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UNIT 2 DRAINAGE AND.

GARBAGE
DISPOSAL
Structure
2.1 Introduction
Objectives

2.2 Design of Services


2.3 Basic Design Considerations, Sewage How, Sewage Characteristics
2.3.1 Estimation of Sanitary Sewage and Design Period
2.3.2 Sewage Row
2.3.3 Ground Water Infiltration
2.3.4 Storm Run Off
2.3.5 Type of Flow
2.3.6 Velocities
2.3.7 Sewage Characteristics

2.4 Sewer Appurtenances


2.5 Sewer Construction
2.5.1 Materials for Sewer Construction
2.5.2 Types of Mater~als .
2.5.3 Construction of Sewers
2.5.4 Hydraulic Testing of PIP Sewers
2.5.5 Check for Obstruction
2.5.6 Construction of Manholes
2.5.7 Back Filling of the Trenches
2.6 principles of Sewage Treatment
2.7 Choices of Treatment Process
2.8 Disposal of Treated Effluent
2.8.1 Disposal into Water Bodies
2.8.2 Reclamation of Treated Effluent
2.8.3 Pisciculture
2.8.4 Artificial Recharge of Aquifers
2.8.5 Disposal on Land

2.9 Treaanent and Disposal of Sludge


2.10 Monitoring of Treated Effluent Quality
Tests to be Carried out on Units of Sewage Treatment Plants
Solid Waste Management: Collection and Disposal
Quantities and Characterist~cs
Conlpns~tion
Collection
Conmmunal Storage
Kefuse Storage Methods
Disposal

2.12 Key Words


2.13 Answers to 3AQs

2.1 INTRODUCTION
Drainage arrangements are essential to the public health and welfare in all the yeas of
concentrated population and development. Every community produces water-borne wastes of
domestic, commercial and industrial origin and is subject to the run off of storm water.
Sewers perform the vitally needed fu~lctionsof collecting these waters and carrying them to
points of discharge or disposal.
Building Senices -I Waste water sy$kms nonndly comprise of

Together their ptructures compose a sewerage or drainage system.


The design an4 construction of scwerage systems occupy a large and imponant segment is
the field of Cikil Engineering. But unlike most othcr public works, a properly functioning
corxnur~ityis frequently

design and construction.


e co~nbinedto achieve the

ses of the project and of the

essay for design of a scweragc system,

pipes anti appurtenances


i::;,
sternof ;Lhraanau~h;~?>itat,
r:!l in scwcmge
nmateriais use<%

cking arid hyrlra3:lic testing of sewer systems,


study the various methods of treatment of sewage and whole water, and choice of
treatment processes,
kndw ahout the various ways c!f disposal or treated cfiJoe:ll a ~ dsludge, asld
stu4y the methods of solid waste miurdgement, including colloclioli and dispokl of

The convedging conduits of waste water collectio~works remove sewage or storm water in
free flow qh if these were travelling through branch or mbutary streams into the trullk or
main chan$el of an underground river system. To be gravitational, flow in sewers and drains
proceeds cbntinuously down hill, except where pumping stations and force anains are
interpolat+ to lift flows through force mains into higher-lying conduits, thercby (a) avoiding
the costly lconstruction of deep conduits in flat country or had ground, 'and (b) transferring
waste w a t b fr0.m low lying sub-areas to main drainage schemes. Sewers are not intended to
flow undek pressure. Hydraulically, sealers are designed a$ open channels i'lo~linapartly timll
hoicc tijr smill sewers;

kitchen, hathroorn, lavatory,


in Ule watcr supplied to the
oap, dirt, h o d wastes (garbage)
spension, some go into solution
die properties of colloid&
to saprophytic microorganisms.
~ndustriblWaste Waters: 111dustriJ waste waters vary in composition with industrial
operatio$s. Some are relatively clean rinse waters, othcrs are l~eavilyladen with organic or
sive subsLu~ces.Some are so
objectionable that they should not be admitted to tlie puhlic sewerage system; others contain* Drainnge md Garbage
Disposal
so litlle and such u~lobjectioliab~e waste matters tliat ih is safe to discharge them into storm ,
drains or dircctiy Lc) iaatural bodies of water. Fats, lirncc:hair ard fibers ;~dhereto sewers :uid
clog ttiem, acids aid hydrogen sulfide destroy cemeral, concrete arid metals; hot wasles crack
tile aid masonry conduits; poisoi~ouschemicals diswpt hiolqgical trc:~Mc~lt,kill useful aquatic
life and endanger water supplies; fertilising elements add to tlie eutrophicatio~iof lakes;
antlxax and otlier living organisms are infective to man; flammable or explosive liquors
imperil the structures througli which they flow; 'and toxic gases or vapours are hazardous.to
workmen and operators of sewage works aid occ;lsionally also to householders.

2.3 BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS, SEWAGE FLOW,


SEWERAGE CHARACTERISTICS
Sewerage systems may be classified as
i)- Sanitary sewers designed to receive domestic sewage aid industrial wastes excluding
stom water.
ii) Storrri sewers designed to carry off storm water and ground water.
iii) Combined .sewer.s designed to receive domestic sewage, industrial wastes 'and stom
water.
The combined system of sewerage though it may be economical initially, suffers from several
disadvantages such as sluggish flow during noli stonny days, leading to dep~itionof sewage
solids causing foul odours and illcreased cost of evenitual' sewage treaarlent or pumping costs,
associated witli disposal of sewage.
In tlie design of a sewer or a system of scwers, decisions must be made regarding location,
size, slope and depth of sewer and the material 01' construction. Attention also should be
given to streamlining of tlow through manholes, junctio~icl~ambersand other structures to
rninimise turbulence aid head loss to prevent deposits.
Aim of a good sewer design is to produce a structure which mi be built at die lowest aitiual
c o s ~compatible witli its function and durability over tlie years of its life.

2.3.1 Estimation of Sanitary Sewage and Design Period


Separate sanitary sewers are provided, primarily to cany the spent water of a community with
some ground water and a fraction of storm run off and the community's industrial wastes to
the point of treatment aid disposal. The sewer capacity to be provided must be determined
from an analysis of the present and probable quantities expected at the end of tlie design
period. The estimation of flow is based upon the contributory population and the per capita
flow of sewage, both factors being guided by the design period. The connection of roof,
backyard and foundation drains to the sanitary sewers should be avoided. The length of lime
upto which the 'capacity of a sewer will be adequate is refcrred as the design period.
consideration must be given for useful life of structures and equipment employed, wear and -
tear, ease or difficulty in extending or increasing or addition to the works, location, design
constraints, anticipated rate of growth of population, increase in industrial and commercial
needs while fixing the design petiod.

2.3.2 Sewage Flow


The entire spent water of a Community should normally contribute to the total flow iia a
- sanitary sewer. However the observed Dry Weather Flow (DWF) quantities usually are less
than the per capita water consumption. Some water is lost in evaporation, seepage into ttie
ground, leakage etc. Generally 80% of tlie water supply may be expected to reach the sewers
unlcss there is &ta available to the contrary. However, the sewers should be designed for a
nunimum wa5te water flow of 100 litres per capita per day. fndustries arid commercial
buildings often use watcr other than municipal supply and may discharge their liquid wastes
into the s;u~iL~rysewers. ~stimatesof such flows have to be made separately. Industrial
wastes havc to be treated according to thc sta~ictardsprescribed by ' h e regulatory authorities
before being discharged into sewers. Infiltration into sewer may occur through pipes, pipe
joint5 and structures. The probable amount has to be evaluated carefully.
~gServices -I The flow in sewers Varies considerably from hour to hour and also seaso~lly,but for the
purposes of hydraulic design it is the estimated peak flow that is adopted. The peak factor or
the ratio of maximu& to average flows, depending upon conmbutory population and the
values given in Table 2.1 are recommended.
1 Table Z.l(a): Peak Factors for Flow in Sewers

Contributory Population Peak Factor

Upto 20,000 .... 3.0


20,000 to 50,000 .... 2.5
50,000 t o 7,50,000 .... 2.25
Above 7,50,000 .... 2.00

The peak factors also depend upon the density of population, topography of the site and hours
of water supply. Tharefore it is desirable to estimate the same in individual cases, if required.
The minimum flow nlay vary fmm 113 to 112 of average flow.

2.3.3 Ground water Infiltration


Estimates of flow in danitary sewers may include certain flows due to infiltration of ground
water through joints. b e quantity will depend upon the workmanship in laying of sewers and
level of the ground water table. Since sewers are designed for peak discharges, allowance for
ground water infiltratibn for the worst condition in the area should be made. Suggested
estimates for ground Water infiltration for sewers laid below ground water table are as follows:
Table 2.l(b): Ground Water Infiltration in 9ewers

Rate Minimum Maximum


I

Litres/hectare$/day ..... 5,000 50,000


Litreshlday ..... 500 5,000
Litres/daylmahhole ..... 250 500

2.3.4 Storm Run Off


Sanitary sewers are not expected to receive storm water. Strict inspection and vigilance and
proper design and conqtruction of sewers and manholes should eliminate this flow or bring it
down to a very insignificant quantity. Storm run off is that portion of the precipitation which
drains over the ground surface. Quantum of run off reaching the storm sewers is dependent
on intens'ity and duratidn of precipitation, characteristics of the tributary area and time
required for such flow to reach the sewer. The storm water flow for this purpose may be
determined by using the rational method, hydrograph method, rainfall - run off correlation
studies, digital compute$ models, inlet method or empirical formulae.
The empirical formulae that are available for estimating the storm water run off can be used
only when comparable ponditions to those for which the equations were derived initially can
be assured.
A rational approach, thefore demands a study of the existing precipitation data of the area
concerned to permit a stitable forecast. Storm sewers are not designed for the peak flow of
rare occurrence such as once in 10 years or more, but it is necessary to provide sutfiaent
capacity to avoid too frequent flooding of the drainage area. There may be some flooding
when precipitation exceeds the design value, which has to be permitted Though such fIoodmg
causes inconvenience, it may have to be accepted once in a while considering the economy
effected in storm drainage costs. Out of the different methods, the rational method .is more
commonly used.
Rational Method
The entire precipitation bver the drainage district does not reach the sewer. The characterisucs
of the drainage district, yuch as imperviousness, topography including depressions and water
pockets, shape of the dr4iinage basin and duration of the precipitation determine the fraction of
the total precipitation which will reach the sewer. This fraction known as the co-efficient-& Drainage and Garbage
run off needs to be determined for each drainage district. The run off reaching the sewer is Dbpod
given by the expression
f
Q = 1c CIA
where,
Q is the run off in cum per hour.
C is the coefficient of run off
i is the inteilsity of rain fall in mmthour
A is the area of drainage district in hectares.
1) Storm Frequency
The frequency of storm for which the sewers are to be designed depends on the importance
of the area to be drained: Commercial and industrial areas have to be subjected to less
frequent flooding. The suggested frequency of flooding in the different areas is as follows:
a) Residential areas
i) Peripheral areas ..... twice a year
ii) Central and comparatively higli-&iced areas .. once a year
b) Commercial and high priced areas ... ' once in two years
2) Intensity of Precipitation
The intensity of rainfall decreases with duration. Analysis of the observed data on intensity
duration of rainfall of past records over a period of years in the area is necessary to amve at
a fair estimate of intensity duration for given frequencies. The longer the record available, the
more dependable is the forecast. In Indian conditions, intensity of rainfall adopted in designs
is usually in the range of 12 mmthour to 20 mmthour.
3) Coefficient of Run Off
The portion of rainfall which finds its way to the sewer is dependent on the imperviousness
and shape of tributary area apart from the duration of storm.
The percent imperviousness of the drainage area can be obtained from the records of a
particular district. In the absence of such data, the following may serve as a guide.
Commercial & industrial area ... 70 to 90%
Residential area high density ... 60 to 75%
Residential area low density ... 35 to 60%.
Parks and undeveloped areas ... 10 to 20%

2.3.5 Type of Flow


Flow in sewers is said to be steady, if the rate of discharge at a point in a conduit remains
constant with time. If the discharge varies with time, it is unsteady. If the velocity and depth
' of flow are same from point to point along the conduit, the steady open channel flow is said
to be unifornl flow, and non-uniform if either velocity, depth or both are changing. In laminar
flow fluid moves along in smooth layers while in turbulent $ow the fluid moves in irregular
paths. The hydraultc analysis of sewers is simplified by assuming steady flow conditions. A
properly functioning sewer has to carry the peak flow for which it is designed and transport
suspended solids in such a manner that deposits in a sewer are kept to a minimum. The
unsteady and nonuniform waste water flow characteristics are accounted for in the design by
proper sizing of manholes.

2.3..6 Velocities
The flow in sewers varies widely from hour to hour and also seasonally, but for purpose of
hydraulic design it is estimated peak flow that is adopted. However it is to be ensured that
minuurn velocity is maintained in the sewers even during minimum flow conditions. At the
I

,, fie ue~o&y sh~u\dnot be excessive to cause erosion.


1 -
Building Services I It is necessary to, size the sewer to have adequate capacity for the peak flow to be achieved at

4
the end of desig periods so as to avoid steeper gradie~~ts and deeper excavations. In the
design of sanitar sewers a11 attempt should be made to obtain adequate scouring velocities at
the average or at1 least at the maximum flow at the beginning of the design period. It is
therefore recoderided that for present peak flows upto 30 Ips, the slopes given in Table 2.2
may be adopted, I which would ensure a minimum velocity of 0.60 mps ill the early years.
Table 2.2 : Slope for Sewer
r I I
- , Present Peak Flow in Ips Slope per 1000
2.0 6.0
3.0 4.0
I
I
5.0 3.1
I
10.0 2.0
I
I
15.0 1.3
20.0 1.2

- -
After arriving ad slopes for present peak flows, the pipe size should be decided on the basis
of ultimate desibn peak flow and the permissible depth of flow. The mi~iimumdiameter for a
public sewer may be 150 mm. However, tlie minimum size in hilly areas. where extreme
slopes are prevdlent, may be 100 mm. Erosion of sewers is caused by sand and other gritty
material in the iewer and also by excessive velocity. It is recommended that the velocity in
the sewer does bot exceed 3.0 mps.

2.3.7 sewage Characteristics


The characterisation of wastes is essential for an effective and economical waste management
programme. It helps in the choice of treatment methods deciding the extent of treatment,
assessing the bftneficial uses of wastes and utilising the waste purification capacity of natural
bodies ,of water1 in a planned and controlled manner. While analysis of waste water in each
particular case is advisable, data from other cities may be utilised during initial stages of
I
planning. I

~ a d l e2.3: Typical Composition of Untreated Domestic Waste Water


Constituent

Domestic sewdge comprises spent water from kitchen, bath room, lavatory etc. The.factors
which contribdte to variations in characteristics of domestic sewage are daily per capita water
use, quality of water supply and the type, condition and extent of sewerage system and habits
of the people. ~ ~ ~ idatac aonl the individual constituents found in the domestic w%te water
are given in B b l e 2.3 below.'Depending on the concentrations of these constituents, waste
water is classified as strong, medium or w e d . Both the constituents and co~ilceritrationsvary
wilh the hour of the day, day of week, the month of the year and ocller local cc>~ld~i
,,,is. 1)rinage and (:arbage
Therefore, the data furnished in Table 2.3 are intended b serve o~llyas a guide a ~ 1101
d as a 1)ispocd
ksis for design.
Temperature
Observation of temperature of the sewage is useful i11 indicating the solubility of oxyge11
which affects oxygen transfer capacity of aeration equipments and rate of biological activity.
Extremely low temperature affect adversely the efficiency of sedimentation. Nonnally rhe
temperature of domestic and ~nu~iicipalsewage is higher than Ulat of the water supply.
Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH)
The hydrogen ion concentration Inore ccmveniently expressed as pH is a valuable parameter i11
tlie operatio11 of biological units. The pH of fresh domestic sewage is slightly higher tharl that
of the water supply to the commuaity.
Colour and Odour
Fresh domestic sewage has a slightly soapy and earthy odour and cloudy a p p e m c e
depending upon its concentration. With the passage of time the sewage becomes stale,
darkening in colour with pronounced smell due to microbial activity.
Solids
Though sewage contains only 0.1 per cent solids, the lest being water, still the nuisa~ice
&?used by solids cannot be overlooked as they are highly putrescible and therefore need
proper disposd.
Nitrogen
The principal nitrogenous compounds in dome,stic sewage are proteins, arnines, amino-acids
and urea, Ammonia nitrogen in sewage results from the bacterial decomposition of Ule c>rrgalic
constituents. Nitrogen being an essential component of biological protoplasm, its determination
in wastes is necessary for proper biological treatment or land irrigation.
Phospllorus
Pllospllorus is contributed to domestic sewage from food residues conLaini~lgpliosphorus imd
their breakdown products.
Chlorides
Concentration of clilrxides in sewage above the ~lormalchloride content of water supply is
used as a11 index of the strength of the sewage. The daily co~ltributionof chlorides averages
to about 8 gm per person. Based on average sewage flow of 150 Ipcd this would result i11 the
chloride content of sewage being 50 mgll l~igllcrthan that of water supplied. Any abnonnal
increase sliould indicate discharge of cllloride bearing wastes or saline ground water
infiltration, the latter adding to the sulphates which may lead to excessive ger~eratiorlof
hydrogel] sulphide.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
'The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of sewage or of polluted water is the mount of
oxygen required for the biological decomposition of biodegradable organic matter under
The stimdard BOD tesl is carried out for a period of 5 clays at 20" C and
:=robic co~lditio~ls.
is expressed as BOD5 20" C.
CInernicaI Oxygen Demand (COD)
COD test gives a measure of the oxygen required for cliemical oxidation. This kst does not
differentiate between biolog'ically oxidisable and nonoxidisable material. However, ttle ralio of
the COD to BOD does not change significantly for a particular waste ant1 llence this tesl
could be -used convaliently for interpreting the perfarmance efficiencies of the treatmen1 units.
111 sjtUatiollswhere the presence of toxic materials is likely to interfcrc with the BOD tliis tcst
is very useful.

2,4 SEWER APPURTENANCES


seweriippmelymws are devices n e a s s w ; 111 addition 10 p i p s and ~o11duitsfor Proper
fu,,cuol,ii
d ;uly complete system of sanitary, storm or co~nbioedsewers- T l l e ~include
b$uii4filleS r r ~ i c c s- 1 structures a ' d dwiccs sucll vxious tyliprs of 1n:ulllolt2s. 1:llllp IlOlcs. pllll)' ililp*. ial~rccp(ifi.
1
clydnbepj; t usllillg hnks, vclltilntio~ls b ; t s ; catch-hasiss, sWcr[ inlets. regul;tk)rh. .sipll()ll*.
grease uaps. side now weirs. [taping weirs. ve~lturii'lulnes:Illti 0ul-l':dl SlrUClllrc'S.

2.4.1 Mhnholes (Refer Figures 2.1 to 2.6)


,A m;ulllolcis opening constructed (711 the alig~lmenr(7: a ic\\Jlcl. ti)!. laciiir;~li~;:_r
;~cc:~.ss
l.1 a

person insijle Lllc sewer tor the purposc 01' iil~pcctiou,tcsliop. clc:iliinp nil rcn~o\-;ii(:1
ohstructio~lbiroi~itlir sewor liue.

1 1 -
\
MS.
FOOT REST

r. 4 . ., ' ..-*.:!":..]
SECTION - AA
,,
1:L:6
SECT'ON-BE

PLAN

Figure 2.1: Typic11 Illustration of Rect;~r~gul;~r


Mallhole for 1)ryth 1 . r t~l ~ a r(1.90
~ nl

SECTION- AA

1 PLAN

Flgurr 2.2: l ' l p i c d I l l ~ ~ ~ t r s t iof


o nRt.ctari~ular\l.inhnlr fur 1)rl)llt tlum O.')o III uytu 1.5 t11

~ ; u l h o \ e ss!louid hc built a1 every cl~ulgeof alignment, gradient or di:~~lietcr.or a1 the 1le:ul


c)f all iewers a ~ hra~lches
d aid at every ju~lctionof two or more sewers. 0 1 1 sewen wliicli arc
to be clearled rrianually, a i d which carmot hc enlcred for cleaning cir inspcti;,n. the maxilnuln
between ma~lliolesshould bc 30 m. .4spacing allow;u~ceof 100 m per 1 mtr dia of
a gelleral rule in case of large sewers more (~;uI 900 lnln di(unerer,
Ilridnage and Garbage
Disposal

CHANNELAND
BENCHING
,CC 1:2:L
1
I
re::. a,....
L I - C C
1: &:a
SECTION- A A

Figure 2.3: Typical Illustratiun of Arched Typc Manhole

C I F U M E N O COVER
/

PLAN
10 1 5 6 s & $ ?EL31

Figure 2.4: Typical Illustration of C'ircul;hr Manholes

directly over the centre line oC Ule sewer. 'Thcy ;~rcc~ir.cul;lr,


M:ulholcs :u.e usu:llly co~~structed
rect;ulplar o r squiue in shilpe. Manholes should he of such size us will idlow necessary
clciulinp :uld iilspcctio~rof mnml~oles.
Bullding Senlees -I Rectallgular Manholes
For depth less than 0.90 m
For depth 0.90 to 2.50 m
Circuldr Manholes
For depth 0.90 m to 1.65 m YO0 mm diameter
Hor depth 1.65 m to 2.30 m m diameter
1200 m
For depth 2.30 m to 9.0 m 1500 ~ n mdianctcr
Flor depth 9.0 m to 14.0 m 1800 mm diameter
The widthldiameter of manhole should not be less than intemal diameter of the sewer plus
150 mmi benching on both sides.
W e r e the d i e t e r of the sewer is increared, the crown ot the entering and leaving pipes
shall be fixed at the same level and necessary slope is given ill the invert of the clamher.
A slab, generally of plain cement concrete and at least 150 mm thick, should be provided at ,
the base to support walls of the manhole and to prevent the entry of grouild water. The
thicknes$ of the base also shall be suitably increaqed upto 300 nun, for manholes on larger
diameter1 sewers, with adequate reinforcement provided to withstand excessive upllft pressure.
The floq in the sewer should be carried in a U-shaped smooth channel constructed integrally
with the conuete base of the manhole. The side of the channel should be equal to the
diameter of the largest sewer pipe. The adjacent floor should have slope of 1:10 draining to
the channel. Where more than one sewer enters the manhole the flow through channel should
be curved smoothly and should have sufficient capacity to cany the maximum flow.
It is desQable to place the fust pipe joint outside the manhole as close as possible. The pipe
shall be built inside the wall of the manhole flush with internal periphery. protected with an
arch of n@onry or cement concrete to prevent it from being crushed.
,-C.I.FRAME A N D COVER
I

8 T H I C K N E S S OF W A L L
ALL DIMENZION I N M I L L I M E T E R S

Figure 2.5: Typical Illwtration of R.C.C. Manhole


The side wgls of the manhole are usually constructed of 230 mm thick brick work ill cement
mortar ( 1 3 1 and corbeled suitably to accommodate thc manhole frame and cover.
The inside & outside of the brick work should be plastered with cement mort;u 1:3 and
inside finished smooth with a coat of neat cement.
Drainage and Garbee
The size of manhole covers should be such that there should be clear opening of not less than Msposal
560 mm diameter for manholes exceeding 0 90 mtr depth. The frames of manholes shall k
f m l y embedded to correct alignment and level in plain cement concrete on the top of tile
masonry.
Where sewers are laid in high subsoil water conditions, manholes may be constructed in
reinforced cement concrete of grade M 20. The manholes in this type of consmcaon shall be
preferably circular type (Figure 2.5).
Heavy reinforced concrete covers with suitable lifting arrangement could also be used instead
of C.T. manhole covers. However precast cement concrete reinforced by materials other than
mild steel should be used provided that those are tested and certified.
Types of Manholes
i) Straight - through Manholes
The simplest type of manhole is that built on a straight run of sewer with no side
junctions.
ii) Junction Manholes
A manhole should be built at every junction of two or Fore sewers and the curved
portions of the inverts of tributary sewers should he formed within the manhole. The
soffit of the smaller sewer at a junction should be not lower than that of the larger
sewer.
iii) Side Entrance Manholes
In large sewers or where it is difficult to obtain direct vertical access to the sewer
from ground level, owing to existing services, gas, water etc. the access shaft should
he constructed in the nearest convenient positiotl of the line of sewer and connected
to the manhole chamber by a lateral passage.
iv) Drop Manholes (Figure 2.6)
When a sewer connects with other sewer.' where the difference in level between water

S E C I I I N A L PLAN - I T

-
Figure 2.6: Typical illustration of Drop Manhole (AU Dimenstons In millimeim)

hnes of main line and die invert level of branch line is more than 600 Or a drop
o f more than 600 is required to he glven in the same sewer line and it is
weconornicaI or impracticd to arrange the connection within 600 mm, a drop
'Onnw'Un
Or Pmvldd for which a madole may be built inCorporab'iog vedCd
temu.nae verua P'Pe fmm hlgher sewer to low-
its lower end wjUl a
or bend turned
"'
One* The drop pipe should
lo dirhxge
Building Services -I it5 tlow at 45 degree or less to the dlrectioli of flow iu the main sewer and the pipe,
ubless of cast iron, should be s~urmundedwith 150 mm of ctxicrete.
V) Sdraper (Service) Type Manklole
All sewers above 450 mxun ill diameter sliould have one ma~holeof scraper type at
intp-vals of 110 to 120 m. This ~nadlolcsl~ouldhave clear opening of 1200 x 900
tmh at top to facilitate lowarkg of buckets.
vi) Flushing Manholes
'Nliere ~t is not possible to obtzin self-c1e;msiog ve;:)cities duc to flatncss of tlie
gradient, especially at top ends of branch sewers which receive very httle flow, it is
esselltial that some form oC tlushl~lgdevice be incorporated m the system. For details
the rwder may refer IS:4111 part 2,
vii) Inveited Siphon
An iriverted':;iplion or depressed sewer is a sewer lhat 111x1s full under gravity flow at
a preBsure above a,tmmphme ill the sewer, the profile being depressed below the
hy'St11nlic grade I h e . Siphons botb true aid inverted are used in sewers to pnss over
'
Qr l~nderbbsGc7ies such as buried pipes, subways and stream beds. As the siphon is
XI appurtellali(:e requiring considerable atrention for maintenance it should be used
only where o'lher meals of passing xi obstacle in line of the sewer zuc impracticable.
The re lev an:^ India1 S m d x d is IS: 41 11 part (3).

2.4.2 Storm Water Inlets (Refer Figure 2.7)


These are devices mczuit to admit tlie surface run off to the sewers iuid form 11 very important
part of the system. Their locatio~iand design should be give11 careful consideration.
Storm water inlets rrlay be curb inlets, gutter lnleth, aid combin;ition inlets, each being either
depressed or flush depe~idiilgupon their e1ev:ltion with reference to the pavement \utiace.
i) Curb Infeb
Curb ili~dtsare vertical openlilgs ill h e road curhs through which tlie storm water
flow$ aud are preferred where heavy tratfic is anticipated.
-

CURB I N L E T S

- \
-
--- - l c ) DEFLECT OR I N LET
I~)UND~PRESSEO I b i DEPRESSED

GUTTER INLET

_ _ _ _ --
I------
- -- -7

id 1 UNDEPRESSED Iel DEPRESSED

C O M B l N A 7 1 0 N INLETS

I f 1 GRATE hLACED l g ) GRATE PLACED lnl G R A T E PLACED


o i ~ c t n IN
~ END 10 E N D OVERLAPPING
FRONT I~EPRESSEOI POSITIONIUNDEPRESSEDI POSTIJN IuNDcPRESSEDI

Figure 2.7

ii) Gutter Inlet.


These consist Of horizontal openings in the gutter which is covered by one or more
ttne f\ow passes.
gratii~gsthrougl w\~~c\I
iii) Combination Inlets V l a i ~ i s g cand (;;~rbrrg..,
Dirpe, 4

Thew are co~rlposedof a curb aid gutter inlet acting as a single unit. Nonn;llly. tlie
gutter inlet is placed right in front of the curb inlets but it may be displaced in ;ui
overlapping or end to end position.

I) 2.5 SEWER CONSTRUCTION

2.5.1 Materials for Sewer Construction


Factors intlucl~cingthe selection of materials for sewer const-uction are How characteristics,
availability in the sizes required including fittings :u~dease of handling and installatiai, water
tightties and simplicity of assembly, physical strength, resistance to acids, alkalies, gases.
xolvents etc. resistance to scour durability and cost including handling and installation. No
single material will meet all tlie conditions that may be encountered in sewer design.

2.5.2 Types of Materials


i) Brick work
ii) Concrete pipes
a) Precast concrete pipes
b) Cast in-situ reinforced concrete sewers
iii) Stone ware or vitrified clay
iv) Asbestos cement pipes
V) Ca$t iron pipes
vi) Steel pipes
vii) Ductile iron pipes
viii) Plastic pipes
a) PVC pipes
b) HDPE pipes
ix) Fibre glass reinforced plastic pipes (FRP)
X) Pitch Fibre pipes

2.5.3 Construction of Sewers (ReE Figure 2.8)


The design and coiistruction of sewers are so interdependent that tl~eknowledge of one is xi
essential pre-requisite to the competent performance of the other.
1) Trench
The width of trench at and below the top of a sewer should be minimum necessary for
its proper installation witli due consideration to its bedding. The width of a sewer Wench
depends on tlie type of shoring, working space required in lower part of tl~etrench 2nd
the type of ground below the surface.
Excavation for sewer trenches for laying sewers shall be in straight lines and tl> the
correct depths and gradients rcquired for pipes as specified in the drawings. The sldes of
trenches shall, however be supported by shoring where necessary to ensure proper atid
speedy excavation.
Trenches for sewer construction shall be dewatered for tile placement of concrtlc arl I
laying of pipe sewer or construction of concrete or brick sewer and kept dewatered ~11111
the foundation, concrete, pipe joints or brick work or concrete have cured,
Where a sewer has to be laid in a soft under ground strata or in a reclain~icllantl, t : i ~
trench shall be excavated deeper than what is ordinarily required. The bcucb Rott1)m ;'lJl
he stabilised by addition of coarse gravel or rock, in case of very sod the venc:~
bottom shall be filed with cement concrete of appropriate grade.
In the areas subject to subsidence, the pipe sewer should be laid 011 suitable s u p p r b 0:.
concrete cradle supported on -,Ies.
Uuilding Services - 2) Laying of Pipe Sewers
In laying sewers, the centre of each manliole shall be marked by a peg. Two wooden
posts 100 x 100 x 1800 mm high shall be fixed on either side at nearly equal distance
from the peg and sufficiently clear of all intended excavation. The sight rail wlle~ifixed

I R M GROUND

T R A V E L L E R OR
B O N I N G ROD

SOCKET EDGE -
PIPE W A L L ---
THICKNESS

G. I . SHEET S T R E N G T H E N E N G
COVER

~ ~ P l N A IL YI N E 3 F V I S I O N PARALLEL7
L I N E OF C O L L I N A T I O N
TO GRADE OF SEWER 1

GRADE L E V E L

G.L .

-
It- - . .. ...:
. . .. .....

------ SOCKET H O L L O W TO BE REFILLED


WITH SAND
DETAIL-&
P

Note: 1) Using honing rod excavation done to required depth only


2) Site rails to he fixed to suit the gradient of sewer at both ends and at 30 M Intel-vds using
levelink instn~rnents
3) ~ - i i e c e to
I be fixed first for excavation depth rind checking for invert level
Figure 2.8: Sight Rails for Setting-out Sewer Gradients
on these posts shall cross the centre of mtmliole. The centre line of sewer line shall he Drainage and Garbage
Disposal
marked on the sight rail. The honing rods with cross secuon 75 x 50 m m of various
lengths shall be prepared from wood. Each length shall be a certain number of meters
and shall have fixed Tee-head and fixed i~itermediatecross pieces, each about 300 mrn
long. The top edge of the cross piece shall be fixcd at a distance helow the top edge
equal to the outside dia of the pipe, the thickness of the concrete bedding or bottom of
the excavation, as the case may be. The boning staff shall be marked on both sides to
indicate its full length.
The posts aid the sight rails shall in no case he removed until the trench is excavated,
the pipes are laid, jointed and the filling started.
i) Stoneware Pipes
Tlie stoneware pipes shall be laid with sockets facing up the gradient, on desired
bedding. All the pipes shall be laid perfectly true, both to line a~idgradient. At the
close of each days work or at such other times when pipe is not being laid the end
of the pipe should be protected by a close fitting stopper.
ii) R.C.C. Pipes
The R.C.C. pipes shall be laid in position over proper bedding, the type of wliicli
may be determined in advance. The abutting faces of the pipes being coated by
meals of a brush with bitumen in liquid condition. The wedge shaped groove in the
cnd of the pipe shall be filled vrith sufficient quantity of either special bituminous
compound or sufficient quantity of cement niortar 1:3. The collar shall then be
slipped over the end of the pipe and next pipe butted well against the plastic ring by
appliances so as to compress roughly the plastic ring or cement mortar into the
grooves, care being tzken to see that concentricity of the pipes and levels are not
disturbed during die operation. Spigot and socket RCC pipes shall be laid in a
I&%iner slmrlar to stoneware spigot and socket pipes.
iii) Cast-in-situ Concrete Sections
For sewers size beyond 2 m internal dia cast-in-situ concrete sections shall be
generally used.
iv) Construction of Brick Sewers
Sewers larger tl~,m2 m are generally constructed in brick work. The brick work shall
be in Cement Mortar 1:3, plastered smooth with cement mortar 1:2, 20 mm thick
botl~from inside and outside.
v) Cast Tron Pipes
The pipes shall be laid in positio~iwith the socket ends of all pipes facing up
gradient. The spigot shall be carefully pushed into the socket with one or more laps
of spun yarn wound round it. Each joint shall be tested before running the load. High
consistency cement mortar 1:l. IS 3114 - 1985 should be followed i11 setting out the
sewers.
Jointing of Sewers (Ref. Figure 2.9)
Joints of pipe sewers may generally be any of tlie following types :
a) Spigot and socket joint (rigid and semi-flexible)
b) Collar joint (rigid and semi-flexible)
c) Cast iron detachable joint (semi-tlexible)
dj Coupling joint (semi-flexible)
i) Stoneware Pipes
AU the pipe joints shall be caulked with tarred gasket in one length for each joint
aid sufficiently long to entirely surround the spigot and of the pipe. The gasket shall
be caulked lightly home but not so as to occupy more than a quarter of the socket
depth. The socket sliall then be filled with cement mortar 1:l with just sufficient
quantity of water to have a liigli consistency of semi dry conditions and a fillet shall
be formed round the joint with a trowel forming an angle of 45 degrees with the
barrel of the pipe (IS 4127 - 1983). Rubher gaskets may also be used for jointing.
Huildi~~u
Services -I
- BACKFILL GROUND L E v ' E L

. . . . . . .

.
. .. . . , . .
. . . ....; . .

, '

REFILLED PROPERLY SW PIPE

(0.) M E T H O D OF L A Y I N G AND J O I N T I N G STONWARE P I P E S .

- BACKFILL -GROUND LEVEL

. . . . . . . . . . . .. ..
I. . .

8 1

. .
i
SW PlPE

IHIN) FILLED W I T H SAND

fbl CORRECl METHOD ff L A Y I N G A N D J O 1 N I H i O F STONEWARE PIPES -


I

(C ) -TYPICAL D E T A ~ LOF CEMENT J C I N T S F O R GLAZED


STONEWARE P I P E S

Figure 2.9: Stoneware Pipe Laving and Jninting


ii) Concrete Pipes
Concretb spigot and socket pipes are laid and jointed a ~ \ described above for stone
pipes with yarn or rubber gasket and cement.
iii) Asbestos Cement Pipes
These pipes are jointed by coupling joints or C.I. detachable joints.
iv) C.I. F'ip(es
For C.I. several types of joints such as rubber gasket (known as Tyton joint),
mechaniw joint (known as screw gland joint) and co~lve~ltional joint (known as lead
joint) a.r$ used. (IS 3114 - 1985).

.4 Hydra~licTesting of Pipe Sewers


Water Test
Each section of sewer sllall be tested for water tighhless preferably hetween manholes. 1 o
prevent cllan e in alig~mentand disturbance after the pipes have been laid, it is desirable
$
to back fill e pipes upto the top keeping at least 90 cm lcngth pipe open at joints.
However, thi6 may not be feasible in case of shorter length pipes such as stoneware and
RCC pipes. '
In case of stqneware and concrete pipes with cement mortar joints, pipes shall hc tcsted
three days after the cement mortar joints have been made. It is ilecessary that the pipe
lines are fillep with water for about a week before commenci~lgthe applicatioi~of
pressure to allow for absorption by the pipe w'all.
The sewer an$tested by plugging the upper end with a provision for an air outlet pipe
with stop cock. The water is filled through a funnel connected at the lower end provided
with a plug. After the air has been expelled through the a r outlet, the stop cock is closed
and water levpl in tl~efunnel is raised to 2.5 m above the invert of tlie upper end. Water
level in the funnel is noted after 30 ~n~nutesaid the quanlily of water required to restore
the original Idvel in the tunnel is detennined. The pipelllie under pressure is then
inspected while funnel is still in position. Tbcre shall not be my lealts in the pipe or I)i.;lir.;lge ;md (:arhage
Disyosd
joints. If any sewer or part hereof does not meet tlie test it slii~llbe emptied arid repaired
or relaid as required and tested again.
The leakage or quantity of water to be supplied to maintain the lest pressure during tlie
period of 10 minutes shall not exceed 0.2 litrelmm dia of pipes per kilometre length per
day.
For non pressure pipes it is better to observe the leakage for a period of 24 hours if
femible.
t Exfilteration test for detection of leakage shall be carried out at a time wlien the grcjund
I water table is low.
i For brick sewers, regardless of their dia, the permissible leakage of water slull not exceed
10 cuhic metres for 24 hours per km length of sewer.
For concrete, RCC and asbestos cement pipes of more than 600 mm dia t l ~ equantity d
water inflow can be increased by 10% for each additional 100 mm of pipe dia.
ii) Air Testing
' i
Air testing becomes necessary particularly in large diameter pipes when Uie required
quantity of' water is not available [or testing.
It is done by subjecting the stretch of pipe line to 'm air pressure of 100 mm of water by
meals of hand pump. If the pressure is maintained at 75 mm the joints shall be assumed
to be water tight. In caqe drop is more than 25 mm the leaking joints shall be traced ;uld
suitably treated to ensure water tightness.

2.5.5 Check for Obstruction


As soon as a stretch of sewer is laid and tested, a double disc or solid or closed cylinder
75 mm less in dime~~sion thmi the internal dimension of the sewer shall be run througli
the stretch of the sewer to ensure that it is free from any obstruction.

Figure 2.10: Typical Arrangemel~tfor Hydraulic Test nf Sewer

e 2.5.6 Construction of Manholes


The manholes shall be constructed simultaneously with the sewers. Co~~struction details ;re
furnished in previous sections. The top of umnllhole s l ~ dbe flush witli the finished mad level
(IS 41 11 Part 1. 1967 Manholes).
The entire height of manhole shall be tested for water tightness by closing both the incoming
I and outgoing ends of sewer and filling the manhole with water. A drop in water level not
more than 50 mm per 24 hours shall be permitted. In case of high subsoil water it sliould be
ensured that there is no leakage of ground water into the.m<ulholeby observing the manhole
for 24 hours after emptying it.
-
Building Services I
2.5.7 Back Fflling of the Trenches
Back filling of a$sewer traich is a very important consideration in sewer construction. The
metllod of back Bllling to bt: used varies with the width of the trench, t l ~ echaracter of the
material excavated, the metliod of excavation and tle degree of compaction required.
No trench sliall be filled in u~llcssthe sewer stretches have been tested and approved for
water tightness of joints. However, partial filling may be done keeping the joint.. open to
avoid disturbance. The refilling shall proceed around and above the pipes. Soft material
screened free f r o 9 stones or hard substances shall first be used and hand pressed under and
around the pipes to half tlieir height. Similar soft material shall then be put up io a height of
30 cm above the top o i the pipe and .this will bc moistened with water and well rammed. The
remainder of the tr$~lchcan be filled with hard material, in stages not exceeding 60 cm. At
each stage the filliipg shall be well rammed, consolidated and complctely satu~atedwith water
and then only furtlkr filling shall be continucd. Before a i d during the back lilli~igof a uaich,
precautions shall be taken against the flotation of the pipe line due to the entry of large
quantities of water into tile trench causi11.g an uplift of the emnpty or tlle partly filled pipe line.
Up11 completion of the back fill, ttle surface sl~allbe restored fully to the level illat existed
prior to the construction of the sewer.

SAQ 1
i) What are lnqits a i d demerits of combined sewer '!
ii) Wliat > r ethe materials available tor sewer construcllon !
iii) How are the sewers designed ?

2.6 PRINCIPLES OF SEWAGE TREATMENT


The object of sewage treatment ia to stablhze decolnposable orpa111c matter present 111 sewage
so as to produce an effluent and sludge which ciui be disposed of in the ciivirorment without
causing health ha~ardsor nuisance .

2.6.1 Degree of Treatment of Waste Water


The degree of treatment will mostly be decided by the regulatory agencies >uld tllc extent 10
which the final products of treatment are to be utilised. Thcse regulatory bodies might have
laid dowli standards for affluent or might specify the conditions under whi~lithe eMuait
could tw discharged intb a natural stream. sca or disposed on land. The method of treatment
adopted should not o n l j mi:et the requireneilts of tl~eseregulatory agencies bur also result in
Lh1e niaxirnum usc of elid p~oductsconsistent with economy.

2.6.2 Principles of Sewage Treatment (Ref. Figure 2.6)


The contamina~ltsin waste water are removed by physical, chemical a i d biological means.
Tlic individual methods bsually are classified as physical unit operations. chemical unit
operatio~isand biological unit operations. Although these operations and proces\es occur in a
variety of combinations in treatment systems, it bas beal found advantageous to study their
scientific basis separately because tllc pnuciples mvolved do not change.
Drainage ;u~dGarbage

_
Disposal

__ _
EXCESS L-
i T. __
' V A T C C.
.S--
L C. -
C.Z E _

PRIMARY
SETTLING

t
SLOGE TO PROCESSING

Figure 2.11: Process Flowsl~eetfor Treatment Plant Designed to Meet Secondary Treatment Sta~~dards

4- PRIMARY
TREATMENT
-I - - - -
SECONDARY
- P

TREATMENT
~

-
-

UNIT OPERATION SCREENING GRIT REMOVAL PRIMARY S E T T I N G B I O L O G I C A L OXIDATION SECONDARY SETTING


OR P R O C E S S
AND S Y N T H E S I S

1
1 i RECYCLE0 SLUDGE 4- - - --

1 SUPERNATANT WGE57EO -S ~A~~~~~

b OISPOSAL
F-Y PRODUCT
- SCREENING GRll P R I M A R Y SLUOGE r c n L CO?I
SECONOARY S W O G E

Figure 2.12 : Process Flowsheet of Conventio~ldDomestic Waste Water Treatment

RIOOXla4TION
SCREEN1NG S Y NTHESlS SETTLING
R A W WASTE
WATER -- .
SCREEN . OX I DAT ION
D I TCH
S. S .T
WATER

IDRED,*
RECYCLED sL U ~ E, -

Figure 2.13: Process Flowsheet Incorporating Oxidation Ditch


1
E XESS
SLUDGE
S

- L D
DRYING SLUDGE

- S C R E E N l NG

SCREEN
1
BlOOXlDATlON P
SYNTHESIS

A € RATED
LAGOON
I
T REATED
WASTE W A T E R
-

Figure 2.14: Process Flowsheet Employing Aerated Lagoon

-] -
eAS~~l
SCREENIK,

SCREEN -
I

,
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
BIOX I D A T l a N
SYNTHESIS

WASTE
STABILISATION
POND
t

TREATED
WASTE WATERs

Figure 2.15: Process Flowsheet Using Waste Stabilisation Pond


RAW WASTE
!------ --- I TREATED
SCREEN1

I I I
-
I
ANAEROBIC
REDUCTION
C SYNTHESIS I
- I
!
SET' I
.rG
I
I
-
WA5TE-WATER pOS

TREATMENT

~ d l DCHAMBER

1 ANAEROBtC FILTER

2 ANAEROBIC R BC

3 FLUID BED SMAR

L UASBR

Figure 2.16: Process Flowsheet Employing Anaerobic Treatment Devices

i) Physical Unit Operations


Treatment methods in wtiich the application of physic;il ti)rces predominate arc known as
physical unit operations. Because most of these methods evolved directly from mai's first
observatidns o f nature, they were the first to be used for waste waiter treatment.
~creenirlglmixing, flocculation, sedimcntatiion. floatatiori auld filtration are typical physical
unit operdtions.
i
ii) chemical Unit PI-ocesses
Treatment methods in which the removal of conversion or contami~lantsis brcx~ghtabout
by the addition of chemicals or by other chemical reactions are known as chemical unit
processes. Precipitation, gas transfer, adsorption and disinfection are the most cormnon
ex,mples used in waste water treatment. 111 chemical precipitation, treatment is
accomplisRled by producing a chemical precipitate that will settle. In most cases, the
settled prqcipitate will contain both the constituents that may have reacted with added
chemicals/arid the constituents that were swept out of tile waste water as the precipitate
settled. ~bsorptio~l involves the removal oP specific co~npoundsfrom the waste water 011
solid surfices using the forces of attraction between tl~ebodies.
iii) Biological Unit Processes
Treatmend methods in which thc removal or contaminants is brought about by biological
aclivity aie known as biologiall unit processes. Biological treaunent is primarily to
remove the biodegradablc organic substwces in waste water. Basically, these substtvlces
are couve~tedinto gases that can escape to the atmosphere and into biological cell tissue
that can lie removed by settling. Biological treatment is also used to remove ~lilrvgenin
wasle wat,kr. With proper eiivironmental control wa%e water can be treated biologically in
most cast?/;.Therefore; it is the responsibili~yof the Engineer to ensllre hat proper
environm$nt is produced auld rfCeclivrly controlled.
Tlie contqninants of major interest in waste water and the ~1111operations u1d processes
or rnetllods applicable to these contaminants are shown in Table 2.3 below:
Table 2.3: Contaminants
-----.. .-- - .-- -- - -- --
-.

Contaminant ~ Unit Opcratiou, l111it I'T~KCIS


IW TT~:I~IIICII~
SYS~CIII

~ u : ; ! l r , ~ huhclJ
il~~l Sztlimzntation
I Screening ancl cornminution
!

Ch~.nl~cd-poly~nrr
addition

i 1-nntl l're;it~nsnt Systz~u


I
U ~ ~ ~ ~ l : ~ l : ~ iadpnics
lnl~lc Activatetl sludge variations

~ Fixed Fill : r~lcklingf i l t e ~<

I Biological C:ontrctors
l ) r ~ t i ~ ~and
a~c

Land treatnlent \Y~II-LLI~

hlctal - sah ntldit~~)~.;


1.1111e,congulfitiun/.;~~c~i~i~~~~~~:~lioo
Biological-C'I~z~llics~
phosphorous removal
Land treatment systems
Refractory organics Carhon atlsorption
Tertiary ozonation

Heavy metals Chemical precipitation


Ion exchange
Land treatment systems
L)issolved organic solids Ion exchange
Reverse osnlosis
Electroclialysis

2.7 CHOICE OF TREATMENT PROCESSES


Sewage treatment process may be generally classified as primary, seco11d;uy aid tertiary. Tlie
general yardstick of evaluating the performance of sewage treatment plants is the degree of
Table 2.4: Efficiency of Various Treatment Units

Percentage Reduction
Process SS ROD Total C d i f o n n
1) Primary Treatment (Sedimentation) J-60 30-45 40.60

2) Clic~nicaltreatmelit 60-80 45-6 60-90

3) Secondary treahnent
I) Shndud TnckIlng tiltr~q
n , f i g h riitz Trickling filters

ii)~cti~dsJ
sludge plants
iy) SLab~lizanonPonds
Building Services -I reduction of BOD, suspended solids and total coliforms. The efliciency of treatment plait
depends not only on proper design arid constructiori but also on good operation and
maintenarice. Expected efficiencies of various treatment units arc tabulated below in Table 2.4.
Tertiary treatment is adopted when reuse of effluent for industrial purposes is contemplated or
when circum/;tances dictate the requirements of higher quality effluents

2.8 DISPOSAL OF TREATED EFFLUENT


The effluent from sewage treatment plants may be discharged into receiving waters such as
lakes, streams, rivers, estuaries, oceans or on larid. The nature aid degree of treatment given
to the sewage is dependent upon the requirements imposed by the regulatory authorities. The
water content of the sewage effluent along with the fertility value of the nutrients serves to
rnake it useful for irrigation and pisciculture: and also put to low grade industrial uses where
water of high quality is not important or for artificial recharging of aquifers in areas of rapid
depletion of nrnderground sources. Competing larid use, public health impact. energy
requirement, aesthetics and biological effects decide the mode of disposal whether on land or
in water. The problems encountered in the selectiori of the process are complex and demand a
.
multidisciplinary approach.

2.8.1 Disposal into Water Bodies


The treated dffluent may still have a high coliform density, disi~ifectionor m y other treatment
methods may be considered for reducing the colifonn density before disposal into the water
bodies.
i) Disposal into River
Disposal of waste water into a river causes organic, chemical and microbial pollution.
Organic pollution not only depletes oxygen content in the river resulting in destruction of
fish but also loads to heavy algal growth downstrem~.The waste assimilating capacity of
the river' depends on its self-purification properties, the estimation of which is very
importarit in order to protect and promote the various beneficial uses to ~vliiclithe river
water is put.
ii) ~ i s ~ o s into
a l Estuaries
Estuaries behave quite differently with respect to pollution dispersion and they generally
have less assimilating capacity wlien compared to rivers or streams. As in the case of
rivers dissolved oxygen is the most important parameter that governs the presence of fish
and othtlr aquatic forms of life in the estuary.
iii) Disposal into Ocean
The capacity of the sea to absorb waste water is less compared to fresli water systems
because of its low oxygen and high dissolved solids content, even though water
availability for dilution is high. Since the specific gravity ol' sea water is greater and
temperature lower thari that of waste water, tlie lighter and wanner waste water will rise
to the surface wlien discharged into the sea resulting m the spreading of the waste water
, as a tliin film or sleek. 111 view of the special characteristics ot the marine eco- system,
the o u t f u should be carefully located taking into account sea currents. wind direction,
wind velocity, tidal cycles etc.

2.8.2 ~ebamationof Treated Effluent


Complete reklarnation of sewage effluent is not generally adopted. This being only
supplementary to other methods of disposal. Reclamation is restricted to meet the needs
depending upon the availability arid cost of fresli water, traillrportation luid treatment costs arid
the water quality standards aid also its end uses like watering of,lawns and grass lands,
cooling boiler feed and process water, forming artificial lakes. wetting of refuse for
compactiori wid composting and raising agricultural crops.

rf I O C ~co.oad1tion.s are suitable. particularly purified sewage effluerlt may he used for fish
culture wit.hout further dilutius. Raw sewage cannot djrecljy be used tor fid9l1 ccl*ure
als il does
not contain sufficient dissolved oxygen for tlie survival and growth of fish. The waste Drainage and Garbage
stabilisation pond effluent and the percolated effluent from sewage farms have bee11 Disposal
successfully used in the fish culture.

2.8.4 Artificial Recharge of Aquifers


Amficial recharge of ground water aquiters is one of the metliods for combini~lgeffluent
disposal with water reuse. Treated effluent has been used to 'arrest salt water intrusion which
may take place due to tlie lowering of ground water table by excessive pumping to meet large
water demands. In the present day when conservation, reclamation and reuse of water are
receiving inc~easingemphasis, sewage effluent constitutes a valuable source for recharging the
ground water.

2.8.5 Disposal on Land


The ~lutrientsin sewage like nitrogen, phosphorus and pomsium along with micronutrients as
well as organic matter present in it could be advantageously employed for sewage f'mning to
add to the fertility and improve the drainage characteristics of tlie soil, adding to the irrigatio~i
potential of the water content. However, use of raw sewage or nightsoil or sullage is fraught
i
with public health dangers. Even application of treated effluent to land has tto be c'uried out
with certain precautions as it is not completely free from this risk. A good sewage fann
should be run on scientific lines with efficient supervision; with the prim'ary objective of
- disposal of sewage combined with its utilisatio~ito the possible extent in a sanitary manner
without polluting the soil, open water courses or dutesian waters or conLminati11g crops r:~ised
on the sewage farm, or imp'airing the productivity of tlie soil. It should also provide for
hygienic safety of the staff to protect them against the infection by patlhogenic organisms and
helminths.
Tliough sewage after primary treatment can be applied to the f'mns, h e temptation of
providing only primary treatment and eliminating secondary treatmelit merely on cost
considention should be resisted. Effluent from properly designed waste stabilisatioii polids is
also suitable for application on land. Under no conditions, application of raw sewage on
sewage farms should be permitted.
A moderately permeable soil capable of infiltrating approximately 5 cm per day or more on
an intermittent basis is preferable. In general, most soils are suitable for f'ming, provided
proper management practices are followed.

2.9 TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SLUDGE


Olrgaiic sludges are important by-products of conventio~laldomestic waste water treatment.
The settleable solids that are originally present in raw sewage and those synthesized and
bio-flocculated during biological treatment are removed in settling tank as sludge. The sludges
are loose structures of particles or flocculent solids with included water. The water contelit of
sludges is relatively larger as solids constitute only a small portion of the total sludge volume.
Disposal of sludge presents problems due to two important characteristics of sludge viz.,
i) solids present in sludges are chiefly organic and hence putrescible, aid
ii) volume of sludge is many times that of its constituent solids.
I Consequently, various unit operations and processes employed for treatment of
sludges 'aim at stabilization of organic matter aid reduction of volume of sludge by
removing water. While reduction and stabilization of organic matter are achieved by
digestion, incineration and composing, the treatment methods aimed at removal of
water from sludges include thickening, dewatering and drying.
Sludge thickening or dewatering is adopted for reducing the volume of sludge or increwing
the solids coilcentration in order to
a) permit increased loadings to sludge digesters;
b) increase feed solids concentration to vacuum filters;
ec~llomise011 transport costs as 111 oceai barging in case of raw sludges;
Uuilalng Service -I d) minimise the land requirements as well as handling costs when digested sludge has to
ha transported to disposal sited; and
e) sa*e on the auxiltary fuel that may otherwise be needed when incineration of sludges
is practiced.
The principal methods now used to process and dispose of sludge are listed in Table 2.5.
(Figure 2.17)
Table 2.5: Sludge Processing and Disposal Methods -
Unit Operation, Unit process or Treatment Method Function

Prellnzlnary :operations
Sludge gnnding Size reductlotl
Sludge degriftinp (int removal
Sludge blenbng Blrndlng
Sludge storage Storage
Thlcketung
Gravity thickening Volume reduct~otl
Floatation thickenrng

Stul~ilrzatiottl
Chlorine oddation
l i m e ctabilibtion
Heat Treatqent
Anaerobic digestion Stabilization
Aerobic digestion Mass reduction
Conditioning :
Chemical cdnditioning Sludge conditioning
Elutnation Leaching
Heat ~reattnknt Sludge conditioning
Dis~nfection Disinfection
Dni~urerrttg

Filter prrss Volu~llereduction


Horizontal htlt filter
I
Centrifuge ,
I

Drying bed
Storage Volutne rerluction

Flash dryer
Spray drycr Weight recluction
Roraq dryer Volutne r a i ~ ~ c t i o n
Mul~iplewoath dryer
011 Emersioq dehydration
Cotnposting )
Conlpostinp LSludge only) Pro~tuctrecove.ry
Cn-con~postibgwith solid wastes Volume reiluciio~~
TIzrrnzul rvdl~ctiort
Multiple-heaith incineration Volurlle rrcluction
Kzsource recvveiy
Fluidized-bed incinention Volurnz reduction
Flach co~nbu~tion
Co-incineration with solid wastes
Co-pyrolysis with solid waqtes
Wet air oxidation Volume reduction Drainage and Garbage
(Jltirnate disposal

Land 6 U Final disposal


Land application
Reclamation Final disposal, land reclanlation
Reuse Final disposal, resource recovery

GRINDING THICKENING

DISINFECTION
BLENDlffi THICKENING

SLUDGE FROM
TREATMENT
PROCESSES

STAB1 L I T A T I O N CONDITIONING DISINFECTION


P R I M A R Y OPERATIONS

- BELT FILTER

- --
-
DRY1NG ISLULGE ONLY1 APPLICATION

CENTRIFUGE '
CU COMPOSTING
WITH =LID WAT
CO PYROLYSIS
WITH SOLID 'NA*a RECLAMATION

DRYING BED MULTIPLE


HEART DRYER
WATER
OX1 DATIOH
REUSE
1
I I
4-u
I
( L I M E RECOMR
I

DEWATERING DRYING COMPOSSlK T H E R M A L REDUCTION ULTIMATE DIS P O S I L

Figure 2.17: Generalised Sludge Processing and Disposal Flowsheet


~ u i l d i kServices -I Sludge is usually disposed of on land as manure to soil or as a soil condittoi~eror barged alto
sea. Burial is generally resorted to for small quantities of putrescible sludge. The most
common d t h o d is to utilize it as a fertilizer. Ash from incinerated sludge is used as a land
fill. In some cases, wet sludge, raw or digested as well as supeniatant from digester can be
lagooned as a temporary measure but such practice may create problems. like odour nuisance,
ground watbr pollution and other public health hazards. Wet or digested sludge can be used as
a sanitary land fill or for mechanized composting with city refuse.

2.10 MONITORING OF TREATED EFFLUENT QUALITY


The primary aim of sewage treatment pl,mt operation is the running and maintenance of the
plant efficiently and economically so that the effluent from the plant meet the prescribed
standards io terms of BOD/COD/SS/pH etc. laid down by the local body or any other
statutory body while discharging the effluent safely in public sewer, on land or in the water
body.
The basic requirements of successful operation and maintenance of sewage treatment plants are
I) A thorough knowledge of plant aid machinery and equipmeiits provided in the
treatment plant and their functions;
ii) A thorough knowledge of the processes;
iii) Ptoper and adequate tools;
iv) AHequate stock of spare parts and chemicals;
v) Assignment of specific maintenance responsibilities to operating staff;
vi) Systematic aid periodic inspection and strict adherence to servicing schedules;
vii) Training of all operating staff in proper operatieg procedures and maintenance
practices;
viii)Overall supervision of operation 'and maintenance schedules;
ix) Qood house-keeping;
X) Proper logging of all operationlmaintenance activities;
xi) Observation of safety precautions and procedures;
xii) Provision of water supply for driilkii~gand other uses.
Better plmt operation is possible only when the operating maintenance and laboratory staff
are fully Conversant with the characteristics and composition of sewage handled and the
resultq achieved during each state or unit of the treatment process.
For quality control analysis of influent and effluent should be carried out on regular basis and
recording, of data is essential for an accurate assessment of the efficiency of operation.

2.10.1 Tests to be Carried out on Units of Sewage Treatment Plants


Some of the tests which are nonnally carried out on raw sewage and influent or effluent are
listed below:
a) Raw Sewage
- Total suspended solids
- Settleable solids
- Dissolved solids
- pH
- Alkalinity

Total Kjehldol Nitrogen


Ammonia1 Nitrogen
- Phosphorous Drainage and Garbage
Disposal
- Heavy metals
- Toxic substances
b) ActivatedIExtended Aeration Tank (Influent and Effluent)
- Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)
- SVI for ML
- BOD
- COD
- DO
- ORE'
- Microscopic examination for flora and fauna
- Microbial growth rate
- Oxygen up-take rate
* c) Septic Tank (Influent and Effluent)
- Total suspended solids
- Settle able solids
- Dissolved solids
- BOD
- COD
- PH
- Alkalinity
- Volatile acids
- Total solids %
- Volatile solids %
- Sludge (microscopic examination for ova, cysts, pathogens)
d) Stabilization Pond (Influent and Effluent)
- Total suspended solids
- Turbidity
- PH
- Ablinity
- BOD
- COD
- DO
- ORE'
- Colour and Texture
- Algal cell concentration
e) - Chlorinated EMuent
- Chlorine residual
i

2.10.2 Solid Waste Management: Collection and Disposal


Definition: Solid waste is defined as the organic and inorganic waste materials, produced by
llousehold, commercial, institutional and industrial activities, that have lost heir value in the
eyes of the first owner. Solid waste management comprises collection, transportation to
disposal site and disposal.
P

Buildi~~g
Services -I
2.1 0.3 Quantities and Characteristics
The quantities and characteristics of solid waste produced vary from country to country.
Factors thbt ininfluence the quantities and composition are: the average level of income, the
sources, t$e population, social behaviour, climate, industrial production and the market for
waste ma&rials. Higher the GNP of a country is, the more solid waste is produced per capita.
As economic prosperity increases however, the amount of solid waste produced increases in
weight and volume and proportionally larger part will consists of 'luxury' waste such as
paper, carUboard and plastic 2nd heavier organic materials.
On an average the solid waste generation in India is as follows:
Metrqpolitati cities .... 500 gm/capita/day
~ t h e dcities .... 250 to 400 gmlcapitalday
Rural areas .... 100 to 150 gmkapitahiay
2.10.4 Composition
The solid waste in urban and city areas will have contents as
i) Garbage
ii) Ash
iiiP Paper
iv) Rags
V) Plastics
vi) Leather
vii) Ceramics & Earthenwze
viii) Glass
id) Metal
Density bf solid waste will be about 550 kg per cum.

2.10.5 Collection
The frequency of collection depends on
a) Characteristics of solid waste;
b) Climate;
c) Communal or house storage;
d) Characteristics of the dwellings or shops;
e) Duties of the householders;
f) (costs.
The wasrtes of developing countries comprise high amount of vegetablelputriscible matter,
which sqrves as a hreeding mediuln for tlies and is a source of offensive odours. Eggs of
house infly hatch is as early as one day, but the larvae feed for about 5 &ys before puparatio11
which then takes a further 3 days (the total period may be 7 days in tropioll countries). A
weekly collection, therefore prevents the production of adult tlies in tile stored wastes,
provided tliat the larvae are unable to migrate from the container. Decompvsition of tlie waste
howeved, becomes apparent during the first 2 days; thus aesthetic standard may be of greater
practicd significance tl~anthe life cycle of the fly in this context.
Method of Collection
The garbage can be collected from houses through plastic bags or containers of suitable
capacity. From tlie household containers it is collected in vehicle mounted drums like tricycle
or three wheelers to primary collectionlco~nmunitystorage.
In case of multistoried buildings, the garbage can be collected at ground tloor from chutes
which receives at upper tloors and discharges to vehicle mounted cont:uners for conveyance
to the &mmunity storages. The chute has to be maintained properly by wdsliing and cleaning
periodidally.
D~alnngeand Garbage
Disposd
2.116 Communal Storage
Capacity of storage depends on the command area md frequency of collectiou.
i) Communal collection sites should be cleared daily or at least thrice a week:
ii) For dwellings with gardens and buildings having outside storage space. twice a
weekly collection is adequate, provided a closed ponaMe container is used. In our
munay this is not recommended due to hot climatic conditio~~s. It is advisable to
provid lhnce a week or alternate day collection under the same conditions.
iii) In the case of houses and buildings that lack outside storage space? collection should
be daily, unless communal containers are provided.

2.10.7 Refuse Storage Methods


Storage volume depends on
i) per capit? generation;
ii) density of solid waste;
1
iii) frequency of collection;
iv) family size.

2.10.8 Disposal
Solid waste disposal method includes sanitary land fill, composting and incineratiol:. Size
reduction of the waste by shredding or pulverisation is applicable W developed countries.
1) Sanitary Land Fill
In this method the refuse is deposited in areas earmarked for land till in layers compacted a~d
then covered with earth and time allowed for anaerobic decomposition. After 2-3 months it
can be used as an organic manure and fertilizer.
Some of the environmental aspects of land N1 are -
i) Control of breeding of flies, rats, rodents,
ii) Health hazard due to fly nuisance,
iii) Air pollution by fires;
iv) Ground water conramination due to leachate.
The leachate may pollute ground water, Inay contain pathogen, organic matter, high BOD ;ind
high COD. Ground water pollutions are avoided by careful selection of site, surface pollutioll
is avoided by preliminary site engineering.
2) Processing of Garbage into Fuel Pellets
The m.unicipa1 solid waste is screened to separate large size non-combustible
materials, subjected to magnetic sweep to remove magnetic material and then tr'msferred to
conveyor for mechanical processing in stages, In the first stage of mecllanical processing, the
garbage is subjected to sieving and cutting to separate sand, grit etc., and effect certain size
reduction for subsequent stages of processing. In the second stage the material is subjected to
l l y to tile drying system. The
funher sieving to remove sand etc,, atld p w ~ ~ ~ aconveyed
*
dned material is once again subjected to nlagnetic separation and tI1erl to mecbanicaI
slwedders to reduce the size to the required lunits. This material is subjected U,
air-cla5sification to remove higher comhustiMe fractior~from denser non-combustible matter
and conveyed to the blender. Thereafter it is mixed with binders atcl additives to enricl~the
calorific value and conveyed to the pelletiser for producing blended fuel pellets. The pellets
are cooled, sieved and packed for co&enient handling during storage, Uaufportatio~~ etc. The
process involved in pellelisation and tlle equipment5 required are attacl~ed.
3) Incineration
Ctlaracteristics of Ule
'tqUued
it InaY .Ot be"as"
ap~licabb in be studied before selectiug
J I ~ J to this melod As energy 1s
wdstes in OW cOUl,lry.
caorifi~ vdue
Wlere putn
otlr c o ~ ~ N~~~~~~ ~.
i ~~ ~ ~ i ~j~~~ ~~a cost,v
iy
liu,PJicahle
~ ' lo
~ I~o$piM
~~ ~ i~ ~ ~d ~
Scibe matter j.9 more,
IS 'eV IOW aid henPo..'- 110h.-
I
-
Services I
Buildi~~g

-
VISUAL
INSPECTION CHOPPING - SCREENING B
FEEDING
1 .
I I
--------- - - _ - _ __
S NREDDING
FEEDING

Figure 2.18: Process C h a ~ tfor Garbage PeUetisil~g


4) Recycling
Recycling of wastes depends on the socio-economic conditioos of the people. A few cases of
recycling are listed below:
- Paper for repulping;
- Textile (Rages etc.) cloth for paper making for machi~lerywiders;
- Metal for remelting;
- Glass for remelting or abrasive manufacture;
- Rubber for down grade use;
- Plastic for inferior quality products:
- Cinder, fragne~ltedcoal, coconut sllell etc. for fuel;
- Metal cans used for domestic vessels;
- Vegetable waste for animal feed.
5 ) Cornposting
Why Compast ?
In nature all dead matter is gradually acted upon by the forces of nature such as sun,
wind, rain ah3 microbes which serve to breakdown complex mater~alInto simpler
molecules. If such material is left to decay on roadsides or market places, it begins
to decomposk and stink and also invite insects, rode~ltsand bacteria whlch cause
disease. Instaad, the process of decomposition can be used to convert organic wastes
which we generate every day (in our homes, restaurrults, offices, schools, canteens,
markets and gardens) to produce a rich compost which can help us keep our
surroundi~igsc l e a ~aid
~ green.
Cotn]?ostingcnn Iwlp !is in the following manner -
- Obtaiil a natwal fertiliser, this m a sunple method o f fertilising pie I a ~ iuld
l
improving soil structure. It illcreases aeration, and orgauic Inatter and ~nicrobiallife
in soil.
- Recycle biolo$ically the garden a16kitchen wastes.
- Reduce the qualtity of waste dumped ct~ilyat the roadside garbage bin
Whut can one compost ?
- All organic matter can he compc~sted.Animal excrete especially cow dung, bird
droppings, dun$ of horses,' sheep. goats, pigs, dogs. cats added to the decornposirlg
organic matter bflstens composting.
Okganic matter decomposition for production of organic manure can take place in the Drainage and Garbage
Disposal
absence of air, presence of air or in presence of earthworms and is referred to as
anaerobic, aerobic or vermicompost respectively.
Anaerobic Decomposition
In anaerobic method of ohtairiing organic manure, the organic matter is decomposed in the
absence of air. Organic matter may be collected in pits and covered with a thick layer of soil
and left undisturbed for 6-8 months. The compost so formed may not be completely
converted and may include aggregated masses.
Biomethenation
Biological breakdown of purely organic matter by-bat* h the absence of oxygen prcxluces
a mixture of meth'me and C02. This is biogG. Biogas is alternative cooking fuel wlnicln is
cheap and clean- This bioga5 generated by fermentation of segregated organic matter is
cl&uncr md h& a lnigln~r?rrefh&econtent than a comparable gas generated from wastes
decomposing in land fill sites (where it is called landfill gas). Organic wastes from homes.
food Gcessing industries, water treatment plants, breweries and distilleries can also be used
to generate biogas.
Aerobic Decomposition
Aerobic composting is a process by which organic waste is converted to compost or manure
in the presence of air. Aerobic composting can be of different types. Whatever the type, it is
importan1 to ensure proper movement of air thrc)ugln tlie mass by tunling and raking.
a) Heap Method
All available organic matter is divided into different types e.g.
i) hard stalks: and woody biomass
ii) carbon rich, soft biomass (straw, saw dust etc.)
iii) nitrogen rich biomass (fresh grass, weeds, animal feeds, wastes and excrete).
Materials of the first type are spread as 15-20 cm thick base for the heap. This is covered
with alternate layers of 20 crns and 10 crns thicknesses respeclively of 2nd and 3rd types
into a heap of about 1.5 mts. height. The heap is then covered with a thin layer of soil or
dry leaves. The lieap needs to be thoroughly mixed by turning the whole material after
7-10 days. Complete conversion takes place after 2-3 weeks.
b) Pit Method
In tlnis method layers of material used in the heap method are placed in a pit of 1 metre
ckpth. Length and breadth of the pit can vary with quantity of material available for
composting. Tlie filled up pit is then covered with soil. The contents are mixed every 15
days until compost is ready.
c) Berkley Method-
This method is highly labour intensive. but it is fast. This method produces compost
within 2 weeks. Easily biodegradable material such as grass clippings and green vegetahle
matter are collected and mixed with dry animal matter in the ratio 2:l. This is piled up to
a height of 1.5 metres and is left foi 3 days after moistening. On the 4th day the heap is
thoroughly mixed. This is repeated on 7111 and 10th day. The compost will be ready in 2
weeks.
It must be noted that composting requires the constant maintenance of temperature of
55OC degrees C and 50% moisture. Temperature builds up in the heap or pit with the
passage of time.
Vermi Composting
"Vermi" stands for earthworm. Eartlnworms eat soil and v,arious kinds of organic matter which
undergo complex biochemical changes in the intestines which are then excreted out in the
form of gr,mular castes of earthy smell. Eartlnwork excreta together with their cocoons and
undigested food are called vermi-casting. Some eartlnworm species which live close to the
surface and have greater preference for organic matter than soil caul be isolated and used to
produce vermi-castings. Species found best suited for the generation of manure by this
method are Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida and Perionyz excavatus. These are all surface
feeders whlch feed on organic matter and enhance organic decomposition by microbes.
-
, Building Ser~ices I Earthworm 6ulturing Techniques and Production of Vermicastings

1) ~ontaineks:Earthworm culturing crui he done in sliallow cernait t i ~ i k woodai


~, boxes
and ston; lined pits or plastic tubs of 1 m x 1 In x 0.3 m which caul accommodate
around 2000 worms.
2) Placernewt of Culture Material: Culturing of eartli wonns has to he dolie in moist
places wild1 proper shelter to avoid direct sunlight or heavy downpour. To ensure
protection from predators pits should be lined aid covered with mesh.
3) Preparalon of Feed Mix: Saw dust, coconut husk or auiy other hard material can be
used as base. Dung of domestic animals such as cattle, horse, pigs or poultry droppings
mixed with kitchen wastes forms an ideal feed for worms. Previously decomposed matter
helps fasbr formation of vermicastings.
4) vermicabt Production and Collection: The wonns that feed actively assimilate only
510% aqd the rest is excreted as loose granular mounds of vermicastirigs on ttie surface
generally away from the food source. These liave to be bmshed aside and collected into
separate trays. The collected castings liave to be left overnight in conical heaps for tlie
worms to move to the bottom. The tops of the cones which are free of worms are then
collected a ~ lightly
d air dried. The dried vermi castings are sieved tl~ougha 3 m m mesh
to separate cocoons and young ones from the vermicastings. The dried castings are ready
for use 4s manure.
~ ~ ~ l i c aof& vermicastings
n to plants is similar as in tlie cxse of compost or organic
malure.

SAQ 2
1) What is the permissible depth of flow in sewers?
ii) What are the clioices of treatmeot ava~lahletor domestic waste water'!
i ~ i )Wliat are the reuses possible for trcatcd efflueiil'?
17) HOWf's solid w;~stedesposed'?

2.11 SUMMARY
Every commbnity produces both liquid auld solid wastes. Tlie sanitary lnariagement of waste
waters enter4 into every phase of waste water disposal. It,.sUuts,where water supply ends, at
fixtures tlxoyigh which waste water is emptied into sewers, follows the collecti~~g
system
through the dreatment works, and terminates only after streams or other bodies of receiving
water have deer1 retunled to wanted purity or lost themselves in the oceauls.
Most house bold garbage is recyclable. Paper, plastic, metal. glass, rags can be reused in
various manlfacturing processes. Wet organic kitchen waste caul be used to generate compost
rich in plantnuuients. City's solid waste after segregation c:ul be used to generate energy md
manure.

2.13 K$Y WORDS


I

,Sewer : A pipe or coriduit that carries waste water or drairuge water

I
1
Waste WaGr : The spent water of a community.
Sanitary Sewer : A sewer tl~atc'uries liquid and water carried-wastes from
residences. cornrnercial buildings, industrial plants aid
institutions.
Storm Sewdrs : A sewer that carries storm water aid surface water, street wash
l
and other wash waters or dranage. Also called storm drain.
Combined $ewer : A sewer intended to receive both waste water and storm or
I
surface water.
Drainage and Garbage
Building Sewer : In plumbing, the extension from the buildillg drain to the public Disposal
sewer; also called house conuection.
Out Fall Sewer : A sewer that receives waste water from a collecting system or
from a treatment plant and carries it to a point of final discharge.
Transporting Velocity : The velocity required to transport water borne solids. Also
called self cleansing velocity.
Minimum Velocities : Minimum velocities should be sufficie~itto prevent deposition
and prevent or retard sulfide formatioa.
hlaximum Velocities : For clew water in hard surfaced conduits the limiting velocity is
very high. Velocities in excess of 40 kps (12 mlsec) have been
found harmless to concrete channels. Erosion of inverts b a y
result from much lower velocities when sand or other gritty
material is carried. 111 tlfe case of sanitary sewer where high
velocity flow is continuous and grit erosion is expected to he a
problem. The lilniti~igvelocity often is take11 to about 10 fps
(3 mps).
Flow Sheet The graphical representation of a particular combii~ationof unit
operatioils aid processes used to achieve specific treatment
objectives.
Plant Layout : The p l a ~ layout
t is the spati arrangemeut of tlie physical
facilities of the treatment plant identified in tlie tlow sheet.
Pulverisation : Size reduction to improve the h i d tilling qualities of the wastes
or as a stage in composting process.
Composting : A system for controlli~lgthe natural decomposition process to
produce organic fertilizers.
Solid Waste : Waste which is not liquid waste excluding night soil.

2.13 ANSWERS TO SAQs


SAQ 1
i) Combined sewers may bc less costly to construct that1 sepi~:~te s'anitary and stonn
sewer. The size of a combined sewer usually is only slightly larger than that required
for storm flow alone. Savings due to less costly initial constructiori must be weighed
against a probable increase in future costs for maintena~ce,separation, pumping and
treatment. Initial savings may very well prove to he false economy.
ii) Vitrified cliiy pipes
Asbestos - cement pipe
Brick masonry
Concrete pipes
Concrete cast in place
Iron and steel pipes
PVC pipes
FRP pipes
Pitch Fibre pipes
iii) Sewers are designed for open cllannel flow cot~dition.
SAQ 2
i) All sewers are to be designed to flow 0.8 full at ultimate pe'ak ?know.
Building Services -I ii) Primary, seco~~dary Uealment process comprising screellillg, grit removal,
sedimdntation, Ciltration or activatdd sludge and its ~nodificahons.extended aeration,
waste stabilisation ponds, aerated lagoons. land treatment etc. are av;ulable for
matin/g domestic waste water depending upon end use of the treated effluent.
iii) Refer Eection 2.8.
iv) Disposed in sanitary land fills, incineration, compostlng methods.