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1.

Lecture 24:

equation

1.050 – Content overview

I. Dimensional analysis
1. On monsters, mice and mushrooms Lectures 1-3
2. Similarity relations: Important engineering tools Sept.

II. Stresses and strength

3. Stresses and equilibrium Lectures 4-15
4. Strength models (how to design structures,
foundations.. against mechanical failure) Sept./Oct.

III. Deformation and strain

5. How strain gages work?
6. How to measure deformation in a 3D
Lectures 16-19
structure/material?
Oct.

IV. Elasticity
7. Elasticity model – link stresses and deformation Lectures 20-31
8. Variational methods in elasticity
Oct./Nov.
V. How things fail – and how to avoid it
9. Elastic instabilities
10. Plasticity (permanent deformation) Lectures 32-37
Dec. 2
11. Fracture mechanics

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1.050 – Content overview

I. Dimensional analysis

III. Deformation and strain

IV. Elasticity
Lecture 20: Introduction to elasticity (thermodynamics)

Lecture 24: Beam elasticity

Lecture 25: Applications and examples (beam elasticity)

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Goal of this lecture

• Derive differential equations that can be solved to determine stress,
strain and displacement fields in beam

z

+ boundary conditions (force, clamped, moments…)

• Approach: Utilize beam stress model, strain model for beams and
combine with isotropic elasticity
4

2
Stress Strain
⎛ σ xx 0 σ xz ⎞ Navier-Bernouilli beam model
(σ ) = ⎜⎜
ij 0 0

0 ⎟
ε xx = ε xx0 + ϑ y0 z
⎜σ 0 ⎟

⎝ xz 0 ⎠ d 2ξ z0
Shape of stress tensor
ϑ =− 2
0
y Curvature
dx
for 2D beam problem
dξ x0
ε xx =
0
N = ∫ σ xx dS Qz = ∫ σ xz dS
Axial strain
dx
S S
M y = ∫ zσ xx dS Thus:
dξ x0 d 2ξ z0
S ε xx = − z
dM y d 2M y dx dx 2
= Qz = − fz
dx dx 2 Strain completely determined from
dN displacement of beam reference axis
= − fx
dx
⎛ 2 ⎞
Isotropic elasticity: σ = ⎜ K − G ⎟ε v 1 + 2Gε 5
⎝ 3 ⎠

approach

Section number below corresponds to section numbering used in class

Step 1: Consider continuum scale alone (derive a relation between stress and
strain for the particular shape of the stress tensor in beam geometry)
2.1)

Step 2: Link continuum scale with section scale (use reduction formulas)
2.2)

Step 3: Link section scale to structural scale (beam EQ equations)

2.3)

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Overview

Structural
Section scale
Continuum scale
scale N ( x ), Qz ( x ), M y ( x ),

N , Qz , M y
ω y ( x ), ξ x ( x ), ξ z ( x )
σ ,ε

Reminder: slope
z

Rotation (slope)
ξ 0
z
Curvature (=first derivative of rotation)
dξ0
d 2ξ z0 dω y
0
ω y0 = − z
ϑ =− 2 =
0
y
dx dx dx 7

⎛ σ xx
2.1) Step 1 (continuum scale)
0 0⎞
z
Consider a beam in
uniaxial tension: (σ ij ) = ⎜⎜ 0 0 0⎟

⎜ 0 0 0 ⎟⎠
⎝ F
x

σ xx = ⎜ K − G ⎟(ε xx + ε yy + ε zz ) + 2Gε xx
⎛ 2 ⎞
(1)
⎝ 3 ⎠

σ yy = ⎜ K − G ⎟(ε xx + ε yy + ε zz ) + 2Gε yy = 0
3 unknowns, 2 ⎛ 2 ⎞ !
(2)
equations; can
eliminate one
⎝ 3 ⎠

σ zz = ⎜ K − G ⎟(ε xx + ε yy + ε zz ) + 2Gε zz = 0
variable and obtain ⎛ 2 ⎞ !
relation between 2 (3)

remaining ones ⎝ 3 ⎠
Eqns. (2) and (3) provide relation between ε xx and ε yy , ε zz :
1 3K − 2G
ε yy = ε zz = − ε xx = −νε xx
2 3K + G
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=: ν Poisson’s ratio

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Physical meaning “Poisson’s effect”

• The ‘Poisson effect’ refers to the fact that beams

contract in the lateral directions when subjected to
tensile strain
ε yy = ε zz = −νε xx
d1

d 2 = (1 + ε yy )d1 = (1 − νε xx )
9
d2

9 KG
From eq. (1) (with Poisson relation): σ xx = ε xx
3K + G

=: E Young’s modulus

σ xx = Eε xx

This result can be generalized: In bending, the shape of the stress tensor is
identical, for any point in the cross-section (albeit the component σzz typically
varies with the coordinate z)

Thus, the same conditions for the lateral strains applies

⎛ σ xx ( z ) 0 0 ⎞
Therefore: We can use the same formulas! (σ ij ) = ⎜⎜ 0 0 0 ⎟⎟
⎜ 0 0 100 ⎟⎠

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2.2) Step 2 (link to section scale)

Now: Plug in relation σ xx = Eε xx into reduction formulas

dξ x0 d 2ξ z0 ⎛ dξ 0 d 2ξ 0 ⎞
Consider that ε xx = − z and thus σ xx = E ⎜⎜ x − 2z z ⎟⎟
dx dx 2 ⎝ dx dx ⎠

Results in:
Assume: E constant over S =0

⎛ dξ x0 d 2ξ z0 ⎞ dξ x0 d 2ξ z0
dx ∫S dx 2 ∫S
N = ∫ E ⎜⎜ − z ⎟⎟dS N=E dS − E zdS
S ⎝ dx dx 2 ⎠
=0
⎛ dξ 0 d 2ξ z0 2 ⎞ dξ 0
d 2ξ z0 2
M y = ∫ E ⎜⎜ x z − 2
z ⎟⎟dS My = E x
∫S zdS − E dx 2 ∫S z dS
S ⎝ dx dx ⎠ dx
=I
dξ 0 d 2ξ z0
Finally: N = ES x M y = −EI Area
moment
11
dx dx 2
of inertia

Beam EQ equations: Beam constitutive equations:

d 4ξ z0
M y = −EI = − fz
d 2M y dx 4
= − fz
dx 2 d 4ξ z0 f
4
= z
with: dx EI
d 2ξ z0
dN
= − fx M y = −EI d 2ξ x0 f
dx dx 2 2
=− x
dx ES
dξ 0
N = ES x
dx

12

6
Beam bending elasticity
Governed by this differential equation:

d 4ξ z0 f
4
= z
dx EI
Integration provides solution for displacement
Solve integration constants by applying BCs

Note:
E = material parameter (Young’s modulus)
I = geometry parameter (property of cross-section)
fz = distributed shear force