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FIRE PROTECTION AND PREVENTION CLASS B- Fires involving flammable or petroleum

products such as gasoline, oil, paints, thinners,


solvent, lubricating oils/greases, the crude oil itself &
LPG.
CLASS C- Fires involving electrical equipment
Most of the fires occurrences in the Philippines CLASS D- Fires involving combustible metals such as
resulted in catastrophe fatalities and major property magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium &
damage. potassium.

FIRE CAUSES
Flash Point- the lowest temperature at which a
substance will give off enough vapors to form a 1. ELECTRICAL ( 23% )- the leading cause of
flammable mixture with near the surface of the industrial fires. Most start in wiring & motors.
substance that will burn when a flame or spark is
applied. Most prevented by proper maintenance. Special
attention needed for equipment at hazardous
Fire Point- the temperature at which a fuel will processes & in storage areas.
continue to burn after it has been ignited. This a few
degrees hotter than the flash point. 2. SMOKING ( 18% )- a potential cause of fire almost
everywhere. A matter of control ( self discipline ) &
Ignition Temperature- is the lowest temperature when education.
a substance auto-ignites
( without flame or spark ) Smoking strictly prohibited in dangerous areas,
involving flammable liquids…
Explosive or Flammable Range- is the concentration Provide Designated smoking area(s)
of a flammable vapor between the Lower Explosive Initiate Quit Smoking Programs.
Limit and Upper Explosive Limit in a given quantity
of air that will readily burn. 3. FRICTION ( 10% )- hot bearing, misaligned or
broken machine parts, jamming of material, and poor
adjustment of power drives & conveyors.
The Chemistry of Fire
Prevented by a regular schedule of inspections,
The Fire Triangle- as shown in next slide illustration, maintenance & lubrications.
oxygen and fuel in proper proportion can be ignited
by heat to create a fire. 4. Overheating Materials ( 8% )- abnormal process
temperature , especially those involving heated
If any one of the three elements is removed a fire flammable liquids/materials.
cannot exist.
Prevented by supervision & competent operators,
supplemented by well-maintained temperature controls.

5. HOT SURFACE ( 7% )- heat foam furnaces, hot


ducts, lamps, welding machines, generators, exhaust
manifolds, etc.

Prevented by ample clearances, insulation & ventilation


(air circulation between hot surfaces &
combustible/flammables).

6. COMBUSTIBLE SPARKS ( 5% )- sparks & embers


released from incinerators, furnaces, fire boxes,
4 Classes of Fire various process equipment and industrial
truck/heavy equipment.
CLASS A- Fires involving ordinary combustible
materials such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber, etc.
Prevented by proper enclosing of working area &
provision of spark arrestor.

Conduction

Convection

Radiation

REMOVE HEAT- cooling a fire calls for the


application of something w/c absorbs heat. Although
there are others, water is the most common agent.
*Inadequate fire exits, fire fighting equipment
REMOVE FUEL- often removing the fuel from a fire is *Lack of detection & alarm devices, occupants
difficult & dangerous. Shutting or closing off the unaware of fire.
valves. *Inadequate design: no enclosure for stairways,
REMOVE OXYGEN- oxygen can be removed from a elevators shafts & openings through floors to prevent
fire by displacing it with a heavier than air gas like spread of fire.
CO2. O2 flowing into the fire can be also be stopped *Inadequate planning for emergency.
by covering the fire with a wet blanket or cover the
burning surfaces with foam and sand. *Loss of customer/client
*Loss of return on capital investment
STOP THE CHAIN REACTION- recent studies *Loss of profits on finished products or completed
indicate that the use of dry chemical on fire tends to works
inactivate the intermediate processes of burning *Loss of confidence of stockholders
resulting in a reduction of the combustion & in the *Loss of credit standing
extinguishment of fire. *Loss of goodwill of customer/cliet
*Etc.
WATER EXTINGUISHERS- are effective for Class A
fires. Water serves as cooling, quenching & displacing
agent.

FOAM EXTINGUISHERS- are effective for Class B -Locate the hazard


fires where the foam forms a cohesive floating blanket -Determine the cause
on the surface of the burning liquid. -Predict the probable effect & correct the fault.

CO2 EXTINGUISHERS- are effective for Class B & C


fires.C02 reduces the O2 content. *Engineering Practice – design
*Education
DRY CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHERS- are effective for *Enforcement
Class A, B & C fires. It breaks the chain reaction
inhibiting the oxidation process w/in the flame itself.

DRY POWDER EXTINGUISHERS- are effective for Fire Protection


Class D. It absorbs the remaining fuel & prevent re-
ignition. -Detection
-Alarm
- Fire Locator
- Extinguishments
- Evacuation
-First Aid
Fire Prevention
Immediately stop what you are doing
-Fire Safety Engineering Go to designated assembly area.
-Good Housekeeping Everybody out in 3 minutes
-Electrical Safety Stay with your department and your safety marshal
-Proper Storage Go back only on the ‘ALL CLEAR’ signal of safety
-Safe Practices marshal.
SUMMARY: Fire Protection & Prevention

*List down Fuel Supply, form, shape, characteristics.


THE BEST WAY TO DEAL WITH FIRE IS TO PREVENT
*List down Heat Sources & heat travel form, i.e..,
FIRE FROM HAPPENING.
conduction, radiation, convection.

*Accessibility & proper location


*Inspection Tag ( last recharge & inspection )
Nozzle 1. CLINT MARK CORTES
*Corrosion & Damage 2. LEIZEL ALBURAN
*Lock pin & seal 3. ROBERT SUMALINOG
*Content ( water level/pressure gauge/weight )
*Hose & Hose coupling
*Hydrostatic Test Validation
*Procedure to Use
Four Fundamentals Rules of Fire Fighting

*Save Life
*Locate Fire
*Confine Fire/Enclosure
*Extinguish Fire

Twice a year ( minimum )


1. Evacuation Plan
2. Route
3. Assembly Area
4. Fire X Location
5. First Aid Location
Evacuation Procedure
Permits
Announced/Unannounced

Lecture/Theory
Preparation
1. Fire Extinguisher
2. Fire Hoses
3. Materials for Creation of Small Fire
Observer
1. Local Fire Rep
2. Other Qualified Personnel
Actual use of fire fighting equipment
1. Use of Portable Fire Extinguisher
2. Use of Fire Holes