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LABORATORY INVESTIGATION FOR STABILIZATION OF

CLAYEY SOIL IN KASHMIR VALLEY


Dissertation
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of
MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY

In

CIVIL ENGINEERING

(TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING)

Submitted By

MIR AAMIR FAYAZ


Roll No. 16320360047

Under The Supervision of

ER Rajat Balyan

Department of Civil Engineering,

Desh Bhagat University, Punjab


June-2018
CANDIDATE’S DECLERATION

This is to certify that the work which is being presented in the dissertation entitled “LABORATORY
INVESTIGATION FOR STABILIZATION OF CLAYEY SOIL IN KASHMIR
VALLEY’’submitted by MIR AAMIR FAYAZ bearing Roll No. 16320360047 in partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the award of Master of Technology in Civil Engineering with specialization in
“Transportation Engineering” during 2016-2018 session at Desh Bhagat University,Amloh, Punjab is an
authentic work carried out by me under the supervision and guidance of Er. Rajat Balyan, Assistant
Professor of Department of Civil Engineering. The matter presented in the dissertation has not been
submitted by me for the award of any other degree or any other institute / university. If there is any
copyright with this dissertation then I will be responsible for any legal dispute.

MIR AAMIR FAYAZ

Roll.No.16320360047

Date: 15-06-2018

This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my knowledge.

Dr Pooja Sharma

HOD (CIVIL ENGG DEPTT.)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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I take this opportunity to express my sincere and heartfelt gratitude to my guide Er Rajat Balyan,
Assistant Professor, for his valuable guidance, constructive suggestions and consistent inspiration in
developing this work. His magnanimous generosity and keen interest helped me in all my endeavors.
Whenever, I was stuck up during the research work I found him available to provide his categorical help.
I have learned a lot from him over the last two years and I am lucky to have him my thesis supervisor.

I express my heartful and sincere thanks to Dr Pooja Sharma (HOD,civil engineering department of
DBU),Er Manni Sharma (Assistant professor , Civil Engineering,DBU), Er Nitin Mehta (Assistant
professor, Civil engineering ,DBU)for lending me support for the project work.

Last but not the least, I wish to express my gratitude to my family members for encouraging and
supporting me during my M.Tech course

Submitted By:-

MIR AAMIR FAYAZ

M-Tech( Transportation Engg.)

Roll.No. 16320360047

ABSTRACT

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The main focus of this research was to improve the strength of clayey soil & to obtain a optimum amount
of soil-Cement-Recron mix. The objective of study was to increase the strength of clayey soil using
Cement & Recronfiber. As we know Recron act as a reinforcing material. As clay shows high shrinkage,
swell characteristics & low bearing capacity especially under sub-grade, Therefore, there is a need to
improve the strength characteristics of soil. So the main focus of this research was to increase the strength
characteristics of soil. The tests performed in laboratory was Pycnometer test for specific gravity,
Casagrande’s test for liquid limit, plastic limit test, Standard proctor test for determination of OMC &
MDD & modified proctor test. Proportion of the Recronused was 0.4, 0.7, 1.0, 2.0 & 4.0 % & proportion
of cement was 3, 5, 7%. The cement was optimised at 5%, 6mm hollow recron fiber at 0.7%, . The CBR
value was found peak at 7% cement content with value of 73.2, 0.7% 6mm hollow recron fiber has 11.2.
From the results it was verified that 0.7% Recron content is more economical than 5% cement content.

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LIST OF PUBLICATIONS

[1] INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES AND


ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

Cite this Article:


Mir Aamir Fayaz, Rajat Balyan, Pooja Sharma, "Laboratory Investigation For Stabilization
Of Clayey Soil In Kashmir Valley", [1] INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH
IN APPLIED SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY (IJRASET) ISSN:2321-9939,
Volume.6, Issue V, pp.2909-2914, May 2018, Available at
:https://www.ijraset.com/fileserve.php?FID=17637

[2] INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH

Cite this Article:


Mir Aamir Fayaz, Rajat Balyan, Pooja Sharma, "Laboratory Investigation For Stabilization
Of Clayey Soil In Kashmir Valley", International Journal of Engineering Development and
Research (IJEDR), ISSN:2321-9939, Volume.6, Issue 3, pp.30-35, July 2018, Available at
:http://www.ijedr.org/papers/IJEDR1803006.pdf

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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TITLE Page No.
CANDIDATE’S DECLERATION ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iii

ABSTRACT iv

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS v

TABLE OF CONTENTS vi

LIST OF TABLES x

LIST OF FIGURES xii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION1

1.1 Importance of Transportation 1

1.2 Different modes of Transportation 1

1.3 Highway Significance 1

1.3.1Significance of Sub-grade 2

1.4 Importance of Research Topic 2

1.5 Scope of the study 3

1.6 Objective of the Research Work 3

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 4

2.1 General 4
2.2 Previous works 4
CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS USED 7

3.1 General 7

3.2 Material Used 7

3.2.1 Clayey Soil7

3.2.2 Cement 8

3.2.3 Recron 3S Fiber 8

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3.2.4 Water 9

3.3 Characteristics of clayey Soil 9

3.3.1 Consistency limit 9

3.3.2 Liquid Limit 10

3.3.3 Plastic Limit 10

3.3.4 Shrinkage Limit 10

3.4 Plasticity, Flow, Liquidity and Consistency Indexes 11

3.4.1 Plasticity Index 11

3.4.2 Flow Index 11

3.4.3 Liquidity Index 11

3.4.4 Consistency Index 11

3.5 Specific Gravity 12

3.6 Consistency of Soil 12

3.7 Optimum Moisture Content and Maximum Dry Density 13

3.8 Indian Standard Classification 13

3.8.1 Coarse-Grained System 15

3.8.2 Fine Grained System 15

3.9 General Characteristics of Soil OF different Groups 15

CHAPTER 4 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 17

4.1 General 17

4.2 Laboratory 17

4.2.1 Grain Size Distribution 17

4.2.2 Liquid Limit Test 17

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4.2.3 Plastic Limit Test 18

4.2.4 Specific Gravity Test 18

(a) Apparatus 19

(b) Procedure 19

4.2.5 Standard Proctor Test 19

(a) Apparatus 19

(b) Procedure 20

(c) Calculations 22

(d) Compaction Curve 22

4.2.6 Modified Proctor Test 22

(a) Procedure 22

4.2.7 Comparison of Standard and Heavy Proctor Compaction Test 23

4.2.8 California Bearing Ratio Test 23

(a) Equipments 24

(b) Preparation Of Test Specimen 25

(c) Observation and Recording 26

CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS OF RESULT AND DISCUSSION 27

5.1 General 27

5.2 Test result on clayey sub-grade soil 27

5.2.1 Index property of clayey soil 27

5.2.2 Wet sieve analysis 28

5.2.3 Specific gravity test 28

5.2.4 Proctor Compaction test 29

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A) Results of Clayey sub-grade soil 29

B) Results of clayey soil mixed with cement 29

C) Results of Clayey Soil mixed with 6mm Recron Fiber 30

D) Results of Clayey Soil mixed with Cement and 0.4% Recron 6mm Fiber 30

5.2.5 CBR test results under un-soaked condition 31

A) Effect of cement stabilizer on cbr value of clayey soil under un-soaked condition 31

B) ) Effect of 6mm recron 3S fiber stabilizer on cbr value of clayey soil under un-soaked 32 condition

C) Effect of a Combination of Cement and 0.4% Recron Fiber (6mm) soil stabilizer on 33
CBR value of Clayey Soil under Un-soaked condition

5.2.6 CBR test results under soaked condition 35

A) Effect of cement stabilizer on CBR value of clayey soil under un-soaked condition 35

B) Effect of 6mm recron 3s fiber stabilizer on CBR value of clayey soil under un-soaked 36 conditions

C) Effect of a combination of Cement and 0.4% Recron Fiber (6mm) stabilizer on CBR 37
value of Clayey Soil under Soaked condition

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION AND SCOPE OF FURTHER STUDY 39


6.1 Results of clayey soil 39
6.2Results of MDD and OMC 39
6.3Results of CBR under un-soaked condition 39
6.4 Results of CBR under soaked condition 40
6.5 Conclusion 40
6.6 Scope for further study 41
REFERENCES 42

LIST OF TABLES
Table No. Description Page No.

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3.1 Properties of ordinary Portland cement 8

3.2 Properties of Recron fiber 8

3.3 Consistency in terms of consistency index and unconfined 12


compressive strength

3.4 Basic soil components in ISC system 14

3.5 General properties of soils 15


4.1 Range of optimum water content 21

4.2 Different type of moulds with desired compactive efforts 21

4.3 Penetration under standard load 24


5.1 Index property of clayey soil sample 27

5.2 Grain size distribution of clayey soil 28

5.3 Specific gravity of clayey sub-grade soil 29


5.4 MDD & OMC values of clayey soil+cement 30

5.5 MDD & OMC values of clayey soil+6 mm hollow recron 3S 30


fiber

5.6 MDD and OMC values of Clayey Soil + Cement + 6 mm 31


Recron Fiber
5.7 CBR value of Clayey Sub-grade soil mixed with Cement 32
under un-soaked condition
5.8 CBR value of Clayey Sub-grade Soil mixed with 6mm 33
Recron Fiber under Un-Soaked condition
5.9 CBR value of Clayey Sub-grade Soil mixed with different 34
proportion of Cement and 0.4 % 6mm Recron Fiber under un-
soaked condition
5.10 CBR value of clayey sub-grade soil mixed with cement under 36
soaked condition

x
5.11 CBR value of Clayey Sub-grade Soil mixed with 6mm 37
Recron Fiber under soaked condition
5.12 CBR value of Clayey Sub-gradeSoil mixed with different 38
proportion of Cement, and 0.4% 6mm Recron Fiber under
Soaked condition

LIST OF FIGURES
Table No. Description Page No.

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3.1 Map of J&K State 7

3.2 Loose 6mm Polyster Staple Recronfibrer 9

4.2 Determination of the Plastic Limit 18

4.3 Compaction Curve of Standard and Modified Proctor 23


test

5.1 Proctor Compaction Test on Clayey Sub-grade soil 29

5.2 CBR value of Clayey Sub-grade Soil mixed with 32


Cement under Un-soaked conditio

5.3 CBR value of Clayey Sub-grade Soil mixed with 33


6mm Recron Fiber under Un-Soaked conditio

5.4 CBR value of Clayey Sub-grade Soil mixed with 34


different proportion of Cement and 0.5 % 6mm
Recron Fiber
5.5 CBR value of clayey sub-grade soil mixed with 35
cement under soaked condition

5.6 CBR value of Clayey Sub-grade Soil mixed with 36


6mm Recron Fiber under soaked condition

5.7 CBR value of Clayey Sub-grade Soil mixed with 38


different proportion of Cement, and 0.4% 6mm
Recron Fiber under Soaked condition

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