You are on page 1of 166

OFFSHORE STANDARD

DNV-OS-FlO1

Reprint with amendments and corrections as of January 2003


--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

DET NORSKEVERITAS
Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV 07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
FOREWORD
DET NORSKE VERITAS (DNV) is an autonomous and independent foundation with the objectives of safeguarding life, prop-
erty and the environment, at sea and onshore. DNV undertakes classification, certification, and other verification and consultancy
services relating to quality of ships, offshore units and installations, and onshore industries worldwide, and carries out research
in relation to these functions.
DNV Offshore Codes consist of a three level hierarchy of documents:
~ Ofshore Service S'eciJications. Provide principles and procedures of DNV classification, certification, verification and con-
sultancy services.
~ Ofshore Standards. Provide technical provisions and acceptance criteria for general use by the offshore industry as well as
the technical basis for DNV offshore services.
~ Recommended Practices. Provide proven technology and sound engineering practice as well as guidance for the higher level
Offshore Service Specifications and Offshore Standards.
DNV Offshore Codes are offered within the following areas:
A) Qualification, Quality and Safety Methodology
B) Materials Technology
C) Structures
D) Systems
E) Special Facilities
F) Pipelines and Risers
G) Asset Operation

Reprint January 2003


This reprint incorporates all amendments introduced in January 2003 and published separately in the current Amendments and
Corrections, issued as a printable (pdf) file.

Comments may be sent by e-mail to rules@dnv.com


For subscription orders or information about subscription terms, please use distribution@dnv.com
Comprehensive information about DNV services, research and publications can be found at htt,d/www.dnv.com, or can be obtained from DNV,
Veritasveien 1, N-1322 Hmik, Norway; Tel +47 67 57 99 00, Fax +47 67 57 99 11.

O Det Norske Veritas. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including
photocopying and recording, without the prior written consent of Det Norske Veritas.

Computer Typesetting (FM+SGML) by Det Norske Veritas.


Printed inNorway by GCS AS.

If any penon suffers loss or damage which is proved to have been caused by any negligent act or omission of Det Norske Veritas, then Det Nonke Veritas shall pay compensation to such person
for his proved direct loss or damage However, the compensation shall not exceed an amount equal to ten times the fee charged for the selyice in question, provided that the maximum compen-
sation shall never exceed USD 2 million
In this provision "Det Nonke Veritas" shall mean the Foundation Det Nonke Veritas as well as all its subsidiaries, directors, officers, employees, agents and any other acting on behalf of Det
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske


Nonke Veritas
Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV 07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Acknowledgement
This Offshore Standard has been developed in close co-operation with the industry. In order to ensure constructive and effective
feedback at an early stage of the development, working groups for design, material, installation and operation were established.
The following companies were members of working groups:
~ Statoil
~ NorskHydro
~ Saga Petroleum
~ Phillips Petroleum
~ J.P.Kenny A/S
~ Reinertsen Engineering
The Standard has been circulated on extensive internal and external hearing. The following organisations have made major con-
tributions to the hearing process:
Allseas Engineering Exxon Prod. Research Company Rmtgen Technische Dienst bv
Andrew Palmer & Associates ITOCHU Reinertsen Engineering
BP Amoco Exploration JP Kenny Ltd Seaflex
British Steel Kawasaki Steel Shaw Pipeline Services Ltd.
Brown & Root Mentor Project Eng. Stolt Comex Seaway
BHP Steel Niras Salzgitter
Coflexip Stena Offshore Norsk Hydro Saga Petroleum
DSND Navion Shell
DST Phillips Petroleum
EMC Rambdl Oil & Gas Vallourec & Mannesman Tubes

DNV is grateful for the valuable Co-operations and discussions with the individual personnel of these companies.

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VENTAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VENTAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Contents - Page 5

CONTENTS

Sec. 1 General ................................................................. 11 D 800


D 900
Air and sea temperatures .......................................
Marine growth ..............................................
24

A 100 Introduction....................... E. External and Internal Pipe Condition ..................


E 100 External operational conditions ....................
E 200 Internal installation conditions .....................
E 300 Internal operational conditions .....................

B. Nomative References .................................. F. Documentation .............. ..................................... 25


F 100 General ........................................................... 25
ing .................................. 25
F 300 Linepipe and pipeline component manufacturing
F 400 Corrosion control system and weight coating
manufacturing........................... ...................25
B 600 Guidelines ..... F 500 Installation and CO
B 700 Other references................ ......................... 12 F 600 DFI Résumé ......... ....................................... 26
F 700 Operation ......................................................
F 800 Filing of documen
C 100 Verbal forms
C 200 Definitions ... ..................... Sec. 4 Loads .................................................................... 27
C 300 Definitions (continued)..........................
A. General ...... ....................................................... .27
A 100 Objective.......................................................
A 200 Application .......... ....................................... 27
A 300 Loads........................................ ..................27
B. Functional Loads .................................................
B 100 General................. ....................................... 27
Sec. 2 Design Philosophy ............................................... 18 B 200 Characteristic load effects.............................
C. Environmental Loads ...........................................
A 100 Objective....... ..................... C 100 General..................................... ..................27
A 200 Application............................................. C 200 Wind loads ....................................................
C 300 Hydrodynamic loads ....................................... 28
C 400 Wave and current loads ................................
C 500 Iceloads ........................................................... 28
B 200 Safety objecti ..................... C 600 Characteristic load effects........ ..................28
B 300 Systematic review
D. Construction Loads ..........................
D 100 General................. ....................................... 29
E. Accidental Loads .......... ..................................... 29
................... E 100 General ........................................................... 29
F. Other loads ........................................................ 29
F 100 Trawling loads ......................... ..................29
F 200 Earthquake ........................................................... 30

Sec. 5 Design Criteria .................................................... 31


Sec. 3 Design Premises and Documentation ................21 A. General ...... ........................................................ 31
A 100 Objective.................................. ..................31
A. Gener .......................... .... 21 ........................................................... 31
A 100 .................. .....21
A 200 pment ............................ ..... 21 B. Design Principles and Materials ........................................... 3 1
A 300 .............................................. 21 B 100 Pipeline layout .............................................. 31
A 400 abandonment ....................... .2 1 B 200 Mill pressure test and system pressure test ... 31
B 300 In-service inspection................ ..................32
................. B 400 Minimum wall thickness.......... ..................32
B 500 Materials selection ....................................... 32
B 600 Characteristicmate 33
B 700 Corrosion allowance ....................................... 34

........................................ C. Load and Resistance Calculations ........................................ 34


.......................................... C 100 Load conditions .......... ....................................... 34
C 200 Load effect calculation ....................................... 34
C 300 Characteristicwall thic ..................... 35
C 400 Stress and strain calculations........................ 35
D. Environmenta
D 100 General D. Limit ................ ..................................... 35
D 200 Collecti D 100 .................. 35
D 300 Wind D 200 .................. 36
D 400 Tide ............... D 300 37
D 500 Waves..................................................... D 400 37
D 600 Current D 500 ......................... ..................38
D 700 Ice...................................... ........................ .24 D 600 Global buckling .............................................................. 39
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01. January 2000
Page 6 . Contents

D 700 . .............................................................................
Fatigue . 40 G . Documentation. Records and Certification ........................... 64
D 800 Ovalisation ...................................................................... 40 G 100 General ............................................................................ 64
D 900 Ratcheting ....................................................................... 41
D 1O00 Accumulated plastic strain Sec 7 . Components and Assemblies ............................. 65
D 1100 Fracture .............................
D 1200 Accidental limit state ...................................................... 42 A . General 65
A 1 0 0 Scope ............................................................................... 65
E. Special Considerations ......................................................... 42 A 200 Quality assurance ............................................................ 65
E 1O0 General ............................................................................ 42
E 200 Pipe soil interaction......................................................... 42 B. General requirements for Design of Pipeline Components ..65
E 300 Spanning riserdpipelines ................................................ 42 B 1O0 General ............................................................................ 65
E 400 On bottom stability B 200 Material selection............................................................ 65
E 500 Trawling interferen B 300 Flanged and mechanical connections.............................. 66
E 600 Third party loads, dropped objects.................................. 44 B
E 700 Insulation......................................................................... 44 B
E 800 Pipe-in-pipe and bundles................................................. 44 B 600 Pressure vessels .............................................................. 66
B 700 Components fabricated by welding 66
F . Pipeline Components and Accessories ................................. 44 B 800 Insulatingjoints ............................................................... 66
F 1O0 General ............................................................................ 44 B 900 Pipeline fittings ............................................................... 67
B 1000 Anchor flanges ................................................................ 67
G. Supporting Structure ............................................................. 44 B 1100 Other components 67
G 1O0 General ............................................................................ 44 B 1200 Structural items ............................................................... 67
G 200 Riser supports.................................................................. 44
G 300 J-tubes ............................................................................. 44 C . Material and Manufacturing Specifications for
G 400 Stability of gravel ............................................................ 44 Components .......................................................................... 67
C 100 Material and manufacturing specifications..................... 67
H. Installation and Repair .......................................................... 44
H 1O0 General ............................................................................ 44 D . Material for Hot Formed, Forged and Cast Components ..... 68
H 200 Pipe straightness 45 D 100 General ............................................................................ 68
H 300 Coating ............................................................................ 45 D 200 Components made of low alloy C-Mn steel.................... 68
.
Sec 6 Linepipe ............................................................... 46
D 300 Components made of ferritic-austenitic(duplex) steel.
other stainless steel and nickel based corrosion resistant

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
alloy (CRA) ..................................................................... 69
A . General 46 D 400 Delivery condition 69
A 100 Scope ............................................................................... 46
A 200 Material specification...................................................... 46 E. Hot Forming. Forging. Casting and Heat Treatment ............69
A 300 Pre-qualification of materials and manufacturers 46 E 100 Hot forming..................................................................... 69
A 400 Process of manufacture ................................................... 46 E 200 Forging 69
..
. Linepipe Designations .......................................................... 46 E 300 Casting ............................................................................ 69
E 400 Heat treatment ................................................................. 69
B 100 Lineuiue NDT levels .......................................................
I I
46
B 200 Supplementary requirements........................................... 46 F. Manufacturing of c ~~~~i~~~~~ and ~ structural~ ~
B 300 Designations.................................................................... 47 Items ..................................................................................... 70
C. Mateiia1 Properties 47 F 1O0 General ............................................................................ 70
c 100 General ........................................ ....................... 47 F 200 Manufacture of flanges ................................................... 70
c 200 Carbon Manganese (C-Mn) steel 47 F 300 Manufacture of valves 70
C 300 Ferritic-austenitic (duplex) steel 50 F 400 Manufacture of pressu
components fabricated by welding 71
C 400 Other stainless steel and nickel b t
alloy (CRA) linepipe 51 F 500 Manufacture of other equipment and components..........71
F 600 Fabrication of structural items ........................................ 71
C 500 Cladílined . . steel linepipe .................................................. 51
F 700 Mechanical testing of hot formed, cast and forged
C 600 Weldability...................................................................... 52
components ..................................................................... 71
D . Supplementary Requirements ............................................... 52
D 100 Supplementary requirement. sour service (S) .................52 G . Manufacture of Bends 71
D 200 Supplementary requirement. fracture arrest G 100 General ............................................................................ 71
properties (F) ................................................................... 53 G 200 Mother pipe for seawater service.................................... 73
D 300 Supplementary requirement. linepipe for plastic G 300 Supplementary requirements to mother pipe ..................73
deformation @)' ............................................................... 54 G 400 Requirements to pipe other than dedicated mother pipe.73
D 400 Supplementary requirement. dimensions @) .................55 G 500 Required post bending heat treatment ............................. 73
D 500 Supplementary requirement. high utilisation (u) ...........55 G 600 Bending procedure qualification..................................... 74
G 700 Bending and post bend heat treatment ............................ 75
E. Manufacture .......................................................................... 55 G 800 Non-destructive testing and visual inspection ................75
E 100 General ............................................................................ 55 G 900 Production testing of bends ............................................. 75
E 200 Quality Assurance ........................................................... 55 G 1000 Dimensions, tolerances and marking .............................. 76
E 300 Manufacturing Procedure Specification and G 1100 Repair 76
Qualification 55
E 400 Steel making .................................................................... 56 H . Fabrication of Risers, Expansion Loops, Pipe Strings for
E 500 Manufacture of plate and strip ........................................ 56 Reeling and Towing .............................................................. 76
E 600 Linepipe manufacture 57 H 100 General ............................................................................ 76
E 700 Chemical analysis ........................................................... 58 H 200 Quality Assurance
E 800 Mechanical and corrosion tests 58 H 300 Materials for ri
E 900 Non-destructive testing ................................................... 59 reeling and towing
E 1000 Visual inspection. workmanship and correction of H 400 Fabrication pro
defects ............................................................................. 60 H 500 Material receipt. identification and tracking ................... 77
E 1100 Mill pressure test ............................................................. 61 H 600 Cutting. forming. assembly. welding and heat treatment77
E 1200 Dimensions. weight and lengths 61 H 700 Hydrostatic testing .......................................................... 77
H 800 Non-destructive testing and visual examination .............78
F . Marking and 64 H 900 Dimensional verifica ' 78
F 100 Genera 64 H 1000 Corrosion protection 78

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Contents - Page 7

. .
I. Documentation, Records, Certification and Marking.. .........78 D. Pipeline Installation .............................................................. 88
I 100 Documentation, records, certification and marking........ 78 D 100 General 88
D 200 Installat ......................................................... 89
Sec. 8 Corrosion Protection and Weight coating ........79 D 300 Review and qualification of the installation manual,
essential variables and validity ....................................... 89
A. Gener 79 D 400 Operating limit conditions .............................................. 90
A 100 79 D 500 Installation procedures.................................................... 90
A 200 ...................................................................... 79 D 600 Contingency procedures ................................................. 90
A 300 Definitions ...................................................................... 79 D 700 Layvessel arrangement, laying equipment and
instrumentation............................................................... 90
B. General Principles for Corrosion Control During Design ....79 D 800 Requirements for installation 91
B 100 General
E. Additional Requirements for Pipeline Installation Methods
Introducing Plastic Deformations
C. Pipeline External Coatings ................................................... 80 E 100 General...................
C 100 General............................................................................ 80 E 200 Installation Manual
C 200 Coating materials, surface preparation and application.. 80 E 300 Qualification of the Installation Manual ......................... 92
E 400 Installation procedures.................................................... 92
D. Special Riser Coatings .......................................................... 80 E 500 Requirements for installation.......................................... 92
D 100 General............................................................................ 80
D 200 Coating materials, surface preparation and application.. 81 F. Pipeline Installation by Towing ............................................ 93
F 100 General 93
E. Field Joint Coatings .............................................................. 8 1 F 200 Installat ......................................................... 93
E 100 General............................................................................ 81 F 300 Qualification of Installation Manual............................... 93
E 200 Coating materials, surface preparation and application.. 81 F 400 Operating limit conditions .............................................. 93
F 500 Installation procedures.................................................... 93
F. Concrete Weight Coating ..................................................... 8 1 F 600 Contingency procedures ................................................. 93
F 100 General............................................................................ 81 F 700 Arrangement, equipment and instrumentation ............... 93
F 200 Concrete materials and coating manufacturing .............. 81 F 800 Pipestring tow and installation 93
F 300 Inspection and testing ..................................................... 82 G. Other Installation Methods ................................................... 93
G 100 General............................................................................ 93
G. Cathodic Protection Design .................................................. 82
G 100 General............................................................................ 82 H. Shore Pull .............................................................................. 94
G 200 Design parameters and calculations................................ 82 H 100 General............................................................................ 94
H 200 Installation Manual
H. Manufacturing and Installat H 300 Qualification of Ins
H 1O0 Anode manufacturing H 400 Operating limit CO
H 200 Anode installation...... H 500 Installation procedures.................................................... 94
H 600 Contingency procedures ................................................. 94
I. Design and Manufacturing/Fabrication of Internal Corrosion H 700 Arrangement, equipment and instrumentation 94
H 800 Requirements for Installation ......................................... 94
. .
I. Tie-in Operations .................................................................. 94
I 100 General............................................................................ 94
I 200 Installation Manual ......................................................... 94
I 300 Qualification of Installation Manual 94
I 400 Operating limit conditions .............................................. 94
I 500 Tie-in procedures 94
I 600 Contingency procedures ................................................. 95
Sec. 9 Installation ........................................................... 85 I 700 Tie-in operations above water ........................................ 95
I 800 Tie-in operations below water ........................................ 95
A. General .................................................................................. 85
A 100 Objective......................................................................... 85 J. As-Laid Survey ..................................................................... 95
A 200 Application...................................................................... 85 J 100 General 95
A 300 Failure Mode Effect Analysis @MEA) and Hazard and J 200 Specification of as-laid survey........................................ 95
Operability WAZOP) studies .........................................85 J 300 As-laid survey ................................................................. 95
A 400 Installation and test J 400 As-laid survey of corrosion protection systems..............95
A 500 Installation Manual
A 600 Quality Assurance.
A 700 Welding........................................................................... 85 K 100 Genera
A 800 Non-destructive testing and visual examination.............86
A 900 Production tests 86 K 300 Span rectification
K 400 Trenching............
B. Pipeline Route, Survey and Preparation ............................... 86 K 500 Post-installation gravel dumping .................................... 96
B 100 Pre-installation route survey ........................................... K 600 Grout bags and concrete mattresses................................ 96
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

86
B 200 Seabed preparation.......................................................... 87
B 300 Pipeline and cable crossings L 100 General
B 400 Preparations for shore appro
M. Installation of Risers
C. Marine Operations ................................................................ 87 M 100 General............
C 100 General............................................................................ 87 M 200 Installation Manual
C 200 Vessels 87 M 300 Qualification of the Installation Manual ......................... 97
C 300 Anchoring systems, anchor patterns and anchor M 400 Operating limit conditions
87 M 500 Contingency procedures ...
C 400 Positioning systems ........................................................ 88 M 600 Requirements for Installation ......................................... 97
C 500 Dynamic positioning....................................................... 88
C 600 Cranes and lifting equipment .......................................... 88 N. As-Built Survey 97
C 700 Anchor handling and tug 88 N 100 General.... 97
C 800 Contingency procedures 88 N 200 Specification of as-built survey 97

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page 8 - Contents

N 300 As-built survey requirements ........................................ ..97 E. Loads ................................................................................... 108


N 400 Inspection of impressed current cathodic corrosion E 100 Local pressure ............................................................... 108
protection system ............................................................ 98 E 200 Conversion of pressures ................................................ 109
E 300 Flow velocity around cylindrical members...................109
O. Final Testing and Preparation for Operation ........................ 98
O 1O0 General ..................... ...................... 98 F. Design Criteria.................................................................... 109
O 200 Specification of final F 1O0 General .....
operation.................................................... 98 F 200 Material de ....................
300 Procedures for final testing and preparatio F 300 Condition 1
operation.......................................................................... 98 F 400 Pressure containment - equivalent format ..................... 109
400 Cleaning and gauging................................ F 500 Calculation of nominal thickness .................................. 110
500 System pressure testing ...................... 98 F 600 Pressure containment criterion, inc
600 than 10% above the design pressur
700 F 700 Local buckling -
F 800 Local buckling - ................................ 110
800 Product filling ............................................................... 1O0 900 Local buckling -
1O0 F
900 Operational verification (start-up inspection) F 1O00 Local buckling - .......................... 111
F 1100 Local buckling - Buckle arrestors ................................. 111
P. Documentation .................................................. 100
1200 Local buckling - Allowable stress design format..........111
P 100 General ..................................................... 100 F
F 1300 Local buckling - Adding moments................................ 111
Ovalisation ................................ ... 112
Sec. 10 Operation, Inspection, and Repair ................. 101 F 1400
G. Fracture Mechanics .........................
A. General.............................................................. 101 G 100 Engineering Criticality Assess
A 100 ................................................. 101 design .....................................
A 200 ................................................. 101 G 200 ECA - Cyclic loading into the
A 300 .................... 101 G 300 Fracture tou
A 400 ................................................... 101
A 500 ring philosophy ...... 101 H. API Material Grad ................................. 113
A 600 .................................... 101 H 100 API material ....................................................... 113

B. Pipeline Configuration Survey ........................................... 101 I. Components and assemblies ............................................... 113
B 100 General ..................................................... 101 I 100 Bends.........................................
..................................................... 101
I 300 J-tubes ...... .................................... 114
C. Inspection and Monitoring of External Corrosion.............. 102
C 100 General ..................... .................... 102 J. Material and Design Links ................................. 114
C 200 Risers in the Splash zone an
C 300 Pipelines and Risers in the Submerged Zone ................102
J 300 Links based on accumulated
D. Inspection and Monitoring J 400 Material data sheet ........................................................ 115
- of Internal Corrosion 103
D 1Oô General ......................................................................... ,103
D 200 Corrosion inspection ..................................................... 103 K. Installation .......................................................................... 116
D 300 Corrosion monitoring .................................................... 103 K 1O0 Safety class definition ................................................... 116
K 200 Coating .......................................................................... 116

E 200 Global buckling... .................... 104 L. References........................................................................... 117


E 300 Grooves, gouges, .................... 104
E
E
400
500
Metal loss defects
Dents .............................................................................
lo4
104
App. A Supplementary Requirements to I S 0 ............ 118
E 600 Leaks ......................................................... ................................................................. 118
E 700 Repair by welding .... .................... 104 ................................. ... 118
Sec. 11 Requalification .................................................. 105 B. Differences observed ........................
B 100 Chemical composition and mec
A. Gener .................................................. 105 B 200 Weldability................................
A 100 ..................................................... 105 B 300 Samples and test pieces ............
A 200 ion .................................................................... 105 B 400 Frequency of testing during manufacture ..................... 118
B 500 NDT .......................................... ... 118
B. Design Criteria.................. .................. 105
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

B 600 Dimensions.................................................................... 118


B 100 General ..................... .................... 105 B 700 Documentation .................................... 118
B 200 System Pressure Test .................................................... 105 B 800 Special requirements for sour service ........................... 118
B 300 Deterioration ................................................................. 105 B 900 Special requirements for fracture arrest ........................ 118
B 1000 Mill pressure test ....................... ... 118
Sec. 12 Commentary (Informative) ............................. 106
A. General.............................................................. 106
App. B Mechanical Testing and Corrosion testing .... 120
A 100 Objective ................................................... 106 A. Mechanical Testin .................................
120
A 100 General ....................................
120
B. Cross References .................................................. 106 les and test pieces ... 120
A 300 Chemical analysis ......................................................... 120
C. Design Philosophy............................................ 107 A 400 Tensile test .................................................................... 120
C 100 Safety Class discussion ............................. 107 A 500 Bend test ....................................
C 200 Structural reliability 108 A 600 Charpy V-notch impact test ......
C 300 Characteristic values 108 A 700 Drop weight tear test (DWTT)..
A 800 Fracture toughness testing .........
D. Design Premise ................................................................... 108 A 900 Shear strength test ......................................................... 122
D 100 Monitoring .................................................................... 108 A 1000 Metallographic examination and hardness testing ........ 122
D 200 Air and sea temperatures........................... 108 A 1100 Strain ageing test ........................................................... 122

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE07:29:40
VERITAS MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01. January 2000
Contents .Page 9

B. Corrosion Testing ............................................................... 123 B . Manual Non-destructive Testing and Visual Examination of
B 100 General.......................................................................... 123 Welds .................................................................................. 143
B 200 Pitting corrosion test ..................................................... 123 B 100 General 143
B 300 Hydrogen Pressure Induced Cracking test ................... 123 B 200 Radiogr ..................................................... 143
B 400 Sulphide Stress Cracking test ....................................... 123 B 300 Manual ultrasonic testing .............................................. 143
B 400 Manual magnetic particle testing .................................. 144
App C Welding . .............................................................. 128 B 500 Manual liquid penetrant testing .................................... 145
B 600 Manual eddy current testing ......................................... 145
B 700 Visual examination ....................................................... 146

A 200 Welding processes ........................................................ 128 C . Manual Non-destructive testing of Base Materials and Weld
A 300 Quality Assurance ......................................................... 128 Overlay ............................................................................... 146
C 100 General
B . Welding Equipment. Tools and Personnel ......................... 128
B 100 Welding equipment and tools ....................................... 128 C 300 Forgings
B 200 Personnel 128
C 500 Weld overlay................................................................. 146
C . Welding Consumables ........................................................ 129
C 100 General D . Automated Non-Destructive Testing .................................. 146
D 100 General

C 500 Handling and storage of welding consumables E . Non-Destructive Testing Acceptance Criteria .................... 147
E 100 General.......................................................................... 147
D . Welding Procedures ............................................................ 130 E 200 Acceptance cntena based on Engineering Critical
D 100 General Assessment (ECA)........................................................ 148

D 300 Welding procedure qualification record F . Non-Destructive Testing of Plate and Strip at Mill ............ 148
D 400 Welding procedure specification .................................. 130 F 100 General.......................................................................... 148
D 500 Welding procedure specification for repair welding .... 131 F 200 Ultrasonic testing of C-Mn and duplex steel plate
D 600 Essential variables for welding procedures .................. 131 and strip ........................................................................ 148
F 300 Ultrasonic testing of clad plate and strip ...................... 149
E. Qualification of Welding Procedures ................................. 131 F 400 Visual examination of plate and strip ........................... 149
E 100 General.......................................................................... 131
E 200 Qualification of repair welding procedures 132 G . Non-Destructive Testing of Linepipe at Pipe Mills ............ 149
E 300 Qualification of longitudinal and spiral we1 Pe G 100 General
and linepipe components .............................................. 132
E 400 Qualification of girth welds in risers. expansion loops and G 300 Suspect pipe .................................................................. 149
pipe strings for towing .................................................. 132 G 400 Non-destructive testing applicable to all pipe .............. 149
E 500 Qualification of girth welds for installation and tie-in . 133 G 500 Non-destructive testing of seamless pipe ..................... 150
E 600 Qualification of girth welds exposed to accumulated G 600 Non-destructive testing of HFW, LBW and EBW pipe150
plastic strain .................................................................. 134 G 700 Non-destructive testing of SAW pipe ........................... 152
E 700 Qualification of underwater welding for tie-in ............. 134 G 800 Manual NDT ................................................................. 154
E 800 Qualification of overlay welding .................................. 135 G 900 Non-destructive testing of weld repairs in pipe ............ 155
E 900 Qualification of welding procedures for structures ...... 135 G 1000 Visual examination of welds in linepipe ...................... 155

F. Examination and Testing H . Testing of Installation Girth We


F 100 General............................................................... other Pressure Containing Weld
F 200 Visual examination and non-destructive testing H 100 General..............................
F 300 Destructive testing H 200 Non-destructive testing and visual examination........... 155
F 400 Sulphide stress cracking test ......................................... 137 H 300 Acceptance cntena ....................................................... 155
F 500 Corrosion Testing and Microstructure Examination .... 137 H 400 Repair of welds ............................................................. 156
F 600 Testing of weld overlay ................................................ 137
I . Acceptance Criteria for Pipeline Components, Equipment,
G . Fabrication and Welding Requirements ............................. 138 Structural Items, Base Materials and Weld Overlay .......... 157
G 100 138 I 100 General 7
G 200 ....................................................... 138 I 200 Manual
G 300 138 Plate and Pipe ............................................................... 158
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

G 400 ............................................... 138 I 300 Acceptance cntena for forgings ................................... 158
G 500 Welding of linepipe and linepipe components ............. 139 I 400 Acceptance cntena for castings 158
G 600 Fabrication of risers. expansion loops. pipe strings for I 500 Acceptance cntena for weld overlay ............................ 158

.
App E Automated Ultrasonic Girth Weld Testing .... 159
H . Material and Process Specific Requirements ..................... 139 A . General ................................................................................ 159
H 1O0 Internally cladlined carbon steel .................................. 139 A 100 Scope............................................................................. 159
H 200 Duplex stainless steel A 200 References..................................................................... 159
H 300 Martensitic (13% Cr)
B. Basic Requirements 159
App D Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) . ............ 141 B 100 General.......................................................................... 159
B 200 Documentation
. . .............................................................. 159
A . General ................................................................................ 141 B 300 Qualification ................................................................. 159
A 100 Scope............................................................................. 141 B 400 Ultrasonic system equipment and components............. 159
A 200 Codes and standards...................................................... 141 B 500 Recorder set-up ............................................................. 161
A 300 Quality Assurance ......................................................... 142 B 600
A 400 Non-destructive testing methods 142 B 700
A 500 Non-destructive testing procedur 142 B 800
A 600 Personnel qualifications. 142 B 900
A 700 Reporting ......... 142 B 1000 Software........
A 800 Timing ofNDT 142 B 1100 System Log Book

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01. January 2000
Page 10 . Contents

B 1200 Spares ............................................................................ 161 H 1000 Reporting....................................................................... 165


B 1300 Slave monitors............................................................... 161
I . Validity of Qu 165
C. Procedure ............................................................................ 161 I 100 Validity 165
C 100 General .......................................................................... 161 I 200 Essentia ......................................................... 165
. .
D . Calibration .......................................................................... 162 J. Annex A . Transducer requirements .................................... 165
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

D 100 Initial static calibration.................................................. 162 J 100 A.l Identification 165


D 200 Dynamic calibration...................................................... 162 J 200 A.2 Beam angle............................................................. 165
E . Field Inspection .................................................................. 162 J 300 A.3 Beam size ............................................................... 165
E 100 Inspection requirements ................................................ 162 J 400 A.4 Overall gain ............................................................ 165
E 200 Operational checks 163 J 500 A.5 Index point ............................................................. 165
J 600 A.6 Squint ..................................................................... 165
. . J 700 A.7 Longitudinal angle beam ........................................ 165
F . Re-examination ................................................................... 163
F 100 General .......................................................................... 163 J 800 A.8 Surface waves......................................................... 165
J 900 A.9 Side lobes ............................................................... 165
G. Evaluation and Reporting ................................................... 163 J 1000 A.10 Subsidiary maxima............................................... 165
G 1O0 Evaluation of indications .............................................. 163 J 1100 A.ll Pulse shape ........................................................... 166
G 200 Examination reports ...................................................... 163 J 1200 A.12 Frequency ............................................................. 166
G 300 Inspection records J 1300 A.13 Pulse length .......................................................... 166
J 1400 A.14 Signal to noise ...................................................... 166
H 100 Genera K . Annex B . Determination of shear wave velocity in pipe
steels ................................................................................... 166
H 400 Qualification programme .............................................. 164 K 100 B.l General ................................................................... 166
H 500 Variables ....................................................................... 164 K 200 B.2 Equipment .............................................................. 166
H 600 Test welds ................ 164 K 300 B.3 Specimens............................................................... 166
H 700 Qualification testing 164 K 400 B.4 Test method ............................................................ 166
H 800 Validation testing .......................................................... 164 K 500 B.5 Accuracy ................................................................. 166
H 900 Analysis......................................................................... 165 K 600 B.6 Recording ............................................................... 166

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.1 - Page 11

SECTION 1
GENERAL

A. General 402 Where reference is made to codes other than DNV doc-
uments, the valid revision shall be taken as the revision which
A 100 Introduction was current at the date of issue of this standard, unless other-
wise noted.
101 This standard gives criteria and guidance on design, ma-
terials, fabrication, installation, testing, commissioning, oper- 403 This standard is intended to comply with the IS0 stand-
ation, maintenance, re-qualification, and abandonment of ard 13623: Petroleum and natural gas industries - Piyeline
pipeline systems. transportation systems, specifiing functional requirements for
offshore pipelines and risers.
A 200 Objectives Guidance note:
201 The objectives of this standard are to:

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
The following major deviations to the IS0 standard are known:
~ provide an internationally acceptable standard of safety ~ applying the supplementary requirements U, for increased
for submarine pipeline systems by defining minimum re- utilisation, this standard allows higher pressure containment
quirements for the design, materials, fabrication, installa- utilisation than the IS0 standard;
tion, testing, commissioning, operation, repair, re- ~ the equivalent stress criterion in the IS0 standard sometimes
qualification, and abandonment; allows higher utilisation than this standard;
requirements to system pressure test (pressure test); and
serve as a technical reference document in contractual
~

minor differences may appear depending on how the pipe-


matters between purchaser and Contractor; and
~

line has been defined in safety classes, the IS0 standard


~ serve as a guideline for designers, Purchaser, and Contrac- does not use the concept of safety classes.
tors.
This standard requires that the line pipe and fabrication has been
A 300 Scope and Application produced and fabricated to this standard.
301 This standard applies to rigid metallic submarine pipe-
line systems as defiied in C 200, for the transportation of fluids
of categorisation as defined in Section 2 and made of linepipe 404 The linepipe requirements of this standard are based on
material as given in Section 6. the IS0 standard 3 183-3 Petroleum and natural gas industries
- Steel pipe for piyelines - technical delivery conditions -part
302 This standard applies to the design, materials, fabrica-
tion, installation, testing, commissioning, operation, repair, re- 3 "Pipe of requirement class Cl', with, in some respects, more
stringent requirements.
qualification, and abandonment of submarine pipeline systems
used in the petroleum and natural gas industries. This offshore standard gives also requirements for five supple-
303 This standard is applicable to single systems, pipeline
mentary requirements and an additional level of NDT require-
bundles of the piggyback type, and pipeline bundles encased ments which are linked up to the design criteria and content.
within a carrier pipe. Guidance note:
304 This standard is not applicable to flexible pipes or dy- Additional requirements to the IS0 standard on linepipe are giv-
en in Appendix A.
namic or compliant risers.
Guidance note:
The above limitation is due to the difference in load effects on a
riser connected by clamps, or similar, to a fixed structure com-
pared to a compliant riser which may move in the fluid. This ex-
cludes risers such as catenary risers or risers connected to a B. Normative References
Tension Leg Platform (TLP).
B 100 Offshore Service Specifications
The latest revision of the following documents applies:
305 Umbilicals intended for control of subsea installations
are not included in this standard. Individual pipes, within an DNV-OSS-301Certification and Verification of Pipelines
umbilical, made of materials applicable to this standard, may
be designed according to this standard. B 200 Offshore Standards
Guidance note: DNV-OS-F201 Dynamic Risers
Even though this standard may be applied to umbilicals, the non-
typical geometry, as compared to that of an ordinary pipeline, B 300 Recommended practices
may be outside the validity range for certain requirements and The latest revision of the following documents applies:
care shall be taken for such applications.
DNV-FW-F 101 Corroded Piyelines
DNV-FW-F 104 Mechanical pipeline couplings
306 This standard is applicable for installation by S-lay, J- DNV-FW-F105 Free Spanning Pipelines
lay, towing and laying methods introducing plastic deforma- DNV-FW-F106 Factory appliedpiyeline coatings for corro-
tions. Installation requirements for risers as well as protective sion control
and anchoring structures are also included. DNV-FW-B40 1 Cathodic Protection Design
DNV-FW-C203 Fatigue Strength Analysis of Ofshore Steel
A 400 Other codes Structures
401 In case of conflict between requirements of this standard DNV-FW-E305 On-bottom Stability Design of Submarine
and a reference document, the requirements of this standard Pipelines
shall prevail. DNV RP-050 1 Erosive Wear in Piping Systems

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page 12 - Sec.1

B400 Rules touchdown point monitoring or by a dedicated vessel during


The latest revision of the following documents applies: installation of the pipeline.
DNV Rules for Certification of Flexible Risers and Pipes 203 Atmospheric zone: The part of the pipeline system above
the splash zone.
DNV Rules for Planning and Execution of Marine operations
204 Buckling, global: Buckling mode which involves a sub-
DNV Rules for Classification of Fixed Offshore Installations stantial length of the pipeline, usually several pipe joints and
not gross deformations of the cross section; upheaval buckling
B 500 Certification notes and Classification notes is an example thereof.
The latest revision of the following documents applies: 205 Buckling, local: Buckling mode confined to a short
length of the pipeline causing gross changes of the cross sec-
DNV CN 1.2 Conformity Certijication Services, Type Ap- tion; collapse, localised wall wrinkling and kinking are exam-
proval ples thereof.
DNV CN 1.5 Conformity Certijication Services, Approval
of Manufacturers, Metallic Materials 206 Characteristic load: The reference value of a load to be
DNV CN 7 Ultrasonic Inspection of Weld Connections used in the determination of load effects. The characteristic
DNV CN 30.4 Foundations load is normally based upon a defied fractile in the upper end
DNV CN 30.5 Environmental Conditions and Environmen- of the distribution function for load.
tal Loads 207 Characteristic resistance: The reference value of struc-
DNV CN 30.6 Structural Reliability Analysis of Marine tural strength to be used in the determination of the design
Structures strength. The characteristic resistance is normally based upon
a defied fractile in the lower end of the distribution function
B 600 Guidelines for resistance. For local buckling, the characteristic value usu-
The latest revision of the following documents applies: ally corresponds to the expected value. The local buckling re-
sistance divided by the material partial factor, usually
DNV Guidelinesfor Flexible Pipes, Rev. 02, constitutes a lower fractile.
November 1987 208 Characteristic strength: The nominal value of material
DNV Guideline 13 Interference between Trawl Gear and strength to be used in the determination of the design strength.
Piyelines. The characteristic strength is normally based upon a defined
fractile in the lower end of the distribution function for
B 700 Other references strength.
BS 7910 Guide on methodsfor assessing the accepta- 209 Clad pipe (C): Pipe with internal liner where the bond
bility of'aws in fusion welded structures between (linepipe) base and cladding material is metallurgical.
ISO/DIS 13623 Petroleum and natural gas industries - Pipe- 210 Commissioning: In relation to pipelines, refers to activi-
line transportation systems. ties which take place after pressure testing and prior to opera-
IS0 3 183-3 Petroleum and natural gas industries - steel tion, comprising de-watering, cleaning, drying and filling with
pipe for piyelines - technical delivery condi- product.
tions - part 3 "Pipe of requirement class C". 211 Condition load effect factor: A load effect factor includ-
Guidance note: ed in the buckling calculation to account for specific load con-
The latest revision of the DNV documents may be found in the ditions.
publication list at the DNV website www.dnv.com. 212 Constructionphase: All phases during construction, in-
cluding fabrication, installation, testing and commissioning,
up until the installation or system is safe and operable for in-
tended use. In relation to pipelines, this includes transporta-
tion, on-shore and on-barge welding, laying, rectification, tie-
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

in, pressure testing, commissioning and repair.


C. Definitions
213 Contractor: A party contractually appointed by the Pur-
C 100 Verbal forms chaser to fulfil all, or any of, the activities associated with de-
101 "Shall": Indicates requirements strictly to be followed in sign, construction and operation.
order to conform to this standard and from which no deviation 214 Corrosion allowance: Extra wall thickness added during
is permitted. design to compensate for any reduction in wall thickness by
102 ''Should": Indicates that among several possibilities, one corrosion(internally/externally) during operation.
is recommended as particularly suitable, without mentioning 215 Design life: The initially planned time period from ini-
or excluding others, or that a certain course of action is pre- tial installation or use until permanent decommissioning of the
ferred but not necessarily required. Other possibilities may be equipment or system. The original design life may be extended
applied subject to agreement. after a re-qualification.
103 "May": Verbal form used to indicate a course of action 216 Design premises: A set of project specific design data
permissible within the limits of the standard. and functional requirements which are not specified or which
are left open in the standard.
104 Ygreement "by agreement Unless otherwise indicat- I', Ir:

ed, this means agreed in writing between Manufacturer/ Con- 217 Design: All related engineering to design the pipeline in-
tractor and Purchaser. cluding both structural as well as material and corrosion.
218 Design temperature, maximum: The highest possible
C 200 Definitions temperature to which the equipment or system may be exposed
201 As-built survey: Survey of the installed and completed to during installation and operation. Environmental as well as
pipeline system, that is performed to ver@ that the completed operational temperatures shall be considered.
installation work meets the specified requirements, and to doc- 219 Design temperature, minimum: The lowest possible
ument deviations from the original design, if any. temperature to which the equipment or system may be exposed
202 As-laid survey: Survey performed either by continuous to during installation and operation, irrespective of the pres-

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.1 - Page 13

sure. Environmental as well as operational temperatures shall 239 Load combination: The local bucking limit state criteri-
be considered. on for combined loading shall be checked for two load combi-
220 Engineering Criticality Assessment (ECA): Fracture me- nations, a and b. Load combination a is a system check and
chanic assessment of defects. shall only be applied when system effects are present.
221 Erosion: Material loss due to repeated impact of sand 240 Load effect: Effect of a single load or combination of
particles or liquid droplets. loads on the equipment or system, such as stress, strain, defor-
mation, displacement, motion, etc.
222 Fabrication: Activities related to the assembly of ob-
jects with a defined purpose. In relation to pipelines, fabrica- 241 Load effect factor: The partial safety factor by which the
tion refers to e.g. risers, expansion loops, bundles, reels, etc. characteristic load effect is multiplied to obtain the design load
effect.
223 Fabricationfactor: Factor on the material strength in or-
der to compensate for material strength reduction from cold 242 Location class: A geographic area of pipeline system
forming during manufacturing of linepipe. classified according to human activity.
224 Fabricator: The party performing the fabrication. 243 Lot: A number of pipes from the same heat, the same
225 Failure: An event affecting a component or system and heat treatment batch and with the same diameter and wall
causing one or both of the following effects: thickness.
244 Manufacture: Making of articles or materials, often in
~ loss of component or system function; or large volumes. In relation to pipelines, refers to activities for
~ deterioration of functional capability to such an extent that the production of linepipe, anodes and other components and
the safety of the installation, personnel or environment is application of coating, performed under contracts from one or
significantly reduced more Contractors.
226 Fatigue: Cyclic loading causing degradation of the ma- 245 Manufacturer: The party who is contracted to be respon-
terial. sible for planning, execution and documentation of manufac-
221 Fluid categorisation: Categorisation of the transported turing.
fluid according to hazard potential as defined in Section 2. 246 Manufacturing Procedure Specijication (MPS): A man-
228 Fractile: The p-fractile (or percentile) and the corre- ual prepared by the Manufacturer to demonstrate how the spec-
sponding fractile value xp is defined as: ified properties may be achieved and verified through the
proposed manufacturing route.
F(Xp) = Y 241 Material resistance factor: Partial safety factor trans-
forming a characteristic resistance to a lower fractile resist-
F is the distribution function for xp ance.
229 Hydrogen Pressure Induced Cracking (HPIC): Internal 248 Material strengthfactor: Factor for determination of the
cracking of wrought materials due to a build-up of hydrogen characteristic material strength reflecting the confidence in the
pressure in micro-voids (Related terms: hydrogen induced yield stress.
cracking, stepwise cracking)
249 Mill pressure test: The hydrostatic strength test per-
230 Hydro-test or Hydrostatic test: See Mill pressure test formed at the mill, see Section 5B 200.
231 Inspection: Activities such as measuring, examination,
testing, gauging one or more characteristics of a product or 250 NDT level: The extent and acceptance criteria for the
service and comparing the results with specified requirements NDT of the linepipe are given for two levels. Level one, which
to determine conformity. is more stringent, is required for displacement controlled de-
sign criteria.
232 Installation (activity): The operations related to install-
ing the equipment, pipeline or structure, e.g. pipeline laying, 251 Nominal outside diameter: The specified outside diame-
tie-in, piling of structure etc., including final testing and prep- ter. This shall mean the actual outside diameter, e.g. 12.75" for
aration for operation. a 12" pipe (clarification).
233 Installation (object): See Offshore installation. 252 Nominal p@e wall thickness: The specified non-corrod-
ed pipe wall thickness of a pipe, which is equal to the minimum
234 Installation Manual (7M): A document prepared by the steel wall thickness plus the manufacturing tolerance.
Contractor to describe and demonstrate that the installation
method and equipment used by the Contractor will meet the 253 Offshore installation (object): General term for mobile
specified requirements and that the results can be verified. and fixed structures, including facilities, which are intended
for exploration, drilling, production, processing or storage of
235 J-tube: A J-shaped tube installed on a platform, through hydrocarbons or other related activities/fluids. The term in-
which a pipe can be pulled to form a riser. The J-tube extends cludes installations intended for accommodation of personnel
from the platform deck to and inclusive of the bottom bend at engaged in these activities. Offshore installation covers subsea
the sea floor. The J-tube supports connect the J-tube to the sup- installations and pipelines. The term does not cover traditional
porting structure. shuttle tankers, supply boats and other support vessels which
236 Limit state: A state beyond which the structure no longer are not directly engaged in the activities described above.
satisfies the requirements. The following categories of limit
states are of relevance for pipeline systems: 254 Operation, Incidental: Conditions which that are not
part of normal operation of the equipment or system. In rela-
SLS = Serviceability Limit State tion to pipeline systems, incidental conditions may lead to in-
ULS= Ultimate Limit State cidental pressures, e.g. pressure surges due to sudden closing
FLS = Fatigue Limit State of valves, or failure of the pressure regulation system and acti-
ALS = Accidental Limit State. vation of the pressure safety system.
255 Operation, Normal: Conditions that arise from the in-
231 Linedpipe (z): Pipe with internal liner where the bond tended use and application of equipment or system, including
between (linepipe) base and cladding material is mechanical. associated condition and integrity monitoring, maintenance,
238 Load: Any action causing stress, strain, deformation, repairs etc. In relation to pipelines, this should include steady
displacement, motion, etc. to the equipment or system. flow conditions over the full range of flow rates, as well as pos-
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page 14 - Sec.1

sible packing and shut-in conditions where these occur as part


of routine operation.
256 Out of roundness: The deviation of the linepipe perime-
ter from a circle. This can be stated as ovalisation (%), or as lo-
cal out of roundness, e.g. flattening, (mm).
257 Ovalisation: The deviation of the perimeter from a cir-
cle. This has the form of an elliptic cross section.
258 Owner: The party ultimately responsible for design,
construction and operation.
259 Partial safety factor: A factor by which the characteris-
tic value of a variable is modified to give the design value (i.e.
a load effect, condition load effect, material resistance or safe-
ty class resistance factor).
260 Pipe, High Frequency Welded (HFW): Pipe manufac-
tured by forming from strip and with one longitudinal seam
formed by welding without the addition of filler metal. The
longitudinal seam is generated by high frequency current (min-
imum 100 kHz) applied by induction or conduction. The weld
area or the entire pipe shall be heat treated.
261 Pipe, Seamless (SML): Pipe manufactured in a hot form-
ing process resulting in a tubular product without a welded
seam. The hot forming may be followed by sizing or cold fin-
ishing to obtain the required dimensions. Figure 1-1 Pressure definitions
262 Pipe, Submerged Arc- Welded Longitudinal or Helical 269 Pressure test: See System pressure test
(SA WL or SA WH):Pipe manufactured by forming from strip or
plate, and with one longitudinal (SAWL) or helical (SAWH) 270 Pressure, Collapse:Characteristic resistance against ex-
seam formed by the submerged arc process with at least one ternal over-pressure.
pass made on the inside and one pass from the outside of the 271 Pressure, Design: In relation to pipelines, this is the
pipe. An intermittent or continuous single pass tack weld made maximum internal pressure during normal operation, referred
by the gas metal arc welding method is permitted. to a specified reference height, to which the pipeline or pipe-
263 Pipeline: A pipeline is defined as the part of a pipeline line section shall be designed. The design pressure must take
system which is located below the water surface at maximum account of steady flow conditions over the full range of flow
tide, except for pipeline risers. The pipeline may, be resting rates, as well as possible packing and shut-in conditions, over
the whole length of the pipeline or pipeline section which is to
wholly or intermittently on, or buried below, the sea bottom.
have a constant design pressure.
264 Pipeline Components: Any items which are integral
parts of the pipeline system such as flanges, tees, bends, reduc- 272 Pressure, Hydro- or Hydrostatic test: See Pressure, Mill
ers and valves. test.
265 Pipeline System: An interconnected system of subma- 273 Pressure, Incidental: In relation to pipelines, this is the
rine pipelines, their risers, supports, isolation valves, all inte- maximum internal pressure the pipeline or pipeline section is
grated piping components, associated safety systems and the designed to withstand during any incidental operating situa-
corrosion protection system. Unless specified otherwise, the tion, referred to the same reference height as the design pres-
pipeline system limits are as follows: sure.
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

274 Pressure, Initiation:The external over-pressure required


~ up to and including the pig launchedpig receiver on an in- to initiate a propagating buckle from an existing local buckle
stallation. If no pigging facilities are present, the pipeline or dent.
system terminates at the first valve within the facilities.
on a subsea installation, the pipeline system normally ends 275 Pressure, Local; Local Design, Local Incidental or Lo-
cal Test: In relation to pipelines, this is the internal pressure at
~

at the point of connection to the christmas tree or butterfly


any point in the pipeline system or pipeline section for the cor-
valve. The christmas tree is not considered to be a part of responding design pressure, incidental pressure or test pres-
the pipeline system. On a subsea installation, where the sure. This is equal to the desigdincidentaUtest pressure at the
above definition is not applicable, the pipeline system
ends at the connection point to the subsea installation. The reference height plus the static head of the transportedtest me-
dium due to the difference between the reference height and
connection is part of the submarine pipeline. the height of the section being considered.
~ the pipeline system ends at the first flangehalve on shore
approach. 276 Pressure, Maximum Allowable Incidental (MAIP): In re-
lation to pipelines, this is the maximum pressure at which the
266 Pressure control system: In relation to pipelines, this is pipeline system shall be operated during incidental (i.e. tran-
the system for control of the pressure in pipelines, comprising sient) operation. The maximum allowable incidental pressure
the pressure regulating system, pressure safety system and as- is defined as the maximum incidental pressure less the positive
sociated instrument and alarm systems, see Figure 1. tolerance of the pressure safety system.
267 Pressure regulating system: In relation to pipelines, this 277 Pressure, Maximum Allowable Operating (MAOP): In
is the system which ensures that, irrespective of the upstream relation to pipelines, this is the maximum pressure at which the
pressure, a set pressure is maintained (at a given reference pipeline system shall be operated during normal operation. The
point) for the pipeline. maximum allowable operating pressure is defined as the de-
268 Pressure safety system: The system which, independent sign pressure less the positive tolerance of the pressure regulat-
of the pressure regulating system, ensures that the allowable ing system.
incidental pressure is not exceeded. 278 Pressure, Mill test: The test pressure applied to pipe

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.1 - Page 15

joints and pipe components upon completion of manufacture 297 Specijied Minimum Tensile Strength (SMTS): The mini-
and fabrication, see Section 5 B200. mum tensile strength prescribed by the specification or stand-
ard under which the material is purchased.
279 Pressure, Propagating: The lowest pressure required for
a propagating buckle to continue to propagate. 298 Specijied Minimum Yield Stress (SMYS): The minimum
yield stress prescribed by the specification or standard under
279b Pressure, shut-in: The maximum pressure that can be at- which the material is purchased.
tained at the wellhead during closure of valves closest to the
wellhead (wellhead isolation). This implies that pressure tran- 299 Splash zone: External surfaces of a structure or pipeline
sients due to valve closing shall be included. that are periodically in and out of the water by the influence of
waves and tides.
280 Pressure, System test: In relation to pipelines, this is the
internal pressure applied to the pipeline or pipeline section dur- C 300 Definitions (continued)
ing testing on completion of installation work to test the pipe-
line system for tightness (normally performed as hydrostatic 300 Splash Zone Height: The vertical distance between
testing). splash zone upper limit and splash zone lower limit.
281 Pressure, Test: See Pressure, System test. 301 Splash Zone Lower Limit (LSZ) is determined by:
282 Purchaser: The owner or another party acting on his be- LSZ = IL11 - IL21 - IL31
half, who is responsible for procuring materials, components
or services intended for the design, construction or modifica- L1 = lowest astronomic tide level (LAT)
tion of a installation or a pipeline. L2 = 30% of the Splash zone wave-related height defined in
303.
283 Quality Assurance (QA): Planned and systematic actions L3 = upward motion of the riser, if applicable.
necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or
service will satissl given requirements for quality. 302 Splash Zone Upper Limit(USZ) is determined by:
284 Quality Plan (QP): The document setting out the specif- usz = lu11 + lu21 + lu31
ic quality practices, resources and sequence of activities rele-
vant to a particular product, project or contract. A quality plan U1 = highest astronomic tide level (HAT)
usually makes reference to the part of the quality manual appli- U2 = 70% of the splash zone wave-related height defiied in
cable to the specific case. 303.
285 Ratcheting: Accumulated deformation during cyclic U3 = settlement or downward motion of the riser, if applica-
loading, especially for diameter increase. ble.
286 Reliability: The probability that a component or system 303 Splash zone wave-related height: The wave height with
will perform its required function without failure, under stated a probability of being exceeded equal to as determined
conditions of operation and maintenance and during a speci- from the long term distribution of individual waves. If this val-
fied time interval. ue is not available, an approximate value of the splash zone
287 Re-qualification: The re-assessment of a design due to height may be taken as:
modified design premises and/or sustained damage. 0.46 HSloo
288 Resistance: The capability of a structure, or part of a where
structure, to resist load effects.
HSloo=significant wave height with a 100 year return period
289 Riser: A riser is defined as the connecting piping or flex-
ible pipe between a submarine pipeline on the sea bottom and 304 Submarine pipeline: See definition for pipeline.
installations above water. The riser extends to the above sea
emergency isolation point between the import/export line and 305 Submerged zone: The part of the pipeline system or in-
the installation facilities, i.e. riser ESD valve. stallation below the splash zone, including buried parts.
290 Riser support/clamp: A structure which is intended to 306 Supplementary requirements: Requirements for material
keep the riser in place. properties of linepipe that are additional to the basic require-
ments, and that are intended to apply to pipe used for specific
291 Riser system: A riser system is considered to comprise applications.
riser, its supports, all integrated pipelining components, and
corrosion protection system. 307 System effects: System effects are relevant in cases
where many pipe sections are subjected to an invariant loading
292 Risk: The qualitative or quantitative likelihood of an ac- condition, and potential structural failure may occur in connec-
cidental or unplanned event occurring, considered in conjunc- tion with the lowest structural resistance among the pipe sec-
tion with the potential consequences of such a failure. In tions.
quantitative terms, risk is the quantified probability of a de-
fiied failure mode times its quantified consequence. 308 System pressure test: Final test of the complete pipeline
system, see Section 5B 200.
293 Safety Class (SC): In relation to pipelines; a concept
adopted to classisl the significance of the pipeline system with 309 Target safety level: A nominal acceptable probability of
respect to the consequences of failure. structural failure. Gross errors are not included.
294 Safety class resistancefactor: Partial safety factor which 310 Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS): The measured ulti-
transforms the lower fractile resistance to a design resistance mate tensile strength.
reflecting the safety class. 311 Verification: An examination to c o n f i i that an activity,
295 Slamming: Impact load on an approximately horizontal a product or a service is in accordance with specified require-
member from a rising water surface as a wave passes. The di- ments.
rection is mainly vertical. 312 Work:All activities to be performed within relevant con-
296 Slapping: Impact load on an approximately vertical sur- tract(s) issued by Owner, Operator, Contractor or Manufactur-
face due to a breaking wave. The direction is mainly horizon- er.
tal. 313 Yield Stress (Ys):The measured yield tensile stress.
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page 16 - Sec.1

D. Abbreviations and Symbols TOFD Time Of Flight Diffraction


TRB Three Roll Bending
D 100 Abbreviations ULS Ultimate Limit State
u0 Pipe fabrication process for welded pipes
ALS Accidental Limit State UOE Pipe fabrication process for welded pipes, ex-
API American Petroleum Institute panded
ASD
ASME
Allowable Stress Design
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
usz Splash Zone Upper Limit
UT Ultrasonic testing
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials UTS Ultimate Tensile Strength
AUT Automatic Ultrasonic Testing WPS Welding Procedure Specification
BM Base material YS Yield Stress
BS British Standard
C Clad pipe D200 Symbols
C-Mn Carbon Manganese
CR'4 Corrosion Resistant Alloy 201 Latin characters
CTOD Crack Tip Opening Displacement A = Cross section area
DFI Design, Fabrication and Installation 2
DNV Det Norske Veritas Ai = -(D-2.t)
DP Dynamic Positioning 4
EBW Electronic Beam Welded 7 c 2
Ae = 4D
ECA Engineering Criticality Assessment
ESD Emergency Shut Down = 7c(D t ) . t Pipe steel cross section area
FLS Fatigue Limit State As -

D = Nominal outside diameter.


FMEA Failure Mode Effect Analysis = Greatest measured inside or outside diameter
HAT Highest Astronomical Tide Dmax
Dmin = Smallest measured inside or outside diameter
HAZ Heat Affected Zone = D-2tnOm = Nominal internal diameter
HAZOP Hazard and Operability Study Di
E = Young's Modulus
HFW High Frequency Welding
HPIC Hydrogen Pressure Induced Cracking Dmax Dmin
IM Installation Manual h = Ovality,
D
IS0 International Organisation for Standardisation Yield stress to be used in design
J-R curve
KV
Plot of resistance to stable crack growth for es-
tablishing crack extension
Charpy value
2
g
=
=
=
Tensile strength to be used in design
Gravity acceleration
Charpy value in pipe longitudinal direction h = Height from the referenced sea water level to the
KVL
KVT Charpy value in pipe transversal direction pipeline reference point for design pressure
L Lined pipe H = Wave height
L Load effect Hs = Significant wave height
Permanent plastic dent depth
LAT
LRFD
Lowest Astronomic Tide
Load and Resistance Factor Design 3
M
=
=
=
Nominal inside diameter
Moment
LSZ Splash Zone Lower Limit
LBW Laser Beam Welded M C = Characteristic moment resistance
MAIP Maximum Allowable Incidental Pressure N = Axial force in pipe wall ("true" force) (tension is
MAOP Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure positive)
MDS Material Data Sheet ni = Number of stress blocks
MIP Maximum Incidental Pressure Ni = Number of stress cycles to failure at constant
MPQT Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test amplitude
MPS Manufacturing Procedure Specification O = Out of roundness, Dm, - Dmin
MSA Manufacturing Survey Arrangement OD = Outside nominal diameter
NACE National Association of Corrosion Engineers YC = Characteristic collapse pressure
NDT Non-Destructive Testing Yd = Design pressure
P Production Ye = External pressure
PRE Pitting Resistance Equivalent Pei = Elastic collapse pressure
PWHT Post weld heat treatment Yh = Test pressure (mill test)
Q Qualification Yi = Characteristic internal pressure
QA Quality Assurance Yinc = Incidental pressure
QC Quality Control Yinit = Initiation pressure
QP Quality Plan Yld = Local design pressure
QR'4 Quantitative Risk Analysis Yii = Local incidental pressure
ROV Remotely Operated Vehicle Pit = Local test pressure (system test)
RT Radiographic testing Ymao = Maximum allowable operating pressure
SAWH Submerged Arc-welding Helical Ymt = Hydrostatic mill test pressure
SAWL Submerged Arc-welding Longitudinal YP = Plastic collapse pressure
sc Safety Class = Propagating pressure
SCF Stress Concentration Factor Yt = Test pressure
SLS Serviceability Limit State R = Global bending radius of pipe
SML Seamless Pipe Rm = Tensile strength
SMTS Specified Minimum Tensile Strength = Strength equivalent to a permanent elongation
RPX
SMYS Specified Minimum Yield Stress of x % (actual stress)
SNCF Strain Concentration Factor R, = Strength equivalent to a total elongation of x %
S U Structural Reliability Analysis (actual stress)
ssc Stress Sulphide Cracking S = Effective axial force (Tension is positive)
ST Surface testing T = Operating temperature
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.1 - Page 17

Tmax = Maximum design temperature Load effect factor for environmental load
T min = Minimum design temperature Resistance factor, strain resistance
TO = Testing temperature I$ Load effect factor for functional load
tl, t2 = Pipe wall thickness, see Section 5C 300 Yinc Incidental to design pressure ratio
tcorr = Corrosion allowance Ym Material resistance factor
tfab = Fabrication thickness tolerance Pressure load effect factor
tmin = Minimum thickness Safety class resistance factor
tmmin = Measured minimum thickness, see Table 6-14, Curvature
Table 6-15 Usage factor
tnom = Nominal wall thickness of pipe (un-corroded) Friction coefficient
W = Section modulus Standard deviation of a variable (e.g. thickness)
Z = Height from the pipeline part considered to the Equivalent stress, von Mises
pipeline reference point for design pressure Hoop stress
D 300 Greek characters Longitudinal/axial stress
Tangential shear stress
301 Greek Characters
Subscripts
a = Thermal expansion coefficient
= Anisotropy factor A = Accidental load
a C = Flow stress parameter, ref. Section 5D 300 C = characteristic resistance
%ab = Fabrication factor, ref. Section 5D 300, Section d = Design value
5B 600 E = Environmental load
qat = Allowable damage ratio for fatigue e = External
= Girth weld factor (strain resistance) el = Elastic
agw I vo\
-
Minimum strain hardening F = Functional load
ah h = Circumferential direction (hoop direction)
aT T ~
= Material strength
- factor i = Internal
E = Strain 1 = axial (longitudinal) direction
EM = Characteristic bending strain resistance M = Moment
Ef = Accumulated plastic strain resistance P = Plastic
Ep = Plastic strain S = Steel
YA = Load effect factor for accidental load S = SLS
Y
c = Condition load effect factor U = ULS

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page 18 - Sec.2

SECTION 2
DESIGN PHILOSOPHY

A. General
A 100 Objective
101 The purpose of this section is to present the safety phi-
losophy and corresponding design format applied in this stand-
ard.
A 200 Application
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

201 This section applies to all pipeline systems which are to


be built in accordance with this standard.
202 This section also provides guidance for extension of this
standard in terms of new criteria etc.

B. Safety Philosophy
B 100 General
101 The integrity of a pipeline system constructed to this
standard is ensured through a safety philosophy integrating Figure 2-1 Safety Philosophy structure
different parts as illustrated in Figure 2- 1. B 300 Systematic review
B 200 Safety objective 301 As far as practical, all work associated with the design,
construction and operation of the pipeline system shall be such
201 An overall safety objective shall be established, planned as to ensure that no single failure will lead to life-threatening
and implemented, covering all phases from conceptual devel- situations for any person, or to unacceptable damage to the fa-
opment until abandonment. cilities or the environment.
Guidance note: 302 A systematic review or analysis shall be carried out at all
All companies have some sort of policy regarding human as- phases in order to identiSl and evaluate the consequences of
pects, environmentand financial issues. These are typically on an single failures and series of failures in the pipeline system,
overall level, but they may be followed by more detailed objec- such that necessary remedial measures can be taken. The ex-
tives and requirements in specific areas. These policies should be tent of the review or analysis shall reflect the criticality of the
used as a basis for defining the Safety Objective for a specific pipeline system, the criticality of a planned operation, and pre-
pipeline system. Typical statements can be: vious experience with similar systems or operations.
- The impact on the environment shall be reduced to as far as Guidance note:
reasonably possible; A methodology for such a systematic review is quantitative risk
- No releases will be accepted during operation of the pipeline analysis (QRA). This may provide an estimation of the overall
risk to human health and safety, environment and assets and
system; comprises:
- There shall be no serious accidents or loss of life during the
construction period; - hazard identification,
- assessment of probabilities of failure events,
- The pipeline installation shall not, under any circumstances
- accident developments, and
impose any threat to fishing gear;
- consequence and risk assessment.
- Diverless installation and maintenance; etc.
It should be noted that legislation in some countries requires risk
Statements such as those above may have implications for all or analysis to be performed, at least at an overall level to identie
individual phases only. They are typically more relevant for the critical scenarios that might jeopardise the safety and reliability
work execution (i.e. how the Contractor executes his job) and of a pipeline system. Other methodologies for identification of
specific design solutions (e.g. burial or no burial). Having de- potential hazards are Failure Mode and Effect Analysis @MEA)
fined the Safety Objective, it can be a point of discussion as to and Hazard and Operability studies WAZOP).
whether this is being accomplished in the actual project. It is
therefore recommended that the overall Safety Objective be fol-
lowed up by more specific, measurable requirements. 303 Special attention shall be given to sections close to in-
If no policy is available, or if it is difficult to define the safety ob- stallations or shore approaches where there is frequent human
jective, one could also start with a risk assessment. The risk as- activity and thus a greater likelihood and consequence of dam-
sessment could identify all hazards and their consequences, and age to the pipeline. This also includes areas where pipelines are
then enable back-extrapolation to define acceptance criteria and installed parallel to existing pipelines and pipeline crossings.
areas that need to be followed up more closely.
B 400 Safety class methodology
In this standard, the structural failure probability is reflected in
the choice of three safety classes (see B 400). The choice of safe- 401 In this standard, structural safety of the pipeline system
ty class should also include consideration of the expressed safety is ensured by use of a safety class methodology. The pipeline
objective. system is classified into one or more safety classes based on
failure consequences, normally given by the content and loca-
tion. For each safety class, a set of partial safety factors is as-

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.2 - Page 19

signed to each limit state. C 300 Location classes


B 500 Quality assurance 301 The pipeline system shall be classified into location
classes as defined in Table 2-2.
501 The safety format within this standard requires that
gross errors (human errors) shall be controlled by requirements I Table 2-2 Classification of location
for organisation of the work, competence of persons perform- I Location I Definition
ing the work, verification of the design, and quality assurance The area where no frequent human activity is antic-
during all relevant phases. iuated along. the uiueline route.
502 For the purpose of this standard, it is assumed that the The part of the pipelineher in the near platform
owner of a pipeline system has established a quality objective. (manned) area or in areas with frequent human activ-
The owner shall, in both internal and external quality related ity. The extent of location class 2 should be based on
aspects, seek to achieve the quality level of products and serv- appropriate risk analyses. If no such analyses are
ices intended in the quality objective. Further, the owner shall performed a minimum distance of 500 m shall be
adopted.
provide assurance that intended quality is being, or will be,
achieved. C 400 Safety classes
503 A quality system shall be applied to assist compliance 401 Pipeline design shall be based on potential failure conse-
with the requirements of this standard. quence. In this standard, this is implicit by the concept of safe-
Guidance note: ty class. The safety class may vary for different phases and
IS0 9000 give guidance on the selection and use of quality sys- locations. The safety classes are defined in Table 2-3.
tems.
Table 2-3 Classification of safety classes
Safety DeJinition
class
B 600 Health, safety and environment Low Where failure implies low risk of human injury and mi-
601 The objective of this standard is that the design, materi- nor environmental and economic consequences. This is
the usual classification for installation phase.
als, fabrication, installation, commissioning, operation, repair,
re-qualification, and abandonment of pipeline systems are safe Normal For temporary conditions where failure implies risk of
and conducted with due regard to public safety and the protec- human injury, significant environmental pollution or
very high economic or political consequences. This is
tion of the environment. the usual classification for operation outside the plat-
form area.
High For operating conditions where failure implies high risk
of human injury, significant environmental pollution or
C. Design Format very high economic or political consequences. This is
the usual classificationduring operation in location class
C 100 General m

101 The design format within this standard is based upon a The partial safety factors related to the safety class are given in
limit state and partial safety factor methodology, also called Section 5D 200.
Load and Resistance Factor Design format (LRFD).
402 For normal use, the safety classes in Table 2-4 apply:
C 200 Categorisation of fluids
201 Fluids to be transported by the pipeline system shall be
categorised according to their hazard potential as given by Ta- Fluid Categoy Fluid Categoy
ble 2- l . Phase A, C B, D and E
Location Class Location Class
Table 2-1 Classification of fluids
Categoy I
Description Temporary1,2 I Low I Low I Low I Low
A I Tvuical non-flammablewater-based fluids. Operational I Low I Normal3 I Normal I Hieh
B Flammable andor toxic substances which are liq- Note:
uids at ambient temperature and atmospheric pres-
sure conditions. Typical examples would be oil 1) Installation until pre-commissioning (temporary phase) will normally
petroleum products. Methanol is an example of a be classified as safety class Low.
flammable and toxic fluid. 2) For safety classification of temporary phases after commissioning, spe-
C Non-flammable substanceswhich are non-toxic gas- cial consideration shall be made to the consequences of failure, i.e. giv-
ing a higher safety class than Low.
es at ambient temperature and atmosphericpressure
conditions. Typical examples would be nitrogen, 3) Risers during normal operation will normally be classified as safety
carbon dioxide, argon and air. class High.
D Non-toxic, single-phasenatural gas. * Other classifications may exist depending on the conditions and criti-
Flammable andor toxic fluids which are eases at cality of failure the pipeline. For pipelines where some consequences
ambient temperature and atmospheric pr&sure con- are more severe than normal, i.e. when the table above does not apply,
the selection of a higher safety class shall also consider the implication,
ditions and which are conveyed as gases andor liq-
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

on the total gained safety. If the total safety increase is marginal, the se-
uids. Typical examples would be hydrogen, natural lection of a higher safety class may not be justified.
gas (not otherwise covered under category D),
ethane, ethylene, liquefied petroleum gas (such as C 500 Partial Safety Factor methodology
propane and butane), natural gas liquids, ammonia,
I and chlorine. 501 The fundamental principle of the partial safety factor de-
sign methodology is to ver@ that factored design loads do not
202 Gases or liquids not specifically identified in Table 2-1 exceed factored design resistance for any of the considered
shall be classified in the category containing substances most failure modes. A factored design load effect is obtained by
similar in hazard potential to those quoted. If the fluid category multiplying a characteristic load effect by a load effect factor.
is not clear, the most hazardous category shall be assumed. A factored resistance is obtained by dividing the characteristic

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page20 - Sec.2

resistance by a resistance factor. ~ it is used for calibration of explicit limit states outside the
502 The level of safety is considered to be satisfactory if the scope of this standard;
design load effect (Ld) does not exceed the design resistance ~ the method complies with DNV Classification Note no.
30.6 "Structural reliability analysis of marine structures";
(%I : and
the approach is demonstrated to provide adequate safety
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

for familiar cases, as indicated by this standard.


503 The design load effect is based on, or is a function of, Guidance note:
factored load effects adjusted by the condition specific load ef- In particular, this implies that reliability based limit state design
fect factor, yc, where appropriate. The factored load effects are shall not be used to replace the pressure containment criteria in
combined according to the limit state function for the particu- Section 5 .
lar failure mode.
504 The load effect factors, safety class resistance factors
and material resistance factors related to the limit states pre- 602 Suitably competent and qualified personnel shall per-
sented in this standard are calibrated using a reliability-based form the structural reliability analysis, and extension into new
methodology for the different safety classes. areas of application shall be supported by technical verifica-
505 The characteristic values for load effects and resistance tion.
in this standard are usually given as percentile values of the re- 603 As far as possible, target reliability levels shall be cali-
spective probability distributions. They shall be based on reli- brated against identical or similar pipeline designs that are
able data, using recognised statistical techniques. known to have adequate safety on the basis of this standard. If
Guidance note: this is not feasible, the target safety level shall be based on the
The characteristic resistances in this standard do not necessarily failure type and safety class as given in Table 2-5.
reflect either mean values or certain percentile values. The result-
ing design formulas provide design criteria as a totality of model
uncertainty, bias loads etc. Hence, care shall be taken when re- Limit Probability Bases Safety Classes
calibrating these formulas to ensure this totality. States Low Normal High
SLS Annual per Pipeline 1O-2 10-3 10-3
506 Load combinations and corresponding load effect fac- ULS Annual per Pipeline
tors are given in Section 5D 300. Limit states and correspond- FLS Annual per Pipeline 2, 1O-3 10-4 10-5
ing resistance factors are given in Section 5D 200. ALS Annual per Pipeline 3,
1) Or the time period of the temporary phase
C 600 Reliability analysis
2) The failure probability will effectively be governed by the last year in
601 As an alternative to the LRFD format specified and used operation or prior to inspection depending on the adopted inspection
in this standard, a recognised structural reliability analysis philosophy
(SRA) based design method may be applied provided that:

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.3 - Page21

SECTION 3
DESIGN PREMISES AND DOCUMENTATION

A. General ~ tie-in operations,


~ as-laid survey,
A 100 Objective ~ span rectification and pipeline protection,
101 The purpose of this section is to identiSl and provide a ~ installation of protective and anchoring structures,
basis for defiiition of relevant field development characteris- ~ installation of risers,
tics. Further, key issues required for design, construction, op- ~ as-built survey, and
eration, and re-qualification of pipeline systems are identified. ~ final testing and preparation for operation.
102 This section also specifies minimum requirements to Operation
documentation for design, manufacture, installation and oper-
ation. 403 Plans for pipeline operation, inspection, maintenance
and repair shall be prepared prior to start of operation.
A 200 Concept development
404 All operational aspects shall be considered when select-
201 Data and description of field development and general ing the pipeline concept.
arrangement of the pipeline system shall be established.
405 The pipeline system operational planning shall as a min-
202 The data and description shall include the following, as imum cover:
applicable:
~ organisation and management;
safety objective; ~ start-up and shut-down;
location, inlet and outlet conditions; ~ operational limitations;
pipeline system description with general arrangement and maintenance;
battery limits;
~

~ corrosion control, inspection and monitoring;


functional requirements including field development re-
strictions, e.g., safety barriers and subsea valves; ~ general inspection; and
installation, repair and replacement of pipeline elements, ~ special activities.
valves, actuators and fittings; Abandonment
project plans and schedule, including planned period of
the year for installation; 406 Pipeline abandonment shall be planned and prepared.
design life including specification for start of design life, 407 Selection of pipeline concept shall include identification
e.g. final commissioning, installation etc.; of any significant impact on pipeline abandonment.
data of product to be transported including possible chang-
es during the pipeline system's design life; 408 Pipeline abandonment evaluation shall include the fol-
transport capacity and pipeline sizing data; lowing aspects:
attention to possible code breaks in the pipeline system;
geometrical restrictions such as specifications of constant ~ environment, especially pollution;
internal diameter, requirement for fittings, valves, flanges ~ obstruction for ship traffic;
and the use of flexible pipe or risers; ~ obstruction for fishing activities; and
pigging requirements such as bend radius, pipe ovality and ~ corrosion impact on other structures.
distances between various fittings affecting design for pig-
ging applications;
sand production; and
second and third party activities. B. System Design Principles
A 300 Execution plan B 100 System integrity
301 An execution plan shall be developed, including the fol- 101 Pipeline systems shall be designed, constructed and op-
lowing topics: erated in such a manner that they:
~ general information, including project organisation, scope fulfil the specified transport capacity,
of work, interfaces, project development phases and pro- fulfil the defiied safety objective and have the required re-
duction phases; sistance against loads during planned operational condi-
~ contacts with Purchaser, authorities, third party, engineer- tions, and
ing, verification and construction Contractors; and have sufficient safety margin against accidental loads or
~ legal aspects, e.g. insurance, contracts, area planning. unplanned operational conditions.
A 400 Installation, operation and abandonment 102 The possibility of changes in the type or composition of
401 The design and planning for a pipeline system shall cov- product to be transported during the lifetime of the pipeline
er all development phases including construction, operation system shall be assessed at the design phase.
and abandonment. 103 Any re-qualification deemed necessary due to changes
Installation in the design conditions shall take place in accordance with
provisions set out in Section 11.
402 Detailed plans, drawings and procedures shall be pre-
pared for all installation activities. The following shall as a B 200 Monitoring/inspection during operation
minimum be covered:
201 Parameters which could violate the integrity of a pipe-
~ pipeline route survey, line system shall be monitored and evaluated with a frequency
~ marine operations, which enables remedial actions to be carried out before the sys-
~ pipeline installation, tem is damaged.
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNOR%;E VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page22 - Sec.3

Guidance note: ble 3- l, the given pressures shall be used as the incidental pres-
As a minimum the monitonngíinspection frequency should be sure.
such that the pipeline system will not be endangered due to any
realistic degradationídeterioration that may occur between two
consecutive inspection intervals. I Table 3-1 Selection of incidental pressures for specific condi-
tions
Condition Pli
When design pressure is equal to full shut-in pressure Pld
202 Instrumentation of the pipeline system may be required Svstem pressure test Uit
when visual inspection or simple measurements are not con-
sidered practical or reliable, and available design methods and 307 The pipeline system may be divided into sections with
previous experience are not sufficient for a reliable prediction different design pressures provided that the pressure control
of the performance of the system. system ensures that, for each section, the local design pressure
cannot be exceeded during normal operations and that the
203 The pressure in a pipeline system shall not exceed the maximum incidental pressure cannot be exceeded during inci-
design pressure during normal steady-state operation. dental operation.
308 When the pipeline system is connected to another sys-
B 300 Pressure Control System tem with different pressure definition, the conversion between
301 A pressure control system may be used to prevent the in- the two system definitions shall be made based on the maxi-
ternal pressure at any point in the pipeline system rising to an mum incidental pressure.
excessive level. The pressure control system comprises the
pressure regulating system, pressure safety system and associ-
ated instrumentation and alarm systems.
C. Pipeline Route
302 The purpose of the pressure regulating system is to
maintain the operating pressure within acceptable limits during C 100 Location
normal operation. The set pressure of the pressure regulating 101 The pipeline route shall be selected with due regard to
system shall be such that the local design pressure is not ex- safety of the public and personnel, protection of the environ-
ceeded at any point in the pipeline system. Due account shall ment, and the probability of damage to the pipe or other facil-
be given to the tolerances of the pressure regulating system and ities. Factors to take into consideration shall, at minimum,
its associated instrumentation, see Figure 1- 1. include the following:
303 The purpose of the pressure safety system is to protect ship traffic;
the downstream system during incidental operation, i.e. in the fishing activity;
event of failure of the pressure regulating system. The pressure offshore installations;
safety system shall operate automatically and with a set pres- existing pipelines and cables;
sure such that there is a low probability for the internal pres-
sure at any point in the pipeline system to exceed the local unstable seabed;
subsidence;
incidental pressure.
uneven seabed;
Guidance note: turbidity flows;
An annual probability for the pressure to exceed the maximum seismic activity;
pressure of less than is usually appropriate. obstructions;
dumping areas for waste, ammunition etc.;
mining activities;
military exercise areas;
304 The set pressure of the pressure safety system, the max- archaeological sites;
imum allowable incidental pressure, shall be such that the local exposure to environmental damage; and
incidental pressure is not exceeded at any point in the pipeline oyster beds.
system. Due account shall be given to the tolerances of the
pressure safety system. Hence, the maximum allowable inci- 102 Expected future marine operations and anticipated de-
dental pressure is equal to the incidental pressure minus the velopments in the vicinity of the pipeline shall be considered
pressure safety system operating tolerance. when selecting the pipeline route.
305 The ratio between the incidental pressure and the design C 200 Route survey
pressure, xnc,
is normally 1.10 which also is the maximum al-
201 A survey shall be carried out along the planned pipeline
lowed ratio. The local incidental pressure can be expressed as:
route to provide sufficient data for design and installation re-
lated activities.
202 The survey corridor shall have sufficient width to define
a pipeline corridor which will ensure safe installation and op-
where eration of the pipeline.
203 The required survey accuracy may vary along the pro-
h is the height difference between the point and the ref- posed route. Obstructions, highly varied seabed topography, or
erence point special sub-surface conditions may dictate more detailed in-
pcont is the density of the content of the pipeline vestigations.
204 An investigation to identiSl possible conflicts with exist-
Provided that the requirements to the pressure safety system ing and planned installations and possible wrecks and obstruc-
are satisfied, the incidental pressure to design pressure ratio, tions shall be performed. Examples of such installations
xnc,may be taken as less than 1.10, but minimum 1.O5 include other submarine pipelines, and power and communica-
306 A pressure safety system is not necessary if the pressure tion cables.
source to the pipeline cannot deliver a pressure in excess of the 205 The results of the survey shall be presented on accurate
maximum incidental pressure. For the conditions given in Ta- route maps, showing the location of the pipeline and related fa-
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.3 - Page23

cilities together with seabed properties and anomalies. ~ problems with respect to pipeline crossing,
206 Special route surveys may be required at landfalls to de- ~ problems with the settlement of pipeline system andor the
termine: protection structure at the valve/tee locations,
~ possibilities of mud slides or liquefaction as the result of
~ environmental conditions caused by adjacent coastal fea- repeated loading, and
tures; ~ implications for external corrosion.
~ location of the landfall to facilitate installation; and
~ location to minimise environmental impact. 307 Pipeline components (e.g. valves, tees) in particular
should not be located on the curved route sections of the pipe-
207 All topographical features which may influence the sta- line.
bility and installation of the pipeline shall be covered by the
route survey, including but not limited to:
~ obstructions in the form of rock outcrops, large boulders, D. Environmental Conditions
pock marks, etc., that could necessitate levelling or remov-
al operations to be carried out prior to pipeline installation; D 100 General
and 101 Effects of environmental phenomena relevant for the
~ topographical features that contain potentially unstable particular location and operation in question shall be taken into
slopes, sand waves, deep valleys and erosion in the form account. The principles and methods described in Classifica-
of scour patterns or material deposits. tion Note No. 30.5 "Environmental Conditions and Environ-
mental Loads" may be used as a basis for establishing the
C 300 Seabed properties environmental conditions.
301 Geotechnical properties necessary for evaluating the ef- 102 Environmental phenomena that might impair proper
fects of relevant loading conditions shall be determined for the functioning of the system or cause a reduction of the reliability
sea-bed deposits, including possible unstable deposits in the and safety of the system shall be considered, including:
vicinity of the pipeline. For guidance on soil investigation for
pipelines, reference is made to Classification Note No. 30.4 ~ wind,
"Foundations". ~ tide,
302 Geotechnical properties may be obtained from generally ~ waves,
available geological information, results from seismic surveys, ~ internal waves and other effects due to differences in water
sea bottom topographical surveys, and in-situ and laboratory density,
tests. Supplementary information may be obtained from visual ~ current,
surveys or special tests, as e.g. pipe penetration tests. ~ ice,
earthquake,
303 Soil parameters of main importance for the pipeline re-
~

soil conditions,
sponse are:
~

~ temperature, and
~ shear strength parameters (intact and remoulded und- ~ marine growth (fouling).
rained shear strength for clay, and angle of friction for D 200 Collection of environmental data
sands); and
~ relevant deformation moduli. 201 The environmental data shall be representative for the
geographical areas in which the pipeline system is to be in-
These parameters should preferably be determined from ade- stalled. If sufficient data are not available for the geographical
quate laboratory tests or from interpretation of in-situ tests. In location in question, conservative estimates based on data from
addition, classification and index tests should be considered, other relevant locations may be used.
such as 202 For the assessment of environmental conditions along
~ unit weight, the pipeline route, the pipeline may be divided into a number
~ water content, of sections, each of which is characterised by a given water
~ liquid and plastic limit, depth, bottom topography and other factors affecting the envi-
~ grain size distribution, ronmental conditions.
~ carbonate content, and 203 Environmental parameters shall be described using
~ other relevant tests. characteristic values based on statistical data or long-term ob-
servations.
304 It is primarily the characteristics of the upper few centi-
metres of soil that determine the response of the pipeline rest- 204 Statistical data shall be utilised to describe environmen-
ing on the seabed. The determination of soil parameters for tal parameters of a random nature (e.g. wind, waves). The pa-
these very shallow soils may be relatively more uncertain than rameters shall be derived in a statistically valid manner using
for deeper soils. Also the variations of the top soil between soil recognised methods.
testing locations may add to the uncertainty. Therefore, soil pa- 205 The effect of statistical uncertainty due to the amount
rameters used in the design shall be defiied with upper and and accuracy of data shall be assessed and, if significant, shall
lower limits. The characteristic value of a soil parameter used be included in the evaluation of the characteristic load effect.
in the design shall be taken as the upper or lower value depend-
ing on which is more critical for the limit state in question. D 300 Wind
305 In areas where the sea-bed material is subject to erosion, 301 Wind effects shall be considered in the design of risers,
special studies of the current and wave conditions near the bot- including the possibility of wind induced vibrations of exposed
tom including boundary layer effects may be required for the free spans. Consideration shall be given to wind actions occur-
on-bottom stability calculations of pipelines and the assess- ring in the construction phase
ment of pipeline spans. 302 For a riser adjacent to other structural parts, possible ef-
306 Special investigation of the sea-bed material may be re- fects due to disturbance of the flow field shall be considered
quired to evaluate specific problems, as for example: when determining the wind actions. Such effects may cause an
increased or reduced wind speed, or a dynamic excitation by
~ problems with respect to excavation and burial operations; vortices being shed from adjacent structural parts.
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page24 - Sec.3

D400 Tide sign temperatures should preferably be based upon an


observation period of several years.
401 Tide effects shall be considered when the water depth is
a significant parameter, e.g. for the establishment of wave ac- 802 Monitoring of temperature may be required during con-
tions, planning of the pipe lay operation particularly near shore struction, installation and commissioning phases if the effect
approachedlandfalls, determination of maximum or minimum of temperature or temperature variations has a significant im-
water pressure, etc. pact on the safety of the pipeline system.
402 The assumed maximum tide shall include both astro-
nomic tide and storm surge. Minimum tide estimates should be D 900 Marine growth
based upon the astronomic tide and possible negative storm 901 The effect of marine growth on pipeline systems shall be
surge. considered, taking into account both biological and other envi-
ronmental phenomena relevant for the location.
D 500 Waves
902 The estimation of hydrodynamic loads on pipelines sub-
501 The wave data to be used in the design of risers are in ject to accumulated marine growth shall account for the in-
principle the same as the wave data used in the design of the crease in effective diameter and surface roughness.
offshore structure supporting the riser.
502 Direct and indirect wave effects shall be taken into con-
sideration for both riser and pipeline.
E. External and Internal Pipe Condition
Guidance note:
Examples of direct wave effects include the wave action on a ris- E 100 External operational conditions
er, and on a pipeline during installation or when resting on the sea
bottom. Examples of indirect wave effects include the imposed 101 For the selection and detailed design of external corro-
deformationson a riser via the riser supports due to wave induced sion control, the following conditions relating to the environ-
platform displacements,and the movements of a pipeline during ment shall be defied, in addition to those mentioned in D. 102
the laying operation caused by the lay vessel motions. above:
~ exposure conditions, e.g. burial, rock dumping, etc.; and
503 The wave theory used shall be capable of describing the ~ sea water and sediment resistivity.
wave kinematics at the particular water depth in question.
102 Other conditions affecting external corrosion which
504 Consideration shall be given to wave refraction and shall be defined are:
shoaling, shielding, and reflecting effects.
505 Where the riser or pipeline is positioned adjacent to oth- ~ maximum and average operating temperature profile
er structural parts, possible effects due to disturbance of the along the pipeline and through the pipe wall thickness;
flow field shall be considered when determining the wave ac- ~ pipeline fabrication and installation procedures;
tions. Such effects may cause an increased or reduced velocity, ~ requirements for mechanical protection, submerged
or dynamic excitation by vortices being shed from the adjacent weight and thermal insulation during operation;
structural parts. ~ design life.
506 Where appropriate, consideration should be given to
wave direction and short crestedness. E 200 Internal installation conditions
201 A description of the internal pipe conditions during stor-
D600 Current age, construction, installation, pressure testing and commis-
601 The effect of current shall be taken into consideration for sioning shall be prepared. The duration of exposure to sea
both riser and pipeline. water or humid air, and the need for using inhibitors or other
measures to control corrosion shall be considered.
602 Current velocities shall include contributions from tidal
current, wind induced current, storm surge current, density in- E 300 Internal operational conditions
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
duced current, and other possible current phenomena. For
near-shore regions, long-shore current due to wave breaking 301 In order to assess the need for internal corrosion control,
shall be considered. including corrosion allowance and provision for inspection
and monitoring, the following conditions shall be defied:
603 For pipelines during installation and for in-place risers,
the variations in current velocity magnitude and direction as a ~ maximum and average operating temperature/pressure
function of water depth shall be considered. For risers, the cur- profile along the pipeline, and expected variations during
rent velocity distribution should be the same as the one used in the design life;
the design of the offshore structure supporting the riser. ~ flow velocity and flow regime;
D700 Ice ~ fluid composition (initial and anticipated variations during
the design life) with emphasis on potentially corrosive
701 For areas where ice may develop or drift, consideration components (e.g. hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide, wa-
shall be given to possible effects, including: ter content and expected content of dissolved salts in pro-
duced fluids, residual oxygen and active chlorine in sea
~ ice forces on the pipeline system, water);
~ impacts from drifting ice, ~ chemical additions and provisions for periodic cleaning;
~ sea-bed scouring, and ~ provision for inspection of corrosion damage and expected
~ ice problems during construction and installation, in- capabilities of inspection tools (i.e. detection limits and
creased wave loading due to increased diameter. sizing capabilities for relevant forms of corrosion dam-
age); and
D 800 Air and sea temperatures ~ the possibility of erosion by any solid particles in the fluid
801 Air and sea temperature statistics shall be provided giv- shall be considered. Reference is made to RP 0 5 0 1 "Ero-
ing representative design values. Minimum and maximum de- sive Wear in Piping Systems", 1996.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKI
E VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.3 - Page25

F. Documentation ~ material take off/data sheets.


F 100 General Installation
101 This section specifies the requirements for documenta- 206 The following documentation shall be prepared:
tion of pipeline design, manufacturing / fabrication, installa-
tion / commissioning and operation. ~ Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) and HAZOP stud-
ies;
102 All documentation requirements shall be reflected in a ~ installation and testing specifications and drawings;
document register. The documentation shall cover design, Installation Manuals (IM);
manufacturing, fabrication, installation and commissioning As
~

welding procedure specifications/qualification;


a minimum, the register shall reflect activities from the start of
~

records;
design to start-up of the pipeline system.
~

~ operational procedures; and


103 The documentation shall be submitted to the relevant ~ contingency procedures.
parties for acceptance or information as agreed.
F 300 Linepipe and pipeline component manufacturing
F 200 Conceptual and detail engineering
301 The documentation to be submitted for review prior to
Structural start or during start-up of manufacturing shall include, but not
201 A design basis for a pipeline system shall be established, be limited to:
including, but not limited to:
~ Manufacturing Procedure Specification (MPS);
all items listed in A.202; ~ manufacturing procedures, including test requirements
topographical and bathymetrical conditions along the in- and acceptance criteria, repairs, personnel qualification
tended pipeline route; records, etc.;
geotechnical conditions; ~ material specifications;
environmental conditions; ~ Quality Plans;
operational conditions such as pressure, temperature, fluid ~ Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS) /Welding Pro-
components, flow rate, etc.; cedure Qualification Records (WPQR);
principles for strength and in-place analysis, and ~ NDT procedures;
corrosion control philosophy. ~ Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test (MPQT) re-
sults; and
202 The design shall be adequately documented to enable ManufacturerWfabricator's quality system manual.
second and/or third party verification. As a minimum, the fol-
lowing items shall be addressed: 302 The as built documentation to be submitted after manu-
facturing shall include but not be limited to:
pipeline routing;
physical and chemical characteristics of fluid; manufacturing procedures, including test requirements
materials selection (linepipe and pipeline components); and acceptance criteria, repairs, personnel qualification
temperature/pressure profile and pipeline expansion; records, etc.;
strength analyses for riser and riser supports; material certificates;
strength and in-place stability analyses for pipeline; production test records (visual, NDT, tests on samples, di-
risk analysis as applicable; mensional, heat treatment, etc.);
corrosion control (internal and external); and hydrostatic testing report;
installation and commissioning. complete statistics of chemical composition, mechanical
203 Drawings shall be provided for the fabrication and in- properties and dimensions for the quantity delivered;
stallation of the pipeline system, including but not limited to: weld log records.

pipeline route drawings including information on, e.g. sea- F 400 Corrosion control system and weight coating
bed properties and topology, existing and future platforms, manufacturing
pipelines/cables, subsea well heads, ship lanes, etc.; 401 The documentation to be submitted for review prior to
detailed pipeline crossing drawings; start of manufacturing shall include:
platform layout drawings with risers, riser protection sys-
tems, loading zones, boat landing areas, rescue areas, etc. ~ manufacturing procedures, including inspectionhest re-
as applicable; quirements and acceptance criteria, repairs, documenta-
spool fabrication drawing; tion, etc.;
pipeline protection drawings; and ~ documentation of materials and concrete mix design;
riser and riser clamp fabrication drawings. ~ Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Tests results;
~ quality plan with referenced procedures for inspection,
Linepiye and piyeline components testing and calibrations; and
204 The following documentation shall be prepared: ~ outline drawing of anodes.
~ material manufacturing specifications, and 402 The as built documentation to be submitted after manu-
~ material take off/data sheets. facturing shall include, but not be limited to:
Corrosion control systems and weight coating manufacturing procedures, including test requirements
205 The following documentation shall be prepared, as ap- and acceptance criteria, repairs, personnel qualification
plicable: records, etc.;
material certificates;
~ cathodic protection design report, production test records;
~ anode manufacturing and installation specifications, complete statistics of coating dimensions, weight and neg-
~ coating manufacturing specifications, ative buoyancy for the each joint delivered;
~ field joint coating specification(s), repair log; and
~ corrosion monitoring system specification, and electrical resistance test log.
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page26 - Sec.3

F 500 Installation and commissioning ~ drawings and photos of special components;


installation resume giving a summary description of the
501 The documentation to be submitted for review prior to
~

start of installation shall include but not be limited to: installation history, reference to specifications, drawings
etc., discussion of problem areas, deviations from specifi-
installation procedures, including acceptance criteria, test cations and drawings, of importance for the operational
certificates for equipment, qualification records for per- phase;
sonnel (e.g. welding, coating), etc.; ~ as-installed route drawings;
trenching specification; ~ identification of waivers and deviations from the govern-
intervention procedure; ing technical requirements; and
commissioning pro cedure; ~ identification of areas deemed to require special attention
survey procedure; during normal operation and maintenance of the pipeline
procedure for installation of protective and anchoring system.
structures; and
procedure for installation of risers and spools. F 700 Operation
701 In order to carry out the periodical surveys, the mini-
502 The as built documentation to be submitted after instal- mum documentation shall include:
lation and commissioning shall include, but not be limited to:
personnel responsible for the operation of pipeline system;
~ records; history of pipeline system operation with reference to
~ survey reports; events which may have significance to design and safety;
~ intervention reports; and installation condition data as necessary for understanding
~ commissioning reports. pipeline system design and configuration, e.g. previous
survey reports, as-laid / as-built installation drawings and
F 600 DFI Résumé test reports;
601 A DFI Résumé shall be prepared to provide information physical and chemical characteristics of transported media
for operation of the pipeline system and for preparation of and sand detection facilities (if any);
plans for periodic inspection. The DFI Résumé shall contain inspection and maintenance schedules and their records;
all documentation required for normal operation, ROV surveys inspection procedure and results covering the inspection
and maintenance and provide references to the documentation aspects described in Section 10, including supporting
needed for any repair, modification or re-qualification of the records such as diver survey reports and video films.
pipeline system.
702 In case of mechanical damage or other abnormalities
602 Documentation referred to in the DFI Résumé shall be that might impair the safety, reliability, strength and stability
kept for the lifetime of the pipeline system and shall be easily of the pipeline system, the following documentation shall, as a
retrievable at any time. minimum, be prepared prior to start-up of the pipeline:
603 As a minimum, the DFI Résumé shall contain the fol-
lowing: ~ description of the damage to the pipeline, its systems or
components with due reference to location, type, extent of
brief description of the pipeline system; damage and temporary measures, if any;
design basis including design life, conditions along the ~ plans and full particulars of repairs, modifications and re-
pipeline route, environmental and geotechnical condi- placements, including contingency measures; and
tions, pressure, flow rate, design temperature, design pres- ~ further documentation with respect to particular repair,
sure, incidental pressure, corrosion allowance, fluid modification and replacement, as agreed upon in line with
composition, etc; those for the construction or installation phase.
relevant design assumptions and conditions including ap-
plicable limitations; F 800 Filing of documentation
any special requirements affecting safety or reliability 801 Maintenance of complete files of all relevant documen-
found during design, fabrication or installation phases; tation during the life of the pipeline system is the responsibility
design resume including reference to and description of of the owner.
analyses from the design phase, evaluation of critical or
problem areas, highly utilised and critical areas of the sys- 802 The engineering documentation shall be filed by the
tem and highlighting points that require special attention Owner or by the engineering Contractor for a minimum of 10
during subsequent phases; years. Design basis and key data for the pipeline system shall
reference to accepted calculations and other documents by filed for the lifetime of the system. This includes documen-
verif$ng compliance with governing technical require- tation from design to start-up and also documentation from
ments for all temporary and permanent phases; possible major repair or re-construction of the pipeline system.
fabrication resume giving a summary description of the 803 Files to be kept from the operational and maintenance
manufacturing/fabrication history, reference to specifica- phases of the pipeline system shall, as a minimum, include fi-
tions, drawings etc., discussion of problem areas, devia- nal in-service inspection reports from start-up, periodical and
tions from specifications and drawings, of importance for special inspections, condition monitoring records, and final re-
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

the operational phase; ports of maintenance and repair, see Section 10.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.4 - Page27

SECTION 4
LOADS

A. General loads induced by frequent pigging operations.


A 100 Objective 104 The weight shall include weight of pipe, buoyancy, con-
tents, coating, anodes, marine growth and all attachments to
101 This section defines the load conditions and characteris- the pipe.
tic load effects to be used in the design of pipeline systems, for
both the construction and operational phase. 105 The soil pressure acting on buried pipelines shall be tak-
en into account if significant.
102 The loads are classified into different load categories.
The aim of the load classification is to relate the load effect to 106 End cap forces due to pressure shall be considered, as
the different uncertainties and occurrences. well as any transient pressure effects during normal operation
Guidance note: (e.g. due to closure of valves).
The load classification is closely linked with the adopted LRFD 107 Fluctuations in temperature shall be taken into account
format. An environmental load classification is more conserva- when checking fatigue strength.
tive than a functional load classification, due to the higher load
factor. This is in contradiction with normally applied ASD for- 108 Pre-stressing, such as permanent curvature or a perma-
mats. nent elongation introduced during installation, shall be taken
into account if the capacity to carry other loads is affected by
the pre-stressing. Pretension forces induced by bolts in flanges,
connectors and riser supports and other permanent attach-
A 200 Application ments. shall be classified as functional loads.
201 This section describes the loads to be applied in the
adopted LRFD criteria. B 200 Characteristic load effects
201 The characteristic functional load effect should be de-
A300 Loads fined as the most probable maximum value in considered time
301 Loads shall be classified as follows: period.
functional loads; 202 In cases where external pressure increases the capacity,
the external pressure shall not be taken as higher than the water
~

environmental loads;
pressure at the considered location corresponding to low tide.
~

~ construction loads, subdivided into functional and envi-


ronmental; and 203 In cases where the external pressure decreases the ca-
~ accidental loads. pacity, the external pressure shall not be taken as less than the
water pressure at the considered location corresponding to
302 Simplified methods or analyses may be used to calculate high tide.
the load effects provided that they are conservative. Model
tests may be used in combination with, or instead of, theoreti- 204 Design pressure and maximum or minimum design tem-
cal calculations. In cases where theoretical methods are inade- perature (whichever is more conservative) shall be used in all
quate, model or full-scale tests may be required. calculations for operational condition, except for the following
situations when normal operating pressure and normal operat-
ing temperature may be used:

B. Functional Loads ~ fatigue analyses, and


~ environmental load dominated situations.
B 100 General
Guidance note:
101 Loads arising from the physical existence of the pipeline For pressure, the local design pressure shall be used except for
system and its intended use shall be classified as functional when normal operating pressure is referred to, when the benefi-
loads. cial effect of the steady flow pressure profile should be used.
102 All functional loads which are essential for ensuring the Regarding temperature, the "local" max (min) design tempera-
integrity of the pipeline system, during both the construction ture, i.e. the temperature profile corresponding to maximum
and the operational phase, shall be considered. (minimum) design temperature based on conservative insulation
values, shall be used. The corresponding temperature profile for
103 Effects from the following phenomena are the minimum normal operating temperature should be used when this is re-
to be considered when establishing functional loads: ferred to.
weight;
external hydrostatic pressure;
temperature of contents;
reactions from components (flanges, clamps etc.);
cover (e.g. soil, rock, mattresses); C. Environmental Loads
internal pressure during normal operation;
reaction from sea floor (friction and rotational stiffness); C 100 General
pre-stressing;
permanent deformation of supporting structure; 101 For calculation of characteristic environmental loads,
permanent deformations due to subsidence of ground, both reference is made to the principles given in Classification Note
vertical and horizontal; No. 30.5, "Environmental Conditions and Environmental
possible loads due to ice bulb growth around buried pipe- Loads 'I.

lines near fixed points (in-line valvedtees, fixed plants 102 Environmental loads are defined as those loads on a
etc.), caused by cooling of the contained gadliquid; and pipeline system which are caused by the surrounding environ-
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page28 - Sec.4

ment, and that are not otherwise classified as functional or ac- Guidance note:
cidental loads. Maximum wave load effects may not always be experienced dur-
ing the passing of the design wave. The maximum wave loads
103 Trawl gear loads shall be classified in accordance with may be due to waves of a particular length, period or steepness.
the requirements in F below.
The initial response to impulsive wave slam or slap usually oc-
C 200 Wind loads curs before the exposed part of the pipeline system is significant-
ly immersed. Therefore, other fluid loading on the system need
201 Wind loads shall be determined based on available wind not normally be applied with the impulsive load. However, due
data using recognised theoretical principles. Alternatively, di- to structural continuity of the riser, global wave loading on other
rect application of data from adequate tests may be used. parts of the system must be considered in addition to the direct
wave loading.
202 The possibility of vibrations and instability due to wind Wave slam occurs when an approximately horizontal member is
induced cyclic loads shall be considered (e.g. vortex shed- engulfed by a rising water surface as a wave passes. The highest
ding). slamming forces occur for members at mean water level and the
slam force directions are close to the vertical.
C 300 Hydrodynamic loads Wave slap is associated with breaking waves and can affect
301 Hydrodynamic loads are defined as flow-induced loads members at any inclination, but in the plane perpendicular to the
wave direction. The highest forces occur on members above

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
caused by the relative motion between the pipe and the sur-
rounding water. When determining the hydrodynamic loads, mean water level.
the relative liquid particle velocities and accelerations used in Both slam and slap loads are applied impulsively (over a short in-
the calculations shall be established, taking into account con- stant of time) and the dynamic response of the pipeline system
tributions from waves, current and pipe motions if significant. shall be considered.

302 The following hydrodynamic loads shall be considered,


but not limited to:
409 Parts of the pipeline system, located above the normal
~ drag and lift forces which are in phase with the absolute or wave impact zone, may be exposed to wave loading due to
relative water particle velocity, wave run-up. Loads due to this effect shall be considered if rel-
~ inertia forces which are in phase with the absolute or rela- evant.
tive water particle acceleration, C 500 Ice loads
~ flow-induced cyclic loads due to vortex shedding and oth-
er instability phenomena, 501 In areas where ice may develop or drift, the possibility
~ impact loads due to wave slamming and slapping, and of ice loads on the pipeline system shall be considered. Such
~ buoyancy variations due to wave action. loads may partly be due to ice frozen on the pipeline system it-
self, and partly due to floating ice. For shore approaches and
C 400 Wave and current loads areas of shallow water, the possibility of ice scouring and im-
pacts from drifting ice shall be considered.
401 Wave-and current induced loads acting on a submerged
pipe section shall be calculated according to recognised meth- 502 In case of ice frozen to above-water parts of the system,
ods. (e.g. due to sea spray) the following forces shall be considered:
402 Data from model testing or acknowledged industry prac- ~ weight of the ice,
tice may be used in the determination of the relevant hydrody- ~ impact forces due to thaw of the ice,
namic coefficients. ~ forces due to expansion of the ice, and
increased wind and wave forces due to increased exposed
403 The current-induced drag and lift forces on risers and
~

pipelines shall be determined and combined with the wave-in- area.


duced forces using recognised theories for wave- current inter- 503 Forces from floating ice shall be calculated according to
action. A vector combination of the current and wave-induced recognised theory. Due attention shall be paid to the mechani-
water particle velocities may be used. If available, however, cal properties of the ice, contact area, shape of structure, direc-
calculation of the total particle velocities and accelerations tion of ice movements, etc. The oscillating nature of the ice
based upon more exact theories on wave-current interaction is forces (built-up of lateral force and fracture of moving ice)
preferable. shall be taken into account in the structural analysis. When
404 If the riser is built up of a number of closely spaced forces due to lateral ice motion will govern structural dimen-
pipes, then interaction and solidification effects shall be taken sions, model testing of the ice-structure interaction may be re-
into account when determining the mass and drag coefficients quired.
for each individual pipe or for the whole bundle of pipes. If
sufficient data is not available, large-scale model tests may be C 600 Characteristic load effects
required. 601 For each load and design condition the most unfavoura-
405 For pipelines on or close to a fixed boundary (e.g. pipe- ble relevant combination, position and direction of simultane-
line spans) or in the free stream (e.g. risers), lift forces perpen- ously acting loads shall be used in documenting the integrity of
dicular to the axis of the pipe and perpendicular to the velocity the complete pipeline system.
vector shall be taken into account. 602 The characteristic environmental load during installa-
406 Possible influence of adjacent structural parts shall be tion of the pipeline system shall be taken as the most probable
taken into account when determining the wave and current largest value in a given sea-state for the considered period de-
loads. The increased accelerations and flow velocities in the fined by (H,,Tp) and appropriate current and wind conditions.
flow around a cylinder, e.g. jacket leg/member or columns, can The characteristic load effect is defined as the most probable
lead to additional forces on the risers and riser supports. largest load effect, (i.e. from wave, current and wind) LE, giv-
en by:
407 In connection with vortex shedding-induced transverse
vibrations, the increase in drag coefficient shall be taken into 1
F ( L E )= 1 - ~

account. N
408 The effect of possible wave and current loading on a ris- where:
er system in the air gap zone shall be included. F(LE) is the probability distribution function of LE

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.4 - Page29

Nis the number of load effect cycles in a sea-state of a duration ~

stacking of pipes;
not less than 3 hours. ~

handling of pipe and pipe sections, e.g. lifting of pipe, pipe


Guidance note: joints, pipe strings and pipe spools, and reeling of pipe
strings;
The given sea state for the considered period may be interpreted
as the sea state for the relevant location and installation period.
~

pull-in at landfalls, tie-ins, trenching etc.;


Normal requirement is that the length of the period shall be suf-
~

pressure testing; and


ficiently long in order to include possible delays. The installation
~

commissioning activities, e.g. increase in pressure differ-


period shall not exceed this time period. ential due to vacuum drying.
107 Operating limit conditions shall be established relevant
for the construction activity under consideration, see Section
603 The characteristic combined environmental load effect 4n ann / Y I"".

for operational conditions, shall be taken as a value having a


10-2 probability of exceedance in a period of one year, men 108 Typical construction loads for pre-installed risers, riser
the among the different load components (i,e, wind, supports/guides and J-tubes on jackets and similar installations
wave, current or ice) are unknown, the load combinations (si- are:
multaneously acting loads) in Table 4-1 apply. wind-induced forces, in particular wind-induced vortex
shedding, on parts which are designed to be submerged af-
Table 4-1 Combinations of characteristic environmental loads
in terms of annual exceedance Drobabilitv ter installation of the load-bearing structure;
deflections/forces generated during load-out of the load-
Wind Waves Current Ice Earth quake bearing structure;
10-2 10-2 10-1 transportation forces due to barge movements;
10-1 10-1 10-2 launch forces due to deflection and hydrodynamic loads
I 10-1 I 10-1 I 10-1 I 10-2 I (drag, slam and slap) on the structure;
I 10-2 deflections/forces
bearing structure;
generated during installation of load-

604 For the on-bottom pipeline in temporary conditions the inertia loads on the riser supports/guides due to pile driv-
characteristic combined environmental load effect should be ing;
taken as follows: re-distribution of support forces when possible temporary
riser supports are removed and the riser turned into the fi-
~ for a time period less than 3 days, the characteristic load nal position;
effects may be based on reliable weather forecasts, and cold springing of the risers (elastic pre-deformations);
~ for the on-bottom pipe in temporary conditions, a 10 year tie-in forces generated when the riser is connected to the
return period value for the considered time period shall be tie-in spooYpipeline; and
applied. The relevant time period is not to be taken less dynamic loads from pre-commissioning activities, e.g.
than a season (3 months). If the joint distribution for envi- flooding and de-watering with pigs.
ronmental loads is unknown, the combined characteristic
load may be taken from a table similar to that for opera- 109 The load combinations to be considered shall be selected
tion. to reflect the most severe load combinations likely to be en-
countered during the construction phase under consideration.
Guidance note:
"Similarto that for operation" implies, e.g. '10 year wave + 1 year
current' or '1 year wave + 10 year current'.
E. Accidental Loads
E 100 General
101 Loads which are imposed on a pipeline system under ab-
normal and unplanned conditions shall be classified as acci-
D. Construction Loads dental loads.
D 100 General 102 The main criteria for classiSling a load as accidental is
the probability of occurrence in line with Section 5D 1200.
101 Loads which arise as a result of the construction of the 103 Typical accidental loads can be caused by:
pipeline system, comprising installation, pressure testing,
commissioning, maintenance and repair, shall be classified ~ vessel impact or other drifting items (collision, grounding,
into functional and environmental loads. sinking);
102 All significant loads acting on pipe joints or pipe sec- ~ dropped objects;
tions during transport, fabrication, installation, maintenance ~ mud slides;
and repair activities shall be considered. ~ explosion;
~ fire and heat flux;
103 Functional Loads shall consider forces generated due to operational malfunction; and
imposed tension during pipeline installation, maintenance and
~

~ dragging anchors.
rep air.
104 Environmental loads shall consider forces induced on 104 Size and frequency of accidental loads, for a specific
the pipeline due to wind, waves and current, including deflec- pipeline system, may be defiied through risk analyses.
tions and dynamic loads due to vessel movement.
105 Accidental loads shall consider inertia forces due to sud-
den waterfilling, excessive deformation in overbend and sag- F. Other loads
bend, and forces due to operation errors or failures in
equipment that could cause or aggravate critical conditions, F 100 Trawling loads
see Section 9A 300. 101 For calculation of characteristic trawling loads, refer-
106 Other loads to be considered are: ence is made to the principles given in the Guideline 13: "In-
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page30 - Sec.4

terference between Trawl Gear and Pipelines". a) Trawl impact, i.e. the initial impact from the trawl board
102 The requirement for designing pipelines for trawling or beam which may cause local dents on the pipe or dam-
loads shall be determined based upon trawling frequency stud- age to the coating. This should be classified as an environ-
ies and assessment of the potential damage due to trawling, in mental load.
order to ensure that the integrity of the pipeline is not compro- b) Over-trawling, often referred to as pull-over, i.e. the sec-
mised. ond phase caused by the wire and trawl board or beam slid-
103 Trawling loads may be imposed either by trawl boards ing over the pipe. This will usually give a more global
or trawl beams depending on what is the preferred fishing tool response of the pipeline. This should be classified as an
in the area. environmental load.
104 Fishing gear and hence trawl loads may vary significant- c) Hooking, i.e. the trawl board is stuck under the pipe and in
ly, not only between pipeline systems, but also along a pipeline extreme cases, forces as large as the breaking strength of
system. Trawl loads will depend on the type, mass, velocity, the trawl wire are applied to the pipeline. This should be
warp line (line stifhess, catenary effects, and line length) and classified as an accidental load.
size of the trawl board or beam. Variations in pipeline support-
ing conditions along the pipeline route will also have varying 107 The impact energy shall be determined considering, as a
response to trawling gear. minimum:
105 The following trawling data shall be determined:
~ the trawl board or trawl beam mass and velocity, and
~ the maximum trawling equipment size normally used in ~ the effective added mass and velocity.
the area;
~ future trends (new types, (gear) mass, trawling velocity, F 200 Earthquake
shape); and
~ the frequency of the trawling activity in the area. 201 Load effects imposed by earth quake, either directly or
indirectly, shall be classified into accidental or environmental
106 The trawling load effects can be divided in accordance loads, depending on the probability of earthquake occurrence
with the three crossing phases: in line with accidental loads in Section 5D 1200.

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.5 - Page31

SECTION 5
DESIGN CRITERIA

A. General 102 Crossing pipelines should be kept separated by a mini-


mum vertical distance of 0.3 m.
A 100 Objective 103 Pipelines shall be protected against unacceptable dam-
101 The purpose of this section is to provide design and ac- age caused by e.g. dropped objects, fishing gear, ships, anchor-
ceptance criteria for the possible modes of structural failure in ing etc., and the location of pipelines inside the loading zones
pipeline systems. of platforms should be avoided. Protection may be achieved by
one or a combination of the following means:
A 200 Application
201 This standard includes no limitations on water depth. ~ concrete coating,
However, when this standard is applied in deep water where ~ burial,
experience is limited, special consideration shall be given to: ~ cover (e.g. sand, gravel, mattress), and
~ other mechanical protection.
~ other failure mechanisms,
~ validity of parameter range, 104 Relative settlement between the protective structure and
~ other characteristic loads and load combinations, and the pipeline system shall be properly assessed in the design of
~ dynamic effects. protective structures, and shall cover the full design life of the
pipeline system. Adequate clearance between the pipeline
202 This standard does not speciSl any explicit limitations components and the members of the protective structure shall
with respect to elastic displacements or vibrations, provided be provided to avoid fouling.
that the effects of large displacements and dynamic behaviour,
including fatigue effect of vibrations, operational constraints 105 Pipelines in C-Mn steel for potentially corrosive fluids
and ratcheting, are taken into account in the strength analyses. of categories B, D and E should be designed for inspection pig-
ging. In cases where the pipeline design does not allow inspec-
203 Special considerations shall be made for parts of the tion pigging, an analysis shall be carried out in accordance
pipeline system which extend onshore. These shall typically with recognised procedures to document that the risk of failure
include aspects such as: (i.e. the probability of failure multiplied by the consequences
population density, of failure) leading to a leak is acceptable. For corrosive fluids
of other categories the benefit of inspection pigging on opera-
~
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

personnel,
tional reliability shall be evaluated.
~

~ traffic,
~ corrosion, and 106 A pipeline may be divided into sections having different
~ fracture arrest. design pressure. The pipeline system shall in such cases be
equipped with an adequate pressure control system, to ensure
This may require a higher safety level than reflected by the that the section or sections with a lower design pressure are not
safety classes. subjected to pressure above the allowable.
204 For spiral welded pipes, the following requirements ap- 107 Risers and J-tubes should be routed inside the structure
ply: to avoid vessel impact, and shall be protected against impact
~ when supplementary requirement F (fracture arrest prop- loads from vessels and other mechanical interaction. Risers
erties) is required, the possibility for a running fracture to should not be located inside the loading zones of platforms.
continue from a weld in one pipe joint to the weld of the 108 Riser and J-tube supports shall be designed to ensure a
next pipe joint shall be assessed; smooth transition of forces between riser and support.
~ external pressure resistance should be documented; and
~ the design shall be based on the load controlled condition 109 The routing of J-tubes shall be based on the following
unless the feasibility for use of displacement controlled considerations:
condition can be documented. platform configuration and topsides layout,
Guidance note: space requirements,
The limitations to fracture arrest and load controlled condition movements of the J-tube,
are due to limited experience with spiral welded pipes subjected cable/pipeline approach,
to running fracture or large strains. J-tube protection,
in-service inspection and maintenance, and
installation considerations.
B 200 Mill pressure test and system pressure test
B. Design Principles and Materials 201 The purposes of the mill test requirement are:
B 100 Pipeline layout ~ to constitute a pressure containment proof test, and
101 A pipeline should not be located close to other struc- ~ to ensure that all pipe sections have at least a minimum
tures, other pipeline systems, wrecks, boulders, etc. The mini- Yield stress.
mum distance should be determined based upon anticipated
deflections, hydrodynamic effects, and upon risk-based evalu- Therefore, the mill test pressure is defined in terms of stress
ations. Wherever a pipeline system is located close to other utilisation, rather than related to the design pressure.
structures, pipeline systems, wrecks, large boulders, etc., the 202 With exception of 203, the pipeline system shall be sys-
detailed routing shall take into account possible deflections, tem pressure tested after installation. The local test pressure
movements and other risks to ensure a sufficient separation (pit) during the system pressure test shall fulfil the following
and margin against interference. requirement:

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page32 - Sec.5

Normal and High Safety Class during normal operation: ~ safety class High, and
~ location class 2.
pit = 1.05~1, (5.1)
Guidance note:
Low Safety Class during normal operation: The minimum wall thickness requirement is based on failure sta-
tistics, which clearly indicate that impact loads are the most like-
pit = 1.03~1, (5.2) ly cause of failure and have the decisive effect on thickness
design (not D/t).
Guidance note:
Normally, i.e. with an incidental pressure of 10% above design
pressure, the above gives a system test pressure of approximately
1.15 times the design pressure, given that the design pressure is B 500 Materials selection
referenced to the highest point of the pipeline system.
501 Materials for pipeline systems shall be selected with due
consideration of the fluid to be transported, loads, temperature
and possible failure modes during installation and operation.
203 The system pressure test requirement provides a leakage The selection of materials shall ensure compatibility of all
test after completed construction and is a function of the local components of the pipeline system. The following material
incidental pressure. By agreement, the system pressure test characteristics shall be considered:
may be waived provided that:
~ mechanical properties,
welded linepipes are welded by the SAW method; ~ hardness,
the wall thickness design is governed by the external pres- ~ fracture toughness,
sure and less than 75% of the pressure containment design fatigue resistance,
resistance is utilised;
~

records show that the specified requirements have consist- ~ weldability, and
ently been obtained during manufacture, fabrication and ~ corrosion resistance.
installation;
the mill pressure test requirement of Section 6E 1100 has 502 Materials selection shall include identification of the fol-
been met; lowing supplementary requirements as required:
all components and risers are hydrostatically pressure test- ~ supplementary requirement S, sour service;
ed during manufacture; ~ supplementary requirement F, fracture arrest properties;
local leak testing is performed after installation and tie-in
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

supplementary requirement P, linepipe exposed to plastic


of components and risers has been completed;
~

deformation exceeding 2%;


an inspection and test regime for the entire pipeline project supplementary requirement U, increased utilisation; and
is established and demonstrated to provide the same level
~

of safety as the system pressure test with respect to detect- ~ supplementary requirement D, more stringent dimensional
able defect sizes etc.; requirements.
automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) has been performed
after installation welding (see Section 9A.904); The supplementary requirements are given in Section 6D.
installation and intervention work is unlikely to have 503 Materials selection shall include the selection of linepipe
caused damage to the pipeline. Special attention shall here NDT Level, see B 600. Linepipe NDT Level I is required for
be given to ploughing, other trenching methods or third use of displacement controlled condition local buckling crite-
party damages e.g. anchor cables; and ria (strain based design).
the pipe has not been exposed to accumulated plastic 504 Under conditions when water, oxygen and chloride can
strains exceeding 2% after AUT. be present in the fluid, e.g. water injection, stainless steels can
be susceptible to both localised corrosion and environmentally
204 During system pressure test, all limit states for safety assisted cracking, and hence the corrosion resistance shall be
class low shall be satisfied (see D). considered for each specific application. For special applica-
B 300 In-service inspection tions, corrosion testing shall be performed to qual@ the mate-
rial for the intended application.
301 Requirements to inspections affecting safety and relia-
bility during operation of the pipeline system shall be identi- 505 Routing of well stimulation fluids through duplex or
fied during the design phase, and shall be documented in the martensitic stainless steel pipeline systems requires special
DFI Résumé. precautions.
506 Special precautions are required to avoid corrosion dam-
B 400 Minimum wall thickness age to CRA pipelines, during system pressure testing using
401 Unless equivalent protection against accidental loads, seawater.
dropped objects and other external loads is provided by other 507 Duplex and martensitic stainless steel linepipe, and C-
means, a minimum nominal pipe wall thickness of 12mm shall Mn steel linepipe with SMYS > 450 MPa require special con-
be used for all pipelines with: siderations of the susceptibility of environmentally assisted
cracking (including SSC and hydrogen induced cracking relat-
~ nominal diameter equal to 8" and above, ed to cathodic protection). In particular this applies to material
~ safety class High, and subjected to significant plastic straining during fabrication, in-
~ location class 2. stallation and operation.
Guidance note:
402 Special evaluation of accidental loads, dropped objects
and other external loads shall be included in the determination Linepipe NDT level I gives more stringent requirement to NDT
of minimum required wall thickness for pipelines with: than NDT level II.
The strength factor is 4% higher for supplementary requirement
nominal diameter less than 8", U, usually giving approximately 4% less material.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
S e c 5 - Page33

The relationship between the different material requirements and Table 5-2 Characteristic material strength, fy,fu
design is illustrated in the table below.
ProDer& I Value
Design resistance utilisation as function of NDT level and Characteristicyield stress If, = (SMTS -f,.ternJ.au
sumlementarv reauirement U
Linepipe NDT level
Characteristic tensile strength ,fI = (SMTS -f,ternu).au.aA
Supplementa y req. U Where:
Pressure containment is the derating value due to the tempera-
andf,,temp
Load controlled buckling ture of the yield stress and the tensile
NIA strength respectively
ling. au Material strength factor, ref. Table 5-1
Notes to table: Anisotropy factor,
High and Low in the above table refers to the allowable utilisa- = 0.95 for axial direction (i.e. a, of Eq.
1)
tion. (5.23))due to relaxed testing require-
2) Load controlled condition and displacement controlled condition ments in linepipe specification (ref. Ta-
are defined in C 1OO. ble 6-3, Note 4
= 1.O for other cases.
Guidance note:
If no other information on de-rating effects of the yield stress ex-
ists the recommendations for C-Mn steel, 22Cr Duplex or 25Cr
Duplex stainless steel in Figure 5-1 below may be used.
B 600 Characteristic material properties
601 Characteristic material properties shall be used in the re-
sistance calculations. The yield stress and tensile strength shall
be based on the engineering stress-strain curve.
602 Supplementary requirement U ensures increased confi-
dence in yield stress, which is reflected in a higher material
strength factor, given in Table 5-1. The design strength is a
function of this value and is given in 604.
I Table 5-1 Material Strength factor, a,
I Factor I Normal I SuDDlementaw reauirement U I
I I I I
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

UT7 0.96 1 .o0


Note, For system pressure test, au shall be equal to 1.00, which gives an al-
lowable hoop stress of 96% of S M Y S both for materials fulfilling supple-
mentary requirement U and those not.

603 The different material grades refer to mechanical prop-


erties at room temperature. Possible temperature effects on the
material properties shall be considered at temperatures above
50"C, for C-Mn steel, and above 20°C for 22Cr and 25Cr.
These properties shall be selected with due regard to material
type and potential temperature-ageing effects and shall in-
clude:
yield stress, Figure 5-1 Proposed de-rating values for yield stress
~ tensile strength,
~ Young's modulus, and
temperature expansion coefficient. 605 Any difference in the de-rating effect of temperature for
tension and compression shall be accounted for.
Guidance note:
Field joint coating application during installation may also im- Guidance note:
pose temperatures in excess of the above and hence shall be con- Difference in de-rating effect for tension and compression has
sidered. been experienced on 13% Cr steel material.

604 The characteristic material strength values to be used in 606 For fabrication processes which introduce cold deforma-
the limit state criteria are given in Table 5-2. tions giving different strength in tension and compression, a
fabrication factor, shall be determined. If no other infor-
mation exists, maximum fabrication factors for pipes manufac-
tured by the UOE or U 0 processes are given in Table 5-3.
These factors also apply to other fabrication processes which
introduce similar cold deformations such as three roll bending
(TRB).
The fabrication factor may be improved through heat treat-
ment, if documented.
Table 5-3 Maximum fabrication factor, af,b
PiDe I Seamless I UO&TRB I UOE
&"L 1.o0 0.93 0.85

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page34 - Sec.5

B 700 Corrosion allowance 102 A load-controlled condition is one in which the structur-
701 For C-Mn steel pipelines carrying potentially corrosive al response is primarily governed by the imposed loads.
fluids andor exposed to an external corrosive environment 103 A displacement-controlled condition is one in which the
without cathodic protection, the use of an extra wall thickness structural response is primarily governed by imposed geomet-
to compensate for any corrosive degradation during operation ric displacements.
("corrosion allowance") shall be duly considered, (see also 104 A load controlled design criterion can always be applied
Section 8). in place of a displacement controlled design criterion.
Guidance note:
Guidance note:
A corrosion allowance is primarily used to compensate for forms
of corrosion attack affecting the pipeline's pressure containment An example of a purely displacement-controlledcondition is a
resistance, i.e. uniform attack and, to a lesser extent, corrosion pipeline bent into conformity with a continuous curved structure,
damage as grooves or patches. However, a corrosion allowance such as a J-tube or a reel. In that case, the curvature of the pipe
may also enhance the operationalreliability and increase the use- axis is imposed but the circumferential bending that leads to
ful life if corrosion damage occurs as isolated pits; although such ovalisation is determined by the interaction between the curva-
damage is unlikely to affect the pipeline's resistance, it will cause ture of the axis and the internal forces induced by the curvature.
a pinhole leak when the full wall thickness is penetrated. Howev- A less clear-cut example is a pipeline in contact with the rollers

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
er, the extra wall thickness will only delay leakage in proportion of a lay barge stinger. On a large scale, the configuration of the
to the increase in wall thickness. pipeline has to conform to the rollers, and in that sense is dis-
placement controlled. On a local scale however, bending of the
pipe between the rollers is determined by the interactionbetween
weight and tension and is load-controlled. The stinger tip will,
702 The needs for, and benefits of, a corrosion allowance however, always be load controlled.
shall be evaluated, taking into account the following factors as
a minimum: Another intermediate case is an expansion spool in contact with
the seabed. Pipeline expansion induced by temperature and pres-
design life and potential corrosivity of fluid andor exter- sure imposes a displacementat the end of the spool. The structur-
al response of the spool itself has little effect on the imposed
nal environment; expansion displacement, and the response is primarily displace-
expected form of corrosion damage (see Guidance note ment-controlled.However, the lateral resistance to movement of
above); the spool across the seabed also plays a significant part and in-
expected reliability of planned techniques and procedures duces a degree of load control.
for corrosion mitigation (e.g. chemical treatment of fluid, These examples show that in many cases a simple distinction be-
external coating, etc.); tween load control and displacement control is not seen. The
expected sensitivity and damage sizing capability of rele- choice should be based on an informed judgement about which
vant tools for integrity monitoring, time to fiist inspection components of the combined load are more important.
and planned frequency of inspection;
consequences of sudden leakage, requirements to safety
and reliability; and 105 Linepipe NDT level I is required for use of displacement
potential for down-rating (or up-rating) of operating pres- controlled local buckling criteria.
sure.
C 200 Load effect calculation
703 Unless a sudden leakage of fluid is acceptable (may ap-
ply for pipelines of safety class Low), the magnitude of a cor- 201 The design analyses shall be based on accepted princi-
rosion allowance shall be sufficient to accommodate any ples of statics, dynamics, strength of materials and soil me-
realistic corrosive degradation that may occur in the period be- chanics.
tween two consecutive inspections for integrity monitoring 202 Simplified methods or analyses may be used to calculate
(see Section 10) the load effects provided that they are conservative. Model
704 Pipelines of safety class Normal and High in C-Mn steel tests may be used in combination with, or instead of, theoreti-
carrying hydrocarbon fluids likely to contain liquid water dur- cal calculations. In cases where theoretical methods are inade-
ing operation shall have an internal corrosion allowance of quate, model or full-scale tests may be required.
minimum 3 mm. 203 All loads and forced displacements which may influence
705 Subject to agreement, the general requirements for a the pipeline integrity shall be taken into account. For each
minimum corrosion allowance of 3 mm may be waived if it is cross section or part of the system to be considered and for
demonstrated that the design andor procedures for corrosion each possible mode of failure to be analysed, all relevant com-
control exclude any critical damage by corrosion. binations of loads which may act simultaneously shall be con-
706 An external corrosion allowance of 3 mm shall be ap- sidered.
plied to C-Mn steel risers of safety class Normal and High in 204 When determining responses to dynamic loads, the dy-
the splash zone. For risers carrying hot fluids (more than 10°C namic effect shall be taken into account if deemed significant.
above normal ambient seawater temperature) of the same safe- 205 Load effect calculation shall be performed applying
ty classes the use of a corrosion allowance in excess of 3 mm nominal cross section values.
shall be considered. Any allowance for internal corrosion shall
be additional. 206 Load effect calculations shall be based on characteristic
values, ref. Section 4B 200 and C 600.
207 Possible beneficial strengthening effect of weight coat-
ing on a steel pipe shall not be taken into account in the design,
C. Load and Resistance Calculations unless the strengthening effect is documented. Coating which
C 100 Load conditions adds significant bending stiffness to the pipe may increase the
stresses/strains in the pipe at any discontinuity in the coating
101 Differentiation is made between: (e.g. at field joints). When appropriate, this effect shall be tak-
~ Load Controlled condition (LC condition), and en into account.
~ Displacement Controlled condition (DC condition). 208 Possible beneficial strengthening effect of cladding or
liner on a steel pipe shall not be taken into account in the de-
Different design checks apply to these two conditions. sign, unless the strengthening effect is documented.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.5 - Page35

209 The effective axial force that determines the global re- 403 Strain concentrations shall be accounted for when con-
sponse of a pipeline is denoted S. Counting tensile force as sidering:
positive:
uneven deformation caused by variations in actual materi-
7T 2 2
S = N-piAi +p,A =N
- -@i(D 2 t ) -p,D ) (5.3)
- al yield stress and strain hardenability between pipe joints
4 and in the weld metal due to scatter in material properties;
210 In the as-laid condition, when the pipe temperature and variations in cross sectional area (actual diameter or wall
internal pressure are the same as when the pipe was laid, thickness) between pipe joints;
S=H stiffening effects of coating and variations in coating
thickness;
Where H i s the effective (residual) lay tension

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
reduction of yield stress in field joints due to high temper-
211 Effective axial force of a totally restrained pipe in the ature imposed by field joint coating application during in-
linear elastic stress range is (if it can be idealised as thin- stallation; and
walled): undermatcldovermatch of actual weld metal yield stress,
relative to actual pipe material yield stress.
S = H- A u i . A i ( l -2v)-A,. E . a . AT (5.4)
404 Accumulated plastic strain is defiied as the sum of plas-
where : tic strain increments, irrespective of sign and direction. Strain
H = Effective (residual) lay tension increments shall be calculated from after the linepipe manufac-
turing.
4i = Internal pressure difference relative to as laid
AT = Temperature difference relative to as laid 405 Plastic strain increment shall be calculated from the
point where the material stress-strain curve deviates from a lin-
C 300 Characteristic wall thickness ear relationship, ref. Figure 5-2.
301 Pressure containment resistance shall be calculated
based on wall thickness as follows:
Mill pressure test and system pressure test condition

tl = t-tfab (5.5)
Operational condition

tl = tfab tcorr (5.6)


302 Resistances, except for pressure containment resistance,
shall be calculated based on wall thickness as follows:
Construction (installation) and system pressure test

t2 = t (5.7)
Otherwise
Figure 5-2 Reference for plastic strain calculation
t2 = -tcorr (5.8) Guidance note:
303 Corrosion prior to start of operation shall be considered The yield stress is defined as the stress at which the total strain is
in the above calculation of thickness. 0.5%. As an example for a 41 5 grade C-Mn steel, a unidirectional
strain of 0.5% corresponds to an elastic strain of approximately
304 Minimum wall thickness requirement is given in B 400. 0.2% and a plastic strain of 0.3%.

C 400 Stress and strain calculations 406 The equivalent plastic strain is defined as:
401 Stress Concentration Factors (SCF) shall be included if E = J(2/3)(EpL 2 +EPH 2 +EpR-)
P (5.9)
relevant.
Guidance note: where
Distinction should be made between global and local stress con-
centrations. 5 is the equivalent plastic strain
Local stress concentrations (that may be caused by welded at- 5L is the plastic part of the principal longitudinal strain
tachments, the weld itself, or very local discontinuities) will af- ~p~ is the plastic part of the principal circumferential (hoop)
fect the pipe only locally and are typically accounted for in strain
fatigue and fracture evaluations. Global stress concentrations is the plastic part of the principal radial strain
(such as stress amplifications in field joints due to concrete coat- ~p~
ing, which typically extend one diameter) will affect the pipe glo-
bally, and shall be accounted for in the bending buckling
evaluations as well as fatigue and fracture evaluations.
D. Limit States
D 100 General
402 Strain Concentration Factors (SNCF) shall be deter-
mined and accounted for if plastic strain is experienced. The 101 All relevant failure modes formulated in terms of limit
SNCF shall be adjusted for the non-linear stress-strain rela- states shall be considered in design. The limit states shall be
tionship for the relevant load level. classified into one of the following four limit state categories:

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page36 - Sec.5

Serviceability Limit State (SLS): A condition which, if ex-


ceeded, renders the pipeline unsuitable for normal opera-
tions.
Ultimate Limit State (ULS): A condition which, if exceed-
ed, compromises the integrity of the pipeline.
Fatigue Limit State (FLS): A ULS condition accounting
for accumulated cyclic load effects.
Accidental Limit State (ALS): A ULS due to accidental
loads.
102 As a minimum requirement, risers and pipelines shall be
designed against the following potential modes of failure:
Serviceability Limit State
~ ovalisatiod ratcheting limit state;
~ accumulated plastic strain limit state; and
~ damage due to, or loss of, weight coating.
Ultimate Limit State
~ bursting limit state;
~ ovalisatiodratcheting limit state (if causing total failure);
~ local buckling limit state (pipe wall buckling limit state);
~ global buckling limit state (normally for load-controlled
condition);
~ unstable fracture and plastic collapse limit state; and
~ impact.
Fatigue Limit State
fatigue due to cyclic loading.
Accidental limit state
ultimate limit state due to infrequent loading.
103 All limit states shall be satisfied for all specified load
combinations. The limit state may be different for the load con-
trolled condition and the displacement controlled condition.
104 Figure 5-3 gives an overview of the required design
checks.
105 All liniit states shall be satisfied for all relevant phases
and conditions. Typical conditions to be covered in the design
are :
~ installation,
~ as laid,
~ system pressure test,
~ operation, and
~ shut-down

Figure 5-3 Flow diagram for structural design. The design


loop shall be repeated for each relevant phase.
D 200 Limit state format
201 The design format in this standard is based on an LRFD
format.
202 Based on potential failure consequences the pipeline
shall be classified into a safety class see Section 2C 400. The
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE07:29:40
VERITAS MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.5 - Page37

safety class may vary for different phases and different loca- safety class and given in Table 5-5.
tions.
I Table 5-5 Safetv class resistance factors. I
203 The level of safety is considered to be satisfactory if the
design load effect (Ld) does not exceed the design resistance
Safety class Low Normal High
(%I : Pressure containment2 1.0463, 1.138 1.308l
Ld 5 Rd (5.10) Other 1.O4 1.14 1.26
1) For parts of pipelines in location class 1, resistance safety class normal
204 The design load can generally be expressed in the fol- may be applied (1.13s).
lowing format: 2) The number of significant digits are given in order to comply with the
I S 0 usage factors.
(L,j = L F . YF. YC + L E . YE +LA . YA . YC) (5.11) 3) Safety class low will be governed by the system pressure test which is
required to be 3% above the incidental pressure. Hence, for operation
in safety class low, the resistance factor will effectively be 3% higher.
In specific forms, this corresponds to:
4) For system pressure test, au shall be equal to 1.00, which gives an al-
lowable hoop stress of 96% of S M Y S both for materials fulfilling sup-
plementary requirement U and those not.

D 300 Load effect factors and load combinations


301 Each part of the pipeline system shall be designed for the
most unfavourable load combination given in Table 5-6. Load
combination a and b are referred to in D 500 through definition
in Eq. (5.12).

'Yd = & ' @ld-Ye)

The load effect factors, @ , &, yA, % and yc are given in Table
5-5 and Table 5-6. These factors apply to all safety classes.
Definition of characteristic functional and environmental load
effect values are given in Section 4B 200 and C 600.
di
Limit State /
Load com&

ULS
FLS
ALS
Functional Environ- Accidental
loads1) mental load

1.1
1.o
1.o
loads

1.o
1.o 1.o
Pressure
loads

1.O5
1.o
1.o
Guidance note: 1) If the functional load effect reduces the combined load effects, % shall
be takenas Ul.1.
The above load combinations are referred to explicitly in the de-
sign cntena, e.g. Eq. (5.23), and shall not be applied elsewhere, 302 Load combination a in Table 5-6 is required when sys-
e.g. not in Eq. (5.14) or in Eq. (5.22). tem effects are present. It is therefore not required for local de-
sign checks, which normally means for c p - O in combination
with other loads.
Guidance note: 303 The loads listed in Section 4 shall be considered for all
For the system pressure test condition, the local test pressure is design phases relevant to the pipeline system.
considered as incidental pressure. In order to calculate the corre- 304 The condition load effect factor applies to the conditions
sponding Pld, included in APd above, the local test pressure shall in Table 5-7. Condition load effect factors are in addition to the
be calculated as: load effect factors and are referred to explicitly in Eq. (5.12).
Table 5-7 Condition load effect factors, y c
Condition
Pipeline resting on uneven seabed or in a snaked con-
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

dition
where h,,f is the vertical distance between the point in question Continuouslv stiff suuuorted 0.82
and the reference height and xncshould be 1.1. The same ap- I Svstem uressure test I 0.93 I
proach applies to when the shut-in pressure is used.

205 The design resistance, Rd, can normally be expressed in


the following format:

(5.13)
The characteristic material strength,fk, is given in B 600.
206 The material resistance factor, ym, is dependent on the
limit state category and is defiied in Table 5-4.

D 400 Pressure containment (bursting)


Y, 1.15 1.o0 401 The following criteria are valid provided that the mill
pressure test requirement in Section 6E 1100 has been met. If
207 The safety class resistance factor, sc,is dependent on not, a corresponding decreased utilisation shall be applied.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page38 - Sec.5

402 The pressure containment shall fulfil the following cri- Guidance note:
teria: Ovalisation caused during the constructionphase shall be includ-
ed in the total ovality to be used in design. Ovalisation due to ex-
(5.14) ternal water pressure or bending moment shall not be included.

Guidance note:
Criterion for the incidental pressure is given in Section 3B 300 504 The external pressure at any point along the pipeline
The concept of local pressure is given in Section 12E 100 shall meet the following criterion (system collapse check):

(5.22)
403 The pressure containment resistance, Pb (x) is given by: Guidance note:
If the pipeline is laid fully or partially liquid-filledor is otherwise
= Minbb, pb,u(x)) (5.15) under internal pressure, then the internal pressure may be taken
into account provided that it can be continuously sustained.

Yielding limit state


Combined Loading Criteria - Load controlled condition
(5.16)
505 Pipe members subjected to bending moment, effective
Bursting limit state axial force and internal overpressure shall be designed to satis-
2 . x fu 2 fy the following condition at all cross sections:
Yb, .(x) = - - - ' '
(5.17)
D - x 1,15 .j3

Guidance note:
In the above formulas, x shall be replaced by t l or tz as appropn-
ate.

404 Reduction in pressure containment resistance due to true


compressive forces (load controlled), N, shall be considered.
D 500 Local buckling
501 Local buckling (pipe wall buckling) implies gross defor-
mation of the cross section. The following criteria shall be fùl-
filled: Design bending moment, (see Eq.(5.12))
Design effective axial force
~ system collapse (external pressure only);
Design differential overpressure
~ combined loading criteria, i.e. interaction between exter-
nal or internal pressure, axial force and bending moment; Plastic moment resistance given by:
and M = f, . ( D t 2 ) . t2
-
2
~ propagation buckling. P ,
Characteristic plastic axial force resistance given
502 Large accumulated plastic strain may aggravate local by :
buckling and shall be considered. Sp =f;Z.(D-t2).t2
System collapse criteria
Burst pressure Eq.(5.15)
503 The characteristic resistance for external pressure (u,) Flow stress parameter accounting for strain harden-
(collapse) shall be calculated as: ing given by:

fU
a, = (1-ß)+ß-
where : fY
but maximum 1.20
(5.19) 0.4 + q, for D/t2 < 15
qh)(60 D/t2)/45 for 15 5 D/t2 5 60
-

(5.20) for D/t2 > 60

Dmax Dmin
fo = (5.21)
D for P l d 5 Pe
not to be taken < 0.005 (0.5%) a, is not to be taken larger than 1.20.

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
S e c 5 - Page39

Guidance note: cient safety margin in compliance with this standard. Any in-
creased utilisation shall be supported by analytical design
methods.

I Table 5-8 Resistance strain factors. vi


NDT Supplementa y Safety class
Level Requirements L~~ Normal High
I U 2.0 2.5 3.3
I 2.1 2.6 3.5
II I N/A

509 A higher probability of failure corresponding to a serv-


iceability limit state may be allowed during the installation
phase provided that:
a, versus D/t ratio andpressure ratio q,, for fJf,=1.15
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

506 Pipe members subjected to bending moment, effective fÖmed during laying; and
axial force and external overpressure shall be designed to sat- buckle arrestors are installed if the external pressure ex-
isfy the following equation: ceeds the initiation propagating pressure.
Relevant resistance factors may then be calibrated according to
the SLS requirements in Section 2.
Propagation buckling
D/t 5 45, pi < y , 510 Propagation buckling cannot be initiated unless local
buckling has occurred. In case the external pressure exceeds
Combined loading criteria - Displacement controlled condi- the criteria given below, buckle arrestors should be installed
tion and spacing determined based on consequences of failure. The
507 Pipe members subjected to longitudinal compressive propagating buckle criterion reads:
strain (bending moment and axial force) and internal over pres-
sure shall be designed to satisfy the following condition at all
cross sections:
Ec
Ed I- D A 145,pi 2p, (5.25)
YE
where :
Ed = Design compressive strain, Eq. (5.12)
t o
E, = 0 . 7 8 ( ~ - 0 . 0 1 ) ( 1 +5+)%p1'5agw
Guidance note:
ah = Maximum allowed yield% tensile ratio Collapse pressure, p c , is the pressure required to buckle a pipe-
a,= Girth weld factor line.
$'- Resistance strain factor, see Table 5-8
D-t Initiation pressure, pinit, is the pressure required to start a propa-
gating buckle from a given buckle. This pressure will depend on
oh= 'pd'($) the size of the initial buckle.
Guidance note: Propagating pressure, ppr,is the pressure required to continue a
The maximum yield to ultimate stress ration, a,, is found in Ta- propagating buckle. A propagating buckle will stop when the
ble 6-3 and Table 6-6. The increase of this factor with 0.02 in ac- pressure is less than the propagating pressure.
cordance with footnote 5 and 3 in these tables respectively does The relationship between the different pressures are:
not apply since it is already included in the factor 0.78.
Pc >Pinit >Pnr

508 Pipe members subjected to longitudinal compressive


strain (bending moment and axial force) and external over D 600 Global buckling
pressure shall be designed to satisfy the following condition at 601 Global buckling implies buckling of the pipe as a bar in
all cross sections: compression. The pipeline may buckle globally, either down-
wards (in a free span), horizontally ("snaking" on the seabed),
or vertically (as upheaval buckling or on a free-span shoulder).
l:l
1 - 1
\ / J
Ye
+yc 51

ysc . y,
D/t 5 45,pi < y , (5.26) 602 The effect of internal and external pressures may be tak-
en into account using the concept of an effective axial force,
see C.209 above. The procedure is as for "ordinary" compres-
where : ye sion members in air.
&d = Design compressive strain, Eq. (5.12) 603 A negative effective force may cause a pipeline or a riser
E, = 0.78(6t2 0.01) %p'1'5)agw
- to buckle as a bar in compression. Distinction shall be made
between load-controlled and displacement-controlled buck-
Guidance note:
ling.
For d t < 20, the utilisation may be increased provided that full Load-controlled buckling involves total failure, and is not al-
scale testing, observation, or former experience indicate suffi- lowed.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page40 - Sec.5

604 The following global buckling initiators shall be consid- tests, the following shall be considered:
ered:
determination of long-term distribution of stress range, see
~ trawl board impact, pullover and hooking, and 707;
~ out of straightness. ~ selection of appropriate S-N curve (characteristic resist-
ance), see 708;
605 For global buckling resistance for load-controlled condi- ~ determination of Stress Concentration Factor (SCF) not
tion, reference is made to DNV Offshore Standard OS-C101, included in the SN-curve; and
"Design of Steel Structures rr (not yet issued; until issue, refer ~ determination of accumulated damage, see 709.
to DNV Rules for ClassiJication of Fixed Ofshore Installa-
tions, Pt. 3, Ch. 1, Structural Design, General). 707 As most of the loads which contribute to fatigue are of a
606 Displacement-controlled buckling may be allowed, pro- random nature, statistical consideration is normally required in
vided it does not result in other failure modes as listed under determining the long-term distribution of fatigue loading ef-
102 above. This implies that global buckling may be allowed fects. Where appropriate, deterministic or spectral analysis
provided that: may be used.
708 The characteristic resistance is normally given as S-N
~ local buckling criteria are fulfilled in the post global buck- curves or e-N curves, i.e. stress amplitudes (or strain ampli-
ling configuration, tudes for the case of low-cycle fatigue), versus number of cy-
~ displacement of the pipeline is acceptable and cles to failure, N. The S-N curve shall be applicable for the
~ cyclic effects are acceptable. material, construction detail, and state of stress considered, as
well as to the surrounding environment. The S-N curve should
Guidance note:
be based on the mean curve of log(N) with the subtraction of
A condition that can give rise to excessive strain is when a short two standard deviations in log(N).
length of an otherwise fully restrained pipeline is less restrained
or unconstrained. A typical example is upheaval buckling of a 709 In the general case where stress fluctuations occur with
buried pipeline. varying amplitude of random order, the linear damage hypoth-
esis (Miner's Rule) may be used. The application of Miner's
Rule implies that the long-term distribution of stress range is
replaced by a stress histogram, consisting of a number of con-
D700 Fatigue stant amplitude stress or strain range blocks, (sr)i or (er)i, and
701 Reference is made to the following Rules, Classification the corresponding number of repetitions, ni. Thus, the fatigue
Notes (CN) and guidelines: criterion is given by:
~ CN 30.5 Environmental Conditions and Environmental
Loads.
Dfat = c,k
ni afat
(5.28)
~ DNV-RP-C203 Fatigue Strength Analysis of Ofshore
i=l
Steel Structures
~ DNV-RP-F105 Free Spanning Pipelines Where:

702 The pipeline systems shall have adequate safety against Dfat Miner's sum
=
fatigue failures within the design life of the system. k number of stress blocks
=
ni number of stress cycles in stress block i
=
703 All stress fluctuations imposed on the pipeline system Ni number of cycles to failure at constant stress range
=
during the entire design life, including the construction phase, of magnitude (sJi or strain range (e,)i.
which have magnitude and corresponding number of cycles afat = allowable damage ratio, see Table 5-9
large enough to cause fatigue effects shall be taken into ac-
count when determining the long-term distribution of stress 710 For detailed explanation regarding fatigue calculations/
ranges. The fatigue check shall include both low-cycle fatigue analysis reference is made to DNV-RP-F105 "Free Spanning
and high-cycle fatigue. The requirements regarding accumu- Piyelines". In cases where this guideline is not applicable, al-
lated plastic strain (D 1000 below) shall also be satisfied. lowable damage ratios are given in Table 5-9.
Guidance note: I Table 5-9 Allowable damage ratio for fatigue I
Typical causes of stress fluctuations in a pipeline system are:
- direct wave action; 113 115 1/10
- vibrations of the pipeline system, e.g. due to vortex shedding qat
(current, waves, wind, towing) or fluid flow;
- supporting structure movements; and
- fluctuations in operating pressure and temperature.

704 Special consideration shall be given to the fatigue as-


sessment of construction details likely to cause stress concen-
trations, and to the possibility of having low-cycle high strain (5.29)
fatigue. The specific design criterion to be used depends upon The requirement may be relaxed if:
the analysis method, which may be categorised into:
~ a corresponding reduction in moment resistance has been
~ methods based upon fracture mechanics (see 705) included;
~ methods based upon fatigue tests (see 706). ~ geometrical restrictions are met, such as pigging require-
705 Where appropriate, a calculation procedure based upon ments;
additional cyclic stresses caused by the ovalisation have
fracture mechanics may be used. The specific criterion to be
~

used shall be determined on a case-by-case basis, and shall re- been considered; and
tolerances in the relevant repair system are met.
flect the target safety levels in Section 2C 600.
~

706 When using calculation methods based upon fatigue 802 Ovalisation shall be checked for point loads at any point
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKI
E VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.5 - Page41

along the pipeline system. Such point loads may arise at free- D 1100 Fracture
span shoulders, artificial supports and support settlements. 1101 Pipeline systems shall have adequate resistance against
D 900 Ratcheting initiation of unstable fracture. This shall be achieved by select-
ing materials with the transition temperature from brittle to
901 Accumulated plastic deformation (ratcheting) caused by ductile behaviour sufficiently below the minimum design tem-
cyclic loads shall be considered. If the ratcheting causes accu- perature, see Table 6-4, and with high resistance to stable crack
mulated ovality, special consideration shall be made of the ef- growth.
fect on buckling resistance.
1102 The safety against unstable fracture is considered satis-
902 Under maximum operating temperature and pressure, factory if the materials, welding, workmanship and testing are
the equivalent plastic strain in the pipelines shall not exceed in accordance with the requirements of this standard and the
0.001 (0.1%). (Calculated based on elastic - perfectly plastic accumulated plastic strain is not exceeding 0.3%.
material. The calculations of the equivalent plastic strain as-
sume that the reference state for zero strain is the as-built state 1103 Pipeline systems transporting gas or mixed gas and liq-
(after pressure testing)). uids under high pressure shall have adequate resistance to
propagating fracture. This may be achieved by using:
903 Plastic deformation of the pipeline shall only occur
when the pipeline is fiist exposed to its maximum temperature ~ material with low transition temperature and adequate
and pressure. Charpy V-notch toughness,
adequate DWTT shear fracture area
904 Ratcheting due to local and global bending stresses shall
~

also be considered where this could eventually lead to loss of ~ lowering the stress level,
stability ~ use of mechanical crack arrestors, or
~ by a combination of these methods.
D 1000 Accumulated plastic strain
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Design solutions shall be validated by calculations based upon


1001 The equivalent plastic strain condition in C.405 and relevant experience and/or suitable tests.
C.406 is not in itself a limit state. Equivalent plastic strain is a
measure of plastic deformation, which is useful in the assess- 1104 For linepipe required to resist propagating fractures,
ment of fracture mechanics and degradation of material prop- the additional requirements in Section 6D 200 and modifica-
erties. Requirements with respect to fracture mechanics are tions for linepipe base material shall apply for the subsea sec-
given in D 1100. tion of the pipeline system. For depths down to 10 metres and
onshore, the required Charpy V-notch impact energy shall be
1002 Accumulation of plastic strain during installation and specially considered. Deep water pipelines will experience re-
operation shall be considered for all pipelines. ductions in tensile stresses due to the external pressure. Sup-
The effects of strain ageing due to the accumulation of plastic plementary requirements to fracture arrest properties need not
strain shall be considered. be applied when the pipeline design tensile hoop stress is be-
low 40% of fy.
The effects of degradation of the material properties of the
weld zones and parent pipe, and the influence on acceptance 1105 Material meeting the supplementary requirement for
criteria for NDT, shall be accounted for. fracture arrest properties (F) (Section 6D 200) is considered to
have adequate resistance to running propagating ductile frac-
1003 The amount of displacement controlled strain, both ac- ture for applications up to 80% usage factor, 15 MPa internal
cumulated and maximum for each single strain cycle, shall be pressure and 30 mm wall thickness.
established considering all phases from construction to aban-
donment. 1106 For pipelines subjected to an accumulated plastic strain
exceeding 0.3%, an engineering criticality assessment (ECA)
1004 When the accumulated plastic strain resulting from in- shall be carried out in order to confirm that unstable fracture
stallation and operation load effects (including load factors and will not occur during pipelaying, or during operation of the
all strain concentration factors), , is pipeline.
~p 5 0.3% 1107 Possible stable crack growth (ductile tearing) and high-
then the requirements of this standard for materials, welding and low-cycle fatigue crack growth shall be considered in the
procedures, workmanship and the acceptance criteria for NDT assessment. The assessment shall confirm that the largest weld
given in Appendix D Table D-4, Table D-5, are considered ad- defects expected to remain after NDT will not increase during
equate. pipelaying to an extent such that unstable fracture or fatigue
failure will occur during operation of the pipeline.
1005 When the accumulated plastic strain resulting from in-
stallation and operation, including all strain concentration fac- 1108 The effect of strain ageing on fracture toughness, shall
tors, is: be taken into account as relevant by testing artificially strain
aged material.
~p > 0.3%
1109 The ECA shall be carried out in accordance with BS
an engineering criticality assessment (ECA), see D 1100 be- 7910 at Level 3, with modifications necessary for plastic de-
low, shall be performed on installation girth welds. This ECA sign and multiple strain cycles. Some guidance for use of BS
shall determine the material fracture toughness required to tol- 7910 for plastic design and multiple strain cycles is given in
erate the flaws allowed according to the acceptance criteria for Section 12.
NDT given in Appendix D Table D-4, Table D-5, or alterna-
tively to establish the defect size that can be tolerated for a giv- 1110 The maximum defect size resulting from, or used in,
en fracture toughness. the ECA shall be adjusted for the probability of detection pos-
sible with NDT and the accuracy of the equipment to be used
1006 When the accumulated plastic strain resulting from in- in determining length, height, location and orientation of im-
stallation and operation, including all strain concentration fac- perfections.
tors, is:
1111 The uncertainty data used shall be appropriate for the
Ep > 2.0% applied testing equipment and procedures for the detection and
then, in addition to the requirements of 1005, the characteristic assessment of flaws in the material and weld geometries in
strain resistance e,, shall be verified as required in Section 9E question. The data used for quantitative estimates of ultrasonic
and the material shall meet the supplementary requirement P. testing uncertainty, performance and reliability, are preferably

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page42 - Sec.5

to be of the "measured response versus actual flaw size" type. and procedures applied.
The probability of detection level with the applied testing
1206 A simplified design check with respect to accidental
equipment and procedures used shall be based on a confidence load may be performed as shown in Table 5-10 using appropri-
level of 95% or better. ate partial safety factors.. The adequacy of simplified design
1112 If adequate data is not available, the following ap- check must be assessed on the basis of the summation above in
proach shall be used: order to ver@ that the overall failure probability complies
with the target values in Section 2.
~ If the purpose of the ECA is to establish the tolerable de-
fect size for given material properties and stresses, 2 mm
shall be subtracted from the calculated defect height and
length, when acceptance criteria for non-destructive test- E. Special Considerations
ing are established.
~ If the purpose of the ECA is to establish the material prop- E 100 General
erties and stresses required to tolerate a given defect size, 101 This subsection gives guidance on conditions that shall
the defect size used as input into the ECA shall be in- be evaluated separately. Both the load effects and acceptance
creased in size by adding 2 mm to the stated height and criteria are affected.
width.
E 200 Pipe soil interaction
D 1200 Accidental limit state
201 For limit states influenced by the interaction between the
1201 The design against accidental loads may be performed pipeline and the soil, this interaction shall be determined tak-
by direct calculation of the effects imposed by the loads on the ing due account for all relevant parameters and the uncertain-
structure, or indirectly, by design of the structure as tolerable ties related to these.
to accidents.
In general pipeline soil interaction depends on the characteris-
1202 The acceptance criteria for ALS relate to the overall al- tics of the soil, the pipeline, and the loads, which shall all be
lowable probability of severe consequences properly accounted for in the simulation of the pipeline soil in-
1203 Design with respect to accidental load must ensure that teraction.
the overall failure probability complies with the target values 202 The main soil characteristics governing the interaction
in Section 2. This probability can be expressed as the sum of are the shear strength and deformation properties. The non-lin-
the probability of occurrence of the i'th damaging event, Pqi, ear stress - strain characteristics of the soil shall be accounted
times the structural failure probability conditioned on this for. If linear springs are used to represent the interaction, the
event, Pfl/2Di. The requirement is accordingly expressed as: response in the springs shall be checked in order to ver@ that
the load level is compatible with the spring stiffness used.
(5.30)
203 Pipeline characteristics of importance are submerged
where P is the relevant target probability according to Sec- weight, diameter stiffness, and roughness of the pipeline sur-
tion 2. %e number of discretisation levels must be large face, which shall all be accounted for as relevant for the limit
enough to ensure that the resulting probability is evaluated state in question.
with sufficient accuracy. 204 All relevant effects of load characteristics shall be con-
1204 The inherent uncertainty of the frequency and magni- sidered, including any long term load history effects such as
tude of the accidental loads, as well as the approximate nature varying vertical reactions from installation laying pressures,
of the methods for determination of accidental load effects, and variations in the unit weight of the pipe. Cyclic loading ef-
shall be recognised. Sound engineering judgement and prag- fects are also to be considered.
matic evaluations are hence required. Some soils have different resistance values for long term load-
ing and for short term loading, related to the difference in
I Table 5-10 SimDlified Design Check versus Accidental loads I drained and non-drained behaviour and to creep effects in
Prob. of occur- Safety Class Safety Class Safety Class drained and non-drained condition. This shall be taken into ac-
rence Low Normal High Y count.
Accidental loads may be regarded similar to envi-
ronmental loads and may be evaluated similar to
205 For limit states involving or allowing for large displace-
ULS design check ments (e.g. lateral pull-in, pipeline expansion of expansion
loops or when displacements are allowed for on-bottom condi-
- I
To be evaluated on a case by case basis
tion) the soil will be loaded far beyond failure, involving large
10-3 I
yc= 1.0 I
yc= 1.0 yc= 1.0 I non-linearities, remoulding of soil, ploughing of soil etc. Such
non-linear effects and the uncertainties related to these shall be
Accidental loads or events may considered.
be disregarded 206 Due to the uncertainties in governing soil parameters,
load effects etc., it is difficult to define universally valid meth-
Note to table: ods for simulation of pipeline soil interaction effects. The lim-
Standard industry practice assumes safety factors equal to 1.O for an acciden- itations of the methods used, whether theoretically or
tal event with a probability of occurrence equal to and survival of the empirically based, shall be thoroughly considered in relation to
pipeline is merely related to a conservative definition of characteristic resist- the problem at hand. Extrapolation beyond documented valid-
ance. In this standard, accidental loads and events are introduced in a more
general context with a link between probability of occurrence and actual fail- ity of a method shall be performed with care, as shall simplifi-
ure consequence.For combined loading the simplified design check proposes cations from the problem at hand to the calculation model
a total factor in the range 1.1-1.2, which is consistent with standard industry used. When large uncertainties exist, the use of more than one
practice interpreted as corresponding to safety class Normal for accidental calculation approach shall be considered.
loads with a probability of occurrence equal to

1205 If non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis is ap- E 300 Spanning risers/pipelines
plied, it shall be ensured that system performance and local 301 Spanning risers and pipelines shall have adequate safety
failure modes (e.g. strain rate, local buckling, joint overloading against excessive yielding, fatigue and ovality and these shall
and joint fracture) are adequately accounted for by the models be documented.
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.5 - Page43

302 For design of free spanning pipelines, reference is made reference is made to RP E305 “On Bottom Stability“.
to DNV-RP-F105; “Free Spanning Piyelines“.
410 The most unfavourable combination of simultaneously
E 400 On bottom stability acting vertical and horizontal forces on the pipeline shall be
considered. When determining this unfavourable combination,
401 The pipeline shall be supported, anchored in open the variation in forces along the line, including directionality
trench, or buried in such a way that under extreme functional effects of waves and current, shall be addressed.
and environmental loading conditions, the pipeline will not
move from its as-installed position. This does not include per- Guidance note:
missible lateral or vertical movements, thermal expansion, and The transverse pipeline stability may be assessed using three-di-
a limited amount of settlement after installation. mensional dynamic or two-dimensional static analysis methods.
The dynamic analysis methods allow limited pipe movements,
Guidance note: but require accurate three-dimensional modelling. The static
The acceptance criterion on permissible movements may vary analysis method may be expressed by:
along the pipeline route. Examples of possible limitations to
pipeline movements include: (5.31)
- yielding, buckling and fatigue of pipe;
- deteriorationíwearof coating;
- geometrical limitations of supports; and
- distance from other pipelines, structures or obstacles. factor of safety, normally not to be taken as
less than 1.1
hydrodynamic drag force per unit length
402 Liquid or gas pipelines in the air- or gas-filled condition hydrodynamic inertia force per unit length
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

shall have a specific gravity which is higher than that of the hydrodynamic inertia force per unit length
surrounding sea water (negative buoyancy).
submerged pipe weight per unit length
403 When the pipeline is routed in areas that may be influ- hydrodynamic lift force per unit length
enced by unstable slopes, that could lead to slope failure and
flow of soil that will impact the pipeline, the probability of
such slope failures shall be evaluated. Any relevant slope fail-
ure triggering effect, such as wave loading, earthquake loading
or man made activities (e.g. the pipe-laying itself), shall be
considered. Possible flow rates and densities at the pipeline 411 The coefficient of equivalent friction, p may vary within
shall be evaluated for stability. If stability can not be guaran- a wide range depending on the seabed soil, surface roughness,
teed by sufficient weight of the pipeline, by burial of the pipe- weight and diameter of the pipeline. When the pipeline has
line or by other means, re-routing of the pipeline shall be some penetration into the soil, the lateral resistance includes
required. both friction type resistance and resistance due to mobilising
the soil outside the contact surface. In such cases the equiva-
404 For weight calculations of the pipe, the nominal wall lent friction coefficient may vary with the vertical load level.
thickness shall be reduced to compensate for the expected av-
erage weight reduction due to metal loss. For pipelines with 412 Axial (longitudinal) stability shall be checked. The an-
minor corrosion allowance this reduction may be omitted and ode structural connection (when exposed to friction, e.g., pipe-
the nominal thickness used. lines without weight coating) shall be sufficient to sustain the
anticipated friction force.
405 Buried pipelines shall have adequate safety against sink-
ing or flotation. For both liquid and gas pipelines, sinking shall 413 Pipeline movements due to thermal axial expansion,
be considered assuming that the pipeline is water filled, and shall be allowed for near platformslstructures (e.g. at riser tie-
flotation shall be considered assuming that the pipeline is gas in point) and where the pipeline changes direction (e.g. at off-
or air filled (if relevant). set spools). The expansion calculations shall be based upon
406 If the specific submerged weight of the water-filled pipe conservative values for the axial frictional resistance.
is less than that of the soil, then no further analyses are required 414 In shallow water, the repeated loading effects due to
to document safety against sinking. If pipelines are installed in wave action may lead to a reduction of the shear strength of the
soils having a low shear strength, then the soil bearing resist- soil. This shall be considered in the analysis, particularly if the
ance shall be documented. If the soil is, or is likely to be, liq- back fill consists of loose sand which may be susceptible to liq-
uefied, it shall be documented that the depth of sinking will be uefaction.
satisfactorily limited (either by the depth of liquefaction or by
the build-up of vertical resistance during sinking) meeting the 415 If the stability of the pipeline depends on the stability of
requirements of D above. the seabed, the latter should be checked.
407 If the specific submerged weight of the gas- or air-filled E 500 Trawling interference
pipe is less than that of the soil, it shall be documented that the
shear strength of the soil is adequate to prevent flotation. Thus, 501 The pipeline system shall be checked for all three load-
in soils which are or may be liquefied, the specific weight of ing phases due to trawl gear interaction, as outlined in Section
the buried gas- or air-filled pipeline is not to be less than that 4F. For more detailed description, reference is made to the
of the soil. Guideline 13;”Interference between Trawl Gear and Pipe-
lines”.
408 Pipelines resting directly on the sea bottom without any
special supporting structures or anchoring devices other than 502 The acceptance criteria are dependent on the trawling
weight coating, shall be designed against sinking as described frequency (impact) and the safety classification (pull-over and
under 405 above. Special considerations shall here be made to hooking) given in Section 2C 400.
mechanical components such as valves and Tee’s. 503 The acceptance criteria for trawl impact refer to an ac-
409 It shall be documented that pipelines situated on the sea ceptable dent size. The maximum accepted ratio of permanent
bottom have adequate safety against being lifted off the bottom dent depth to the pipe diameter is:
or moved horizontally. For assessment of horizontal (trans-
verse) stability of pipelines exposed to wave and current loads, Hp
D
5 0.0577 (5.32)

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page44 - Sec.5

where : F. Pipeline Components and Accessories


H, = permanent plastic dent depth F 100 General
77 = usage factor given in Table 5-1 1. Load effect factors 101 Criteria for pipeline components and accessories are
equal to unity given in Section 7.
I Table 5-11 Usage factor ínì for trawl door imnact I
I Impactfrequency
b e r vear Der km) II Usagefactor
n II G. Supporting Structure
I >1 o0 o
G100 General
1-100 0.3
10-4-1 0.7 101 All supporting structures shall be designed according to
Offshore Standard OS-C101, "Design of Steel Structures".
504 When allowing for permanent dents, additional failure
G 200 Riser supports
modes such as fatigue and collapse shall be taken into account.
Any beneficial effect of internal over-pressure, i.e. "pop-out" 201 The riser supports should be designed against the possi-
shall not normally be included. The beneficial effects of pro- ble forms of failure with at least the same degree of safety as
tective coating may be taken into account. The impact effec- that of the riser they support. However, if safety considerations
tiveness of coating shall be documented. indicate that the overall safety is increased by a reduction of
the failure load of certain supports, such considerations may

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
505 Pullover loads shall be checked in combination with oth- govern the support design (weak link principle).
er relevant load effects. All relevant failure modes for lateral 202 For bolted connections, consideration shall be given to
buckling shall be checked. Accumulation of damage due to friction factors, plate or shell element stresses, relaxation, pipe
subsequent trawling is not normally allowed. crushing, stress corrosion cracking, fatigue, brittle failure, and
506 Hooking loads shall be checked in combination with other factors that may be relevant.
other relevant load effects. All relevant failures modes shall be 203 For supports with doubler and/or gusset plates consider-
checked. ation shall be given to lamellar tearing, pull out, element
stresses, effective weld length, stress concentrations and ex-
E 600 Third party loads, dropped objects cessive rotation.
601 The pipeline shall be designed for impact forces caused 204 In clamps utilising elastomeric linings, the long-term
by, e.g. dropped objects, fishing gear or collisions. The design performance of the material with regard to creep, sea water and
may be achieved either by design of pipe, protection or means air or sun light resistance shall be determined.
to avoid impacts. G 300 J-tubes
602 The design criteria shall be based upon the frequency/ 301 An overall conceptual evaluation shall be made in order
likelihood of the impact force and classified as accidental, en- to define the required:
vironmental or functional correspondingly, see D 1200.
~ safety class,
E 700 Insulation ~ impact design, and
pressure containment resistance.
701 When a submerged pipeline is thermally insulated, it
~

shall be documented that the insulation is resistant to the com- 302 The J-tube shall be designed against the failure modes
bination of water, temperature and hydrostatic pressure. given in D 100.
702 Furthermore, the insulation should be resistant to oil and Guidance note:
oil-based products, if relevant. The insulation shall also have 301 above includes evaluation of whether the j-tube shall be de-
the required mechanical strength to external loads, as applica- signed for the full design pressure and to which safety class (i.e.
ble. hoop stress usage factors). The J-tube concept may e.g. be based
on "burst disc" which will imply that a lower pressure contain-
703 With respect to corrosion, see Section 8. ment resistance shall be governing.

E 800 Pipe-in-pipe and bundles


801 For pipe-in-pipe and bundle configurations, advantage 303 The J-tube spools should be joined by welding.
may be taken of other loading conditions, e.g. pressure con- G 400 Stability of gravel
tainment for carrier pipe. When determining the safety class,
advantage may also be taken on the reduced failure conse- 401 Gravel applied for mechanical protection of pipelines
quences compared to those of ordinary pipelines. and as sleepers for supporting pipelines in free spans shall have
sufficient stability against hydrodynamic loads. The possibili-
802 The combined effective force for a pipe-in-pipe or a ty of scour for the expected range of water particle velocity
bundle may be calculated using the expression in C 200 for shall be taken into account.
each component and summing over all components. The exter- 402 Gravel sleepers are to have sufficient safety against
nal pressure for each component shall be taken as the pressure slope failure. The shear strength of the underlying soil shall be
acting on its external surface, i.e. the pressure in the void for taken into account.
internal pipes. Release of effective axial force by end expan-
sions, lateral and/or vertical deformations or buckling depends
on how the pipes may slide relatively to each other. Therefore,
analysis of cases where the effective axial force is important, H. Installation and Repair
such as analysis of expansion, buckling and dynamics, requires
accurate modelling of axial restraints such as spacers, bulk- H100 General
heads etc. 101 The pipeline strength and stability shall be determined

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.5 - Page45

according to subsection D and E above. straightness of the pipeline. This shall be determined and eval-
Guidance note: uated with due considerations of effects on:
According to this standard, equivalent limit states are used for all instability:
phases. Hence the design criteria in this section also apply to the
~

installation phase. Installation is usually classified as a lower ~ positioning of pipeline components e.g. valves and Tee-
safety class (safety class low) than operation, corresponding to joints; and
lower partial safety factors (higher failure probability). ~ operation.
202 The possibility of instability due to out of straightness
102 The design analysis for risers and pipelines shall include during installation (twisting) and the corresponding conse-
both installation and repair activities, in order to ensure that quence shall be determined.
they can be installed and repaired without suffering damage or 203 If Tee-joints and other equipment are to be installed as
requiring hazardous installation or repair work. an integrated part of the pipeline assembled at the lay barge, no
103 The design shall veriSl adequate strength during all rel- rotation of the pipe due to plastification effects shall be permit-
evant installation phases and techniques to be used, including: ted. In this case the residual strain from bending at the over-
bend shall satisSl the following during installation:
initiation of pipe laying operation,
normal continuous pipe laying, Kot&, &,,rot (5.33)
pipe lay abandonment and pipeline retrieval,
termination of laying operation, where
tow out operations (bottom tow, off-bottom tow, control-
led depth tow and surface tow), E, = residual strain from over bend
pipeline reeling and unreeling, Xot = 1.3 safety factor for residual strain
trenching and back filling, =
riser and spool installation, limit residual strain from over bend.
tie-in operations and 204 The above equations only consider rotation due to resid-
landfalls. ual strain from installation along a straight path. Other effects
104 The configuration of pipeline sections under installation can also give rotation (curved lay route, eccentric weight, hy-
shall be determined from the laying vessel to the final position drodynamic loads, reduced rotational resistance during pulls
on the seabed. The configuration shall be such that the stress/ due to lateral play/elasticity in tensioners/pads/tracks etc) and
strain levels are acceptable when all relevant effects are taken need to be considered.
into account. Discontinuities due to weight coating, buckle ar- 205 Instability during operation, due to out of straightness
restors, in-line assemblies etc. shall be considered. caused by the installation method and the corresponding con-
105 The variation in laying parameters that affect the config- sequences, shall be determined. Residual stresses affecting
uration shall be considered. An allowed range of parameter present and future operations and modifications shall also be
variation shall be established for the installation operation. considered.
106 Critical values shall be determined for the installation 206 The requirement for straightness applies to the assumed
limit condition, see Section 9D 400. most unfavourable functional and environmental load condi-
tions during installation and repair. This requirement also ap-
107 Configuration considerations for risers and pipelines plies to sections of a pipeline where the strains are completely
shall also be made for other installation and repair activities, controlled by the curvature of a rigid ramp (e.g. stinger on in-
and the allowed parameter variations and operating limit con- stallation vessel), whether or not environmental loads are act-
ditions shall be established. ing on the pipe.
108 If the installation and repair analyses for a proposed Guidance note:
pipeline system show that the required parameters cannot be Rotation of the pipe within the tensioner clamps of the pipe due
obtained with the equipment to be used, the pipeline system to elasticity of the rubber and slack shall be included in the eval-
shall be modified accordingly. uation of the rotation.
109 The flattening due to a permanent bending curvature, to-
gether with the out-of-roundness tolerances from fabrication of
the pipe shall meet the requirements defined in D 800.
H300 Coating
H 200 Pipe straightness 301 Concrete crushing due to excessive compressive forces
201 The primary requirement regarding permanent deforma- for static conditions in the concrete during bending at the over-
tion during construction, installation and repair is the resulting bend is not acceptable.

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page46 - Sec.6

SECTION 6
LINEPIPE

A. General pass made on the inside and one pass from the outside of the
pipe. An intermittent or continuous single pass tack weld may
A100 Scope be made by the gas metal arc welding method. The forming

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
101 This section specifies the requirements for materials, may be followed by cold expansion to obtain the required di-
manufacture, testing and documentation of linepipe, with re- mensions.
gard to the characteristic properties of materials which shall be Seamless (SML) linepiye
obtained after heat treatment, expansion and final shaping. 403 Linepipe manufactured by a hot forming process with-
102 The requirements are applicable for linepipe in: out welding. In order to obtain the required dimensions, the hot
forming may be followed by sizing or cold finishing.
Carbon Manganese (C-Mn) steel,
High Frequency Welded (HFW) linepipe
~

~ cladlined steel, and


~ corrosion resistant alloys ( C U ) including ferritic auste- 404 Linepipe formed from strip (skelp) and welded with one
nitic (duplex) steel, austenitic stainless steels, martensitic longitudinal seam, without the use of filler metal. The longitu-
stainless steels (“13% Cr”), other stainless steels and nick- dinal seam is generated by high frequency current (minimum
el based alloys. 100 kHz) applied by induction or conduction. The weld area
(heat affected area) or the entire pipe shall be heat treated. The
103 Materials, manufacturing methods and procedures that forming may be followed by cold expansion to obtain the re-
comply with recognised practices or proprietary specifications quired dimensions.
are normally acceptable provided such standards comply with
the requirements of this section. Electron Beam (EB W) and Laser Beam Welded (LB W) line-
pipe
A 200 Material specification 405 Linepipe formed from strip (skelp) and welded with one
201 A material specification referring to this section (Section longitudinal seam, with or without the use of filler metal. The
6) of the offshore standard shall be prepared stating additional forming may be followed by cold expansion to obtain the re-
requirements andor deviations to materials, manufacture, fab- quired dimensions.
rication and testing of linepipe. Clad steel (C) linepiye
202 The specification shall reflect the results of the materials 406 Clad steel linepipe can be manufactured by any manu-
selection (see Section 5B 500) and shall include specific, de- facturing process which guarantees a metallurgical bond be-
tailed requirements to the properties of the linepipe. The spec- tween the base metal and the cladding.
ified properties of materials and weldments shall be consistent
with the specific application and operational requirements of Lined steel (L) linepipe
the pipeline system. Suitable allowances shall be included for 407 Lined steel linepipe can be manufactured by any process
possible degradation of the mechanical properties resulting which guarantees a mechanical bonding between the base and
from subsequent fabrication and installation activities. lining material.
203 The specification may be a Material Data Sheet (MDS) 408 Welding procedures, welding consumables, welding
referring to this standard. The MDS should include specific re- personnel, handling of welding consumables, and the execu-
quirements in places where this standard gives options, e.g. tion of welding shall meet the requirements of Appendix C.
chemical composition, supplementary requirements, require-
ments subject to agreement etc.
204 Specific requirements to the manufacturing processes
shall be stated in the Manufacturing Procedure Specification B. Linepipe Designations
(MPS) (see E 300). The type and extent of testing, the applica-
ble acceptance criteria for verif$ng the properties of the mate- B 100 Linepipe NDT levels
rial, and the extent and type of documentation, records and 101 C-Mn steel linepipe and the C-Mn steel section of clad /
certification shall be stated in the MPS. lined steel pipes with longitudinal or helical weld seams have,
in this offshore standard, been divided into two (2) NDT lev-
A 300 Pre-qualification of materials and manufacturers els; NDT Level I and NDT Level II. NDT Level I has more
301 Pre-qualification of materials based on the media to be stringent requirements to NDT of the pipe longitudinal or hel-
transported, loads, temperatures and service conditions, shall ical weld seam.
be considered in order to veriSl that the materials will fulfil 102 Linepipe with NDT Level I allows use of displacement
functional requirements. controlled criteria (strain based design), whereas NDT Level II
302 Requirements for the pre-qualification of manufacturers is restricted to load controlled conditions (see Section 5B 500
shall be considered in each case. The consideration shall take and C 100).
into account the complexity and criticality of the product to be
supplied, and the requirements of this standard. B 200 Supplementary requirements
201 Linepipe to this standard may be provided meeting sup-
A 400 Process of manufacture plementary requirements for:
401 The linepipe shall be manufactured according to one of
the following processes: ~ sour service, suffix S (see D loo),
~ fracture arrest properties , suffix F (see D 200),
Submerged Arc- Welded (SA WL or SA WH) linepiye ~ linepipe for plastic deformation, suffix P (see D 300),
402 Linepipe manufactured by forming from strip or plate ~ enhanced dimensional requirements for linepipe, suffix D
and with one longitudinal (SAWL) or spiral (helical) (SAWH) (see D 400), and
seam formed by the submerged arc process, with at least one ~ high utilisation, suffix U (see D 500).

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
S e c 6 - Page47

202 The supplementary requirements shall be addressed in 106 If the cold forming during pipe manufacture of C-Mn
the MPS and the required tests shall be included in the qualifi- and cladlined steels exceeds 5% strain, strain ageing tests
cation of the MPS. shall be performed on the actual pipe without any straightening
and additional deformation. Strain ageing tests shall conform
B 300 Designations to Table 6-1 1. The absorbed energy shall not be less than 50%
301 Carbon Manganese linepipe and cladlined steel pipes, of the energy absorption obtained in the un-aged linepipe ma-
to be used to this standard, shall be designated with: terial, and the required Charpy V-notch impact properties of
Table 6-3 shall be met in the aged condition. The testing shall
~ process of manufacture (see A 400), be performed in accordance with Appendix B.
~ SMYS,
~ NDT level (see B 100 and, 107 Testing of Charpy V-notch impact properties shall, in
~ supplementary requirement suffix (see B 200). general, be performed on test specimens 10xlOmm. Where test
pieces with a width < 1Omm are used, the measured impact en-
e.g. “SML 450 I S“ designates a seamless pipe with SMYS 450 ergy (KV,) and the test piece cross-section measured under
MPa, NDT Level I and meeting sour environment require- the notch (A) (mm2) shall be reported. For comparison with the
ments. values in Table 6-3 the measured energy shall be converted to
the impact energy (KV) in Joules using the formula :
e.g. “SAWL 415 II L - UNS XXXXX” designates a submerged
arc welded pipe, with SMYS 415 MPa, NDT level II, lined
with a UNS designated material. 8 x 10 x K V ,
KV= A
302 Duplex stainless steel linepipe to be used to this standard
shall be designated with:
~ process of manufacture (see A 400), C 200 Carbon Manganese (C-Mn) steel linepipe
~ grade (see C 300), and 201 These requirements are applicable to welded or seamless
~ supplementary requirement suffix (see B 200). linepipe in C-Mn steel with SMYS up to 555 MPa. Use of
e.g. “SML 22Cr D ’ designates a seamless 22Cr grade meeting higher strength shall be subject to agreement.
the enhanced dimensional requirements. Chemical composition
202 The chemical composition of C-Mn steel parent materi-
als shall be within the limits given in Table 6-1 and Table 6-2
C. Material Properties for the appropriate yield stress levels. The chemical composi-
tion of mother pipes for bends shall be within the limits given
C 100 General in Section 7.
101 Requirements for steel making, chemical analysis, pipe Mechanical properties
manufacture, type and extent of mechanical testing and NDT
are given in E below. 203 Mechanical testing shall be performed after heat treat-
ment, expansion and final shaping. The testing shall be per-
102 For pipe OD > 300 mm, tensile properties shall be tested formed in accordance with Appendix B.
in both transverse and longitudinal direction to the pipe axis,
while the Charpy V-notch samples shall be tested only in the 204 Requirements for tensile and Charpy V-notch properties
transverse direction. All mechanical and corrosion testing shall are given in Table 6-3 and Table 6-4. Welds shall meet the re-
be conducted in accordance with Appendix B. quirement for KVT impact properties given in Table 6-3.
103 For pipe OD 5 300 mm, all mechanical testing shall be 205 Unless sour service is specified (see D loo), the hard-
conducted in the longitudinal direction. All mechanical and ness in the Base Material (BM) and weld (weld metal + HAZ)
corrosion testing shall be conducted in accordance with Ap- shall comply with Table 6-3.
pendix B.
206 Fracture toughness testing of the Base Material (BM)
104 If materials shall be used at a design temperature above and the Weld Metal (WM) (welded linepipe) shall be conduct-
50°C, the yield stress at the T, may be determined during the ed as part of the qualification (Table 6-1 1 and Table 6-12). The
qualification of the manufacturing procedure specification. measured fracture toughness of the BM and the WM, shall as
This information shall be obtained either by use of the curves a minimum have a CTOD value of 0.20 mm when tested at the
in Sec.5 B600 or by testing. minimum design temperature. The testing shall be performed
105 When applicable, linepipe to this standard shall also in accordance with Appendix B A 800. Testing is not required
meet the appropriate supplementary requirements. for pipes with ,t < 13 mm.
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page48 - Sec.6

Table 6-1 Welded C-Mn steel lineDiDe. chemical comDositionl)2, 3, 4,


Product analysis, maximum weight %
SMYS 245 290 360 415 450 485 555
c 5) O. 14 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.14
Mn 5, 1.35 1.65 1.65 1.65 1.65 1.75 1.85
Si 0.40 0.40 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
P 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020
S 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010
Cu 0.35 0.35 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Ni 0.30 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Mo 0.10 0.10 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Cr 6) 0.30 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
~i (total) 7) I 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

v 8) 0.04 0.05 0.08 0.10 0.10 0.10


Ti 8, 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06
N 7, 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010
B 10) 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005
CE l i ) 0.36 0.34 0.37 0.38 0.39 0.41 0.44
P cm 12) 0.19 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.25
Notes
1) Chemical composition applies for wall thicknesses up to 35 mm and shall be subject to agreement for larger wall thicknesses.
2) When scrap material is being used in steel production, the amount of the following residual elements shall be determined and reported, and the levels shall
not exceed: 0.03% As, 0.01% Sb, 0.02% Sn, 0.01% Pb, 0.01% Bi and0.006% Ca.
3) When calcium is intentionally added, the C d S ratio shall be = 1.5 when S > 0.0015.
4) Except for deoxidation elements, other elements than those mentioned in this table shall not be intentionally added if not specifically agreed.
5) For each reduction of 0.01% carbon below the maximum specified value, an increase of 0.05% manganese above the specified maximum values is per-
mitted with a maximum increase of 0.1%.
6) 0.5-1.0% CI may be used subject to agreement.
7) A1:N 2 2: 1 (not applicable for titanium killed steels).
8) (Nb+V+Ti)?hnminlLm1:0.12%. This value may be increased to maximum 0.15% subject to agreement.
9) For S M Y S = 485 MPa and for cladded material, the Nb content may be increased to 0.10% subject to agreement.
10) Boron (max 30 ppm) may be added subject to agreement
Mn C r + M o + V k C u + N i
11) C E = c + - +

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
6 5 15
12)
Pcm =
Si
c+-+ Mn + Cu + Cr + xi + g o + 1 + 5B
30 20 60 15 10

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE
VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
S e c 6 - Page49
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Table 6-2
Seamless C-Mn steel 1ineDiDe. chemical comDosition 2, 3,
Product analysis, maximum weight %
SMYS 245 290 360 415 450 485 555
c 4) 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.16
Mn4) 1.35 1.65 1.65 1.65 1.65 1.75 1.85
Si 0.40 0.40 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
P 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020
S 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010
Cu 0.35 0.35 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Ni 0.30 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Mo 0.10 0.10 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Cr 5 ) 0.30 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Al (total) 6, 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06
Nb 7) 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.06
v 7) 0.04 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.10
Ti 7, 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.06
N 6, 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010
R 8) 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 I 0.0005 I
0.0005 I I I I 0.0005 I 0.0005
t<15 0.34 0.34 0.37 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.43
15< t<26 0.35 0.35 0.38 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.44

t<15 0.20 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.26


15< t<26 0.21 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.27
Notes

1) Chemical composition applies for wall thicknesses up to 26 mm and shall be subject to agreement for larger wall thicknesses.
2) When scrap material is being used in steel production, the amount of the following residual elements shall be determined and reported, and the levels shall
not exceed: 0.03% As, 0.01% Sb, 0.02% Sn, 0.01% Pb, 0.01% Bi and 0.006% Ca.
3) Except for deoxidisation elements, other elements than those mentioned in this table shall not be intentionally added if not specifically agreed.
4) For each reduction of 0.01% carbon below the maximum specified value, an increase of 0.05% manganese above the specified maximum values is per-
mitted with a maximum increase of 0.1%.
5) 0.5-1.0% CI may be used subject to agreement.
6) A1:N 2 2: 1 (not applicable for titanium killed steels)
7) (Nb+V+Ti)% maxinlum : 0.12% This value may be increased to maximum 0.15% subject to agreement.
8) Boron (max 30 ppm) may be added subject to agreement.
Mn C r + M o + V k C u + N i
9, CE=C+-+
6 5 15
10) P c m = c + - + Mn + C u + C r + g i + m l +5B
Si +

30 20 60 15 10

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page50 - Sec.6

ïable 6-3 C-Mn steel lineDiDe. mechanical DroDerties 2,


I I I I I

YS íRt0.5) Maximum Elongation Charpy V-notch Notes


UTS (Rm) Hardness energy (KVT
max5) ( H v ~ o ) 2 n .%
minimum J ) d 1) The requirements are applicable for testing in the trans-
verse (T) and longitudinal (L)direction, as stated in
(ad (T) BM, m, (T+L) Mean Single brackets for each column.
HAZ
0.90 270 22 27 22 2) Reference is given to C201.
290 415 0.90 270 21 30 24 3) The actual yield stress in the longitudinal direction shall
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

360 460 0.90 270 20 36 30 not exceed SMYS by more than 120 MPa.
415 520 0.92 270 18 42 35 4) SMTS in the longitudinal direction, can be 5% less than
450 0.92 270 18 45 38 the required values in transverse direction.
485 570 0.92 300 18 50 40 The YS/UTS ratio in the longitudinal direction shall not
5)
555 625 0.92 300 18 56 45 exceed the maximum specified value in the transverse di-
rection, by more than 0.020 for standard material, and
more than 0.030 for sour service material.
6) The KVL values (when tested) shall be 50% higher than
I
the required KVT values.

Table 6-4 C-Mn steel linepipe, Charpy V-notch testing temperatures To (“C) as a function of T,, (“C) (Minimum Design Temper-
ature)
Nominal wall RISERS PIPELINES Notes
Thickness (mm) Gas I ) Liquid I ) 1) Mixed gas and liquid (s) are to be regarded as
t<20 To = T, - 10 To = T, - 10 To = T, gas.
20< t < 40 To = T, - 20 To = T, - 20 TO= Tmin- 10 2) Increasing thicknesses will require lower test
t>40 To = to be agreed in each case 2, temperatures. Alternatively higher absorbed en-
ergy at the same temperature shall be required.

C 300 Ferritic-austenitic (duplex) steel Mechanicalproperties


301 The requirements are applicable to welded and seamless 305 Mechanical testing shall be performed after heat treat-
linepipe in 22Cr and 25Cr Duplex stainless steel grades ac- ment, expansion and final shaping. Requirements for tensile
cording to ASTM A790 (Standard Specification for Seamless and Charpy V-notch properties are given in Table 6-6. Weld-
ment shall meet the requirement for KVT impact properties.
and Welded Ferritic/Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe), or an ac-
cepted equivalent standard. 306 Unless sour service requirements apply (see D loo), the
hardness in the Base Material (BM) and the weld (weld metal
Chemical composition + HAZ) shall comply with Table 6-6.
302 The chemical composition of duplex stainless steel par- 307 Fracture toughness testing of the Base Material (BM)
ent materials shall be within the limits given in Table 6-5. and the Weld Metal (WM) (welded linepipe) shall be conduct-
Modifications are subject to agreement. ed as part of the qualification (Table 6-1 1 and Table 6-12). The
measured fracture toughness of the BM and the WM shall, as
Metallographic examination a minimum, have a CTOD value of 0.20mm when tested at the
303 Metallographic examination of the base material and of minimum design temperature. The testing shall be performed
the weld metal root, the weld metal cap, and the heat affected in accordance with Appendix B A 800. Testing is not required
for pipes with tnom < 13mm.
zone in the root area of welded pipe shall be performed and
comply with requirements in 304 below. Corrosion testing
304 Metallographic examination shall be performed after fi- 308 Corrosion testing according to ASTM G 48 shall be per-
formed in order to c o n f i adequate manufacturing procedures
nal solution heat treatment. The examination shall be conduct- affecting the microstructure of 25 Cr Duplex stainless steel.
ed at 400X magnification. The material shall be essentially For 25 Cr duplex with a specified PRE value of minimum 40,
free from grain boundary carbides, nitrides and intermetallic testing to ASTM G 48 shall be performed in accordance with
phases after solution heat treatment. The ferrite content shall Appendix B. The maximum allowable weight loss is 4.0 g/m2
be measured according to ASTM E562 (Standard Practice for for solution annealed material tested 24 hours at 50°C.
Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic Manual Point 309 If testing to ASTM G 48 shall be performed for duplex
Count). Base material ferrite content shall be within the range stainless steel with a PRE value less than 40, the testing tem-
35-55%. For weld metal root, weld metal cap, and heat affect- perature andor acceptance criteria shall be subject to agree-
ed zone, the ferrite content shall be within the range 35-65%. ment.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE
VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.6 - Page51

Table 6-5 Ferritic-austenitic duDlex steel lineDiDe, chemical comDosition


Element I ) Product analvsis. weipht %
Grade Grade
22 Cr 25 Cr
C 0.030 max 0.030 max
Mn 2.00 max 1.20 max
Si 1.O0 max 1.O0 max
P 0.03 max 0.035 max
S 0.020 max 0.020 max
Ni 4.50 - 6.50 6.0 - 8.0
Cr 21.00 - 23.00 24.0 - 26.0
Mo 2.50 - 3.50 3.0 - 4.0
N 0.14 - 0.20 0.20 - 0.34
PRE 2) 40 min 2,
Notes

1) If other alloying elements than specified in this table are being used, the elements and the maximum content shall be agreed in each case.
2) PRE = %c1+3.3%Mo+16%N. A minimum PRE valueof 40 is recommended for pipelines to convey raw (Le. not deoxygenated) seawater and any similar
auulication

ïable 6-6 perritic-austenit duplex stee inepipe, mechani i1 properties 1)

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
SMYS 2)4) SMTS YS lRr0.5) Maximum Elongation Charpy V-notch
Hardness AS energy (KVT)
UTS @m) @VIO) min. % min. J a t
Grade TO = Tmin- 20% s,
MPa MPa
max

22 Cr 450 620
c h ) 3,

0.90
“I” 25
Mean

45
Single

35
25 Cr 550 750 0.90 15 45 35
Votes

1) Reference is given to C301.


2) The actual yield stress in the longitudinal direction shall not exceed SMYS by more than 120 MPa
3) The YS/UTS ratio in the longitudinal direction shall not exceed the value achieved in the transverse direction by more than 0.02.
$) For design temperatures above 50 OC, the yield stress at the maximum design temperature (Tmax) shall comply with the requirements
stated in Section 5B 600.
5) The required KVL values shall be 50% higher than the required KVT values.

C 400 Other stainless steel and nickel based corrosion sisting of a C-Mn steel base material and a thinner internal me-
resistant alloy (CRA) linepipe tallic layer.
401 The requirements below are applicable to austenitic 502 Linepipe is denoted “clad”if the bond between base and
stainless steels, martensitic (“13% Ci’) stainless steels and cladding material is metallurgical, and “lined”if the bond is
nickel based CRAs. mechanical.
402 The linepipe shall be supplied in accordance with a rec- 503 The cladding and the lined material shall be compatible
ognised standard that defines the chemical composition, me- with the service requirements and shall be determined and
chanical properties and all the issues listed in Section 5 B500 agreed in each case. The cladding/lined material thickness
and as specified in the following. If a recognised standard is shall not be less than 2.5 mm.
not available, a specification shall be prepared that defines Supply condition
these requirements.
504 Cladlined linepipe shall be supplied in the heat-treat-
403 For martensitic stainless steels (“13% Ci’) the same re- ment condition that is appropriate for both types of material.
quirements for fracture toughness as for C-Mn steels shall ap-
ply (see 206). Chemical composition and mechanical properties of base ma-
terial
Corrosion testing
505 The chemical composition of the base material shall
404 The same requirements as stated in 308 for duplex stain- comply with the requirements to C-Mn steel for linepipe given
less steel shall apply for other stainless steel and nickel based in Table 6-1 and Table 6-2.
corrosion resistant alloys with a specified PRE value of mini-
mum 40. 506 The mechanical properties of the base material shall
meet the requirements in Table 6-3 and Table 6-4. Mechanical
Metallographic examination of welds testing shall be performed after heat treatment, expansion and
405 Metallographic examination at a magnification of 400X final shaping.
of the weld metal and the HAZ shall be performed. The mate- 507 Fracture toughness testing of the Base Material (BM)
rial shall be essentially free from grain boundary carbides, ni- and the Weld Metal (WM) (welded linepipe), shall be conduct-
trides and intermetallic phases after solution heat treatment. ed as part of the qualification (Table 6-12 and Table 6-13). The
measured fracture toughness of the BM and the WM shall, as
C 500 Cladhined steel linepipe a minimum, have a CTOD value of 0.20mm, when tested at the
501 The requirements below are applicable to linepipe con- minimum design temperature. The testing shall be performed

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page52 - Sec.6

in accordance with Appendix B A 800. Testing is not required In order to improve HAZ toughness, it is essential to refine the
for pipes with tnom< 13mm. grain size and suppress the formation of bainite with M/A con-
stituents.
508 The claddinghing material shall be removed from the
test pieces prior to testing.
Chemical composition of claddingAined material 603 The linepipe supplier shall provide information with re-
gard to appropriate Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) tem-
509 Cladding/lined materials shall primarily be selected on perature for the respective materials.
the basis of requirements to corrosion resistance, including
SSC. The chemical composition of cladding materials shall be Pre-production weldability testing
specified according to recognised standards. If a recognised 604 For qualification of pipeline materials and welding con-
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

standard is not available, a specification shall be prepared that sumables, a weldability testing programme as specified below
defines these requirements. Applicable requirements in C 300 should be performed. The type and extent of testing, and the
and C 400 shall be met. acceptance criteria for weldability testing shall be agreed in
each case.
Chemical composition of weld metal
605 Relevant documentation may be agreed in lieu of the
510 The welding consumables shall be selected taking into weldability testing.
consideration the reduction of alloying elements by dilution of
iron from the base material. C-Mn steels and martensitic ("13% Cr'y stainless steels
Metallographic examination of welds 606 For steels with SMYS 2 415 MPa, the weldability test-
ing/documentation shall, as a minimum, include bead on plate,
511 Metallographic examination of the weld metal and the Y-groove, and also fracture toughness tests of base material
HAZ in the root area of the cladding material, shall be per- and HAZ. In addition, for steels with SMYS 2 450 MPa, met-
formed at a magnification of 400X. The microstructure shall allographic examination should be conducted to establish the
be essentially free from grain boundary carbides, nitrides and presence of LBZs. The testing program shall be in accordance
intermetallic phases. with Table 6-11, Table 6-12 and Appendix C. The maximum
and minimum heat inputs giving acceptable properties in the
Properties of clad material and linepiye weld zones of the linepipe, with corresponding preheat temper-
512 Two bend tests from each plate/strip shall be bent 18Ox atures and working temperatures, shall be determined for both
around a former with a diameter three times the plate thick- fabrication and installation welding.
ness. One test piece shall be bent with the cladding material in 607 For materials where only limited practical experience
tension, the other with the cladding material in compression. exists, the programme may further include HAZ thermal cy-
After bending there shall be no sign of cracking or separation cling tests, continuous cooling transformation tests, delayed
on the edges of the specimens. The bend test shall be carried cracking tests and controlled thermal severity tests.
out in as specified Appendix B.
Duplex stainless steel
513 Shear testing in accordance with Appendix B shall be 608 For duplex stainless steel, the weldability testing / docu-
performed as required in Table 6-1 1 and Table 6-12. The min- mentation shall determine the effect of thermal cycles on the
imum shear strength shall be 140 MPa. mechanical properties, hardness, and microstructure. The max-
514 Hardness testing of welded linepipe shall be performed imum and minimum heat inputs giving an acceptable ferrite/
on a test piece comprising the full cross section of the weld. In- austenite ratio and a material essentially free from intermetal-
dentations shall be made in the base material, the cladding ma- lic phases shall be determined for both fabrication and instal-
terial and the metallurgical bonding area as detailed in lation welding. Allowances for repair welding shall be
Appendix B. included.
Other stainless steels and nickel based alloys
515 The hardness of base material, cladding material, HAZ,
weld metal and the metallurgical bonding area shall meet the 609 For austenitic stainless steels and nickel based C U ' S ,
relevant requirements of this standard (see Table 6-3 and the weldability testing/documentation shall determine the ef-
Table 6-6). fect of thermal cycles on the mechanical properties, hardness
and microstructure. The range of heat inputs giving properties
C 600 Weldability shall be determined for both fabrication and installation weld-
ing, including allowances for repair welding.
601 Steels shall have adequate weldability for all stages of
manufacture, fabrication and installation of the pipeline, in- CladAined steel linepiye
cluding field and contingency conditions, hyperbaric welding 610 For cladlined linepipe, the weldability of the base mate-
and anode installation. rial shall be testeddocumented as required in 604 and 605. For
602 Welding and repair welding procedures, welding per- the cladding/lining material, the weldability testing/documen-
sonal, handling of welding consumables, and the execution of tation shall determine the dilution effects and the effect of ther-
welding shall meet the requirements in Appendix C. mal cycles on the mechanical properties, hardness and
microstructure. The range of heat inputs giving acceptable
Guidance note: properties shall be determined for both fabrication and instal-
Local brittle zones GBZs) can be formed in the HAZ of C-Mn lation welding. Allowances for repair welding shall be includ-
microalloyed steels. These areas tend to exhibit very low cleav- ed.
age resistance, resulting in low CTOD values. The LBZs are as-
sociated with the sections of the HAZ'S that are experiencing
grain coarsening during the welding operation. The microstruc-
ture in these zones consists predominantly of a bainitic structure, D. Supplementary Requirements
with a large amount of martensite/austenite @UA) constituents
@+-microstructure). The M/A constituents, as opposed to ferrite/ D 100 Supplementary requirement, sour service (S)
carbide aggregate such as pearlite, may have a detrimental affect
on the material's toughness. This should particularly be kept in 101 For pipelines to be used for fluids containing hydrogen
mind when selecting the chemical composition for steels with sulphide and defined as "sour service" according to NACE
SMYS t 450 m a . Standard MRO175 (Sulphide Stress Cracking Resistant Metal-

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
S e c 6 - Page53

lic Materials for Oil Field Equipment), all requirements to ma- Table 6-8 Chemical composition of seamless C-Mn steel line-
terials selection, maximum hardness, and manufacturing and pipe for supplementary requirement, sour service
fabrication procedures given in the latest edition of the said Product analysis, maximum weight %
standard shall apply. This includes pipelines which are nomi-
nally dry (i.e. free from liquid water during normal operation)
if other conditions for sour service according to the above
standard are valid. Further, the additional requirements, modi-
fications and clarifications defiied below shall apply.
102 Use of linepipe materials not listed for sour service in
NACE MRO175 (latest edition) and not covered by this section
shall be qualified according to the guidelines of the said docu-
ment. As an alternative, the guidelines for qualification in EFC
Publications No. 16 and No.17 may be used for C-Mn and
CRA linepipe respectively. The qualification shall include
testing of Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) resistance of base
materials and welds (seam welds and girth welds, as applica- 107 Additional requirements to steel making as given in
ble). E.403 shall apply.
108 Welded linepipe resistance to Hydrogen Pressure In-
Guidance note:
duced Cracking (HPIC) shall be verified by testing (ref. Ap-
SSC-testing as specified in the referenced NACE and EFC doc- pendix B) during qualification of the MPS and linepipe
ument has a duration of 720 hours and is, as such, unsuitable for manufacturing, as stated in E 800.
purchase release purposes.
Guidance note:
Hydrogen Pressure Induced Cracking (HPIC) as used in this doc-
ument is frequently referred to as either Hydrogen Induced
103 Qualification is also applicable to linepipe materials list- Cracking @€IC)or Stepwise Cracking (SWC).
ed for sour service in NACE MRO175, in case hardness or oth-
er requirements relating to manufacturing or fabrication
deviate from those in this document. 109 During welding procedure qualification and production,
hardness measurements shall be performed as given in Appen-
Guidance note: dix B. The hardness in the base material, weld and HAZ shall
It may also be considered to specify SSC testing of grades meet- notexceed250HVlOintherootarea, and275HVlOinthecap
ing all requirements for sour service in this standard, as a part of area.
a program for pre-qualification of linepipe manufacturing or in- Guidance note:
stallation procedures. It is recommended to specify a maximum hardness of 220 HV10
for the base material in order to allow for hardness increase dur-
ing girth welding.
104 All welding procedures (including repair welding) shall
be qualified and include hardness testing as specified in Ap-
pendix C, Paragraph E. Duplex steel linepipe
110 Linepipe grades, associated hardness criteria, and re-
C-Mn steel linepipe quirements to manufacturing/fabrication shall comply with
105 C-Mn steels with SMYS exceeding 450 MPa are not NACE MRO175 (latest edition). During welding procedure
covered by NACE MR0175 (as per 1998), and shall be pre- qualification and production, hardness measurements shall be
qualified for sour service as stated in 102 unless later included performed as given in Appendix B. For 22 Cr Duplex and 25Cr
Duplex, the hardness in the weld shall not exceed 310 HV10
in the said document. and 330 HV10 respectively.
106 The chemical composition shall be modified as given in CladAined steel linepiye
Table 6-7 and Table 6-8. Other elements not listed in these ta-
bles shall be in accordance with Table 6-1 and Table 6-2 re- 111 Materials selection for cladding/lining, the associated
hardness criteria, and requirements to manufacturing and fab-
spectively. The notes given Table 6-1 and Table 6-2 shall rication shall comply with NACE MRO175 (latest edition).
apply. The same applies to welding consumables for weldments ex-
posed to the internal fluid. The selection of the C-Mn steel base
Table 6-7 Chemical composition ofwelded C-Mn steel linepipe material is not subject to any special sour service requirements.
for supplementary requirement, sour service
Product analysis, maximum weight % 112 During qualification of welding procedures and produc-
tion, hardness measurements shall be performed as indicated in
Appendix B. The hardness in the internal heat-affected zone
and in the fused zone of the cladding/lining shall comply with
I
C max. I
0.10 I
0.10 I
0.10 I relevant requirements of NACE MR0175 (latest edition).
Mn max. 1.35 1.45 1.55
P max. 0.015 0.015 0.015 D 200 Supplementary requirement, fracture arrest
S max. 0.003 0.003 0.003
properties (F)
Cu max. 0.35 0.35 0.35 201 The requirements to fracture arrest properties are valid
I I
Ni max.
I

0.30
I

0.30
I

0.30 for gas pipelines carrying essentially pure methane up to 80%


usage factor, up to a pressure of 15 MPa and to 30mm wall
Mo max. 0.10 0.10 0.10 thickness. Fracture arrest properties outside these limitations,
Cr max. 0.30 0.30 0.30 or for less severe conditions, shall be subject to agreement (see
I
P max.
CIIL I
0.19 I
0.20 I
0.21 I
Section 5D 1100). Charpy toughness values for fracture arrest
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page54 - Sec.6

given in Table 6-9 are valid for full size (10 mm x 10 mm) curve shall be established for the linepipe base material in the
specimens. strain-aged condition. The plastic deformation shall be equal to
C-Mn steel linepipe the actual deformation introduced during manufacturing (no
additional straining is required). The samples shall be aged for
202 A Charpy V-notch transition curve shall be established
for the linepipe base material. Five sets of specimens shall be 1 hour at 250°C. Five sets of specimens shall be tested at dif-
tested at different temperatures, including Tmin.The Charpy V- ferent temperatures, including Tmir The Charpy V-notch ener-
notch energy value in the transverse direction and at T, shall, gy value in the transverse direction, and at Tmin,shall not be
as a minimum, meet the values given in Table 6-9. The values less than 50% of the energy absorption obtained in the unde-
obtained in the longitudinal direction, when tested, shall be at formedun-aged condition (see 202), and shall as a minimum,
least 50% higher than the values required in the transverse di- meet the values given in Table 6-9 in the deformed and aged
rection. condition. Values obtained at other test temperatures are for in-
203 This paragraph shall apply for all linepipes to be deliv- formation. The values obtained in the longitudinal direction,
ered without a final heat treatment (normalising or quench and when tested, shall at least be 50% higher than the values re-
tempering) of the entire pipe. A Charpy V-notch- transition quired in the transverse direction.

Table 6-9 Charpy V-notch Impact Test Requirements for Fracture Arrest Properties tested at T,, (Joules; Transverse Values;
Average value of three snecimensì

thickness I 1 3 0 m m 2,

OD (mm) Notes
II
1610 I820 11120
SMYS 1) Minimum individual results to exceed 75% of
245 40 40 40 these values
290 40 43 52 2) Fracture arrest properties for larger wall thick-
nesses and diameters shall be subject to agree-
360 50 61 75 ment (see Section 5 D800)
415 64 77 95
450 I 73 I 89 I 109 I
485 82 1O0 124
555 103 126 155

204 Drop Weight Tear (DWT) testing shall only be per- materials are subject to agreement. The following additional
formed on linepipe with outer diameter > 500 mm, wall thick- requirements and modifications for linepipe material and di-
ness > 8 mm, and SMYS > 360 MPa. The DWT testing shall mensional tolerances shall apply.
include testing of one set for each of the following five temper- Guidance note:
atures: -70, -50, -30, O and +20"C. If one of these temperatures
equals the minimum design temperature, the set shall be tested Strain hardening capacity is an essential parameter for pipes
which are to be exposed to large plastic strain, ref. e.g. Section
10°C below this temperature. Two additional sets shall be test- 12K 400.
ed at the minimum design temperature. Each set shall consist
of two specimens taken from the same test coupon. The test The requirements of supplementary requirement P are hence of-
ten hard to meet for matenal grades with SMYS exceeding 415
shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. The spec- MPa.
imens tested at the minimum design temperature shall as a
minimum, meet an average of 85% shear area with one mini-
mum value of 75%.
303 The dimensional tolerances should meet supplementary
205 For linepipe material with SMYS 2 450 MPa and a wall requirements for enhanced dimensional requirements for line-
thickness 2 25 mm, the acceptance criteria stated in 204 (aver- pipe (D) in D 400.
age and minimum shear area) may be subject to agreement
when supplementary requirements for sour service (D 100) are 304 The finished pipe is recommended to meet the following
specified concurrently with supplementary requirements for requirements prior to being tested according to 305:
fracture arrest (D 200).
~ the measured yield stress of base material should not ex-
Duplex stainless steel linepipe ceed SMYS by more than 100 MPa,
206 A Charpy V-notch transition curve shall be established ~ the YS/TS ratio should not exceed 0.85, and
for duplex stainless steel base material. Five sets of specimens ~ the elongation should be minimum 25%.
shall be tested in the temperature range from - 80 OC to +20 OC.
The Charpy V-notch energy value in the transverse direction, 305 Mechanical testing shall be performed on samples re-
at the Tmin,shall be according to Table 6-6. moved from finished pipe. The samples shall be successively
Cludílined steel linepipe deformed by uni-axial tension and compression, in steps corre-
sponding to those of the installation process. % shall be at least
207 For cladlined steel linepipe, the requirements as for C- equal to the introduced during installation and service. The
Mn steels apply to the base material. 3
samples shall e artificially aged at 250°C for one hour before
testing. The testing shall be conducted in accordance with Ap-
D 300 Supplementary requirement, linepipe for plastic pendix B.
deformation (P)
306 The testing shall include:
301 Supplementary requirement (P) is only applicable for
seamless linepipe material made of C-Mn and duplex stainless ~ tensile testing,
steels, exposed to an accumulated plastic strain from installa- hardness testing, and
tion and operation, % 2 2% (see Section 5D 800 and Section
~

~ Charpy V-notch impact toughness testing. Test tempera-


9E). ture shall be according to Table 6-4 or Table 6-6 as rele-
302 Requirements for welded linepipe and linepipe in other vant.
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.6 - Page55

307 The following requirements shall be met after straining Re-testing


(see 305): 508 If the result from the mandatory testing falls below
longitudinal yield stress and tensile strength shall meet the SMYS, four (4) re-tests taken from four (4) different pipes (a
requirements of Table 6-3 or Table 6-6 as relevant, total of 4 tests), within the same test unit, shall be tested.
the YS/TS ratio shall not exceed 0.97, If the four re-tests meet SMYS, the test unit is acceptable.
the elongation shall be minimum 15%, If one of the re-tests fall below SMYS the test unit shall be re-
Charpy V-notch impact toughness shall be according to jected.
Table 6-3 or Table 6-6 as relevant, and
the hardness shall meet the requirements in C.205 or 509 If one or both of the c o n f i a t o r y tests fail to meet
C.306 as relevant. SMYS, two (2) re-tests taken from each of two (2) different
pipes within the same test unit shall be tested for each of the
Subject to agreement, a higher yield stress may be accepted for failed c o n f i a t o r y tests (a total of 4 tests).
duplex stainless steel pipes for use in umbilicals. If all re-tests meet SMYS, the test unit is acceptable.
308 If the supplementary requirement for sour service (S) If any of the re-tests fall below SMYS, the test unit shall be re-
andor fracture arrest properties (F) is required, the testing for jected.
these supplementary requirements shall be performed on sam-
ples that are removed, strained and artificially aged in accord- 510 Re-testing of failed pipes is not permitted.
ance with 305. The relevant acceptance criteria shall be met. 511 If the test results are influenced by improper sampling,
machining, preparation, treatment or testing, the test sample
D 400 Supplementary requirement, dimensions @) shall be replaced by a correctly prepared sample from the same
401 Supplementary requirements for enhanced dimensional pipe, and a retest performed.
requirements for linepipe (D) are given in E 1200 and Table 6- 512 If a test unit has been rejected after re-testing (508, 509
15. above), the Manufacturer may conduct individual testing of all
402 Requirements for tolerances should be selected consid- the remaining pipes in the test unit. If the total rejection of all
ering the influence of dimensions and tolerances on the subse- the pipes within one test unit exceeds 15%, including the pipes
quent fabricatiodinstallation activities and the welding failing the mandatory andor c o n f i a t o r y tests, the test unit
facilities to be used. shall be rejected.
513 In this situation, the Manufacturer shall investigate and
D 500 Supplementary requirement, high utilisation (u) report the reason for failure and shall change the manufactur-
501 Supplementary requirements for high utilisation (U) ing process if required. Re-qualification of the MPS is required
shall be applied for linepipe material utilised in accordance if the agreed allowed variation of any parameter is exceeded
with Section 5B 600, and should also, in general, be applied for (see E.304).
linepipe material with SMYS = 450 MPa. The provided test
scheme is valid for production in excess of 50 lots. Supplemen-
tary requirement U shall be conducted in addition to the re-
quirements specified in E 800. Supplementary requirement U E. Manufacture
does only consider the SMYS in the transverse direction.
E 100 General
502 The test regime given in this sub-section intend to ensure
that the average yield stress is at least two standard deviations 101 The following requirements are applicable to the manu-
above SMYS and the ultimate strength is at least three standard facture of linepipe in C-Mn, duplex, and cladlined steel.
deviations above SMTS. The testing scheme applies to produc- 102 Manufacture of linepipe in other metallic materials shall
tion in excess of 50 lots. Alternative ways of documenting the be performed according to a specification that meets the re-
same based upon earlier test results in the same production is quirements of A 200 and applicable requirements of this sub-
allowed. section.
503 The objective of the extended test program specified be- E 200 Quality Assurance
low is to ensure a high confidence in achieving consistent yield
201 Manufacturers of linepipe shall have an implemented
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

stress for linepipe materials subjected to high utilisation during


service. The supplementary requirement U only considers the quality assurance system meeting the requirements of IS0
yield stress of the material. All other properties shall be tested 9002. Further requirements to quality assurance are given in
in accordance with E 800. Section 2B 500.
Mandatory mechanical testing E 300 Manufacturing Procedure Specification and
504 The testing frequency shall comply with E.805 Qualification
505 If the results from the mandatory testing meet the re- Manufacturing Procedure Specification (MPS)
quirement SMYS x 1.03, no further testing is required in order 301 Before production commences, the Manufacturer shall
to accept the test unit (see E.804). prepare an MPS. The MPS shall demonstrate how the specified
506 If the result from the mandatory testing falls below properties may be achieved and verified through the proposed
SMYS, the re-test program given in 508 shall apply. manufacturing route. The MPS shall address all factors which
influence the quality and reliability of production. All main
Confirmatory mechanical testing manufacturing steps from control of received raw material to
507 If the mandatory test result falls between SMYS x 1.03 shipment of fiished pipe, including all examination and check
and SMYS, then two (2) confirmatory tests taken from two (2) points, shall be covered in detail. References to the procedures
different pipes (a total of two tests) within the same test unit established for the execution of all steps shall be included.
shall be performed. 302 The MPS shall as a minimum contain the following in-
If the confirmatory tests meet SMYS, the test unit is accepta- formation:
ble. ~ plan(s) and process flow descriptioddiagram;
If one or both of the c o n f i a t o r y tests fall below SMYS, the ~ project specific quality plan;
re-test program given in 509 shall apply. ~ manufacturing process (see A 400) ;

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page56 - Sec.6

manufacturer and manufacturing location of raw material oxygen decarburisation before casting.
andor plate for welded pipes; 403 For steel to be used for linepipe meeting the supplemen-
raw material scrap content including allowable variation; tary requirement for sour service (see D loo), special attention
steelmaking process, casting process, alloying practice, to impurities and inclusion shape control shall be required. De-
rolling or working condition and heat treatment, including tails of the inclusion shape control treatment shall be given in
target values and proposed allowable variation in process the MPS.
parameters;
target values for chemical composition, including a critical 404 Before undergoing plate/strip/pipe forming, the slabdin-
combination of intended elements and proposed allowable gots shall be inspected and fulfil the surface finish require-
variation from target values; ments specified in the MPS.
pipe forming process;
alignment and joint design for welding and production E 500 Manufacture of plate and strip
WPS (see Appendix C); Manufacturing
fiial heat treatment condition;
method for cold expansiodsizing/finishing, target and 501 All manufacturing of plate and strip shall be performed
maximum sizing ratio; following the sequence of activities and within the agreed al-
NDT procedures; lowable variations of the qualified MPS. The manufacturing
pressure test pro cedures; practice and the instrumentation used to ensure proper control
list of specified mechanical and corrosion testing; of the manufacturing process variables and their tolerances
dimensional control procedures; shall be described in the MPS.
pipe number allocation; 502 The following requirements shall apply for the manufac-
pipe tracking procedure; turing:
marking, coating and protection procedures;
handling, loading and shipping procedures, and the mill shall have proper control of start and finish rolling
reference to applicable supplementary requirements (see temperature, rolling reduction and post-rolling cooling
B 200). rate (i.e. accelerated cooling);
~ plate and strip thickness shall be controlled by continuous-
303 The MPS shall be subject to agreement. ly operating devices;
Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test (MPQT) ~ heat treatment shall be controlled by temperature measur-
304 The MPS shall be qualified for each pipe size. Each ing devices;
MPQT shall include full qualification of two pipes from two ~ plate and strip edges shall be cut back sufficiently after
different lots (see 809). The minimum type and extent of rolling, to ensure freedom from defects; and
chemical, mechanical, and non-destructive testing are given in ~ strip end welds shall not be permitted unless specifically
Table 6-11, Table 6-12 andTable 6-13, and the acceptance cri- agreed.
teria for qualification of the MPS are given in this section.
Testing shall be performed as described in Appendix B and Non-destructive testing
Appendix D. 503 The following NDT shall be performed either at the
305 Qualification of welding procedures shall be performed plate/strip mill, or at the pipe mill:
in accordance with Appendix C.
full ultrasonic testing of plate and strip, or pipe body, for
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

306 For C-Mn steels with SMYS 2 450 MPa, duplex stain- laminar imperfections;
less steels and cladlined steels the qualification of the MPS ~ full ultrasonic testing of clad plate, or clad pipe body, for
should be completed prior to start of production. Qualification laminar imperfections and lack of bonding;
during first day of production is performed at Manufacturer's ~ full ultrasonic testing of the edges of plate/strip covering
own risk. at least a 50 mm wide band on the inside of future weld
307 Additional testing may be required (e.g. weldability test- preparations.
ing, analysis for trace elements for steel made from scrap, etc.)
as part of the qualification of the MPS. The ultrasonic testing shall meet the requirements of Appendix
D. All NDT shall be performed after final heat treatment of the
308 The validity of the qualification of the MPS shall be lim-
ited to the steelmaking, rolling, and manufacturing /fabrication plate or strip.
facilities where the qualification was performed. Workmanship, visual examination and repair of defects
309 If one or more tests in the qualification of the MPS fail 504 Plates and strip shall be subject to 100% visual examina-
to meet the requirements, the MPS shall be reviewed and mod- tion on both sides. The inspection shall be performed in a suf-
ified as necessary, and a complete re-qualification performed. ficiently illuminated area (approximately 500 lx) by trained
310 For C-Mn steels with SMYS < 450 MPa that are not in- personnel with sufficient visual acuity (e.g. Jaegar J-w eye-
tended for sour service, relevant documentation may be agreed sight test at 300 mm within the last 12 months). The surface
in lieu of qualification testing. finish produced by the manufacturing process, shall ensure that
surface imperfections can be detected by visual inspection.
E 400 Steel making 505 The surface finish produced by the manufacturing proc-
401 All steel making shall be performed using the raw mate- ess, shall ensure that surface imperfections can be detected by
rials stated in the qualified MPS, follow the same activity se- visual inspection. Cracks, notches and gouges are not accepta-
quence, and stay within the agreed allowable variations. The ble. Other imperfections such as scabs, seams, laps, tears, sliv-
manufacturing practice and instrumentation used to ensure ers, impressed mill scale etc. shall only be acceptable if not
proper control of the manufacturing process variables and their exceeding 2% of the nominal wall thickness, with a maximum
tolerances shall be described in the MPS. of 0.5 mm. The actual remaining wall thickness shall be above
the minimum allowable wall thickness (Table 6-14, Table 6-15
402 All steels shall be made by an electric or one of the basic
oxygen processes. C-Mn steel shall be fully killed and made to as applicable). Surface defects shall not appear over large are-
a fine grain practice. Details and follow-up of limiting macro, as.
as well as micro, segregation shall be given in the MPS. Du- 506 Surface defects in the plate or strip may be removed by
plex stainless steel shall be refined by argon oxygen or vacuum local manual grinding provided that:

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.6 - Page57

~ the wall thickness is not in any position reduced to a value 605 Cladlined steel linepipe shall be supplied in the heat
below the minimum allowed, and never more than 3 mm; treatment condition which is appropriate for both types of ma-
and terial. The heat treatment shall be in line with the steel Manu-
~ the sum of all ground areas does not exceed 10% of the to- facturer's recommendations.
tal surface area of each plate or strip. Cold expansion and cold sizing
507 Grinding by the use of automatic equipment may be per- 606 The extent of cold sizing and cold forming expressed as
formed subject to agreement. the sizing ratio s,., shall be calculated according to the follow-
ing formula:
508 Grinding may introduce cold working and hardnesses
incompatible with the service requirements for plate and strip
intended to meet the supplementary requirements for sour
service (see D 100). In such cases hardness testing may be re-
quired in order to permit grinding. Da is the outside diameter after sizing
509 Repair of plate and strip by welding is not permitted. Db is the outside diameter before sizing
Mechanical testing of clad steel plate and striy Traceability
510 Clad steel plate and strip shall be tested according to, 607 A system for traceability of the heat number, heat treat-
and meet the requirements given in, C 500. ment batch, lot number and test unit number of the starting ma-
terial and the records from all required tests to each individual
E 600 Linepipe manufacture pipe shall be established and described in the MPS. Care shall
be exercised during storage and handling to preserve the iden-
601 Manufacturing of linepipe shall be performed using the tification of materials.
starting materials specified, following the sequence of activi-
ties, and within the agreed allowable variations and the essen- Manufacture of seamless piye
tial variables of the qualified WPS (see Appendix C). Jointers 608 The manufacturing practice and the instrumentation
should not be permitted. used to ensure proper control of the manufacturing process
Processes of manufacture variables and their tolerances shall be described in the MPS:
602 Manufacture of linepipe shall be in accordance with one ~ wall thickness shall be controlled by continuously operat-
of the processes given in A 400. ing devices;
Starting material and supply conditions ~ pipe ends shall be cut back sufficiently after rolling to en-
sure freedom from defects; and
603 Linepipe in C-Mn steel for Tmin5 +5"C shall be manu- ~ pipes may be sized to their final dimensions by expansion
factured using the starting materials and corresponding form- or reduction. This shall not produce excessive permanent
ing methods and final heat treatment as given in Table 6-10.
strain. In cases of cold sizing, where no further heat treat-
604 Duplex stainless steel pipe shall be delivered in solution- ment is performed, the sizing ratio, s,. shall not exceed
annealed and water-quenched condition. 0.015.

Table 6-10 C-Mn steels, forming and heat treatment conditions


Type ofpipe Starting Material I I Pipeforming I Final heat treatment
Hot rolling Normalised or normalising formed
Quenched and tempered
Hot rolling and Normalised
I cold finisl&g IOuenched and temuered
I Normalising rolled strip INormalised weld area
Thermo-mechanically rolled strip Heat treated weld area
Cold forming
Entire pipe normalised
I I

High frequency Entire pipe quenched and tempered


welded pipe @FW)
Hot rolled or normalising rolled strip Cold forming and hot
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

stretch under controlled None


temperature, resulting in a
normalised condition
Submerged arc Normalised or normalising rolled plate or strip
welded pipe None, unless required due to degree
Thermo-mechanically rolled plate or stnp of cold forming
Cold forming
~ longitudinal seam Quenched and tempered plate or stnp
@AWL) Soft annealed plate or strip Quenching and tempering
~ seam As-rolled plate or stnp Normalising
(SAWH) forming None
Normalised or normalising rolled date or striu

Manufacture of weldedpipe ~ plate and strip shall be cut to the required width and the
weld bevel prepared by milling or other agreed methods
609 Welding procedures, welding personnel, handling of before forming;
welding consumables and the execution and quality assurance ~ cold forming (i,e, below 2 5 0 0 ~ OfC-Mn
) steel shall not in-
of welding, shall meet the requirements of Appendix C. troduce a plastic deformation exceeding 5% for clad and
C-Mn steels, unless heat treatment is performed or strain
610 The manufacturing practice forming, ageing tests show acceptable results (see C, 106);
and heat treatment, and the methods used to control manufac- ~ normalised forming of materials and weldments shall be
turing process variables and their tolerances, shall be described performed as recommended by the Manufacturers of the
in the MPS. The following requirements apply: plate/strip and welding consumables;

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page58 - Sec.6

run-on and run-off tabs shall be of sufficient length such and the tests required for production testing are denoted "P".
that the welding arcs are stabilised before the welding pool Testing of other materials than those listed in Table 6-1 1 and
enters the pipe material, and the entire welding pool has Table 6-12 shall be subject to agreement, however, the testing
left the pipe material before stop of welding; should, as a minimum incorporate the testing stated in these ta-
high-frequency welded pipes should not contain strip end bles.
welds;
Mechanical and corrosion testing
spiral welded pipes should not contain strip weld connec-
tions; 805 Mechanical testing during manufacturing shall be per-
the strip width for spiral welded pipes, should not be less formed on one randomly selected pipe from each lot, (see 809)
than 0.8 and not more than 3.0 times the pipe diameter; or once per 50 pipes, whatever gives the highest testing fre-
arc stops during welding shall be repaired according to a quency. This number of pipes is denoted; "test unit".
qualified welding repair procedure; 806 HPIC testing during manufacturing shall be performed
cold expansion for SAWL pipe should be within the range on one randomly selected pipe from each of the three (3) fiist
0.003 < s, 5 0.015. Expansion shall not introduce high lo- heats, or until three consecutive heats have shown acceptable
cal deformations; test results.
HFW and SAWH pipes may be sized to their fiial dimen-
sions by expansion or reduction. This shall not produce ex- After three consecutive heats have shown acceptable test re-
cessive permanent strain. In cases of cold sizing, where no sults, the testing frequency for the subsequent production may
further heat treatment or only heat treatment of the weld be reduced to one per casting sequence. The Ca/S ratio shall be
area is performed, the sizing ratio, s,, shall not exceed greater than 1.5 (see Table 6-1).
0.015;
807 If any of the tests during the subsequent testing fail (one
welded clad steel linepipe shall be formed, welded and test per casting sequence), three pipes from three different
heat treated as recommended by the starting material Man- heats of the last ten heats, selecting the heats with the lowest
ufacturer; Ca/S ratio, shall be tested. Providing these three tests show ac-
heat treatment shall be performed as recommended by the ceptable results, the ten heats are acceptable. However, if any
material Manufacturer with regard to heating and cooling of these three tests fail, then all the ten heats shall be tested.
rates, soaking time, and soaking temperature; Further, one pipe from every heat following the initially failed
the outside andor internal weld bead shall be ground flush heat shall be tested until the test results from three consecutive
to an agreed length at both pipe ends. heats have been found acceptable. After three consecutive
heats have shown acceptable test results, the testing frequency
E 700 Chemical analysis may again be reduced to one test per casting sequence.
701 Product analysis during manufacture shall, as a mini-
mum, be performed on one randomly selected plate/pipe from 808 In order to accept or reject a particular heat, re-testing
each lot (see 809) or once per 100 platedpipes, whatever gives shall be conducted in accordance with 8 11 to 8 15.
the highest test frequency. 809 A 'lot' is defined as pipes from:
702 Methods and procedures for chemical analysis shall be
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

according to recognised industry standards, and be referred to ~ the same heat,


in the MPS. ~ the same heat treatment batch (if applicable), and
the same diameter and wall thickness.
703 All elements listed in Table 6-1, Table 6-2 or Table 6-5
~

as relevant shall be determined and reported. Other elements


added for controlling the material properties may be added, 810 For linepipe material subjected to a high utilisation (see
subject to agreement. When scrap material is being used for Section 5), supplementary requirements for high utilisation
production of C-Mn steel, the content of the elements As, Sb, (U) shall apply (D 500), in addition to the requirements given
Sn, Pb, Bi and Ca shall be checked once during MPS/MPQ and in E 800.
reported, and meet the requirements given in Table 6- 1 and Ta- Re-testing
ble 6-2. Limitations on amount of scrap metal shall then be
stated in the MPS. 811 If one of the tests fails to meet the requirements, two ad-
ditional re-tests shall be performed on samples taken from two
704 If the value of any elements, or combination of elements different pipes within the same test unit. Both re-tests shall
fails to meet the requirements, a re-test consisting of two spec- meet the specified requirements. The test unit shall be rejected
imens shall be made. The re-test specimens shall be sampled if one or both of the re-tests do not meet the requirements.
from two additional pipes from the same heat. If one or both
re-tests still fail to meet the requirements, the heat should be re- 812 If a test unit has been rejected, the Manufacturer may
jected. conduct individual testing of all the remaining pipes in the test
unit. If the total rejection of all the pipes within one test unit
E 800 Mechanical and corrosion tests exceeds 25%, the test unit shall be rejected. In this situation the
801 Requirements for methods and procedures for mechani- Manufacturer shall investigate and report the reason for failure
cal and corrosion testing are given in Appendix B. and shall change the manufacturing process if required. Re-
qualification of the MPS is required if the agreed allowed var-
802 Sampling for mechanical and corrosion testing shall be iation of any parameter is exceeded (see 304).
performed after heat treatment, expansion and final shaping.
Location of the samples shall be as shown in Appendix B. The 813 Re-testing of failed pipes shall not be permitted. If a pipe
samples shall not be flame cut or prepared in a manner that fails due to low CVN values in the fusion line (HAZ), testing
may influence their mechanical properties. of samples from the same pipe may be performed subject to
agreement.
803 Samples intended for strain age testing shall be taken
from pipes that have been subjected to the maximum expan- 814 The reason for the failure of any test shall be established
sion allowed. and appropriate corrective action performed to avoid re-occur-
rence of test failures.
804 The mechanical and corrosion testing shall include the
testing shown in Table 6-1 1 and Table 6-12 as applicable. The 815 If the test results are influenced by improper sampling,
tests required for qualification of the MPS are denoted "Q", machining, preparation, treatment or testing, the test sample

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
S e c 6 - Page59

shall be replaced by a correctly prepared sample from the same


pipe and a retest performed.
Type of test Pipe material
Table 6-11 Welded linepipe - mechanical and corrosion
testing 1) C-Mn Duplex Clad/lined
steel Steel Steel
I Pipe material
Type of test

I ~~~~~i~~
I I IC-Mn
Steel
Duplex
Steel
Clad/
lined
Steel
Tensile tests
Charpy V-notch test
Weldability tests 3, Q Q
Q&P
Q&P
Q&P
Q&P
Q
Q&P2)
Q&P2)

Hardness test 4, Q&P Q&P Q&P


Metallographic Q Q&P Q&P
examination
Fracture toughness test Q Q Q 2,
I I I I Pitting corrosion test 5 ) O&P O&P
Bend test IWeldmentI o & P I o&p I
Hardness test 3, IPiuebodv I O & P I O&P I O&P
Shear strength and bend
tests 6) 1 - 1
Additional testing for supplementary requirement, sour service
íSì ísee D 100)
Type of test Pipe material
examination Weldment
C-Mn Duplex Clad/lined
steel Steel Steel
test o ssc test 7) Q Q Q

Pitting corrosion Pipe body Type of test Pipe material


test 6) Weldment
C-Mn Duplex Cladllined
steel Steel Steel
Charpy V-notch Q Q Q 2,
Additional testing for supplementary requirement, sour service transition curve test
íSì ísee D 100)
Type of test
Strain ageing transition Q Q 2,
curve test
C-Mn Duplex Clad/ Drop weight tear test Q Q 2,
Steel Steel lined
Steel
HPIC test
Type of test (tests to be Pipe material
done on strained and
Weldmen O O O aged material)
Additional testing for supplementary requirement, fracture ar- C-Mn Duplex Clad/lined
rest Dronerties íFì ísee D 200) steel Steel Steel
Type of test Location Pipe material
C-Mn
Steel
Duplex
Steel
Clad/
lined
Charpy V-notch test Q Q I Q2)
Steel
Charpy V-notch Pipebody Q Q Q2) 1) All testing shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of
transition curve test Appendix B
Strainaging transition Pipe body Q Q2’ 2) Test of base material only.
curve test 3) Test shall be performed unless otherwise agreed (see C 600).
Drop weight tear test I Pipe body I Q I I Q2) 4) Acceptance criteria are different for sour and ordinary service.
Notes 5) See C.308/C.309,and C.404.

1) All testing shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of 6) See C.512 andC.513.
Appendix B 7) Not applicable for materials meeting all Supplementary Requirements
2) Test of base material and weld metal. for sour service in D 1OO.

3) Acceptance criteria are different for sour and ordinary service. E 900 Non-destructive testing
4) Only when cold forming during pipe manufacture of C-Mn and clad/
lined steels exceeds 5% strain (see C.106). General
5) Test shall be performed unless otherwise agreed (ref. C600). 901 Linepipe shall be subjected to non-destructive testing
6) See C.308/C.309,and C.404. (NDT). Requirements for personnel, methods, equipment, pro-
7) SeeC.512 andC.513. cedures and acceptance criteria for NDT are given in Appendix
8) Not applicable for materials meeting all supplementary requirements D.
for sour service in D 1OO.
902 When automatedNDT equipment is used, a short area at
9) HFW, EBW and LBW pipes, only.
both pipe ends may not be tested. The untested ends may either
be cut off or the ends subjected to NDT, as detailed in Appen-
dix E. The extent of untested ends and description of the tech-
nique, sensitivity and parameters used for testing of the pipe
ends shall be included in the MPS.
903 NDT of linepipe shall be performed after completion of
all cold straightening, forming, heat treatment and expansion.
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page60 - Sec.6

Type and extent of non-destructive testing 905 If deviations from the requirements are found, the extent
904 NDT for qualification ofthe MPS and during production Of testing shall be increased as agreed until a COnSiStent Com-
shall be carried out according to Table 6- 13. pliance to the given requirements is re-established.

C-Mn steels and clad steel


Method 2, Duplex steel
NDT Level I NDT Level II
ALL PIPE
Scope of testing
Laminar imperfections at pipe ends covering a UT 100% 100% 100%
circumferentialband 50 mm wide
Laminar surface imuerfections at end facehevel ST 100% 100% 100%
Imuerfections in untested ends I UT+ST I 100% 100% 100%
Residual magnetism 5% 5%
WELDED PIPE
Scope of testing
Longitudinal imuerfections in weld UT 100% 100% 100%
Transverse imperfections in weld 3,
UT 100% 5% 100%
Imperfectionsin extreme 300 mm ofweld at each pipe end RT 100% 100% 100%
Laminar imperfections in pipe body and in area adjacent UT 100% 100% 100%
to weld seam (unless tested on platektrip, see 503)
External surface imuerfections in weld ST 4) 4) 4)
SEAMLESS PIPE
Scope of testing
Laminar imperfections in pipe body UT 100% 100% 100%
Thickness testing UT 100% 100/10% 5 ) 100%
Longitudinal imperfections, pipe body UT 100% 100% 100%
Transverse imperfections,pipe body UT 100/10% 5 ) 100/10% 5 )
Longitudinal surface imperfections ST 100/10% 5 ) 100/10% 5 ) 100/10% 5 )
Transverse surface imuerfections ST 100/10% 5 ) 100/5% 6, 100/10% 5 )
NOTES

1) All testing shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of Appendix D


2) UT = Ultrasonic testing
ST = Surface imperfection testing Acceptable methods are detailed in Appendix D
RT = Radiographic testing
3) Testing for transverse imperfections is not applicable for High Frequency Welded (HFW), electron beam (EBW) and laser welded (LBW) pipe
4) Testing to include the first 20 pipes and, if acceptable results are obtained, thereafter 3% of the pipes from each welding line, on each shift, with a min-
imum of one pipe and a maximum of 5 per 8 hour shift
5) 100/10%= 100% testing of the first 20 pipes manufactured and if acceptable results are obtained, thereafter random testing during the production of 10%
of the remaining pipes
6) 100/5% = 100% testing of the first 20 pipes manufactured and if acceptable results are obtained, thereafter random testing during the production of 5%
of the remaining umes Auulicable onlv to auench and temuered uiue

E 1000 Visual inspection, workmanship and correction of by visual inspection. Cracks, notches and gouges are not ac-
defects ceptable. Other imperfections such as scabs, seams, laps, tears,
Visual inspection slivers, impressed mill scale etc. shall only be acceptable if not
exceeding 2% of the nominal wall thickness, and with a maxi-
1001 Each linepipe shall be subject to 100% visual inspec- mum of 0.5 mm. The acceptance limit for surface imperfec-
tion of the outside of the pipe body.
tions on seamless pipes is 5% of the nominal wall thickness.
1002 For pipe with an internal diameter (ID) 2 610 mm, the The actual remaining wall thickness shall be above the mini-
interior of the pipe shall be 100% visually inspected. For pipe mum allowable wall thickness (Table 6-14, Table 6-15 as ap-
with an ID < 610 mm, the interior shall be inspected from both plicable). Surface defects shall not appear over large areas.
ends as far as access permits. Boroscopes or similar devices
should be used to extend the access. The interior of duplex 1005 The pipe surface of cold-formed welded linepipe shall
stainless steel and cladlined material should be 100% visual have an even curvature without "flats" along the longitudinal/
inspected. spiral weld seam, local thinning, steps and wavy edges. Dents,
1003 The inspection shall be performed after heat treatment, offset at plate edges, and out-of-line weld bead shall not ex-
expansion and final shaping, and in a sufficiently illuminated ceed the limits given in Appendix D.
area (approximately 500 lx) by trained personnel with suffi- 1006 Irregularities in the pipe curvature of cold-formed
cient visual acuity (e.g. Jaegar J-w eyesight test at 300 mm
within the last 12 months). welded linepipe that may be caused by uneven hardness distri-
bution shall be investigated to determine the hardness and di-
Workmanshiy mensions of the area. Any hard spot exceeding 50 mm in any
1004 The surface finish produced by the manufacturing direction shall not have a hardness exceeding values given in
process shall ensure that surface imperfections can be detected Table 6-3, Table 6-6 as relevant.
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE
VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.6 - Page61

For linepipe intended to meet the supplementary requirements equals;


for sour service, there shall be no hard spots with hardness ex-
ceeding: oe = min[SMYS. 0.96;SMTS. 0.841 (6.3)
250 HV10 internally and 275 HV10 externally, for C-Mn based on the minimum pipe wall thickness irni,,.
..
...
.
steel; and Guidance note:
for other steels, maximum allowable hardness according
to NACE MRO175 latest edition. The von Mises Equivalent stress shall be calculated as:

Regardless of their size, no hard spots outside the hardness re-


quirements for the applicable material are allowed within 100
mm of the pipe ends. where
1007 The weld seam of welded linepipe shall meet the ac-
ceptance criteria for visual examination given in Appendix D.
Correction of defects
1008 Surface defects in the pipe body and weld seam (weld-
ed pipes) may be removed by local manual grinding provided
that:
~ the wall thickness is not in any position reduced to a value N = True pipe wall force which depend on the
below the minimum allowed, and never more than 3 mm; test set up end restraints.
and is equivalent to t l
(kin in Section 5 )
~ the sum of all ground areas does not exceed 10% of the to-
tal internal and external surface area of each pipe.
1009 More extensive grinding may by performed by the use 1105 In cases where the specified corrosion allowance re-
of automatic equipment. stricts the test pressure due to mill testing capacity, the test
pressure shall beyh= 1.5yld,whereyld is the local design pres-
1010 Weld repair of pipe body is not permitted. sure.
1011 Repair welding of the weld seam is allowed for SAWL 1106 The test configuration shall permit bleeding of trapped
and SAWH pipes only and shall be performed in accordance air prior to pressurisation of the pipe. The pressure test equip-
with qualified welding repair procedures. Requirements for ment shall be equipped with a calibrated recording gauge. The
welding repair procedures are given in Appendix C. Repair applied pressure and the duration of each hydrostatic test shall
welding may only be performed subject the following limita- be recorded together with the identification of the pipe tested.
tions: The equipment shall be capable of registering a pressure drop
repair welding within a distance of 150 mm of the pipe of minimum 2% of the applied pressure. The holding time at
ends shall not be allowed, test pressure shall be minimum 10 seconds. Calibration records
repair welding of cracks shall not be allowed, for the equipment shall be available.
total repair length in any weld shall not exceed 10% of the 1107 Each pipe shall withstand the test pressure without any
weld length, sign of leakage, sweats or permanent deformation. Linepipe
repair welding of previously repaired areas shall not be al- that fails the hydrostatic test shall be rejected.
lowed, 1108 Subject to agreement, the hydrostatic testing may be
repair by welding after cold expansion shall not be al- omitted for expanded pipes manufactured by the UOE process.
lowed, It shall in such situations be documented that the expansion
the distance between two weld repair areas shall not be process and subsequent pipe inspection will:
less than 150 mm,
repair by welding after fiial heat treatment shall not be al- ~ ensure that the pipe material stress-strain curve is linear up
lowed, to a stress corresponding to 1103,
through thickness repair shall not be allowed, and ~ identiSl defects with the potential for through-thickness
hydrostatic testing and subsequent NDT shall be per- propagation under pressure loading, and
formed or repeated after weld repair. ~ identiSl pipes subject to excessive permanent deformation
under pressure loading to a degree equivalent to that pro-
E 1100 Mill pressure test vided by hydrostatic testing.
1101 Each length of linepipe shall be hydrostatically tested,
unless the alternative approach described in 1108 is used. Workmanship and inspection shall be at the same level as for
hydrostatically tested pipe.
1102 For pipes with reduced utilisation of the wall thickness,
the test pressure (ph) may be reduced as permitted in Section The expansion process parameters and inspection results shall
5D 400. be recorded for each pipe.
1103 The test pressure (Ph) for all other pipes shall, in situa- E 1200 Dimensions, weight and lengths
tions where the seal is made on the inside or the outside of the
linepipe surface, be conducted at the lowest value obtained by 1201 The extent of dimensional testing and dimensional tol-
utilising the following formulae: erances are given in Table 6-14 and Table 6-15. If deviations
from the requirements are found, the extent of testing shall be
increased as agreed until a consistent compliance to the given
requirements is re-established.
1202 All test equipment shall be calibrated. The methods to
1104 In situations where the seal is made against the end face be used for monitoring dimensions, shall be in accordance with
of the linepipe by means of a ram or by welded on end caps, the requirements given in 1204 to 1213.
and the linepipe is exposed to axial stresses, the test pressure 1203 All specified tests shall be recorded as acceptable or
shall be calculated such that the maximum combined stress not acceptable. Wall thickness measurements shall be recorded
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page62 - Sec.6

for 10% of the specified tests. All other results shall be record- measured internally (when access permits) and externally, us-
ed for 100% of the specified tests. ing a gauge with the correct curvature according to the speci-
Diameter ofpipe ends andpiye body fied nominal diameter. The distance between pipe body and
the correct curvature shall be measured. Dial type gauges may
1204 The actual diameter of pipe ends and body shall be cal- be used subject to agreement.
culated based on circumferential measurements taken within
100 mm from each pipe end and for the pipe body, at the loca- Wu11 thickness at pipe end andpiye body
tions given in Table 6-14 or Table 6-15 as relevant. Unless oth- 1208 The wall thickness shall be measured with a mechani-
erwise agreed, the diameter tolerance shall relate to the inside cal calliper or calibrated non-destructive testing device. Meas-
diameter for pipe ends and outside diameter for pipe body. A urements for seamless pipe shall be taken in the same positions
circumferential tape or calliper gauge can be used. External as specified in 1206. For welded pipe three measurements shall
measurements shall be corrected by using the actual wall thick- be taken; on both sides of the weld immediately adjacent to the
ness. weld, and directly opposite to the weld.
Out-ofroundness for piye ends and piye body Straightness
1205 The out-of-roundness for pipe ends shall be calculated 1209 Straightness measurements shall be taken using a taut
by the following formula: string or wire from end to end along the pipe measuring the
greatest deviation or by other equivalent methods.
Preparation ofpipe ends and end squareness.
where 1210 Pipe ends shall be cut square and shall be free from
burrs. The out of squareness shall be measured. End prepara-
O = out-of-roundness in inm tions shall meet the specified dimensions and tolerances.
Dmax = the largest measured inside or outside diameter Radial ofset (High-Low)
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Dmin = the smallest measured inside or outside diameter 1211 The radial offset shall be measured at regular intervals
along the length of the pipe. If radial offset is equal to or ex-
Unless otherwise agreed, out-of-roundness values shall relate ceeds the acceptance criterion, the entire length of the pipe
to the inside diameter for pipe ends, and to outside diameter for shall be accurately measured.
pipe body.
Weight
1206 The largest and smallest inside diameters shall be
measured at a minimum of four equally spaced positions 1212 Each pipe/pipe bundle shall be weighed separately and
around the circumference. Pipe end measurements shall be tak- the weight recorded.
en in the same cross-sectional plane, within 100 mm from the Length
pipe end. Body measurements shall be taken in the same cross-
sectional plan, approximately in the middle of the pipe length. 1213 The length of each pipe shall be measured and record-
ed. The individual length and the average length of the deliv-
Local out-ofroundness. ered pipes shall meet the specified dimensions and tolerances,
1207 Local out-of-roundness, dents and peaking, shall be as given in the purchase order.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
S e c 6 - Page63

Table 6-14 Standard dimensional reauirements for lineDiDe


Characteristic to be tested Extent of Welded pipe Seamless pipe
testing
Diameter uiue ends D1) < 610 mm R 2, f0.5 mm or f 0.5% D (Whichever is greater). but max. f 1.6 mm
Diameter pipe ends D1) > 610 mm R2) f 1.6 mm f 2.0 mm
Greatest difference in pipe diameter
R 2, 12.5% t
between pipe ends (each pipe measured)
Diameter pipe body, D < 610 mm R 2) 4) f 0.5 mm or f 0.75% D1) f 0.5 mm or f 0.75% D1) whichever
(whichever is greater), but max. is greater)
f 3.0 mm
Diameter pipe body D1) > 610 mm R 2)4) I
f 0.5% D1),but max. f 4.0 mm fl%D I
Out-of-roundness,pipe ends D/t3) < 75 R2) I 1.O% D ,but max. 7.5 mm
Out-of-roundness,pipe ends, D/t3) > 75 R2) I 1.5% D ,but max. 7.5 mm
Out-of-roundness. uiue bodv. D/t3) < 75 R2)4) I 1.5% D l ) . but max. 15.0 mm
Out-of-roundness,pipe body, D/t3) > 75 R2)4) I 2.0% D1) ,but max. 15.0 mm
Local out-of-roundness5)
Wall thickness, t3) < 15 mm 100% 6) I f 0.75 mm f 12.5% t 3,
Wall thickness. 15 < t3)< 20 mm 100% 6) I f 1.0 mm f 12.5% t 3,
Wall thickness, t3)< 20 mm 100% 6) I
+ 1 . 5 m m / - 1.Omm I
f 10% t 3 ) , but max. f 3 mm
Straightness R2) I < 0.15% L
End squareness R2) I < 1.6 mm from true 90"
Radial offset ( H F W . EBW. LBW uiues) R2) I tm.:.. 7) at weld t t.:.. I
Radial offset (SAW pipes) R2) I
< O. 1 t 3), but max. 2.0 mm
Length of pipe 100% I see E1213
Weight of each single pipe/pipe bundle 100% I -3.5% / + l o % of nominal weight
NOTES

1) D = specified outside or inside diameter (see 1204 and 1205)


2) R means random testing of 5% of the pipes per shift with a minimum of 3 pipes per shift.
3) t = specified nominal wall thickness.
4) Dimensions of pipe body to be measured approximately in the middle of the pipe length.
5) To be measured as a distance from a template with the same OD as the pipe and with a length of OD/4, m a . 200mm
6) 100% means testing of every pipe.
7) t m n ~=n actual measured minimum wall thickness of each measured pipe.
8) i,= specified
, minimum wall thickness.

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page64 - Sec.6

Characteristic to be tested Extent of Welded pipe Seamless pipe


testing
Diameter uiue ends Di)< 3 10 mm 100% f 0.5 mm or f 0.3% D i) (whichever is greater)
Diameter pipe ends 310 <Di) < 610 mm 100% f 1.6 mm
Diameter pipe ends Di)t 610 mm 100% f 1.6 mm f 2.0 mm
Greatest differencein pipe diameter between pipe
ends (each pipe measured) o% 10% t, but max. 3 mm
Diameter pipe body Di)< 310 mm 10% f 0.5% Di),
but max. f 1.25 mm
Diameter uiue bodv 310 <Di) < 610 mm 10% f 0.75% Di).
but max. f 3.0 mm
Diameter pipe body Di) 2610 mm 10% f 0.5% Di),but max. f 4.0 mm
Out-of-roundness,pipe ends D/t < 75 100% 1.O%@), but max. 5.0 mm
Out-of-roundness,pipe ends, D/t3)>75 100% 1.5%D1),but max. 5.0 mm
Out-of-roundness,pipe body, D/t3)< 75 10% 4) 1.5%D1),but max. 10.0 mm
Out-of-roundness,pipe body, D/t3)> 75 10% 4) 2.0%D1),but max. 10.0 mm
Local out-of-roundness5) 10% < 0.5% Di), but max. 2.0 mm
Wall thickness, t3) < 15 mm 100% 6) f 0.5 mm f 10%
Wall thickness, 15 < t3) < 20 mm 100% 6) f 0.75 f 10%
Wall thickness, t3) t 20 mm 100% 6) f 1.Omm f lo%, but max. f2.5 mm
Straightness 10% < 0.15% L
End squareness 10% 1.6 mm from true 90"
Radial offset ( H F W , EBW, LBW pipes) 10% tmmn7)at weld t t,?)
Radial offset (SAW pipes) 10% < 0.1 t3),but max. 1.5 mm
Length of pipe 100% see E1213
Weight of each single pipe/pipe bundle 100% -3.5% /+lo% of nominal weight

4) Dimensions of pipe body to be measured approximately in the middle of the pipe length.
5) To be measured as a distance from a template with the same OD as the pipe and with a length of OD/4, m a . 200mm
6) 100% means testing of every pipe.
7) t m n ~=
" actual measured minimum wall thickness of each measured pipe.
8) tnlin = specified minimum wall thickness.

F. Marking and Protection G. Documentation, Records and Certification


F 100 General G100 General
101 All marking shall be easily identifiable and in such a 101 Linepipe shall be delivered with Inspection Certificate
condition that it is readable during the subsequent activities. 3.1.B according to European Standard EN 10204 (Metallic
102 The type of marking shall be subject to agreement. Products - Types of Inspection Documents) or an accepted
equivalent.
103 Each linepipe shall be marked with a unique number.
The marking shall reflect the correlation between the product 102 The Inspection Certificate shall identiSl the products
represented by the certificate, with reference to product
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

and the respective inspection document.


number, heat number and heat treatment batch. The certificate
104 On customer's request, each linepipe shall be protected shall include or refer to the results of all specified inspection,
until taken into use, including bevel protectors on bevelled testing and measurements. The supply condition and the final
pipes. heat treatment shall be stated in the certificate.
103 Records from the qualification of the MPS and other
documentation shall be in accordance with the requirements in
Section 3.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.7 - Page65

SECTION 7
COMPONENTS AND ASSEMBLIES

A. General onstrated in at least one of the following ways:


A100 Scope ~ engineering calculations,
documented prototype testing,
101 This section specifies requirements to the design, manu-
~

~ documented history of successful use of the component,


facture, fabrication, testing and documentation of pipeline produced according to the same design, compatible mate-
components and structural items, and to the fabrication and rials, manufacturing and testing procedures and used un-
testing of risers, expansion loops, pipe strings for reeling and der equivalent operating conditions,
towing. ~ strength test to failure, or
A 200 Quality assurance ~ experimental stress analyses.
201 Requirements for quality assurance are given in Section 109 For piggable components the internal diameter of the
2B 500. Corresponding requirements for the material process- component shall be equal to that of the connecting pipeline
ing and the manufacture of components shall be specified. sections, and shall meet the same tolerance requirements.
110 The transition between a comnonent and other items
(e.g. connecting linepipe) where the material thickness or yield
B. ~~~~~~l requirements for ~~~i~~ of pipeline stress is unequal shall be according to ASME B3 1.8 Appendix
I or equally recognised codes.
Components
111 If the chemical comnosition and the deliverv condition
B 100 General of components require quakcation of a specific Welding pro-
101 All pressure-containing pipeline components shall gen- WLhre for welding of the joint between the component and the
erally represent the same safety level as the connecting riser/ connecting linepipe, then the component should be fitted with
pipeline section. pup pieces of the linepipe material in order to avoid field weld-
ing of these components.
102 Design of pipeline components shall be according to
recognised standards. The strength shall, as a minimum be: Alternatively, rings Of the component material should be pro-
vided for welding procedure qualification of the field weld.
~ equivalent to the connecting pipeline, or
~ sufficient to accommodate any environmental load and the B 200 Material selection
maximum forces that will be transferred to the component 201 The mechanical properties, chemical composition,
from the connecting pipeline under installation and opera- weldability and corrosion resistance of materials used in com-
tion. ponents shall be compatible with the part of the pipeline sys-
tem where they are located. Low internal temperatures due to
Guidance note: system depressurisation shall be considered during the materi-
It should be noted that the definitions of yield stress used in other al selection.
design and material standards may be different to those used for
pipelines. 202 The material in pipeline components and structural
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

items shall be selected taking into account the considerations


given in Section 5B 500. In addition, the suitability of a mate-
103 If the code or standard used for design of a component rial for a particular application shall include consideration of
does not take into account forces other than the internal pres- the following aspects:
sure, then additional calculations are required in order to ad- ~ external and internal corrosion;
dress the maximum forces that can be transferred to the ~ galvanic corrosion between dissimilar metals;
component from the connecting pipeline sections under instal- ~ accumulation of seawater and other corrosive substances,
lation and operation. and areas where chemical inhibition or cathodic protection
104 If the code or standard used for design of a component may be ineffective;
does not take into account the possibility for internal leakage ~ suitability for use with the fluid to be transported, includ-
due to forces transferred to the component from the connecting ing any additives; and
pipeline sections, then additional calculations or qualification ~ resistance to abrasion or mechanical damage likely to oc-
tests shall be performed. cur during installation and operation.
105 Design by finite element analysis should comply with
ASME VIII, Division 2, Appendix 4 or an equivalent recog- 203 A component should be forged rather than cast whenev-
nised standard. er a favourable grain flow pattern, a maximum degree of ho-
mogeneity, and the absence of internal flaws are of
106 External hydrostatic pressure shall be considered in the importance.
design with respect to both strength and leakage.
204 Particular consideration shall be given to the suitability
107 The following factors shall apply for the design of com- of elastomers and polymers for use in the specific application
ponents unless the requirements of the selected code or stand- and service conditions.
ard are more stringent:
205 The need for pre-qualification of materials for the serv-
ice condition shall be considered, based on the media to be
I Table 7-1 Design Factors I transported, loads, temperatures and the material selected.
Internal pressure load factor (not hydrostatic test pressure) 1.10
External loads load factor 1.30 206 Where pre-qualification of materials is required, the ex-
tent of testing and investigations to be performed for a com-
Usage factor 0.67 plete qualification shall be specified.
108 Sufficient strength and fitness for purpose shall be dem- 207 Requirements for the pre-qualification of processes,

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page66 - Sec.7

tests, and manufacturers shall be considered in each case. The may be used provided electrical continuity is verified by meas-
consideration shall take into account the complexity and criti- urements.
cality of the product to be supplied, and the requirements of Cadmium plating shall not be used.
this standard.
406 If other bolting materials are required for corrosion re-
B 300 Flanged and mechanical connections sistance or other reasons, the material shall be selected in ac-
301 Flanges shall meet the requirements of IS0 7005-1 or cordance with the material selection requirements of the
another recognised code. standard. For subsea applications, Inconel 625 (UNS N06625)

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
shall be used when corrosion resistant bolts and nuts are re-
302 The flange bore should match the internal diameter of quired at ambient temperature, i.e. when bolts are exposed to
adjoining pipe. aerated seawater and cathodic protection cannot be ensured. It
303 Flanges of proprietary design, including swivel joint shall be verified that the materials have acceptable mechanical
flanges and hub type pipeline joints, shall be designed accord- properties at the minimum and maximum design temperature.
ing to relevant sections of pressure vessel codes such as ASME 407 Proprietary bolting materials may be used for CRA pipe-
VI11 or BS5500. Additional calculations may be required to lines. It shall be verified that the materials have acceptable me-
demonstrate that the requirements of 102, 103 and 104 are met. chanical properties at the minimum and maximum design
304 The sealing faces of flanges shall have a surface finish, temperature, and are tested for compatibility with cathodic
hardness and roughness suitable for the gaskets to be applied. protection systems.
305 Gaskets shall be capable of withstanding the maximum B 500 Valves
pressure to which they could be subjected, as well as installa-
tion forces if flanges are laid in-line with the pipeline. Gaskets 501 Valves shall meet the requirements of IS0 14313, API
for flanges shall be made from metallic materials that are re- 6D or equivalent codes or standards. Additional calculations
sistant to the fluid to be transported in the pipeline system. Gal- may be required to demonstrate that the requirements of 102,
vanic corrosion shall be avoided. Mechanical properties shall 103 and 104 are met.
be maintained at the anticipated in service pressures and tem- 502 The design shall ensure that internal gaskets are able to
peratures. seal, and shall include a documented safety margin which is
306 Seals shall be designed to allow testing without pressu- valid during all relevant pipeline operating conditions. Sealing
rising the pipeline. will be sensitive to internal deflections, enlargement of gaps
and changes in their support conditions. Valve operation will
307 For guidance for design of couplings (sleeve type cou- be sensitive to friction and clearances.
plings) reference is made to DNV RP-F104, "Submarine Piye-
line Couplings". The principles of this RP may also be applied 503 Consideration should be given to requirements for dura-
to clamps. bility when exposed to abrasive material (e.g. weld scale, sand
etc.) or to fire loads.
308 Specifications for the tools required to install and make-
up the components shall be established. 504 Valves with requirements for fire durability shall be
qualified by applicable fire tests. Reference may be made to
B 400 Bolting API 6FA and BS 6755 Part 2 for test procedures.
401 Bolts and nuts for subsea use shall be in accordance with 505 Valve control systems and actuators shall be designed
Table 7-2. Equivalent standards may be used subject to agree- and manufactured in accordance with recognised standards.
ment. The valve actuator specification should define torque require-
ments for valve operation, with a suitable safety margin to ac-
Table 7-2 Bolts and nuts for subsea use commodate deterioration and friction increase during service.
Bolt I Nut I Size range B 600 Pressure vessels
ASTM A320,
Grade L7 II
ASTM Al 94, Grade 4lS3 (Low-
temuerature reauirement for
Grade 4 and Grade 7 nuts)
I <50mm 601 Pressure vessels such as pig traps and slug catchers shall
be designed in accordance with ASME VIII, BS 5500 or equiv-
ASTM A320. I ASTM A194. Grade 7 I <1ûûmm alent standard.
Grade L43 602 The design of closures and items such as nozzle rein-
forcements, saddle supports, vent- kick and drain branches
402 Bolts and nuts for use in above water and onshore com- shall comply with the applied design standard.
ponents shall be in accordance with Table 7-3. Equivalent
standards may be used, subject to agreement. 603 Closures shall be designed such that the closure cannot
be opened while the pig trap is pressurised. An interlock ar-
I Table 7-3 Bolts and nuts for use above water/onshore. rangement with the main pipeline valve should be provided.
Bolt Nut Size B 700 Components fabricated by welding
range
ASTM A193. Grade B7 ASTM A194. Grade 2H All 701 The design of components fabricated by welding of
plate shall be in accordance with industry recognised engineer-
I ASTM A193, Grade B16 I
ASTM A194, Grade 7 IAll I ing practices. Where such components cannot be designed in
403 Bolts and nuts for bolts with diameter 25mm and above accordance with this standard, the design shall be in accord-
shall be impact tested to the same requirements as for the steel ance with ASME VIII, BS 5500 or equivalent standards. Addi-
to be bolted. tional calculations may be required to demonstrate that the
requirements of 102, 103 and 104 are met.
404 The hardness of bolts in carbon steel and/or low alloy
material shall be less than 350HV10. B 800 Insulating joints
405 Carbon steel and/or low alloy bolting material shall be 801 Prefabricated insulating joints shall be designed in ac-
hot dip galvanised or have similar corrosion protection. For cordance with ASME VIII, BS 5500 or equivalent standards.
submerged applications or when bolting torque is specified, Additional calculations may be required to demonstrate that
electrolytic galvanising or phosphating shall be used. Hot dip the requirements of B102, B103 and B104 are met.
and electrolytic galvanising shall be followed by post-baking. 802 The insulating and spacing materials shall be resistant to
For subsea use, polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) based coatings the fluid transported in the pipeline system. Mechanical prop-

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.7 - Page67

erties shall be maintained at the anticipated in service pressures 907 Steel socket welding fittings shall not be used.
and temperatures.
B 1000 Anchor flanges
803 Insulating joints shall be pressure tested at a constant
temperature as follows: 1001 Anchor flanges shall be designed for pressure contain-
ment according to ASME VIII, BS 5500 or equivalent stand-
~ hydrostatic test to 1.50 x design pressure with a holding ards.
time of minimum 2 hours; and 1002 Additional calculations may be required to demon-
~ hydraulic fatigue test consisting of 40 consecutive cycles strate that the requirements of 102 and 103 are met.
with the pressure changed from about lobar to 85% of the
hydrostatic test pressure. At the completion of the test cy- B 1100 Other components
cles the pressure shall be increased to the hydrostatic test
pressure and maintained for 30 minutes. 1101 System components which are not specifically covered
in this subsection shall be demonstrated as fit for purpose as
804 No pressure drops are allowed during hydrostatic test- stated in B 100.
ing, and no leaks are allowed during the tests.
B 1200 Structural items
805 After having passed the pressure tests, the joint shall be
dried with hot air and tested to confirm electrical discontinuity 1201 Structural items such as support and protective struc-
with the joint in the vertical position as follows: tures that are not welded onto pressurised parts are considered
as structural elements. See Section 5G.
~ electrical resistance test, and 1202 Structural items acting as a pressure containing part of
~ dielectric strength test the pipeline system shall meet the requirements for the section
of the pipeline system where they shall be located.
806 The electrical resistance test shall give a resistance of at
least 5 M o h s at 1000 V of applied continuous current. If the 1203 Structural items shall not be welded directly to pressure
joint shows electrical resistance below the required value it containing parts or linepipe. Supports, attachments etc. shall be
shall be dried again and re-tested. One re-test only shall be al- welded to a doubler plate or ring.
lowed. 1204 Girth welds shall not be inaccessible under doubler
807 The dielectric strength test shall be performed by apply- rings, clamps or other parts of supports.
ing an AC sinusoidal current with a frequency of 50 - 60 Hz to 1205 Permanent doubler plates and rings shall be made from
the joint. The current shall be applied gradually, starting from a material satissling the requirements of the pressure contain-
an initial value not exceeding 1.2kV increasing to 2.5kV in a ing parts. Doubler rings shall be made as fully encircling
time not longer than 10 seconds and shall be maintained at sleeves with the longitudinal welds made with backing strips,
peak value for 60 seconds. The test is acceptable if no break- and avoiding penetration into the pressure containing material.
down of the insulation or surface arcing occurs during the test. Other welds shall be continuous, as small as possible, and
made in a manner to minimise the risk of root cracking and la-
B 900 Pipeline fittings mellar tearing.
901 Tees shall be of the extruded outlet, integral reinforce-
ment type. The design shall be according to ASME B31.4,
B3 1.8 or equivalent. Additional calculations may be required
to demonstrate that the requirements of 102 and 103 are met. C. Material and Manufacturing Specifications
902 Bars of barred tees should not be welded directly to the for Components
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

high stress areas around the extrusion neck. It is recommended


that the bars transverse to the flow direction are welded to a C 100 Material and manufacturing specifications
pup piece, and that the bars parallel to the flow direction are 101 All material, manufacture and testing requirements ap-
welded to the transverse bars only. If this is impracticable, al- plicable for a particular component shall be stated in a specifi-
ternative designs should be considered in order to avoid peak cation.
stresses at the ends.
102 The specification shall be based on this standard and
903 Y-pieces and tees where the axis of the outlet is not per- other recognised codes/standards as applicable for the compo-
pendicular to the axis of the run (lateral tees) shall not be de- nent. Where a suitable code/standard is not available, the spec-
signed to ASME B3 1.4 or B3 l .8, as these items require special ification shall define the requirements.
consideration, i.e. design by finite element analysis. Additional
calculations may be required to demonstrate that the require- 103 The specification shall reflect the results of the material
ments of 102 and 103 are met. selection and shall include specific, detailed requirements for
the:
904 The design of hot taps shall ensure that the use of and the
design of the component will result in compliance with API ~ mechanical properties of the materials; and
Recommended Practice 2201, "Procedure for Welding und ~ how such properties will be achieved through require-
Hot Tupping on Equiyment in Service". ments for manufacturing processes, verification through
905 Standard butt welding fittings complying with ANSI tests and supporting documentation.
B16.9, MSS SP-75 or equivalent standards may be used pro- Mechunicul Properties
vided that:
104 The materials shall be specified and tested such that ac-
~ the actual bursting strength of the fitting is demonstrated ceptable weldability under field and contingency conditions is
to exceed that of the adjoining pipe; and ensured and verified.
the fitting is demonstrated to be able to accommodate the
105 The specified mechanical properties of materials and
~

maximum forces that can occur in the pipeline, both under weldments shall be suitable for the specific application and op-
installation and operation and the requirements of 102 and erational requirements of the pipeline system.
103.
106 Suitable allowances for possible degradation of the me-
906 End caps for permanent use shall be designed according chanical properties of a material, e.g. as a result of subsequent
to ASME VIII, BS 5500 or equivalent standards. fabrication activities, should be included in the specification.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page68 - Sec.7

Manufacture and Testing mising macro and micro segregation, and shall be Ca or rare
107 The specification shall state the: earth inclusion shape treated.
109 Requirements for SSC and HIPC testing are given in
type and extent of destructive and non-destructive testing; Appendix B.
test acceptance criteria; and
extent and type of documentation, records and certifica- 110 Plate material shall be 100% ultrasonic tested in accord-
tion which shall be applied for verification of the material ance with Appendix D, subsection F.
properties. 111 Requirements for material properties shall be fulfilled in
the fiial condition, i.e. in the finished components. Materials
108 Where additional requirements beyond those of the ref- for auxiliary items such as guide bars etc. shall be made from
erenced code/standard are needed to achieve the mechanical a material satisfiing the requirements to chemical composi-
properties, these shall also be detailed in the specification. tion, mechanical properties and documentation of pressure
containing parts.
D 200 Components made of low alloy C-Mn steel
D. Material for Hot Formed, Forged and Cast
Components 201 These requirements are applicable to forged, hot formed
and cast components made of low alloyed C-Mn steel with
D 100 General SMYS up to 555 MPa. Use of higher strength materials shall
be subject to agreement.
101 The materials should comply with internationally recog-
nised standards, provided that such standards have acceptable 202 The steel shall be fully killed and made to a fiie grain
equivalence to the requirements given in Section 6 and this melting practice. The material shall be produced by using the:
section. Modification of the chemical composition given in
such standards may be necessary to obtain sufficient weldabil- ~ basic oxygen furnace,
ity, hardenability, strength, ductility, toughness and corrosion ~ electric arc furnace,
resistance. ~ vacuum arc re-melting furnace (VAR), or
~ an electroslag re-melting furnace (ESR) followed by vac-
Sour Service uum degassing.
102 For components in pipeline systems to be used for fluids
containing hydrogen sulphide and defiied as "sourservice" ac- Chemical composition
cording to NACE Standard MRO175 (Sulphide Stress Crack- 203 The chemical composition, taken from the product anal-
ing Resistant Metallic Materials for Oil Field Equipment), all ysis, of material for hot-formed components, castings and
requirements to materials selection, maximum hardness, and forgings, shall not exceed the values given in Table 7-4. The
manufacturing and fabrication procedures given in the latest notes given in Table 7-5 shall apply, except Note 9 and Note
edition of the above standard shall apply. This includes pipe- 10.
lines that are nominally dry (i.e. free from liquid water during
normal operation) if other conditions for sour service accord- 204 The maximum Carbon Equivalent (CE) shall not exceed
ing to the above standard are valid. Further, the additional re- 0.52, when calculated in accordance with:
quirements, modifications and clarifications defiied below
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

shall apply. CE = C + M n / 6 + 1 / 5 ( C r + M o + V ) + 1/15(Cu+Ni) (7.1)


103 Use of materials not listed for sour service in NACE
MR0175 (latest edition) shall be qualified according to the Table 7-4 Chemical composition of materials for hot-formed,
guidelines of this document. As an alternative, the guidelines cast and forged comDonents
for qualification in EFC publications No. 16 and 17 may be
used. The qualification shall include the testing of Sulphide I Element I
Product analysis, maximum weight
%
Stress Cracking (SSC) of base materials and welds as applica- C 0.16
ble. The qualification is only valid for a specific production
Mn 1.60
line andor manufacturer/fabricator.
P 0.015
104 The chemical composition of low alloy steel materials in
components intended for sour service shall comply with 203 I S I 0.010 I
and Table 7-4 with the following limitations: I Si I 0.40 I
Ni 2.00
~ the content of Mn shall be < 1.40%, Cr 2.50
the content of S shall be < 0.003%, and
I I I
~

~ the content of Ni shall be < 1.OO%. Mo 1.10


I Cu I 0.50 I
105 The final chemical composition for sour service is sub- Nb 0.060
ject to agreement. V 0.10
106 The hardness in base materials, welds and HAZ shall be Ti 0.040
in accordance with NACE MRO175 (latest edition). I Al I 0.060 I
Guidance note: N 0.012
It is recommended that the hardness in the base material, weld
metal and HAZ be kept considerably lower than the NACE re-
quirement in order to allow for hardness increase during girth
welding.

107 Components made from rolled plate material shall be


tested for resistance to Hydrogen Induced Pressure Cracking
(HIPC).
108 Plate material shall be manufactured in a manner mini-

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
S e c 7 - Page69

207 The chemical composition shall be agreed prior to start 1000°C. Adequate temperature control shall be performed and
of production. the component shall be allowed to cool in still air.
Mechanical properties 103 For duplex stainless steel material, the hot forming shall
208 Tensile, hardness and Charpy V-notch properties shall be conducted within the temperature range 1000 -1 150°C.
meet the requirements given in Table 6-3 and Table 6-4. E 200 Forging
209 Mechanical testing shall be performed after heat treat- 201 Forging shall be performed in general compliance with
ment. The testing shall be performed in accordance with Ap- ASTM A694. Each forged product shall be hot worked as far
pendix B and F 700. as practicable, to the final size and shape with a minimum re-
210 For materials with a thickness > 40 mm the impact test duction ratio of 4: 1.
temperature and the energy absorption requirements shall be 202 Weld repair of forgings shall not be permitted.
specially considered. Increasing thickness will require lower
test temperatures. Alternatively, higher energy absorption at E300 Casting
the same test temperature should be required. The energy ab-
sorption shall not in any case be lower than required in Table 301 Casting shall be performed in general compliance with
6-3, nor shall impact testing be performed at temperatures ASTM A352.
higher than the minimum design temperature. 302 A casting shall be made from a single heat and as a sin-
211 Requirements for fracture toughness testing of the base gle unit.
material and weld metal shall be considered for material thick- 303 Castings may be repaired by grinding to a depth of max-
ness > 50 mm. The measured fracture toughness should, as a imum 10% of the actual wall thickness, provided that the wall
minimum, be a CTOD value of O. 15 mm at the minimum de- thickness in no place is below the minimum designed wall
sign temperature. thickness. The ground areas shall merge smoothly with the sur-
212 Ductility, also in the thickness direction, shall be ade- rounding material.
quate for the part in question, taking manufacturing and serv- 304 Defects deeper than those allowed by 303 may be re-
ice conditions into consideration. Through thickness tensile paired by welding. The maximum extent of repair welding
testing may be required. should not exceed 20% of the total surface area. Excavations
213 For design temperatures above 50"C, the actual yield for welding shall be ground smooth and uniform and shall be
stress at the maximum design temperature shall comply with suitably shaped to allow good access for welding.
the requirements stated in Section 5B 600. 305 All repair welding shall be performed by qualified weld-
ers and according to qualified welding procedures.
D 300 Components made of ferritic-austenitic (duplex)
steel, other stainless steel and nickel based corrosion E 400 Heat treatment
resistant alloy (CRA) 401 Heat treatment procedures shall be prepared and agreed

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
301 All requirements with regard to chemical composition, prior to start of heat treatment.
mechanical properties and supplementary requirements (when 402 Heat treatment procedures shall as a minimum contain
applicable) for 22Cr and 25Cr duplex stainless steel, austenitic the following information:
and martensitic stainless steel and other CRAs shall be in ac-
cordance with Section 6. heating facilities;
302 For components made of duplex stainless steel, other fumace (if applicable);
stainless steels or nickel based corrosion resistant alloys insulation(if applicable);
( C U ) intended for seawater service, corrosion testing shall be measuring and recording equipment, both for fumace con-
conducted in accordance with Section 6C.308 and Section trol and recording of component temperature;
6C.404 as relevant. calibration intervals;
fixtures and loading conditions;
D 400 Delivery condition heating and cooling rates;
401 Forgings and hot formed components in low alloy steel temperature gradients;
shall be delivered in the normalised or in the quenched and soaking temperature range and time;
tempered condition. maximum time required for moving the component from
the fumace to the quench tank (if applicable),
402 Castings in low alloy steel shall be delivered in the ho- cooling rates (conditions);
mogenised, normalised and stress relieved or in the homoge- type of quenchant (if applicable); and
nised, quenched and tempered condition. start and end maximum temperature of the quenchant (if
403 Duplex steel components shall be delivered in the solu- applicable).
tion annealed and water quenched condition.
403 Components should be rough machined to near final di-
404 For component material delivered in the quenched and mensions prior to heat treatment
tempered condition the tempering temperature shall be suffi-
ciently high to allow effective post weld heat treatment during 404 The fumace temperature shall be controlled to within I
later manufacture / installation. 10°C and thermocouples shall be attached to each component
during the entire heat treatment cycle.
405 For components which are to be water quenched, the
time from removal of components from the oven until they are
E. Hot Forming, Forging, Casting and Heat immersed in the quenchant shall not exceed 90 seconds for C-
Treatment Mn and low alloy steel, and 60 seconds for duplex stainless
steels.
E 100 Hot forming 406 The water shall be heavily agitated, preferably by cross
101 Hot forming shall be performed to the agreed procedure flow to ensure rapid, adequate quenching. The start and end
according to the guidance given in G 500 temperature of the quenching water shall be recorded and shall
102 Hot forming, including extrusion of branches in low al- not exceed 40°C.
loy steel, shall be done within a temperature range of 800 - 407 The heat treatment equipment shall be calibrated at least

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page70 - Sec.7

once a year in order to ensure acceptable temperature stability ~ production process control procedures;
and uniformity. ~ welding procedures;
~ heat treatment procedures;
~ NDT procedures;
pressure test procedures;
F. Manufacturing of Components, Equipment
~

~ list of specified mechanical and corrosion testing;


and Structural Items ~ dimensional control procedures;
marking, coating and protection procedures; and
F 100 General
~

~ handling, loading and shipping procedures.


101 These requirements are applicable for the manufacture
of components, equipment and structural items for use in sub- 114 The MPS shall be subject to agreement.
marine pipelines.
F 200 Manufacture of flanges
102 If there are conflicting requirements between this stand-
ard and the referenced code or standard used for manufacture 201 Flanges shall be manufactured, inspected, tested, and
of components and equipment, the requirements of this stand- documented in accordance with:
ard shall have precedence.
~ recognised practices,
103 Requirements for mechanical and corrosion testing are the referenced design standard, and
given in Appendix B and this section.
~

~ the material and manufacturing specification.


104 Requirements for NDT personnel, NDT equipment,
methods, procedures and acceptance criteria are given in Ap- The specified starting material and the methods and proce-
pendix D. dures agreed and qualified for the manufacture shall be used.
105 Welding procedures, welding personnel, handling of 202 Flanges shall be forged close to the final shape. Machin-
welding consumables shall meet the requirements in Appendix ing of up to 10% of the local wall thickness at the outside of
C. the flange is allowed. Contact faces of flanges shall have a ma-
106 Welding shall be performed in accordance with applica- chined finish with a surface roughness compatible with the
ble requirements of H 600. gaskets to be used.
107 The Contractor shall be capable of producing welded 203 Mechanical testing shall be as given in F 700.
joints meeting the required quality. This may include welding 204 Corrosion testing shall be performed as specified in D
of girth welds, overlay welding and post weld heat treatment of 100 and D 300 as relevant.
the components. Relevant documentation of the Contractor's
capabilities shall be available if requested. 205 Non-destructive testing and acceptance criteria shall be
in accordance with Appendix D.
108 Production tests required during the production shall be
performed in a manner which, as far as possible, reproduces 206 The extent of non-destructive testing shall be:
the actual welding and covers the welding of a sufficient large ~ 100% magnetic particle or dye penetrant testing; and
test piece in the relevant position. Production welds cut out due 100% ultrasonic testing of the first 10 flanges of each size
to NDT failure may be used.
~

and type ordered. If no defects are found, the extent of ul-


109 When production testing is required, the number of tests trasonic testing may be reduced to 10% of each size and
as specified in Appendix C should be made. type. If defects are found in the first 5 flanges or during
110 Components and equipment intended for welded con- testing 10% of the flanges, all flanges of this size and sim-
nections to linepipe shall have dimensional tolerances on di- ilar type are to 100% tested.
ameter and thickness equal to the linepipe, in order to ensure
acceptable alignment for welding. Where welded joints in F 300 Manufacture of valves
quenched and tempered steel are to be post weld heat treated 301 Valves shall be manufactured, inspected, tested, and
(PWHT), the PWHT temperature shall be a minimum of 25°C documented in accordance with:
below the tempering temperature for the base material.
recognised practices,
111 The Manufacturer shall develop a Manufacturing Proce-
~

the requirements of the referenced design standard, and


dure Specification.
~

~ the material and manufacturing specification.


Manufacturing Procedure Specification (MPJ)
112 Before production commences the Manufacturer shall The specified starting materials and the methods and proce-
prepare a MPS. The MPS shall demonstrate how the specified dures agreed and qualified for the manufacture shall be used.
properties may be achieved and verified through the proposed 302 The extent of mechanical (see F 700), non-destructive
manufacturing route. The MPS shall address all factors which and corrosion testing, where required, shall be performed as
influence the quality and reliability of production. All main specified in this section (see D). The types of test and the ac-
manufacturing steps from control of received material to ship- ceptance criteria shall be consistent with the requirements for
ment of the finished product(s), including all examination and the pipeline or pipeline sections where the valve(s) will be
check points, shall be covered in detail. References to the pro- used.
cedures and acceptance criteria established for the execution of
all steps shall be included. 303 Hydrostatic testing shall be performed as required in the
applied design code, except that the holding time shall be min-
113 The MPS shall as a minimum contain the following in- imum 2 hours if a shorter time is allowed by the code.
formation:
304 Valves with requirements for leak tightness shall be leak
~ plan(s) and process flow descriptioddiagram; tested as required in the applied design code (e.g. riser valves,
~ project specific quality plan; maintenance valves and pig trap isolation valves). Considera-
manufacturing processes used; tion shall be given to valve performance at both high and low
differential pressures across the valve.
~

~ supply of material; manufacturer and manufacturing loca-


tion of material; 305 All testing shall be performed to agreed procedures.
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.7 - Page71

F 400 Manufacture of pressure-containing equipment by random selection of components of the same type and
and components fabricated by welding form, from the same heat and heat treatment batch.
401 Pressure-containing equipment such as pig traps, slug All mechanical testing shall be conducted after final heat treat-
catchers, and components fabricated by welding of plates shall ment.
be manufactured, inspected, tested and documented in accord-
ance with: 702 The material thickness and forging reduction for inte-
grated test coupons shall be representative of the actual com-
~ recognised practices, ponent.
~ the requirements of this standard, 703 Separate test coupons should not be used but may be al-
~ the requirements the referenced design standard, and lowed subject to agreement, provided that they are heat treated
~ the material and manufacturing specification. simultaneously with the material they represent, and the mate-
rial thickness, forging reduction, and mass are representative
The specified starting materials and the methods and proce- of the actual component.
dures agreed and qualified for the manufacture shall be used.
704 A simulated heat treatment of the test piece shall be per-
402 Hydrostatic testing shall be performed as required in the formed if welds between the component and other items such
referenced design standard, except that the holding time shall as linepipe are to be post weld heat treated at a later stage or if
be minimum 2 hours if a shorter time is specified by the refer- any other heat treatment is intended.
enced design standard.
705 One component from each lot (i.e. components of the
F 500 Manufacture of other equipment and components same size, type and form from each heat or heat treatment
batch, whichever occurs more frequently) shall be tested as
501 Other components and equipment, such as insulating follows:
joints, mechanical connectors, tees and Y-pieces and other fit-
tings and components fabricated by hot forming of plate, shall ~ two tensile specimens taken from the base material in the
be manufactured inspected, tested and documented in accord- transverse direction at 1/3 thickness;
ance with: ~ two sets of Charpy V-notch specimens taken in the trans-
verse direction at each location 2 mm below the inner and
~ recognised practices, outer surface, and two sets of specimens from the same lo-
the requirements of this standard,
cation as the tensile specimens. The notch shall be perpen-
~

the requirements of the referenced design standard, and


dicular to the component's surface;
~

~ the material and manufacturing specification. ~ metallographic samples taken from the same location as
The specified starting materials and the methods and proce- the Charpy V-notch specimens and at 1/3T, 1/2T and 2/3T.
dures agreed and qualified for the manufacture, shall be used. A minimum of 3 hardness measurements shall be taken on
each sample. The 1/3T and 2/3T specimens shall include
502 Pressure containing components shall be subject to hy- the nearest surface "as is" after the heat treatment (not ma-
drostatic testing unless such testing is impracticable. The test chined).
pressure shall be 1.50 times the design pressure, and the hold-
ing time shall be 2 hours. If the applied design code requires 706 The distance from the edge of the test piece to the near-
higher pressures or a longer holding time, then the more strin- est edge of any specimen shall not be less that 1/3 of the thick-
ness. For welded components, the testing shall also include

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
gent requirements shall apply.
testing of the welds in accordance with Appendix C.
503 The hydrostatic test pressure shall be recorded during
the test using equipment with calibration certificates not older 707 Samples for corrosion testing shall be taken such that the
than one year. No pressure drops or leaks are allowed during surface exposed to the corrosive medium will be tested.
hydrostatic testing. 708 The mechanical properties shall meet the specified re-
504 Insulating joints shall be tested as detailed in B 800. quirements. The reduction of area shall be at least 35%. For
heavy wall components with SMYS > 420 MPa, a higher duc-
505 Qualification testing of sleeve type couplings and tility level should be required.
clamps for the particular pipeline dimensions, dimensional tol-
erances and surface finish shall be performed according to 709 The hardness of the accessible surfaces of the compo-
agreed procedures. nent shall be tested. The testing shall be sufficient to establish
the efficiency of the heat treatment. The hardness for compo-
F 600 Fabrication of structural items nents intended for non-sour service shall not exceed the re-
601 Structural items shall be fabricated, inspected, tested and quirements given in Table 6-3 for C-Mn and low alloy steel
documented in accordance with: and Table 6-6 for duplex steels.
For components intended for sour service the hardness shall be
~ recognised practices, in accordance with Section 6D 100.
~ the requirements of this standard,
~ the requirements of the referenced design standard, and
~ the material and manufacturing specification.
G Manufacture of Bends
The specified materials and the methods and procedures
agreed and qualified for the fabrication shall be used. G100 General
F 700 Mechanical testing of hot formed, cast and forged 101 The Manufacturer shall develop a Manufacturing Proce-
dure Specification.
components
Manufacturing Procedure Specification (MPS)
701 Testing of the mechanical properties of components af-
ter hot forming, casting or forging shall be performed on a test 102 Before production commences the Manufacturer shall
material taken from: prepare an MPS. The MPS shall demonstrate how the specified
properties may be achieved and verified through the proposed
~ a prolongation of the component; manufacturing route. The MPS shall address all factors which
~ an integrated test coupons, that is removed from the com- influence the quality and reliability of production. All main
ponent after final heat treatment; or manufacturing steps from control of received material to ship-

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page72 - Sec.7
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

ment of the finished product(s), including all examination and 108 Bends may be made from spare sections of normal line-
check points, shall be covered in detail. References to the pro- pipe. It should be noted that "normal" linepipe, particularly
cedures and acceptance criteria established for the execution of pipe manufactured from TMCP plate, may not have adequate
all steps shall be included. hardenability to achieve the required mechanical properties af-
103 The MPS shall as a minimum contain the following in- ter hot or induction bending and subsequent post bending heat
formation: treatment.
109 Hot expanded mother pipe may experience dimensional
~ plan(s) and process flow descriptioddiagram; instability after post bending heat treatment.
~ project specific quality plan;
~ bending process used 110 Mother pipe and other pipe for use in bend shall meet all
~ supply of material; manufacturer and manufacturing loca- applicable requirements given in Section 6. Waiving of the
tion of material; mill pressure test according to Section 6E. 1108 is not applica-
~ bending process control procedures; ble.
~ heat treatment procedures; Mechanical properties of mother pipe
~ NDT procedures;
~ list of specified mechanical and corrosion testing; 111 Mother pipe made of C-Mn steels and duplex stainless
~ dimensional control procedures; steels shall, as a minimum, comply with the requirements for
~ marking, coating and protection procedures; and linepipe and the Supplementary Requirements (as applicable)
~ handling, loading and shipping procedures. given in Section 6.
112 Hardness requirements for C-Mn steels and duplex
104 Materials for use in factory-made bends shall be selected stainless steels shall be in accordance with Section 6C.205 and
taking into account the chemical composition and the influ- 306 respectively.
ence of the manufacturing method upon mechanical proper-
ties, dimensions and wall thickness. 113 Chemical composition of motherpipe
105 Induction bending is the preferred method for manufac- 114 The chemical composition of C-Mn steel mother pipe
ture of bends. shall be in accordance with Table 7-5. The chemical composi-
tion for duplex steel mother pipe shall be in accordance with
106 Bends may be made from dedicated straight lengths of Table 6-5 in Section 6.
pipe without girth welds (mother pipe), that are hot, cold or in-
duction bent, or from forgings. Mitre or wrinkle bends are not Metallographic examination of mother pipe in duplex steel
permitted. 115 Metallographic examination of dedicated mother pipe in
107 Mother pipe in C-Mn steels shall be delivered in the nor- duplex stainless steels shall be performed in accordance with
malised, quenched and tempered or TMCP condition. Section 6C.304 and 305, and Appendix B.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.7 - Page73

Table 7-5 C-Mn steel for bends. chemical comDositionl)2, 3,


Element I Product analvsis. maximum weipht %
SMYS 245 290 360 415 450 485 555
c 4) 0.14 0.14 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.17 0.17
Mn 4, 1.35 1.65 1.65 1.75 1.75 1.85 1.85
Si 0.40 0.40 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
P 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020
S 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010
Cu 0.35 0.35 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Ni 0.30 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

Chemical composition applies for wall thicknesses up to 45 mm and shall be subject to agreement for larger wall thicknesses.
When scrap material is being used in steel production, the amount of the following residual elements shall be determined and reported, and the levels shall
not exceed: 0.03% As, 0.01% Sb, 0.02% Sn, 0.01% Pb, 0.01% Bi and 0.005% Ca.
Except for deoxidation elements, other elements than those mentioned in this table shall not be intentionally added if not specifically agreed
For each reduction of 0.01% carbon below the maximum specified value, an increase of 0.05% manganese above the specified maximum values is per-
mitted with a maximum increase of 0.1%.
0.5 -1.0% CI may be used subject to agreement.
A1:N 2 2: 1 (not applicable for titanium killed steels)

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
(Nb+V+Ti)% maxinlum : 0.12% This value may be increased to maximum 0.15% subject to agreement.
Boron (max 30 ppm) may be added subject to agreement.
Mn C r + M o + V , C u + N i
CE = C + - +
6 5 15

Pcm =
Si
c+-+
Mn + C u + C r + E + m+ y+ 5 B
30 20 60 15 10

G 200 Mother pipe for seawater sewice G 500 Required post bending heat treatment
201 For dedicated mother pipe in duplex stainless steels, oth- 501 Post bending heat treatment of induction bends made of
er stainless steels or nickel based corrosion resistant alloys C-Mn steels, duplex stainless steels, other stainless steels (ex-
( C U ) intended for seawater service, corrosion testing shall be cept martensitic) and nickel based corrosion resistant alloys is
conducted in accordance with Section 6 C308 and 404 as rele- required if the test material after bending does not comply with
vant. the requirements to the mother pipe. The heat treatment shall
G 300 Supplementary requirements to mother pipe
be according to an agreed procedure proposed by the bend
Manufacturer. A bending procedure, including post bending
Supplementary requirement, sour service (S) heat treatment, shall be qualified according to G 500.
301 In general all the requirements given in Sec.6 D100 shall 502 Bends made of forged low alloy steels shall be quenched
apply. The chemical composition of pipe for bends shall com- and tempered, or normalised, subsequent to forging.
ply with Table 6-7 and Table 6-8 as relevant.
503 Bends made of martensitic stainless steels shall be heat
302 Subject to agreement the corrosion testing may be per- treated after hot forming and induction bending, according to
formed on the mother pipe. In this case samples representing the steel Manufacturer's recommendation.
the maximum wall thickness of the bend shall be taken from
the mother pipe and heat-treated prior to corrosion testing. The 504 Bends made of cladlined material shall be heat treated
heat treatment of the test samples shall include the heat cy- after hot forming and induction bending, according to the steel
cle(s) the material is exposed to during bending, in addition to Manufacturer's recommendation.
any post bend heat treatment.
505 Bends manufactured by cold bending shall be stress re-
Supplementary requirement, fracture arrest properties (7;) lieved when the total deformation exceeds 3%. For wall thick-
303 Requirements to fracture arrest properties are not appli- nesses less than 25 mm, the total cold deformation may be
cable to bends. increased without requiring subsequent stress relieving subject
to agreement. The total deformation percentage shall be calcu-
G 400 Requirements to pipe other than dedicated lated in percentage by using the following equation:
mother pipe
401 In situations where dedicated mother pipes are not avail- %Deformation = (2' tmax
tmax
) x 100
able for manufacturing of bends, the factors given in G100 and +

G200, especially G108, should be considered in order to select ,,t = Maximum pipe wall thickness
the most appropriate pipe for bend manufacturing. r = Deformation radius

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page74 - Sec.7

G 600 Bending procedure qualification base material tangent length.


601 A bending procedure shall be established and qualified. Charpy V-notch impact testing:
Essential variables for the allowable variation of bending pa-
rameters shall be established. base material in the arc inner radius longitudinal and trans-
Guidance note: verse (total 2 sets),
Cold forming procedures may contain information concerning: base material in the arc outer radius longitudinal and trans-
- description and sequence of operations; verse (total 2 sets),
- equipment to be used;
base material in the start transition area inner radius longi-
- material designation; tudinal and transverse (total 2 sets),
- pipe diameter, wall thickness and bend radius; base material in the start transition area outer radius longi-
- initialhccessive degrees of deformation; tudinal and transverse (total 2 sets), and
- position of the longitudinal seam; base material tangent length.
- methods for avoiding local thinning, wrinkling and ovality;
- post bending heat treatment; For bends made from pipe with outside diameter less than 300
- hydrostatic testing procedure; mm testing is required in the longitudinal direction only.
- non-destructive testing procedures; and
- dimensional control procedures. Macro, micro and hardness testing:
Hot forming procedures may include information concerning: One full wall macro section, taken parallel to the longitu-
- sequence of operations; dinal axis of the bend, shall be removed from the inner and
- sequence of operations; outer radii and from the stop and start transition areas and
- heating equipment; from the base material tangent length (total 5 samples);
- material designation; For duplex steel, other stainless steels and nickel based
- pipe diameter, wall thickness and bend radius; corrosion resistant alloys the specified macro sections
- heatingkooling rates; shall be substituted by micro section in order to conduct
- madmin. temperature during forming operation;
- temperature maintenance/control;
full metallographic examination;
- recording equipment; Hardness testing shall be performed on the macro and mi-
- position of the longitudinal seam; cro sections according to Appendix B;
- methods for avoiding local thinning, wrinkling and ovality; Hardness testing shall be performed on the external sur-
- post bending heat treatment (duplex: full solution annealing); face of the completed bend. The testing shall be performed
- hydrostatic testing procedure; with a minimum of 8 measurements around the bend cir-
- non-destructive testing procedures; cumference in the tangent lengths, start and stop transition
- dimensional control procedures. areas and in the middle of the arc section.
Induction bending procedures may contain information concern-
ing: Bends from weldedpiye
- the sequence of operations; 605 For bends manufactured from welded pipes the follow-
- equipment to be used; ing testing shall be performed in addition to the testing speci-
- material designation; fied in 604:
- pipe diameter, wall thickness and bend radius;
- position of weld seam; Tensile testing:
- induction bending temperature; Cross weld tensile testing shall be performed in the arc area,
- bending speed; stop and start transition areas and in the tangent length.
- cooling technique (medium, pressure, location and number of
nozzles etc.); Charpy V-notch impact testing:
- post bending heat treatment;
- hydrostatic testing procedure; ~ Weld metal, FL, FL + 2 mm and FL + 5 mm in the arc (4
- non-destructive testing procedures; and sets),
- dimensional control procedures. ~ Weld metal in the start transition area (1 set),
Weld metal in the stop transition area (1 set).

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
~

602 The bending procedure shall be qualified by mechanical Macro, micro and hardness testing:
and non-destructive testing, visual inspection and dimensional ~ Two full wall macro sections of the weld, taken parallel to
control. If agreed the qualification of the bending procedure the longitudinal axis of the bend, shall be removed from
may be attempted without post bending heat treatment for C- the stop and start transition areas (total 2 samples);
Mn steels, duplex stainless steels, other stainless steels (except ~ For duplex steel, other stainless steels and nickel based
martensitic) and nickel based corrosion resistant alloys. corrosion resistant alloys the specified macro sections
603 Testing for qualification of the bending procedure shall shall be substituted by micro section of the weld in order
include the testing as required in 604 to 610. to conduct full metallographic examination.
Bends from seamless pipe Applicable to all bends
604 For bends manufactured from seamless pipes the extent 606 Tensile test specimens shall be taken from the middle of
of tensile and Charpy V-notch impact testing shall be as fol- the material thickness. Charpy V-notch impact test specimens
lows: shall be taken 2 mm below the inner surface and macro/micro
Tensile testing: specimens shall represent the full material thickness.
base material in the arc inner radius longitudinal and trans- 607 For bends where the stop and start transition zones and
verse (total 2 specimens), the tangent length are not retained in the delivered bend, me-
base material in the arc outer radius longitudinal and trans- chanical testing in these areas is not required.
verse (total 2 specimens), 608 The requirements for tensile Charpy V-notch and hard-
base material in the start transition area inner radius longi- ness testing shall be in accordance with Section 6 Table 6-3
tudinal and transverse (total 2 specimens), and Table 6-4 for C-Mn steels, and Table 6-6 for duplex steels.
base material in the start transition area outer radius longi- For duplex steel, other stainless steels and nickel based corro-
tudinal and transverse (total 2 specimens), and sion resistant alloys the metallography shall meet the require-

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKI
E VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.7 - Page75

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

ments given in Section 6C.305. bend and at both neutral axis as far as access permits. The hard-
609 For supplementary requirement S, the required testing ness for bends intended for non-sour service shall not exceed
shall be performed in accordance with Section 6. the requirements given in Section 6 Table 6-3 for C-Mn and
low alloy steel and Table 6-6 for duplex steels.
610 If the test results do not meet the specified requirements
to mother pipe, the bending procedure shall be re-qualified in- 810 After end preparation the complete end preparation and
cluding a full post bending heat treatment. 1OOmm of the weld seam withmagnetic particles for ferromag-
netic pipe or with liquid penetrant for non-magnetic pipe.
G 700 Bending and post bend heat treatment 811 Final NDT, including dimensional check, shall be per-
701 Before bending the wall thickness shall be measured on formed after post bending heat treatment.
each length of pipe.
G 900 Production testing of bends
702 If the bending operation is interrupted during hot or in-
duction bending, the bend subject to interruption shall be re- 901 During production, one bend of the heaviest wall thick-
jected. ness for each diameter produced within each lot shall be sub-
ject to mechanical testing.
703 The longitudinal weld of welded pipe shall be in the neu-
tral axis during bending. 902 Testing of induction bent bends may be performed pro-
longations of the pipe that have been subject to the same tem-
704 Bending shall be performed in accordance with qualified perature cycle(s) as the bent areas of pipe.
procedures and established essential variables. The tempera-
ture during induction and hot bending shall be controlled with- 903 Testing of the start transition areas are not required for
in I 15°C using an optical pyrometer. The temperature data bends that have been given a full heat treatment restoring the
shall be recorded for each bend. The bending equipment shall microstructure.
be calibrated at least once a year in order to ensure acceptable 904 For bends made from pipe with outside diameter less
temperature stability and uniformity. than 300 mm testing is required in the longitudinal direction
705 Post bend heat treatment shall be performed according only.
to E 400. Bends from seamless piye
706 A minimum of one thermocouple shall be attached to a 905 For bends manufactured from seamless pipes the extent
minimum of one bend per heat treatment batch. For compo- of mechanical testing shall be as follows:
nents to be quenched and tempered (Q/T), the temperature of
the quenching medium shall be recorded during the quenching Tensile testing:
operation. ~ Base material in the arc outer radius longitudinal and
G 800 Non-destructive testing and visual inspection transverse (total 2 specimens)
~ Base material in the start transition area outer radius lon-
801 Requirements for NDT personnel, NDT equipment, gitudinal and transverse (total 2 specimens) unless 903 is
methods, procedures and acceptance criteria are given in Ap- applicable.
pendix D.
802 Bends shall be blast cleaned to IS0 8501, SA21/2 to re- Charpy V-notch impact testing:
move scale from the bend area prior to visual inspection and
non-destructive testing ~ Base material in the arc outer radius longitudinal and
transverse (total 2 sets)
803 Provided that the material has been 100% ultrasonic ~ Base material in the start transition area outer radius lon-
tested for laminar imperfections as plate or pipe, the following gitudinal and transverse (total 2 sets) unless 903 is appli-
testing shall be performed on each bend: cable.
804 100% visual examination of external and accessible
parts of internal surfaces. The bends shall be free from gouges, Macro, micro and hardness testing:
dents, grooves, wrinkles, bulges, kinks and surface spalling. One full wall macro section, taken parallel to the longitu-
Cracks are not permitted.
~

dinal axis of the bend, shall be removed from the inner and
805 Minor buckles in the bend inside radius profile will be outer radii and from start transition area (unless 603 is ap-
acceptable if the height and depth of the buckle does not ex- plicable)
ceed 1% of the nominal internal diameter and the length to ~ For duplex steel, other stainless steels and nickel based
depth ratio is greater than 12:1. The distance between accepta- corrosion resistant alloys the specified macro sections
ble minor buckles in the bend inside radius profile shall be shall be substituted by micro section in order to conduct
greater than one nominal internal diameter. full metallographic examination.
806 100% radiographic or ultrasonic testing of the weld in ~ Hardness testing shall be performed on the macro and mi-
the arc and transition zones + the end 250 mm of the tangent if cro sections according to Appendix B.
not tested on the mother pipe prior to bending.
Bends from weldedpipe
807 100% magnetic particle testing over an arc of 90" both
sides of the extrados for ferromagnetic pipe, or 100% testing 906 For bends manufactured from welded nines the follow-
with liquid penetrant + 100% ultrasonic testing over the same ing testing shall be performed in addition to ih'e testing speci-
area for non-ferromagnetic pipe, in order to ver@ freedom fied in 905:
from transverse defects. Tensile testing:
808 Ultrasonic wall thickness measurements taken around
the circumference at the inside and outside radius of the bend ~ Cross weld tensile testing in the arc area (one specimen)
and at both neutral axes at a spacing of 150 mm along the entire ~ Cross weld tensile testing in the start transition area (one
length of the bend. The wall thickness shall not be below the specimen) unless 903 is applicable
specified minimum at any of these locations.
Charpy V-notch impact testing:
809 The hardness of the exterior surface of the bend shall be
tested at the locations given in 808. The hardness of the interior Weld metal, FL, FL + 2 mm and FL + 5 mm in the arc (4
surface shall be tested at the inside and outside radius of the sets)

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page76 - Sec.7

Weld metal in the start transition area (1 set) unless 903 is H. Fabrication of Risers, Expansion Loops, Pipe
applicable. Strings for Reeling and Towing
Macro, micro and hardness testing: H100 General
~ One full wall transverse macro section of the weld, shall 101 The following requirements are applicable for the fabri-
be removed from the bend area and one from the start tran- cation of risers, expansion loops, pipe strings etc. in C-Mn, du-
sition area (unless 903 is applicable). plex stainless, and clad/lined steel.
~ For duplex steel, other stainless steels and nickel based 102 The fabrication shall be performed according to a speci-
corrosion resistant alloys the specified macro sections fication giving the requirements for fabrication methods, pro-
shall be substituted by micro section of the weld in order cedures, the extent of testing, acceptance criteria and required
to conduct full metallographic examination. documentation. The specification shall be subject to agreement
prior to start of production.
Applicable to all bends
H 200 Quality Assurance
907 Tensile test specimens shall be taken from the middle of
the material thickness. Charpy V-notch impact test specimens 201 Requirements to Quality Assurance given in Section 2B
shall be taken 2 mm below the inner surface and macro speci- 500 shall be applied.
mens shall represent the full material thickness.
H 300 Materials for risers, expansion loops, pipe strings
908 For bends where the transition zones and the tangent for reeling and towing
length are not retained in the delivered bend, mechanical test-
Piye material
ing in these areas is not required.
301 Pipe made of C-Mn steels and duplex stainless steels
909 The requirements for tensile, Charpy V-notch and hard- shall, as a minimum, comply with the requirements for line-
ness testing shall be in accordance with Section 6 Table 6-3 for pipe, including supplementary requirements (as applicable)
C-Mn steels, and Table 6-4 for duplex steels. For duplex steel, given in Section 6.
other stainless steels and nickel based corrosion resistant al-
loys the metallography shall meet the requirements given in 302 In addition, pipe used in pipe strings for reeling shall, as
Section 6C.304. a minimum, comply with supplementary requirement P given
in Section 6.
G 1000 Dimensions, tolerances and marking 303 Use of higher strength material shall be subject to agree-
1001 Dimensions and tolerances at bend ends shall be com- ment.
patible with the adjoining pipe. Use of straight tangent lengths Guidance note:
equal to one diameter is recommended. Ovality of cross sec- For steel with S M Y S > 485 m a , it may be necessary to conduct
tions shall be kept within the specified tolerances, and the bend Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) of the weld zone in order to
radius shall be large enough (e.g. 5 x outer diameter) to allow achieve the required hardness level and mechanical properties.
passage of inspection vehicles when relevant.
1002 Dimensional control shall include: . .
Forged and cast material
ID at bend ends; 304 Forged and cast material shall as a minimum meet the re-
OD for bend body at inner and outer radii and both neutral quirements given in D of this section.
axis;
passing of gauge consisting of two aluminium plates of di- H 400 Fabrication procedures and planning
ameter 96% of nominal ID and fixed rigidly at a distance 401 Before production commences, the fabricator shall pre-
of 1.5 x ID; pare a Manufacturing Procedure Specification.
out-of-roundness of bend ends: maximum 1.5% and of Manufacturing Procedure Specification (MPS)
body maximum 3%;
402 The MPS shall demonstrate how the fabrication will be
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
outer bend radius, measured as the deviation from the
specified radius to (the bend centre line + 1/2 OD) I 1%, performed and verified through the proposed Fabrication
max 25 mm; steps. The MPS shall address all factors which influence the
the radius of bend curvature within I 1% max I 12.7 mm; quality and reliability of production. All main fabrication steps
the included angle between the centrelines if the straight from control of received material to shipment of the fiiished
portions of the bend within I0.75"; product(s), including all examination and check points, shall
be covered in detail. References to the procedures and accept-
lineadplane straightness: the specified bend angle divided ance criteria established for the execution of all steps shall be
by 90" x 10 mm, max 10 mm; included.
location of weld seam; and
end squareness angle within I 0.5", maximum 3 mm. 403 The MPS shall contain the following information:
~ plan(s) and process flow descriptionkhagrarn;
1003 Bends shall be marked as required in Section 6F 100. ~ project specific quality plan;
G 1100 Repair ~ fabrication processes used;
~ supply of material, i.e. manufacturer and manufacturing
1101 Welding repair of the bend base material is not permit- location of material;
ted. ~ fabrication process control procedures;
welding procedures;
1102 Any welding repair of longitudinal weld seams shall be
~

heat treatment procedures;


performed before final heat treatment and according to a qual-
~

NDT procedures;
ified welding procedure and shall be subject to the NDT re-
~

quired in Section 6. ~ pressure test procedures;


~ list of specified mechanical and corrosion testing;
1103 Repair of surface notches, gouges and similar by grind- ~ dimensional control procedures;
ing shall be subject to agreement. The grinding shall not reduce ~ marking, coating and protection procedures; and
the wall thickness below the specified minimum. ~ handling, loading and shipping procedures.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.7 - Page77

404 The MPS shall be subject to agreement. cedures, welding consumables, welding personnel, handling of
405 Due consideration shall be given to the access and time welding consumables and fabrication shall meet the require-
required for adequate inspection and testing as fabrication pro- ments of Appendix C.
ceeds. H 700 Hydrostatic testing
406 During fabrication of pipe strings for reeling and towing, 701 Hydrostatic testing shall be performed if specified.
the sequence of pipes included in the pipe string should be con-
trolled such that variations in stiffness on both sides of welds 702 The extent of the section to be tested shall be shown on
are minimised. This may be achieved by matching as closely drawings or sketches. The limits of the test, temporary blind
as possible the wall thickness / diameter of the pipes on both flanges, end closures and the location and elevation of test in-
sides of the weld. struments and equipment shall be shown. The elevation of the
test instruments shall serve as a reference for the test pressure.
407 Due consideration during fabrication shall be given to
the control of weight and buoyancy distribution of pipe strings 703 End closures and other temporary testing equipment
for towing. shall be designed, fabricated, and tested to withstand the max-
imum test pressure, and in accordance with a recognised code.
408 The procedures prepared by the fabricator shall be sub-
ject to agreement. 704 Testing should not be performed against in-line valves,
unless possible leakage and damage to the valve is considered,
H 500 Material receipt, identification and tracking and the valve is designed and tested for the pressure test con-
501 All material shall be inspected for damage upon arrival. dition. Blocking off or removal of small-bore branches and in-
Quantities and identification of the material shall be verified. strument tappings should be considered in order to avoid
Damaged items shall be clearly marked, segregated and dis- possible contamination. Considerations shall be given to pre-
posed of properly. filling valve body cavities with an inert liquid unless the valves
have provisions for pressure equalisation across the valve
502 Pipes shall be inspected for loose material, debris, and seats. All valves shall be fully open during filling.
other contamination, and shall be cleaned internally before be-
ing added to the assembly. The cleaning method shall not 705 Welds shall not be coated, painted or covered. Thin
cause damage to any internal coating. primer coatings may be used where agreed.
503 A system for ensuring correct installation of materials 706 Instruments and test equipment used for measurement of

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
and their traceability to the material certificates shall be estab- pressure, volume, and temperature shall be calibrated for accu-
lished. The identification of material shall be preserved during racy, repeatability, and sensitivity. All instruments and test
handling, storage and all fabrication activities. equipment shall possess valid calibration certificates with
traceability to reference standards within the 6 months preced-
504 A pipe tracking system shall be used to maintain records ing the test. If the instruments and test equipment have been in
of weld numbers, NDT, pipe numbers, pipe lengths, bends, cu- frequent use, they should be calibrated specifically for the test.
mulative length, anode installation, in-line assemblies and re-
pair numbers. The system shall be capable of detecting 707 Gauges and recorders shall be checked for correct fùnc-
duplicate records. tion immediately before each test. All test equipment shall be
located in a safe position outside the test boundary area.
505 The individual pipes of pipe strings shall be marked in
accordance with the established pipe tracking system using a 708 The following requirements apply for instruments and
suitable marine paint. The location, size and colour of the test equipment:
marking shall be suitable for reading by ROV during installa-
tion. It may be required to mark a band on top of the pipe string Testers shall have a range of minimum 1.25 times the
to ver@ if any rotation has occurred during installation. specified test pressure, with an accuracy better than I O. 1
bar and a sensitivity better than 0.05 bar.
506 If damaged pipes or other items are replaced, the se- ~ Temperature-measuring instruments and recorders shall
quential marking shall be maintained. have an accuracy better than I 1.0"C.
~ Pressure and temperature recorders are to be used to pro-
H 600 Cutting, forming, assembly, welding and heat vide a graphical record of the pressure test for the total du-
treatment ration of the test.
601 The Contractor shall be capable of producing welded
joints of the required quality. This may include welding of 709 Calculations showing the effect of temperature changes
girth welds, other welds, overlay welding and post weld heat on the test pressure shall be developed and accepted prior to
treatment. Relevant documentation of the Contractor's capabil- starting the test. Temperature measuring devices, if used, shall
ities shall be available if requested by the Purchaser. be positioned close to the pipeline and the distance between the
devices shall be based on temperature gradients along the pipe-
602 Attention shall be paid to local effects on material prop- line route.
erties and carbon contamination by thermal cutting. Preheating
of the area to be cut may be required. Carbon contamination 710 The test medium should be fresh water or inhibited sea
shall be removed by grinding off the affected material. water.
603 Forming of material shall be according to agreed proce- 711 During pressurisation the pressure shall be increased at
dures speciSling the successive steps. a steady rate up to 95% of the test pressure. The last 5% up to
604 The fabrication and welding sequence shall be such that the test pressure shall be raised by a linear diminishing rate
the amount of shrinkage, distortion and residual stress is mini- down to 0.5 bar per minute. Time shall be allowed for confi-
mised. mation of temperature and pressure stabilisation before the test
hold period begins.
605 Members to be welded shall be brought into correct
alignment and held in position by clamps, other suitable devic- 712 The test pressure requirement for system pressure tests
is given in Section 5D.204.
es, or tack welds, until welding has progressed to a stage where
the holding devices or tack welds can be removed without dan- 713 The holding time at test pressure shall be 6 hours.
ger of distortion, shrinkage or cracking. Suitable allowances 714 The pressure shall be recorded during pressurisation,
shall be made for distortion and shrinkage where appropriate. stabilisation and hold periods. Temperatures and pressure shall
606 Welding procedures shall be qualified and welding pro- be recorded at least every 10 minutes during the hold period.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page78 - Sec.7

715 During testing, all welds, flanges, mechanical connec- to establish conformance with the required dimensions and tol-
tors etc. under pressure shall be visually inspected for leaks. erances.
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

716 The pressure test shall be acceptable if there are no ob- 902 Dimensional verification of pipe strings for towing shall
served leaks or pressure drop. A pressure variation up to include weight, and the distribution of weight and buoyancy.
I 1.0% of the test pressure is normally acceptable provided
that the total variation can be demonstrated as caused by tem- H 1000 Corrosion protection
perature fluctuations, or otherwise accounted for. If greater
pressure variations are observed, the holding period shall be Application of coatings and installation of anodes shall meet
extended until a hold period with acceptable pressure varia- the requirements of Section 8.
tions has occurred.
717 Documentation produced in connection with the pres-
sure testing of the pipeline system shall include: I. Documentation, Records, Certification and
Test drawings or sketches, Marking
pressure and temperature recorder charts,
log of pressure and temperatures, I 100 Documentation, records, certification and mark-
calibration certificates for instruments and test equipment,
and 101 All base material, fittings and, flanges, etc. shall be de-
calculation of Pressure and temperature relationship and livered with Inspection Certificate 3.1.B according to Europe-
justification for acceptance. an Standard EN 10204 or accepted equivalent.
H 800 Non-destructive testing and visual examination 102 The inspection certificate shall include:
801 All welds shall be subject to: ~ identification the products covered by the certificate with
~ 100% visual inspection; and reference to heat number, heat treatment batch etc.;
~ 100% radiographic or ultrasonic testing, (automated ultra- ~ dimensions and weights of products;
sonic testing should be preferred for girth welds). ~ the results (or reference to the results) of all specified in-
spections and tests; and
802 Guidance on applicable and preferred NDT methods is ~ the supply condition and the temperature of the fiial heat
given in Appendix D, A 400. treatment.
803 Requirements to automated ultrasonic testing of girth
welds are given in Appendix E. 103 Each equipment or component item shall be adequately
and uniquely marked for identification. The marking shall, as
804 If allowable defect sizes are based on an ECA, ultrasonic a minimum, provide correlation of the product with the related
testing, preferably automated ultrasonic testing is required. inspection documentation.
805 All NDT shall be performed after completion of all cold
forming, heat treatment and hydrostatic testing. 104 The marking shall be such that it easily will be identi-
fied, and retained during the subsequent activities.
806 Requirements for personnel, methods, equipment, pro-
cedures, and acceptance criteria, for NDT are given in Appen- 105 Other markings required for identification may be re-
dix D. quired.
106 Equipment and components shall be adequately protect-
H 900 Dimensional verification ed from harmfùl deterioration from the time of manufacture
901 Dimensional verification should be performed in order until taken into use.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.8 - Page79

SECTION 8
CORROSION PROTECTION AND WEIGHT COATING

A. General pipe axis is more typical. Stress corrosion cracking is another


form of damage. Uniform corrosion and corrosion grooving may
A 100 Objective interact with internal pressure or external operational loads, caus-
ing rupture by plastic collapse or brittle fracture. Discrete pitting
101 This section aims to give general guidance on: attacks are more likely to cause a pinhole leakage once the full
pipe wall has been penetrated.
~ conceptual and detailed design of corrosion protective sys-
tems,
~ design and manufacturing of concrete weight coatings, 102 For riser sections in the atmospheric zone, external cor-
and on rosion shall normally be controlled by a proper paint coating
~ quality control during manufacturing/fabrication of sys- with surface preparation and coating application according to
tems for corrosion protection. a recognised standard (see D). Certain corrosion resistant al-
loys may not need any such coating.
102 For quantitative design parameters and functional re-
quirements, reference is made to relevant standards and guide- 103 For riser sections in the splash zone, a thick film coating
lines, including DNV RP B401 for cathodic protection, and (A.302) shall normally be applied (see D). In addition, a corro-
DNV RP-F106 for factory applied linepipe coatings. sion allowance may be required for external corrosion control
of C-Mn steel above LAT where cathodic protection is not ef-
A 200 Application ficient (see D.107 and Section 5B 700). External cladding/lin-
201 This section covers external and internal corrosion pro- ing with corrosion resistant alloy may also be used.
tection of pipelines and risers. Concrete coatings for anti- 104 For pipelines and for riser sections in the submerged
buoyancy are also addressed. Onshore sections at any landfall zone, external corrosion protection shall normally be achieved
of pipelines are, however, not included. by a thick film coating (see C and D respectively) in combina-
202 Linepipe materials selection associated with corrosion tion with cathodic protection. Requirements and guidelines for
control is covered in Section 5. Requirements and guidance on concrete weight coating and for cathodic protection are given
inspection and monitoring associated with corrosion control in F and G respectively.
are found in Section 10. 105 For risers contained in J-tubes, conductors, tunnels and
equivalent, the annulus should be filled with non-corrosive flu-
A 300 Definitions id and sealed at both ends. Provisions for monitoring of annu-
301 The term corrosion control as used in this section in- lus fluid corrosivity should be considered.
cludes all relevant measures for corrosion protection, as well 106 For internal corrosion protection, various techniques
as the inspection and monitoring of corrosion (see Section 10). may be applied alone or in combination as detailed in I.
Corrosion protection includes use of corrosion resistant mate-
rials, corrosion allowance (see Section 5B 700) and various B 200 Evaluation of options for corrosion control
techniques for corrosion mitigation.
201 Pipeline systems may be exposed to a corrosive environ-
302 Linepipe (external) coating refers to factory applied ment both internally and externally. Options for corrosion pro-
coating systems (mostly multiple-layer, with a total thickness tection include use of corrosion resistant linepipe, corrosion
of some millimetres) with a corrosion protection function, ei- protective coatings and cladding/linings, cathodic protection
ther alone or in combination with a thermal insulation func- (externally), and chemical treatment or processing (internally).
tion. Some coating systems may further include an outer layer
for mechanical protection, primarily during laying and any 202 For C-Mn steel pipeline systems, a corrosion allowance
rock dumping or trenching operations. Concrete coating for (see Section 5B 700) may be applied either alone or in addition
anti-buoyancy (weight coating) is, however, not covered by to some system for corrosion mitigation. A corrosion allow-
the term linepipe coating. ance may serve to compensate for internal andor external cor-
rosion.
303 Field joint coatings refers to single or multiple layers of
coating applied to protect girth welds, irrespective of whether 203 Options for corrosion control should be evaluated aim-
such coating is actually applied in the field or in a factory (e.g. ing for the most cost-effective solution meeting the overall re-
pipelines for reel laying and prefabricated risers). quirements of safety and environmental regulations.
Guidance note:
304 For definition of corrosion zones, including splash zone,
atmospheric zone and submerged zone, see D 100. In particular for internal corrosion, selection of the most cost-ef-
fective strategy for corrosion control requires that all major costs
associated with operation of the pipeline system, as well as in-
vestment costs for corrosion control, are evaluated ("Life Cycle
Cost Analysis"). When fluid corrosivity and efficiency of corro-
B. General Principles for Corrosion Control sion mitigation cannot be assessed with any high degree of accu-
During Design racy, a "risk cost" may be added for a specific option being
evaluated. The risk cost is the product of estimated probability
B 100 General and consequences (expressed in monetary units) of a particular
failure mode (e.g. rupture or pinhole leakage). The probability of
101 All components of a pipeline system shall have adequate such failures should reflect the designer's confidence in estimat-
corrosion protection to avoid failures caused or initiated by ing the fluid corrosivity and the efficiency of options for corro-
corrosion, both externally and internally. sion control being evaluated. Depending on the failure mode,
consequences of failure may include costs associated with in-
Guidance note: creased maintenance, repairs, lost capacity and secondary dam-
Any corrosion damage may take the form of a more or less uni- age to life, environment and other investments.
form reduction of pipe wall thickness, but scattered pitting and
grooving corrosion oriented longitudinallyor transversally to the
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page80 - Sec.8

C. Pipeline External Coatings ~ coating application,


~ inspection and testing,
C 100 General ~ coating repairs, and
101 The linepipe (external) coating system shall be selected ~ handling and storage of coated pipes.
based on consideration of the following major items: 203 A quality plan shall be prepared and submitted to Pur-
corrosion-protective (i.e. insulating) properties dictated chaser for acceptance. The quality plan shall define methods,
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

by permeability for water, dissolved gases and salts, adhe- frequency of inspection, testing and calibrations, and accept-
sion, freedom from pores, etc; ance criteria. Reference shall be made to applicable specifica-
resistance to physical, chemical and biological degrada- tions and procedures for inspection, testing and calibrations.
tion, primarily in service but also during storage prior to Handling of non-conforming coating materials and products
installation (operating temperature range and design life shall be described.
are decisive parameters);
requirements for mechanical properties during installation
and operation;
compatibility with fabrication and installation procedures, D. Special Riser Coatings
including field joint coating (see E 100) and field repairs;
D 100 General
compatibility with concrete weight coating (see F loo), if
applicable; 101 Adverse corrosive conditions occur in the zone above
compatibility with cathodic protection, and capability of lowest astronomical tide (LAT) where the riser is intermittent-
reducing current demand for cathodic protection (see G ly wetted by waves, tide and sea spray (splash zone). Particu-
loo), if applicable; larly severe corrosive conditions apply to risers heated by an
requirement for thermal insulation properties, if applica- internal fluid. In the splash zone, the riser coating may be ex-
ble; and posed to mechanical damage by surface vessels and marine op-
environmental compatibility and health hazards during erations, whilst there is limited accessibility for inspection and
coating application, fabricatiodinstallation and operation. maintenance.
102 Pipeline components shall have external coatings prefer- 102 The riser section in the atmospheric zone (i.e. above the
ably matching the properties of those to be used for linepipe. If splash zone) is more shielded from both severe weathering and
this is not practical, cathodic protection design may compen- mechanical damage. Furthermore, there is better accessibility
sate for inferior properties. However, risks associated with hy- for inspection and maintenance.
drogen induced cracking by cathodic protection shall be duly 103 In the submerged zone and in the splash zone below the
considered (see Section 5B.507). lowest astronomical tide (LAT), an adequately designed ca-
103 Coating properties (functional requirements) which ap- thodic protection system is capable of preventing corrosion at
ply for the coated pipes shall be defined in a purchase specifi- any damaged areas of the riser coating. In the tidal zone, ca-
cation. The following properties may be specified as thodic protection will be marginally effective.
applicable: 104 For a specific riser, the division into corrosion protection
maximum and minimum thickness, zones is dependent on the particular riser or platform design
density, and the prevailing environmental conditions. The upper and
adhesion, lower limits of the splash zone may be determined according
to the definitions in Section 1.
tensile properties,
impact resistance, 105 Different coating systems may be applied in the three
cathodic disbondment resistance, corrosion protection zones defined above, provided they are
flexibility, compatible. The considerations according to a), b), c), I), g)
thermal resistance or conductivity, and h) in C. 101 above apply for all of the three zones.
abrasion resistance Guidance note:
electrical resistance, and Fastening devices for risers are normally selected to be compati-
resistance to hydrostatic pressure ble with a specific riser coating rather than vice versa.
cutbacks.
Project specific requirements to quality control shall be de-
scribed. 106 The following additional considerations apply in the
splash and atmospheric zones:
104 DNV RP-F106 gives detailed requirements and recom-
mendations to manufacturing of linepipe coatings, including ~ resistance to under-rusting at coating defects,
inspection and testing associated with quality control. ~ maintainability,
~ compatibility with inspection procedures for internal a n d
C 200 Coating materials, surface preparation and appli- or external corrosion,
cation ~ compatibility with equipment/procedures for removal of
201 The coating Manufacturer shall be capable of document- biofouling (if applicable), and
ing their ability to produce coatings meeting specified proper- ~ fire protection (if required).
ties. A coating manufacturing qualification should be executed
and accepted by Purchaser before starting the coating work, es- 107 Use of a corrosion allowance to compensate for external
pecially for novel products where there is limited experience corrosion due to coating damage shall be duly considered in
from manufacturing. the splash zone (see B. 103 and O). The needs for, and benefits
of, a corrosion allowance depend on the type of coating, corro-
202 All coating work shall be carried out according to a qual- sive conditions, design life, consequences of damage and ac-
ified manufacturing procedure specification. The following cessibility for inspection and maintenance.
items shall be described in the coating manufacturing proce-
dure specification: 108 In the submerged zone, the considerations for selection
of coating in C. 101 apply. In addition, resistance to biofouling
~ coating materials, is relevant in surface waters of the submerged zone and the
~ surface preparation, lowermost section of the splash zone.

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.8 - Page81

109 Mechanical and physical coating properties listed in ~ coatingh-fill materials,


C. 103 are also relevant for riser coatings, dependent on the par- ~ surface preparation,
ticular corrosion protection zone. The applicable requirements ~ coating application,
to properties for each coating system and for quality control ~ in-fill application (if relevant),
shall be defined in a purchase specification. ~ inspection, and
110 External cladding with certain Cu-base alloys may be ~ coatingh-fill repairs (if relevant).
used for combined corrosion protection and anti-fouling, pri-
marily in the transition of the splash zone and the submerged 203 Areas to be coated are normally prepared by grinding or
zone (see B. 103). However, metallic materials with anti-foul- brushing to minimum St 2 according to IS0 8501-1. For cer-
ing properties must be electrically insulated from the cathodic tain coating systems, blast cleaning to Sa 2.5 is required.
protection system to be effective. Multiple-layer paint coatings
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

204 The coating manufacturing procedure shall describe vis-


and thermally sprayed aluminium coatings are applicable to ual examination and non-destructive examination of field joint
the atmospheric and submerged zones, and in the splash zone coatings. When such examination is not practical, relevant pa-
if functional requirements and local conditions permit (see rameters affecting coating quality shall be monitored.
106).
D 200 Coating materials, surface preparation and appli-
cation F. Concrete Weight Coating
201 Riser coatings may be applied after fabrication welding,
and in the atmospheric zone, after installation. F 100 General
202 All coating work shall be carried out according to a qual- 101 The objectives of a concrete weight coating are to pro-
ified procedure. The coating manufacturing procedure specifi- vide negative buoyancy to the pipeline, and to provide me-
cation shall give requirements for handling, storage, marking chanical protection of the corrosion coating during installation
and inspection of coating materials. and throughout the pipeline's operational life.
203 Regarding requirements for qualification of coating 102 Requirements to raw materials (cement, aggregates, wa-
manufacturing, coating manufacturing procedure specification ter, additives, reinforcement), and coating properties (func-
and quality plan, see C 200. tional requirements) shall be defiied in a purchase
specification. The following coating properties may be speci-
204 For certain types of riser coatings, the requirements and fied as applicable:
recommendations in DNV RP-F106 are applicable.
~ submerged weighthegative buoyancy,
~ thickness,
~ concrete density,
E. Field Joint Coatings ~ compressive strength,
~ water absorption,
E 100 General ~ impact resistance (e.g. over-trawling capability),
101 For pipes with a weight coating or thermally insulated ~ flexibility (bending resistance), and
coating, the field joint coating is typically made up of an inner ~ cutbacks.
corrosion protective coating and an in-fill. The objective of the
in-fill is to provide a smooth transition to the pipeline coating Recommended minimum requirements to some of the above
and mechanical protection to the inner coating. For thermally properties are given in 203 below. Some general requirements
insulated pipelines and risers, the in-fill shall also have ade- to steel reinforcement are recommended in 204 and 205.
quate insulating properties. Project specific requirements to quality control (including pipe
tracking and documentation) shall also be described in the pur-
102 For the selection of field joint coating, the same consid- chase documentation.
erations as for pipeline and riser coatings in C.101, D.105 and
D.106 apply. In addition, sufficient time for application and F 200 Concrete materials and coating manufacturing
hardening or curing is crucial during barge laying of pipelines. 201 Before starting coating production, the coating Manu-
103 Riser field joint coatings shall preferably have properties facturer shall document that the materials, procedures and
matching the selected pipe coating. In the splash zone, field equipment to be used are capable of producing a coating of
joint coatings should be avoided unless it can be demonstrated specified properties. A pre-production test should be per-
that their corrosion protection properties are closely equivalent formed for documentation of certain properties such as impact
to those of the adjacent coating. resistance and flexibility (bending strength).
104 Relevant coating properties are to be defined in a project 202 All coating work shall be carried out according to a qual-
specification. The same properties as for pipelines and risers in ified manufacturing procedure specification. The following
C. 103 and D. 109, respectively should be considered when pre- items shall be described:
paring the specification.
~ coating materials,
E 200 Coating materials, surface preparation and appli- ~ reinforcement design and installation,
cation ~ coating application and curing,
201 The Contractor shall be capable of documenting their ~ inspection and testing,
ability to produce coatings meeting specified properties. A ~ coating repairs (see 210), and
qualification program, including destructive testing of coat- ~ handling and storage of coated pipes
ings, shall be performed prior to start of work unless relevant
results from previous testing are available. For novel systems 203 The concrete constituents and manufacturing method
to be applied at sea, the qualification program should include should be selected to provide the following recommended
installation at sea with subsequent destructive testing. minimum requirements to as-applied coating properties:
202 All coating work shall be carried out according to a qual- ~ minimum thickness: 40 mm;
ified procedure. The following items shall be described in the ~ minimum compressive strength (i.e. average of 3 core
field joint coating manufacturing procedure specification: specimens per pipe): 40 MPa (ASTM C 39);

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page82 - Sec.8

~ maximum water absorption: 8% (by volume), (testing of chemical potential into the range -0.80 to - 1.1 V rel. Ag/AgCV
coated pipe according to agreed method); and seawater. Potentials more negative than - 1.1 V rel. Ag/AgCV
~ minimum density: 1900 kg/m3 (ASTM C 642). seawater can be achieved using impressed current. Such poten-
tials may cause detrimental secondary effects, including coat-
204 The concrete coating shall be reinforced by steel bars ing disbondment and hydrogen-induced (stress) cracking (or
welded to cages or by wire mesh steel. The following recom- "hydrogen embrittlement") of linepipe materials and welds.
mendations apply: For welded cages, the spacing between cir- Guidance note:
cumferential bars should be maximum 120 mm. Steel bars
should have a diameter of 6 mm minimum. The average cross Pipeline system components in C-Mn steel and ferritic, marten-
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

sitic or ferritic austenitic stainless steel subject to severe plastic


sectional area of steel reinforcement in the circumferential di- straining during operation can suffer hydrogen induced cracking
rection should be minimum 0.5% of the longitudinal concrete (hydrogen embrittlement)by cathodic protection, also within the
cross section. The corresponding cross sectional area of steel potential range given above. Such damage is primarily to be
reinforcement in the longitudinal direction should be minimum avoided by restricting severe strainingby design measures. In ad-
0.08% of the transverse concrete cross section. dition, special emphasis shall be laid on ensuring adequate coat-
ing of components that may be subject to localised straining.
205 When a single layer of reinforcement is used, it shall be
located within the middle third of the concrete coating. The
recommended minimum distance from the corrosion protec-
tive coating is 15 mm, whilst the recommended minimum cov- 103 Sacrificial anode cathodic protection systems are nor-
erage is 15 mm and 20 mm for coatings with specified mally designed to provide corrosion protection throughout the
minimum thickness 5 50 mm and > 50 mm respectively. Over- design life of the protected object.
lap for wire mesh reinforcement should be 25 mm minimum. Guidance note:
Electrical contact with anodes for cathodic protection shall be As retrofitting of sacrificial anodes is generally costly (if practi-
avoided. cal at all), the likelihood of the initial pipeline design life being
extended should be duly considered.
206 The concrete may be applied according to one of the fol-
lowing methods:
~ impingement application, 104 Pipeline systems connected to other offshore installa-
~ compression coating, tions shall have compatible cathodic protection systems unless
~ slipforming. an electrically insulating joint is to be installed. At any landfall
of an offshore pipeline with sacrificial anodes and impressed
207 Rebound or recycled concrete may be used provided it is current cathodic protection of the onshore section, the needs
documented that specified properties are met. for an insulating joint shall be evaluated.
208 The curing method shall take into account any adverse Guidance note:
climatic conditions. The curing process should ensure no sig- Without insulatingjoints, some interactionwith the cathodic pro-
nificant moisture loss for 7 days or a minimum compressive tection system of electrically connected offshore structures can-
strength of 15 MPa. not be avoided. As the design parameters for subsea pipelines are
typically more conservative than that of other structures, some
209 Detailed criteria for repairs and recoating shall be de- current drain from riser and from pipeline anodes adjacent to the
fiied. As a minimum, all areas with exposed reinforcement pipeline cannot be avoided, sometimes leading to premature con-
shall be repaired. Areas with deficient coating exceeding 10% sumption. When the structure has a correctly designed cathodic
of the total coating surface shall be recoated. protection system such current drain is not critical as the net cur-
rent drain will decrease with time and ultimately cease; i.e. unless
210 Procedures for repair of uncured and cored coatings the second structure has insufficient cathodic protection.
shall be subject to agreement.
F 300 Inspection and testing
301 A quality plan shall be prepared and submitted to Pur- G 200 Design parameters and calculations
chaser for acceptance. The quality plan shall defiie the meth- 201 A detailed procedure for design calculations and recom-
ods and frequency of inspection, testing and calibrations, mendations for design parameters associated with sacrificial
acceptance criteria and requirements to documentation. Refer- anode cathodic protection systems is given in DNV Recom-
ence shall be made to applicable specifications and procedures mended Practice RP B401 "Cathodic Protection Design".
for inspection, testing and calibration. Handling of non-con-
forming materials and products shall be described. 202 The detailed anode design is dependent on the type of
linepipe coating. For pipelines with weight coating, the anodes
are normally designed with thickness equal to the coating. For
pipelines and risers with thermally insulating coatings, the
G. Cathodic Protection Design overall design should restrict heating of the anode in order to
improve its electrochemical efficiency (e.g. by mounting an-
G100 General odes on outside of coating).
101 Pipelines and risers in the submerged zone shall be fùr- Anode cores, supports and fastening devices shall be designed
nished with a cathodic protection system to provide adequate to provide the required utilisation factor, to ensure electrical
corrosion protection for any defects occurring during coating continuity, and to support the anode during all phases of fabri-
application (including field joints), and also for subsequent cation, installation and operation.
damage to the coating during installation and operation. 203 The anode surface facing the pipe shall have a paint
Guidance note: coating of minimum 100 m (epoxy-based or equivalent).
Cathodic protection may be achieved using either sacrificial 204 To avoid slippage during pipe installation and operation,
("galvanic") anodes, or impressed current from a rectifier. Sacri- anodes to be mounted on top of the coating may have to be de-
ficial anodes are normally preferred. signed for direct welding of anode core to doubler plates on the
pipeline. The detailed design shall address the likelihood of
loss of anodes during installation and its consequences for the
102 The cathodic protection systems shall be capable of sup- overall system capacity. Contingency measures shall be iden-
pressing the pipe-to-seawater (or pipe-to-sediment) electro- tified as required. It is recommended that the distance between

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.8 - Page83

successive anodes does not exceed 150 m. (Larger distances 109 Marking of anodes shall ensure traceability to heat
should be validated taking into account electric resistance in number. Anodes should be delivered according to EN 10204,
pipeline, likelihood of damage to anodes and any contingency Inspection Certificate 3.1.B or an equivalent standard.
measures) .
H 200 Anode installation
205 For anodes clamped to the pipeline or riser, each anode
segment shall have an electrical cable for electrical continuity 201 Anode installation may be carried out onshore e.g. for
to the pipe. pipeline barge welding and for tow-out installation. For reel
laying, pipeline anodes are typically attached offshore
206 Outline anode drawings, including fastening devices,
shall be prepared for each anode type/size. Connection cables 202 Anodes shall be installed according to a procedure de-
shall be detailed where applicable. Net anode weights and di- scribing handling of anodes, installation and subsequent in-
mensional tolerances shall be specified on drawings. spection.
207 The detailed engineering documentation shall contain 203 All welding or brazing of anode fastening devices and
the following: connector cables shall be carried out according to a qualified
procedure (see Appendix C).
~ design premises, including design life and reference to rel- 204 For linepipe that is to be concrete weight coated, electri-
evant project specifications, codes, standards, etc; and cal contact between concrete reinforcement and the anodes
~ surface area and current demand calculations. shall be avoided. The gaps between the anode half shells may
be filled with asphalt mastic or similar. Any spillage of filling
In addition, design documentation for sacrificial anode sys- compound on the external anode surfaces shall be removed.
tems shall contain the following:
~ anode mass calculations,
~ anode resistance calculations, I. Design and Manufacturing/Fabricationof
anode number calculations, and
~

~ anode detailed drawings (including fastening devices and Internal Corrosion Protection
connector cables if applicable). I100 General
208 Reference is made to DNV RP B401 for design docu- 101 Most fluids for transportation in pipeline systems are po-
mentation of impressed current systems. tentially corrosive to ordinary C-Mn steel linepipe material.
102 The selection of a system for internal corrosion protec-
tion of pipelines and risers has a major effect on detailed de-
H. Manufacturing and Installation of Sacrificial sign and must therefore be evaluated during conceptual design
(see B 200 and Section 5B 500). The following options for cor-
Anodes rosion control may be considered:
H 100 Anode manufacturing a) processing of fluid for removal of liquid water andor cor-
101 Requirements to anode manufacturing, including di- rosive agents;
mensions and weight, requirements to quality control (defect b) use of linepipe or internal (metallic) lining/cladding with
tolerances, electrochemical performance during testing, etc.), intrinsic corrosion resistance;
marking and documentation shall be detailed in a purchase
specification. c) use of organic corrosion protective coatings or linings
(normally in combination with a) or d)); and
102 For each anode type/size, the Manufacturer shall prepare
a detailed drawing showing location and dimensions of anode d) chemical treatment, i.e. addition of chemicals with corro-
inserts, anode gross weight and other details as specified in sion mitigating function.
purchase documentation (see G.206). In addition, the benefits of a corrosion allowance (see B 200
103 Manufacturing of anodes shall be carried out according and O) shall be duly considered.
to a manufacturing procedure specification. General require- 103 The need for temporaiy corrosion protection of internal
ments for anode manufacturing are given in DNV-RP B40 1. surfaces during storage, transportation and flooding should be
104 A procedure for electrochemical testing of anode mate- considered. Optional techniques include end caps, rust protec-
rial performance during anode manufacturing is given in Ap- tive oil/wax, and for flooding, chemical treatment (biocide
pendix A of RP B40 1. andor oxygen scavenger).
105 Inserts to be welded to the pipe shall be made of steel Guidance note:
with adequate weldability. For stainless steel linepipe, such in- The use of a biocide for treatment of water for flooding is most
serts shall always be welded on to doubler plates of the same essential (even with short duration) as incipient bacterial growth
material as, or otherwise compatible with, the linepipe. For C- established during flooding may proceed during operation and
Mn steel inserts, the carbon equivalent or Pcm value for any cause corrosion damage. For uncoated C-Mn steel pipelines, an
doubler plates shall not exceed that specified for the pipe ma- oxygen scavenger may be omitted since oxygen dissolved in sea-
water will become rapidly consumed by uniform corrosion with-
terial. out causing significant loss of wall thickness. Film forming or
106 Detailed requirements for weight and dimensional toler- "passivating" corrosion inhibitors are not actually required and
ances are given in e.g. NACE RP 0492-92. may even be harmful.
107 All anodes shall be visually examined for cracks and
other significant defects. Requirements are given in e.g. NACE
RP 0492-92. I200 Internal corrosion protection by fluid processing
108 A quality plan shall be prepared and submitted to Pur- 201 Corrosion control by fluid processing may involve re-
chaser for acceptance. The quality plan shall d e f i e methods, moval of water from gadoil (dehydration), or of oxygen from
frequency of inspection and testing, and acceptance criteria. seawater for injection (deoxygenation), for example. Conse-
Reference shall be made to applicable procedures for inspec- quences of operational upsets on material degradation shall be
tion, testing and calibrations. --```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
evaluated. The necessity for corrosion allowance and redun-

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page84 - Sec.8

dant systems for fluid processing should be considered. On- duction in dry gas pipelines ("flow coatings"). Although internal
line monitoring of fluid corrosion properties downstream of coatings can not be expected to be fully efficient in preventing
processing unit is normally required. For oil export pipelines corrosion attack if corrosive fluids are conveyed, any coating
carrying residual amounts of water, a biocide treatment should with adequate properties may still be efficient in reducing forms
of attack affecting membrane stresses and hence, the pressure re-
be considered as a back up (see I 500). taining capacity of the pipeline.
I300 Internal corrosion protection by use of linepipe in
Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRAs)
301 The selection of corrosion resistant materials has nor- I500 Internal corrosion protection by chemical treat-
mally been preceded by an evaluation of a C-Mn steel option, ment
where the material was concluded to provide inadequate safety
andor cost effectiveness in terms of operational reliability (see 501 Chemical treatment of fluids for corrosion control may
B 200). include:
302 For the subsequent selection of corrosion resistant mate- ~ corrosion inhibitors (e.g. "film forming");
rials, the following major parameters shall be considered: ~ pH-buffering chemicals;
biocides (for mitigation of bacterial corrosion);
mechanical properties;
~

ease of fabrication, particularly weldability; and ~ glycol or methanol (added at high concentrations for hy-
internal and external corrosion resistance, in particular hate inhibition, diluting the water phase);
with respect to environmentally induced cracking. ~ dispersants (for emulsification of water in oil); and
~ scavengers (for removal of corrosive constituents at low
Guidance note: concentrations).
Procurement conditions such as availability, lead times and costs
should also be considered. 502 The reliability of chemical treatment shall be evaluated

303 The need for pre-qualification of candidate suppliers of


linepipe and pipeline components in CRAs shall be duly con- ~ anticipated corrosion mitigating efficiency for the actual
sidered. fluid to be treated, including possible effects of scales, de-
posits, etc. associated with this fluid;
I 400 Internal corrosion protection by organic coatings ~ capability of the conveyed fluid to distribute inhibitor in
or linings the pipeline system along its full length and circumfer-
401 If internal coatings or linings are to be evaluated as an ence,
option for corrosion control, the following main parameters ~ compatibility with all pipeline system and downstream
shall be considered: materials, particularly elastomers and organic coatings,
~ compatibility with any other additives to be injected,
~ chemical compatibility with all fluids to be conveyed or ~ health hazards and environmental compatibility,
contacted during installation, commissioning and opera- ~ provisions for injection and techniques/procedures for
tion, including the effects of any additives (see 1500); monitoring of inhibitor efficiency, and
~ resistance to erosion by fluid and mechanical damage by ~ consequences of failure to achieve adequate protection,
pigging operations; and redundant techniques.
~ resistance to rapid decompression;
~ reliability of quality control during coating application, Guidance note:
~ reliability of (internal) field joint coating systems, if appli- For pipelines carrying untreated well fluid or other fluids with
cable; and high corrosivity and with high requirements to safety and relia-
~ consequences of failure and redundant techniques for cor- bility, there is a need to verify the efficiency of chemical treat-
rosion mitigation. ment by integrity monitoring using a tool allowing wall thickness
measurements along the full length of the pipeline (see Section
Guidance note: 10).
Internal coating of pipelines (e.g. by thin film fusion bonded
epoxy) has primarily been applied for the purpose of friction re-

--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
S e c 9 - Page85

SECTION 9
INSTALLATION

A. General tion manual shall include all factors that influence the quality
and reliabilitv of the installation work. includinp normal and
A 100 Objective contingency Situations, and shall address all installation steps,
including examinations and check points. The manual shall re-
101 The objective of this section is to provide requirements flect the results of the FMEA analysis or HAZOP studies, and
as to which studies and documentation be pre- shall state requirements for the parameters to be controlled and
pared and agreed for the and further to provide re- the allowable range ofparameter variation during the installa-
quirements for the installation and testing of the complete
tion,
pipeline system which are not covered elsewhere in the stand-
ard. The following shall, as a minimum, be covered:
A 200 Application ~ quality system manual,
mobilisation manual,
201 This section is applicable to installation and testing of
~

construction manual,
pipelines and rigid risers designed and manufactured accord-
~

~ health, safety and environment manual, and


ing to this standard. ~ emergency preparedness manual.
A 300 Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Haz- The manuals should include:
ard and Operability (HAZOP) studies
301 Systematic analyses of equipment and installation oper- ~ interface description;
ations shall be performed in order to identisl possible critical ~ organisation, responsibilities and communication;
items or activities which could cause or aggravate a hazardous ~ description of and commissioning procedures for the
condition, and to ensure that effective remedial measures are equipment and systems involved in the operation;
taken. The extent of analysis shall reflect the criticality of the ~ limitations and conditions imposed by structural strength
operations and the extent of experience available from previ- in accordance with the design;
ous similar operations. ~ limitations on operations imposed by environmental con-
ditions; and
302 Special attention shall be given to sections of the pipe- ~ references to the established operational and contingency
line route close to other installations or shore approaches procedures.
where there is greater risk of interference from shipping, an-
choring etc. For critical operations, procedural HAZOP studies 503 The Contractor shall prepare procedures covering nor-
shall be performed. mal and contingency situations. The procedures shall describe:
Guidance note:
~ purpose and scope of the activity;
Guidance in performing Failure Mode Effect Analysis is given in responsibilities;
DNVRules for ClassiJication ofHigh Speed and Light Craft, Pt.0
~

Ch.4 Sec.2.
~ materials, equipment and documents to be used;
~ how the activity is performed in order to meet specified re-
quirements; and
~ how the activity is controlled and documented.
A 400 Installation and testing specifications and draw-
ings 504 The installation manual shall be updatedírevised as
needed as installation proceeds.
401 Specifications and drawings shall be prepared covering
installation and testing of pipeline systems, risers, protective 505 The installation manuals are subject to agreement
structures etc. through:
402 The specifications and drawings shall describe, in suffi- ~ review of methods, procedures and calculations,
cient detail, requirements to installation methods and the proc- ~ review and qualification of procedures,
esses to be employed and to the fiial result of the operations. ~ qualification of vessels and equipment, and
403 The requirements shall reflect the basis for, and the re- ~ review of personnel qualifications
sults of, the design activities. The type and extent of verifica- 506 Requirements to the installation manual and acceptance
tion, testing, acceptance criteria and associated documentation are given in the various subsections. The results of the FMEA
required to verisl that the properties and integrity of the pipe- analysis or HAZOP studies (see A 300) shall also be used in
line system meet the requirements of this standard, as well as determining the extent and depth of verification of equipment
the extent and type of documentation, records and certification and procedures.
required, shall be stated.
507 In cases where variations in manner of performance of
404 Requirements to the installation manual and the extent an activity may give undesirable results, the essential variables
of tests, investigations and acceptance criteria required for and their acceptable limits shall be established.
qualification of the installation manual shall be included.
A 600 Quality Assurance
A 500 Installation Manuals
601 The installation Contractor shall as a minimum have an
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

501 Installation manuals shall be prepared by the various implemented quality assurance system meeting the require-
Contractors. ments of IS0 9001/1S09002 or equivalent. Further require-
502 The installation manual is a collection of the manuals merits for quality m ~ a n c are
e given in Section 2B 500.
and procedures relevant to the specific work to be performed.
It is prepared in order to demonstrate that the methods and A 700 Welding
equipment used by the Contractor will meet the specified re- 701 Requirements for welding processes, welding procedure
quirements, and that the results can be verified. The installa- qualification, execution of welding and welding personnel are

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKE VERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Page86 - Sec.9

given in Appendix C. testing are unsatisfactory, the welding shall be suspended until
702 Requirements for mechanical and corrosion testing for the causes of the defects have been established and rectified.
qualification of welding procedures are given in Appendix B. 807 For "Golden Welds" (critical welds e.g. tie-in welds that
703 The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of will not be subject to pressure testing, etc.) 100% ultrasonic
weldments shall at least meet the requirements given in the in- testing, 100% radiographic testing, and 100% magnetic parti-
stallation and testing specifications. cle testing or 100% liquid penetrant testing of non- erromag-
netic materials shall be performed. If the ultrasonic testing is
704 For weld repair at weld repair stations where the pipeline performed as automated ultrasonic testing, see Appendix E,
section under repair is subjected to tensile and bending stress- the radiographic and magnetic particleAiquid penetrant testing
es, a weld repair analysis shall be performed. The analysis shall may be omitted subject to agreement.
determine the maximum excavation length and depth combi-
nations that may be performed, taking into account all stresses 808 Magnetic particle testing or liquid penetrant testing of
acting at the area of the repair. The analysis shall be performed non-ferromagnetic materials shall be performed to veriSl com-
in accordance with the requirements to Engineering Criticality plete removal of defects before commencing weld repairs, and
Assessment (ECA) given in Section 5D. for 100% lamination checks at re-bevelled ends of cut pipe.
The analysis shall consider the reduction of yield and tensile 809 Visual Examination shall include:
strength in the material due to the heat input from defect exca- 100% examination of completed welds for surface flaws,
vation, preheating, and welding and also dynamic amplifica-
~

tion due to weather conditions and reduced stiffness effect at shape and dimensions;
field joints. The stresses in the remaining section shall not be ~ 100% examination of the visible pipe surface, prior to field
above 80% of SMYS. joint coating; and
~ 100% examination of completed field joint coating.
705 The weld repair analysis shall be subject to agreement.
706 The root and the fiist filler pass shall, as a minimum, be A 900 Production tests
completed at the first welding station before moving the pipe. 901 One production test is required for each Welding Proce-
Moving the pipe at an earlier stage may be permitted if an anal- dure Specification (WPS) used for welding of the pipeline
ysis is performed showing that this can be performed without girth welds.
any risk of introducing damage to the deposited weld material.
This analysis shall consider the maximum misalignment al- 902 Production tests should not be required for welding pro-
lowed, the height of the deposited weld metal, the possible cedures qualified specifically for tie-in welds, flange welds,
presence of flaws, support conditions for the pipe and any dy- Tee-piece welds etc.
namic effects. 903 Production tests may, subject to agreement, be omitted
in cases where fracture toughness testing during welding pro-
A 800 Non-destructive testing and visual examination cedure qualification is not required by this standard, or for C-
801 Requirements for methods, equipment, procedures, ac- Mn steel linepipe with SMYS < 450MPa.
ceptance criteria and the qualification and certification of per- 904 The extent of production tests shall be expanded if
sonnel for visual examination and non-destructive testing
(NDT) are given in Appendix D. ~ the Contractor has limited previous experience with the
802 Requirements to automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) are welding equipment and welding methods used,
given in Appendix E. ~ the welding inspection performed is found to be inade-
quate,
803 The extent of NDT for installation girth welds shall be severe defects occur repeatedly
100% ultrasonic or radiographic testing. It is recommended
~

~ any other incident indicates inadequate welding perform-


that radiographic testing is supplemented with ultrasonic test- ance, and
ing in order to enhance the probability of detection andor char- the installed pipeline is not subjected to system pressure
acterisatiodsizing of defects.
~

testing, see Section 5B.203.


804 For wall thickness > 25mm, automated ultrasonic testing
should be used. 905 The extent of production testing shall be consistent with
805 Ultrasonic testing (UT) shall be used in the following the inspection and test regime and philosophy of the pipeline
cases: project.
906 Production tests shall be subject to the non-destructive,
UT or automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) shall be per- mechanical and corrosion testing as required in Appendix C.
formed whenever sizing of flaw height andor determina-
tion of the flaw depth is required; 907 If production tests show unacceptable results, appropri-
100% testing of the fiist 10 welds for welding processes ate corrective and preventative actions shall be initiated and
with high potential for non-fusion type defects, when start- the extent of production testing shall be increased.
--```,,`,`,,,`,,````,````,`,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

ing installation or when resuming production after suspen-


sion of welding and when radiographic testing is the
primary NDT method. For wall thickness above 25mm ad-
ditional random local spot checks during installation are B. Pipeline Route, Survey and Preparation
recommended; B 100 Pre-installation route suwey
testing to supplement radiographic testing for wall thick-
ness above 25 mm, to aid in characterising and sizing of 101 A pre-installation survey of the pipeline route may be re-
ambiguous indications; quired in addition to the route survey required for design pur-
testing to supplement radiographic testing for unfavoura- poses by Section 3 if
ble groove configurations, to aid in detection of defects;
100% lamination checks of a 50 mm wide band at ends of ~ the time elapsed since the original survey is significant,
cut pipe. ~ a change in seabed conditions is likely to have occurred,
~ the route is in areas with heavy marine activity, and
806 If ultrasonic testing reveals unacceptable defects not dis- ~ new installations are present in the area.
covered by radiography, the extent of ultrasonic testing shall
be 100% for the next 10 welds. If the results of this extended 102 The pre-installation survey, if required, shall determine:

Copyright Det Norske Veritas Document provided by IHS Licensee=Intec Engineering/5937045100, 02/17/2004
Provided by IHS under license with DNV DETNORSKEVERITAS
07:29:40 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document
Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-FI 01, January 2000
Sec.9 - Page87

potential new/previously not identified hazards to the C. Marine Operations


pipeline and the installation operations;
location of wrecks, submarine installations and other ob- C 100 General
structions such as mines, debris, rocks and boulders that 101 These requirements are applicable for vessels perform-
might interfere with, or impose restrictions on, the instal- ing pipeline and riser installation and supporting operations.
lation operations; The requirements are applicable for the marine operations dur-
that the present seabed conditions c o n f i those of the sur- ing installation work only. Specific requirements for installa-
vey required in Section 3; and tion equipment onboard vessels performing installation
any other potential hazards due to the nature of the suc- operations are given in the relevant subsections.
ceeding operations.
102 The organisation of key personnel with defined respon-
103 The extent of, and the requirements for, the pre-installa- sibilities and lines of communication shall be established prior
tion route survey shall be specified. to start of the operations. Interfaces with other parties shall be
defied.
B 200 Seabed preparation
103 All personnel shall be qualified for their assigned work.
201 Seabed preparation may be required to: Key personnel shall have sufficient verbal communication
skills in the common language used during operations.
remove obstacles and potential hazards interfering with
the installation operations; 104 Manning level should comply with IMO'S "Principles of
prevent loads or strains that occur as a result of seabed Safe Manning".Non-propelled vessels shall have similar man-
conditions such as unstable slopes, sand waves, deep val- ning and organisation as required for propelled units of same
leys and possible erosion and scour from exceeding the de- type and size.
sign criteria;
prepare for pipeline and cable crossings; C 200 Vessels
infill depressions and remove high-spots to prevent unac- 201 All vessels shall have valid class with a recognised clas-
ceptable free spans; and sification society. The valid class shall cover all systems of im-
carry out any other preparation due to the nature of the suc- portance for the safety of the operation. Further requirements
ceeding operations. to vessels shall be given in a specification stating requirements
for:
202 Where trench excavation is required before pipelaying,
the trench cross-section shall be specified and the trench shall anchors, anchor lines and anchor winches;