in Kenya is around 18%.
 Other attributes include low fixed and mobile broadband costs - under or around 2% of
monthly incomes.

3.3.2 Social
Life style changes-

 Improved living standards of people


 People have adhered to work under flexible working conditions
 Current trends of e-commerce have enhanced social connections and facilities delivery of
public services.
 Also the current trends of e-commerce have reduced the cost and have increased the
quality of the offered services.
 Internet has increased competitiveness in the business environment which allows small
businesses can compete with giant businesses
 Usage of websites have Increased-Increased level of repeated visitors
 People have become more comfortable with digital transaction

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3.3.3 Technical

 Inadequate cybersecurity systems which allows merchants verify the identity of their
customers and manage potential fraudulent usage
 Lack of reliable, low-cost delivery services
 Lack of appropriate systems which enables consumers return unnecessary or defective
items.

3.4 Current Infrastructure and other resources available


The government should invest in the implementation of laws and regulatory infrastructure which
supports online Purchasing-Safeguarding privacy concerns and security risks when online
purchasing

3.5 Factors affecting growth of E commerce activities


 Trust in online businesses is a contemporary issue that entrepreneurs should be concerned
thoroughly.
 Most potential customers in Kenya are distrustful and uncertain of the process their
personal data will be handled.
 At the same time the quality of online products and services should be assured in the
process of delivery to expand or grow e-commerce activities further by providing
ultimate customer satisfaction.
 Consumer awareness should be created to eradicate poor perception

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3.7 Identified Opportunities

 Kenya’s electronic commerce market is geared up –major growth within next 5 years-
Improvement of mobile internet performance
 Current digital transactions in Kenya take place via smartphones and mobile broadband
due to low fixed-line and Personal Computer Penetration-Targeted customer growth since
more accessibility to internet services
 Communications Authority of Kenya’s commitment for creating a robust national address
system in the short to medium term. -which will eradicate the current situation of difficulty
for couriers to deliver goods bought online to their customers’ hands due to inefficient
address system.
 Empower Small & Medium Businesses to mobilize their business processes equally with
the current online practices.

3.8 Identified Threats/barriers

Challenges
Limitations of e-commerce related to technical conditions
 Lack of universally accepted standards for quality
 Issues related to security
 Issues related to reliability
 communication bandwidth
 ecommerce software incompatibility with operating system and other applications

Issues regarding nontechnical perspective


 Privacy concerns
 Internet access difficulty and expense
 consumers feel distrust until it delivers since it is intangible-cannot be assessed until the
final delivery-unlike real transactions
 Loss in the social interaction

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Technological concerns related to security, web site issues, technology issues including costs,
software and Infrastructure
Managerial Issues-people and organizational issues & management support
Business challenges -customers service, customer old habits and legal issues
Overall considering the above major factors; the following main challenges can be written down
precisely.

 Reluctance to shop due to desire to touch/interact with product before purchase


 Lack of personal contact with customers which might be beneficial to business
 Software Compatibility with existing infrastructure
 Customer distrust regarding privacy of personal data
 Customers general lack of trust for online businesses
 Cost of running and maintain an online business
 Slow internet speed
 Internet connection failure
 Security breaches and fraud
 Threat from viruses
 High customers acquisition costs
 Cost of software acquisition
 Disputes arising from returned goods
 Difficulty in finding and using website by customers
 Difficulty in recruiting staff
 Legal hurdles for cross-border e-commerce transactions
 Taxation issues` unique to online transactions

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3.9 Other Related Facts-Current Trends-Competitors

3.9.1 Jumia

 Jumia the largest online shop in Kenya. The site has a wide range of selections including
mobile phones, tablets, computers & laptops, women’s fashion and men’s fashion

3.9.2 Kilimall

 Consists of a wider range of items, and cheaper alternatives from China.


3.9.3 Mimi
 A fashion retail shop.

3.9.4 Jumia market

 Kaymu was the previous name, which can be described as an online marketplace. Any
seller can join and sell their products on the site.

3.9.5 Bidorbuy

 An e-commerce website which is based on an internet auction and online marketplace

References-URL link
http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/11295/77075/Kabuba_E-
commerce%20And%20Performance%20Of%20Online%20Businesses%20In%20Kenya.pdf?seq
uence=3&isAllowed=y
http://techsahara.com/e-commerce-growth-in-kenya-offers-new-opportunities-for-entrepreneurs/
http://www.itnewsafrica.com/2016/06/e-commerce-boom-in-kenya-offers-new-opportunities-for-
entrepreneurs/
https://www.businessdailyafrica.com/magazines/Report-says-Kenya-lags-behind-peers-in-e-
commerce/1248928-2369806-ldme5c/index.html

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4.1 Country-Democrotic Republic of Congo


4.2 Overview

Electronic commerce is not used in the Republic of Congo widely. When considering the internet
penetration rate this country belongs to one of the lowest based on the whole continent due to lack
of reliable infrastructure and equipment related to the modern technology. Therefore, the current
situation is expected to improve with the completion of a fiber optic link which will connect both
Pointe-Noire and Brazzaville to the West Africa Cable System which will pave the way for
improved internet performance. Moreover, they are expecting to connect support all of the
businesses and individual customers in terms of distribution and administrative services.

4.3 Related environmental factors- PEST analysis


4.3.1 Political

 New Rules imposed; which is governed by the African Organization of Intellectual


Property with government
 Government is not much interested towards technological advancement since the countries
basic needs related to inhabitants should be achieved in the first place since the country is
in the status of a developing nation.
 Even though the word internet is mentioned in the legislation, there was no legal text
which refers to e-commerce in any telecommunication law in this mineral-rich nation.

4.3.2 Economic

 Within the year 2010, the internet and other e-commerce sales transactions averaged
13% of total turnover.

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4.3.2 Social

 Shopping online is an unknown culture to citizens


 They prefer to deal with cash transactions since they are not properly aware of the e-
commerce practices
 The citizens have misperceptions and irrational beliefs regarding online Transactions-
Dishonesty

4.3.3 Technical

 Technological implications within the country are very low


 Most of the people are not even aware of the term e-commerce properly.

4.4 Current Infrastructure and other resources available

 Lacking of IT resources for the continuity of E-commerce activities is a considerable


issue

4.5 Factors affecting growth of E commerce activities

 The e-commerce market is extremely limited in the Republic of Congo while E-


commerce is at an early stage in the Republic of Congo.
 Therefore, initiatives should begin from the bottom level

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Anuradha Dissanayake

4.7 Identified Opportunities


 Need to start from the bottom level in promoting the concepts related to e-commerce in
order to aware inhabitants within the country

4.8 Identified Threats/barriers

 Lack of consistent and widely used internet services can be considered as a major
challenge for e-commerce.
 Lack of awareness and adequate policies
 An ineffective post system and mistrust of consumers to shop online
 The non-existence of legal and regulatory frameworks in areas related to infrastructure
and delivery of electronic services

References-URL link
https://www.export.gov/article?id=Republic-of-Congo-ECommerce

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