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TCE.M6-CV-037 GUIDE FOR DESIGN AND DETAILING SHEET i OF ii


FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT
CONCRETE STRUCTURES (NON-NUCLEAR)

GUIDE FOR DESIGN AND DETAILING FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT

CONCRETE STRUCTURES (NON-NUCLEAR)

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REV.NO. R0 R1 R2 ISSUE

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DATE APRIL 91 1995.01.31 2002-09-25

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TCE.M6-CV-037 GUIDE FOR DESIGN AND DETAILING SHEET ii OF ii
FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT
CONCRETE STRUCTURES (NON-NUCLEAR)

REVISION STATUS SHEET

REVISION NO. DATE DESCRIPTION

R1 1995.01.31 Totally revised to suit requirements of standard


IS-4326:1993 and standard IS-13920:1993. Most
of the provisions of ACI-318 for ductility
requirements of concrete structures are deleted as
similar provisions appear in IS:13920.

R2 2002-09-25 Name of the company changed in the header.

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FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT
CONCRETE STRUCTURES (NON-NUCLEAR)

1.0 This standard document covers the guidelines for design and detailing for
earthquake resistant structures for Non-nuclear projects.

1.1 Design of earthquake resistant structures should aim at providing the


appropriate dynamic and structural characteristics so that the structure can
resist major catastrophic earthquake, which may rarely occur without total
collapse. The purpose of earthquake resistant design in reinforced concrete is
to avoid sudden collapse due to diagonal tension, buckling or bond failure.
The possibility of such failures should not arise at all before the members
become fully plastic and achieve their ultimate strength in flexure.

2.0 For satisfactory performance in an earthquake, a structure must have strength


as well as ductility. If the elastic strength of resisting element exceeds the
greatest load imposed on it, there can be no significant structural damage. In
severe earthquake some of the resisting elements may be loaded beyond their
capacities. If such elements are brittle, they will fail without adequate warning
throwing their share of the load on remaining elements, which may result in
collapse of the structure. But if they are ductile they can continue to
participate in resisting the earthquake loads nearly upto their ultimate strength
before yielding. As a properly detailed reinforced concrete structure responds
to strong ground motion, its effective stiffness decreases and its capability to
dissipate energy increases. These developments tend to reduce the response
acceleration or lateral inertia forces with respect to those calculated for a
linearly elastic model of the un-cracked and lightly damped structure. Thus
the nature of design forces representing earthquake effects requires that the
structures be equipped with a lateral force resisting system which will retain a
substantial portion of its strength as it is subject to displacement reversals into
the inelastic range. Thus it is necessary to provide both strength as well as
ductility for all structural members.

3.0 A ductile material is one that can undergo large strains while resisting loads.
In case of reinforced concrete members and structures, the term ductility
implies the ability to sustain significant in-elastic deformations prior to
collapse.

3.1 The ductility of a member is defined as the ratio of absolute maximum


deformation at failure to the deformation at yield.

3.2 A convenient measure of ductility is a ratio φu/φy, the ratio of curvature at the
ultimate strength of the section to that at first yield of tension steel in the
section.

3.3 For RCC structures ductility ratio of 5 is considered as sufficient.

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4.0 Parameters affecting the ductility -

(a) Characteristic strength of concrete and steel - Ductility increases with


the increase in characteristic strength of concrete but decreases with
the increase in characteristic strength of steel. This suggests that mild
steel is more desirable as compared to high strength steels.

(b) Tensile steel ratio -

If excessive reinforcement is provided, the concrete will crush before


steel yields thus leading to brittle failure. Thus ductility reduces with
increase in tension steel.

(c) Compression steel ratio -

Ductility increases with increasing compression steel.

(d) Shape of cross section of member -

Presence of an enlarged compression flange as in a T or L beam,


reduces the depth of compression zone at collapse thus increases the
ductility.

(e) Lateral reinforcement -

Lateral reinforcement tend to improve ductility by preventing


premature shear failure by restraining the compression reinforcement
against buckling.

5.0 Design for Ductility -

A satisfactory performance of a structure can be achieved in an earthquake by


planning the structural layout following certain rules :

(a) Simplicity of symmetry of structure is desirable as it is easy to


understand the behaviour of simple structures. Also lack of symmetry
w.r.t. mass and rigidity will produce torsional effects which are
difficult to predict and hence should be avoided.

(b) Offsets of columns from floor-to-floor should be avoided.

(c) In framed building, it is necessary that horizontal members should


yield before vertical members. The earthquake codes follow strong
columns - weak beam philosophy.

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In this context ACI 318/318 R-89 specifies the minimum flexural


strength of column, in relation to the flexural strength of the beams.

The flexural strength of column shall satisfy the equation.

Σ Me ≥ (6/5) Σ Mg

where,

Me = Sum of moments at the centre of joint corresponding to the


design flexural strength of columns framing into that joint.

Column flexural strength is calculated for factored axial force,


consistent with the direction of the lateral forces considered, resulting
in the lowest flexural strength.

Mg = Sum of moments at the centre of joint corresponding to the


design flexural strengths of girders framing into that joint.

The flexural strengths shall be summed such that column moments


oppose the beam moments. The above equation shall be satisfied for
beam moments acting in both directions in the vertical plane of the
frame considered.

If this equation is not satisfied at a joint, columns supporting reactions


from that joint shall be provided with special confining transverse
reinforcement.

(d) Amount of tensile reinforcement should be limited to a certain


maximum value and difference between maximum tensile and
compressive reinforcement should be less. Also compressive
reinforcement should be enclosed by stirrups to prevent it from
buckling.

(e) Shear reinforcement should be adequate to ensure that the strength in


shear exceeds the strength in flexure and thus preventing a non-ductile
shear failure.

(f) Closed stirrups or spirals should be used to confine the concrete at


sections of maximum moment to increase ductility of members.

(g) Splices and bar anchorages must be adequate to prevent bond failures.

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(h) The reversal of stresses in beams and columns due to reversal of


direction of earthquake force must be taken into account in the design
by adequate reinforcement.

(i) Beam - column connections shall preferably be made monolithic.

5.1 All these provision for ductility should be adopted in all reinforced concrete
structures which satisfy one of the following four conditions:

(i) The structures located in Seismic Zone IV or V.

(ii) The structure is located in Seismic Zone II and has importance factor
(I) greater than 1.0

(iii) The structure is located in Seismic Zone III and is an industrial


structure.

(iv) The structure is located in Seismic Zone III and is more than 5 story
high.

The definition of Seismic Zone and the importance factor are given in
IS:1893-1984.

6.0 Detailing for Ductility -

6.1 Flexural members/ beams

(a) The factored axial stress on the member under earthquake loading shall
not exceed 0.1 fck

(b) The member shall preferably have a width to depth ratio of more than
0.3

(c) The width of the member shall not be less than 200 mm.

(d) The depth D of the member shall preferably be not more than 1/4 of
the clear span.

(e) The top as well as bottom steel reinforcement shall consist of at least
two bars each throughout the length of the member. The steel ratio on
any face, at any section, shall not be less than.
½
Pmin = 0.24 (fck) / fy

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P = As
bd

fck = 28 days cube crushing strength, in Mpa

fy = yield stress of reinforcing steel, Mpa

As = Area of steel on face in mm2

b = breadth of beam web, in mm

d = effective depth of section, in mm

(f) The maximum tensile steel ratio on any face at any section shall not
exceed Pmax = 0.025.

(g) The positive steel at a joint face must be at least equal to half the
negative steel at that face.

(h) The steel provided at each of the top and bottom face of the member at
any section along its length shall be atleast equal to one fourth of the
maximum negative moment steel provided at the face of either joint.

(i) In an external joint, both top and bottom bars of the beams shall be
provided with anchorage length beyond the inner face of column, equal
to development length in tension plus 10 times the bar diameter minus
the allowance for 900 bends. (Refer Fig.1) Where beams exist on both
sides of column, both face bars of beams must be taken continuously
through the column. To avoid congestion of steel in a column where a
beam frames on one side only, use of U-bars spliced outside the
column instead of anchoring the bars in column is suggested.

(j) The longitudinal bars shall be spliced, only if hoops are provided over
the entire splice length, at a spacing not exceeding 150 mm (Refer
Fig.2). The lap length shall not be less than the bar development
length in tension. The lap splices shall not be provided.

(i) Within a joint,

(ii) Within a distance of 2d from joint face,

(iii) Within a quarter length of the member, where flexural yielding


may generally occur under the effect of earthquake forces.

(iv) Not more than 50% of bars shall be spliced at one section.

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(k) As there is a possibility of stress reversal in beams, inclined bars such


as shear reinforcement should not be used. Web reinforcement shall
consist of vertical hoops. They will be able to resist shears effectively
in upward and downward directions. The minimum diameter of the
bar forming a hoop shall be 6 mm. However, in beams with clear span
exceeding 5 m, the minimum bar diameter shall be 8 mm.

(l) The shear force to be resisted by vertical hoops shall be the maximum
of :

(i) Calculated factored shear force as per analysis and

(ii) Shear force due to formation of plastic hinges at both ends of


the beam plus the factored gravity load on the span. Refer
Fig.3. This is given by :

I) For sway to right :

Vu,a = VaD+L - 1.4 MuAs + MuBh


----------------
LAB

And Vu,b = VbD+L + 1.4 MuAs + MuBh


----------------
LAB

II) For sway to left :

Vu,a = VaD+L + 1.4 MuAh + MuBs


----------------
LAB

And Vu,b = VbD+L - 1.4 MuAh + MuBs


----------------
LAB

Where,

MuAs, MuAh and MuBs, MuBh are the sagging and hogging moments of
resistance of the beam section at ends A and B respectively. These are
calculated as per Appendix 'E' of IS:456:1978. LAB is clear span of
beam. VaD+L and VbD+L are the shears at ends A and B respectively,

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due to vertical loads with partial safety factor of 1.2 on loads. The
design shear at end A shall be the larger of the two values of Vu,a
computed above. Similarly, the design shear at end B shall be the
larger of the two values of Vu,b computed above.

(m) For good behaviour in diagonal tension, spacing of hoops should not
exceed (i) d/4, (ii) 8 times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal
bar, (iii) but not less than 100 mm, in a length of beam equal to 2d
measured from face of column. The first hoop shall be located 50 mm
from face of the column. In the remaining length of beam, the
maximum spacing should be limited to d/2, where d = effective depth
of beam.

Typical reinforcement details in beam are shown in Fig.4.

6.2 Columns subjected to axial load and bending -

Ductility requirements are more difficult to achieve in column due to buckling


effects. Therefore the column section should preferably be so chosen that it
does not become a long column.

(a) If average axial stress P/A on a column under earthquake condition is


less than 0.1 * fck the column reinforcement shall be designed
according to the requirements of flexural members.

But if P/A is more than 0.1 * fck then special confining reinforcement
is required at column ends as given in para 6.3.

(b) The minimum dimensions of the member shall not be less than 200mm
where beam centre to centre span exceeds 5 m or column unsupported
length exceed 4 m, the shortest dimension of the column shall not be
less than 300 mm.

(c) The ratio of the shortest cross sectional dimension to the perpendicular
dimension shall preferably be not less than 0.4.

(d) Lap splices shall be provided only in the centre half of the member
length. It should be proportioned as tension splice. Hoops shall be
provided over the entire splice length at spacing not exceeding 150 mm
centre to centre, not more than 50 percent of the bar shall be spliced at
one location.

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(e) The spacing of transverse reinforcement in the form of hoops shall not
exceed half the least lateral dimension of the column except where
special confining reinforcement is required.

(f) The design shear force for columns shall be the maximum of:

(i) Calculated factored shear force as per analysis or

(ii) a factored shear force given by

Mubl + Mubr
Vu = 1.4 --------------
hst

where, Mubl and Mubr are the moments of resistance of opposite


sign of beams framing into the column from opposite faces and
hst is the storey height. Mu is calculated as per IS:456:1978
(Refer Fig.5).

6.3 Special confining reinforcement

(a) Special confining reinforcement shall be provided unless a larger


amount of transverse reinforcement is required from shear strength
consideration.

(b) The special confining steel shall be provided over a length 1o of


column from each joint face towards mid span, and on either side of
any section where flexural yielding may occur under the effect of
earthquake forces. The length 1o shall not be less than

(i) 1/6 of clear height of column

(ii) Larger lateral dimensions of column at the section where


yielding occurs,

(iii) 450 mm

Refer Fig. 6

(c) When a column terminates into a footing or mat, special confining


reinforcement shall extend at least 300 mm into the footing or mat.
Refer Fig.7.

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(d) When calculated point of contraflexure, under the effects of gravity


and earthquake loads is not within the middle half of the member clear
height, special confining reinforcement shall be provided over the full
height of the column.

(e) Columns supporting reaction from discontinued stiff members, such as


walls, shall be provided with special confining reinforcement over their
full height.

(f) Special confining reinforcement shall be provided over the full height
of a column which has significant variation in stiffness along its height.

(g) The spacing of hoops used as special confining reinforcement shall not
exceed 1/4 of minimum member dimension, but need not be less than
75 mm nor more than 100 mm.

(h) The area of cross section, Ash of the bar forming circular hoops or
spiral to be used as special confining reinforcement shall not be less
than

fck Ag
Ash = 0.09 S DK ------- ----- - 1.0
fy Ak

Where,

Ash = Area of the bar cross section

S = Pitch of spiral or spacing of hoops

Dk = Diameter of core measured to the outside of the spiral or hoop

fck = Characteristic compressive strength of concrete cube,

fy = Yield stress of steel of circular hoop or spiral

Ag = Gross area of the column cross section

Ak = Area of the concrete core = ∏ Dk2/4

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(i) The area of cross section, Ash, of the bar forming rectangular
hoop, to be used as special confining reinforcement shall not be
less than

fck Ag
Ash = 0.18 S h ------ ----- - 1.0
fy Ak

where,

h = Longer dimension of the rectangular confining hoop measured


to its outer face.

Ak = area of confined concrete core in the rectangular hoop


measured to its outside dimensions.

+ Refer Fig.8

6.4 Beam - Column connections -

Joints between exterior columns and adjoining flexural members shall be


confined by transverse column reinforcement through the joint. Such
reinforcement shall consist of helical reinforcement or ties as required at
column ends. This is required because on exterior and corner columns the
joint core is not confined by flexural members on all sides.

If the connection is confined by beams from all four sides and where each
beam width is at least 3/4 of the column width the amount of transverse
reinforcement may be reduced to half this value. The tie reinforcement at
beam-column joints may be reduced to half this value. The spacing of hoops
shall not exceed 150 mm.

The tie reinforcement may be provided by U-shaped ties, the length of legs
beyond the columns being kept is dictated by bond requirements so as to
develop full strength of the ties.

6.5 Staircases -

Concrete stairways often suffer seismic damage due to differential


displacement of the connected floors. The interconnection of stairs with the
adjacent floors should be appropriately treated by providing sliding joints at
the stairs to eliminate their bracing effect on the floors.

Large stair halls shall be separated from rest of the building by means of
isolation joints.
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Three types of staircase constructions are suggested.

(a) Separate staircases -

In this type, one end of staircase rests on a wall and other end is carried
by columns and beams which have no connection with floors. The
opening at vertical joint between floor and stairs may be covered with
tread plate or with some material which will fracture during earthquake
without causing structural damage. The supporting members, columns
and walls are isolated from the surrounding floors by means of
separation sections.

(b) Built in staircase -

In this type, stairs are built monolithically with floors; they can be
protected against damage by providing rigid walls at stair openings. In
such cases, there is no need to provide joints as mentioned in separated
staircases.

(c) Staircases with sliding joints -

In case, it is not possible to provide rigid walls around stair openings


for built-in staircase or to adopt the separated staircase, the staircase
shall have sliding joints so that it does not act as a diagonal bracing.

References :

1. IS:456-2000 Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced


Concrete.

2. IS:1893-1984 Criteria for earthquake resistant design of


structures.

3. IS:13920-1993 Code of practice for earthquake resistant


design and construction of buildings.

4. SP:22(S&T) - 1982 Explanatory handbook on codes for


earthquake engineering.

5. ACI 318-89 Building Code Requirements for Reinforced


ACI-318R-89 Concrete and Commentary

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