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Estefania Asimbaya1 , Henry Cabrera1 , Oscar Camacho1,2 Danilo Chávez1 , Paulo Leica1

1 Departamento de Automatización y Control Industrial, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito − ECUADOR

2 Escuela de Ingenierı́a Eléctrica Universidad de los Andes Núcleo La Hechicera, Mérida, 5101 VENEZUELA

Abstract—In this work is proposed a dynamical control scheme the final control element and is robust because it also keeps

combining concepts of Linoya’s compensator and sliding mode the robustness of SMC.

control for inverse response process. The design of dynamical

controller is shown in this paper, and it is used for linear system

and in a no linear process that is found in a continuous stirred The paper is organized as follows section II makes a brief

tank reactor (CSTR) by simulations.The performance of the description about the method to obtain a transfer function

proposed approach is compared against a PID controller and with inverse response, a IMC structure and SMC, section III

Linoya’s compensator with PID explain the develop of DSMC controller, in section IV shows

Index Terms—Dynamical Controller, Linoya’s Compensator, the simulations for linear and nonlinear system with inverse,

Sliding Mode Control section V compare the performance of controllers to finally

presents conclussions.

I. I NTRODUCTION II. BASIC C ONCEPTS

A process with inverse response occurs when the direction A. Inverse Response System Identification

of response is opposed at the final steady state value. In some As it is known, for control purpose design is better have

chemical processes appears the inverse response effect, such simple models of systems, for this reason in this paper the

as reactors drums, boilers, reboilers, etc [1]. The presence of general model for systems with inverse response is represented

an inverse response causes limitations in the gain and a tight by a second order transfer function with right-half-plane

control is required at low and high frequencies, therefore the (RHP) zero (1), being K=gain, η=zero, T1 =principal time

bandwidth is limited [2]. constant, T2 =secondary time constant.

In [3] was shown a way to design a Sliding Mode Control K(−ηs + 1)

G(s) = (1)

(SMC), for process with inverse response. In that paper, the (T1 s + 1)(T2 s + 1)

controller was designed from a First Order Plus Dead Time This section describes all algorithms proposed by [8]. The

(FOPDT). The controller was applied to difference inverse approximation is made from the reaction curve, where t%

response processes with good performance. represents time when the system output reaches a certain

percentage (y% ). Hence, three points of curve (t47% , y47% ),

Dynamical Sliding Mode Control (DSMC) has been taken (t90% , y90% ) and (tp , yp% ), being tp =time when occur inverse

special attention in the last years, with different techniques response and yp% = magnitude of inverse peak in percentage,

like adding a compensator (extra dynamics) [4], using a all this variables are necessary to build the transfer function be-

low pass integrators [5], and including functions that reduce causeand have main characteristics of inverse response curve.

chattering as the hyperbolic function within the discontinuous The main points to make the approximation is shown in Fig.1

function [6], all of these controllers running in linear [8]. The transfer function is obtained by next equations:

functions. Other way to design DSMC is proposed in [7] in Gain:

which is combined the backstepping technique and SMC for ∆y

K= (2)

trajectory tracking of underactuated unmanned underwater ∆r

vehicles. The term ∆y are defined as system ouput variation (y(t)) and

∆r as system input variation (r(t)).

To work with SMC is necessary an approximation of The minimum relative error is between the points (t47% , y47% )

model of procces due to this is used the estimation proposed and (t90% , y90% ), this means insensibility to errors in the step

by Alfaro [8], this approch method could be used for response [8]. Slow time constant approximation is represented

nonlinear process and higher order systems with inverse by T1 , and Zero by η.

response behavior. The combination of the approximation T1 = 0.6(t90% − t47% ) (3)

with Linoya’s ideas and the use of the Sliding Mode Control !

result in a Dynamic Sliding Mode Control. This new control 1 − yp%

η = 1− tp %

(4)

technique proposed reduces the presence of the chattering in

e − T1

Where: R(s)= reference or (Set-point), Y (s)= output,

D(s)= disturbances, G(s)= process, G0 (s)= new transfer

function introduced, Gc (s)= Controller, E(s)= error, Y ∗ (s)=

new output in modified scheme.

the process how a system without inverse response, allowing

a better control, because of the gain is not restricted. With this

modification of the original plant, the controller shows a better

performance when is compared with conventional closed loop

scheme [9].

Fig. 1: Inverse Response System Identification curve. [8] C. Sliding Mode Control Methodology

SMC is named of this way because the trajectory of

the system is limited by a specific space, called sliding

The last term T2 depends on the relations given by T2 /T1 and surface. The choice of surface is very important because the

η/t1 , and the variation of relative normalized time (t0 = t/T1 ), closed-loop dynamics of the system depends of the sliding

as demonstrated in [8]. Thus, we have the following expression surface.This method of control is an effective tool when is

for T2 . necessary to control process exposed to disturbances and in

t −n which the exact model of the system is not available.

T2 = 47% T1 (5)

m

Where m y n are constants for the proposed identification This control technique is formed by two parts, the first part

algorithm, the values are shown in [8]. is a slide mode control law this is responsible to maintain the

The relation between fast and slow times constants (T2 /T1 ), system dynamic on the sliding surface (continuous function),

its limited by values between [0.1, 0.9] due to inverse response uc (t). The second part is reaching mode control law which

exist, and the relation between zero and slow times constant permits reaching the desired surface as the state trajectories

(η/T1 ), its limited by values between [0.1,4]. change (discontinuous function), ur (t) [11].

B. Linoya’s Compensator

Internal Model Control (IMC) is used for the control the

systems with difficult dynamic. There are some applications

for this kind of controller as the Smith Predictor and

Linoya’s compensator [9]. The disadvantage of the use of this

controllers is that the controller performance depends of the

accuracy of the process model.

Predictor Fig. 2) to reduce the effects of a non-minimum

phase system (inverse response), and introduce a transfer

function (G0 (s)) which improves the performance of process. Fig. 3: Representation of a SMC [11]

1) Continuous function- Sliding mode: In this part of the

control law is necessary choosing a sliding surface because

this one will define the limits in which the process must stay.

The principal sliding surfaces, S(t), are derivative and integral

and in this work is used an integral surface (7) [12].

Integral:

n Z t

d

S(t) = +α e(t)dt (7)

dt 0

and the output measurement, y(t). α is a tuning parameter

that defines the surface and the system. n is the system order.

Fig. 2: Linoya’s compensator and modified scheme [10] For this research, integral surface will be used, acting on the

K(−ηs + 1) Kλs

tracking error [11]. G∗ (s) = + (16)

(T1 s + 1)(T2 s + 1) (T1 s + 1)(T2 s + 1)

To ensure that the error and its variation is always equal K[(λ − η)s + 1]

G∗ (s) = (17)

to zero (e(t) = 0 and ė(t) = 0), is necessary the following (T1 s + 1)(T2 s + 1)

condition, called sliding condition:

Using (17) is obtained three conditions for λ value. If λ ≤ η,

dS(t) the zero moves at right of the its initial position; if λ = η,

=0 (8)

dt positive zero is cancelled; If λ ≥ η, the zero is on half left

The continuous part is obtained by combining the process plane ”s”. The third condition is used for controller design

model and sliding condition. due to eliminates the inverse response from the feedback loop,

2) Discontinuous function-Reaching Mode: The sliding but while the λ is bigger this produced a slower control loop

mode emerges from the effects of the relay systems with their [9].A criterion for initial lambda according to several tests

switching characteristic at a high frequency (i.e. chattering); minimizing the Integral Squared Error (ISE) is expresed by

the control function is defined as (9). (18)

The aggressiveness to reach the sliding surface depends on Replacing (18) in (17), we have the expression given by (19).

the control gain, but this action increase the the chattering.

K(ηs + 1)

The expression (9) arise from Lyapunov function when the G∗ (s) = (19)

sysstem reached in a finite time smaller to surface S(t). (T1 s + 1)(T2 s + 1)

The new transfer function observed by controller is:

K(ηs + 1)

III. C ONTROLLER D EVELOPMENT Y ∗ (s) = U (s) (20)

(T1 s + 1)(T2 s + 1)

The general system model used in this work is represented

From this transfer function, the controller design is

by (1); in classical feedback, the output of the system that is 0

started.Knowing that Y ∗ (s) depends on G (s), and this one

view by controller contains a Right-Half-Plane zero (10) mak-

depends of the modeling errors; It is proposed to use slid-

ing that the controller takes wrong initial corrective actions.

ing mode control (SMC) due to its performace no depends

K(−ηs + 1) these.The SMC is designed from Y ∗ (s) (n = 2) and it’s

Y (s) = U (s) (10)

(T1 s + 1)(T2 s + 1) chosen an integral sliding surface (7), resulting in a surface of

Linoya’s compensator Fig. 2 gets a new zero ubication in the the PID form (21).

plane ”s” depending the tuning parameters of this controller. Z t

de(t)

A transfer function is initially obtained, it is able to do that S(t) = 2αe(t) + α2 e(t)dt + (21)

0 dt

the controller observes the output without the positive zero,

and then is chosen a controller to complete the Linoya’s If the error is defined as the difference between the reference

scheme. The function that reduces the positive zero effects is and the new output (22), and using the sliding condition (8):

called G0 (s) and it is designed separating the process model

e(t) = r(t) − y ∗ (t) (22)

in two parts (11), one part contains the zero on the right side

of the plane ”s” and the other the part Go (s) contains the dS(t) d2 e(t) de(t)

gain and poles of the model (12); The last one is going to be = + 2α + α2 e(t) = 0 (23)

dt dt2 dt

part of the designed transfer function. Derivating (22):

= − (24)

dt dt dt

K

Go (s) = (12) It is assumed that steady state reference changes do not exist:

(T1 s + 1)(T2 s + 1)

dr(t)

The transfer function G0 (s) is defined in (13), where λ =0 (25)

represent a parameter that makes that the controller observes dt

a system without inverse response. Replacing equations (24), (25), in (21) results:

d2 y ∗ (t) dy ∗ (t)

0

G (s) = Go (s)λs (13) = −2α + α2 e(t) (26)

dt2 dt

Kλs The parameter α eliminates dy ∗ (t)/dt and the value of this

G0 (s) = (14)

(T1 s + 1)(T2 s + 1) depends on the model studied, in general:

The λ values is given in accordance with the development of Y ∗ (s)(T1 s + 1)(T2 s + 1) = K(ηs + 1)U (s) (27)

the scheme depicted in Fig. 2.

Y ∗ (s)(T1 T2 s2 + (T1 + T2 )s + 1) = KηsU (s) + KU (s)

G∗ (s) = G(s) + G0 (s) (15) (28)

d2 y ∗ (t) dy ∗ du(t) KηKD

T1 T2 + (T1 + T2 ) + y ∗ (t) = Kη + Ku(t) − |S(t)| < 0 (42)

dt2 dt dt T1 T2

(29)

Finally the condition (42) is neccesary to ensure the stability

Solving:

KηKD

dy ∗ (t) dy ∗ (t) >0 (43)

T1 T2 −2α + α2 e(t) + (T1 + T2 ) + y ∗ (t) T1 T2

dt dt

du(t) IV. S IMULATIONS

= Kη + Ku(t)

dt

(30) In this section the performance of DSMC will be compared

with a clasical controller PID and PID controller combined

dy ∗ (t)

(T1 + T2 −2αT2 T1 ) + α2 T2 T1 e(t) + y ∗ (t) = with Linoya’s compensator.

dt (31)

du(t)

Kη + Ku(t) A. Linear System

dt

If we choose α equal to equation (32), then dy ∗ (t)/dt = 0, It consists in a system with inverse response used to

T1 + T2 develop the controller from the transfer function [9].

α= (32)

2T2 T1 2(1 − 4s)

Replacing 32 in 31: Y (s) = U (s) (44)

(2s + 1)(5s + 1)

2

T1 + T2 du(t) To this system are designed three controllers PID, DSMC and

T2 T1 e(t) + y ∗ (t) = Kη + Ku(t) (33)

2T2 T1 dt Linoya’s compensator, PID parameters are obtained through

u(t) becomes uc (t) because this part of controller uses the Ziegler Nichols tuning rules, DSMC is tuning taking in con-

system and sliding condition. sideration ISE results and finally Linoya’s compensator uses

as part of its scheme the PID before mentioned, all parameters

duc (t) (T1 + T2 )2 y ∗ (t) uc (t) are shown in Table I.

= e(t) + − (34)

dt 4KηT2 T1 Kη η

Controller PID DSMC Linoya

The discontinuous part is given by the (9), so the dynamic Parameter Kp Ti TD KD α λ

controller has the form: Linear 0.525 6 1.5 1.35 0.35 8

= e(t) + − + KD sign(S(t))

dt 4KηT2 T1 Kη η

(35)

The PID, DSMC, and Linoya’s compensator controllers are

Finally, the control law is given by:

tested before setpoint changes, disturbances and noise.

Z t Z t

(T1 + T2 )2 y ∗ (t) uc (t)

u(t) = e(t)+ − + KD sign(s(t))

0 4KηT2 T1 Kη η 0

(36)

A. Stability analysis

From Lyapunov’s function described in (37) and stability

condition (38) [12].

S(t)2

V (t) = >0 (37)

2

dV (t) dS(t)

= S(t) <0 (38)

dt dt

V (t) is a differentiable function and dS(t)/dt is defined from

(23) as:

dS(t) dy ∗ (t) d2 y ∗ (t)

= −2α + α2 e(t) − (39)

dt dt dt

Replacing (35) in (29) is obtained a condition desribes as: Fig. 4: Set-Point Changes in linear system

dS(t) KηKD sign(S(t))

=− (40) Comparing the applied controllers to the system can be

dt T1 T2 observed as the one of better performance is the DSMC, so that

To demostrate the system stability (40) is introduced in (38) for the reference changes the reverse peak decreases, it is the

obtaining: quickest to recover its reference value when setpoint changes

KηKD S(t)sign(S(t)) or disturbances and its performance does not decrease with

− <0 (41) noise presence like the other controllers.

T1 T2

Process reaction curve: At a signal u(t) from 60% to 70%

and 60% to 50%, the open loop response of the nonlinear sys-

tems presents the following parameters: K1 =0.32, K2 =0.428

, t90 =1.891 seg , t47 =0.95 seg, T1 =0.5646, b=0.8,a=0.9586.

The transfer function for a positive step change:

0.32(−0.3692s + 1)

G(s) = (50)

(0.54s + 1)(0.4363s + 1)

The transfer function for a negative step change:

0.428(−0.3692s + 1)

G(s) = (51)

(0.54s + 1)(0.4363s + 1)

We can get average transfer function:

y%

Nonlinear

B. NonLinear System Linear

The Van de Vusse reaction (inverse response) that produces

in a CSTR, is commonly seen this in chemical process, as time [min]

shown [13]:

1k

A−→B 2

−→C

k Nonlinear

(45) y% Linear

3k

2A−→C

The equations that describes a reaction mass balance are:

time [min]

dCA (t) F

= −k1 CA (t) − k3 CA 2 (t) + (CAf (t) − CA (t)) Fig. 6: Reaction Curves for Linear and no Linear system

dt V

(46)

0.374(−0.3692s + 1)

dCB (t) F G(s) = (52)

= k1 CA (t) − k2 CB (t) + (CB (t)) (47) (0.54s + 1)(0.4363s + 1)

dt V

Table II contains a tuning parameters of three controllers of

Where F represents the input feed of product A; V is the

nonlinear system

reactor volume this will be constant; k1 , k2 , k3 are the reaction

rate for the three reactions; CA (t) and CB (t) are the reactant

concentration presents in the reactor, so the controlled variable Controller PID DSMC Linoya

is CB (t), F is manipulated variable of the process, CAf (t) Parameter Kp Ti TD KD α λ

Linear 3 0.65 0.162 35 2.07 0.7384

is the initial concentration of A, this one is considered as

disturbance. TABLE II: Controller Parameters

The values for the variables are V=700 liters, CAf (t) =

10mol.l−1 , k1 = 10 mol−1 .min−1 , k2 = 10 mol−1 .min−1 ,

k3 = 10 mol−1 .min−1 . At the beginning, steady-state condi-

tions are CAo =2.9175 mol.l−1 y CBo =1.1 mol.l−1 and the

maximum flow of the valve used in the process is 634.17

mol.l−1 .The valve and transmitter equations are expressed

in (48) and (49) respectively. The signals u and y will be

expressed as a percentage where the steady stable conditions

are y0 % = 70% y u0 = 60%.

100

y(t)% = ( )(CB (t)) (48)

1.5714

634.17

F (t) = ( )u(t)% (49)

100

The process of approaching the non-linear plant to a second-

order system with inverse response is based on the method

described in section II-A Fig. 7: Set-Point Changes in nonlinear system

classical schemes, and the output of controller the chattering

is reduced.

DSMC is a robust controller that no depends the error

models, and reduce the efects of the inverse response due to

the combination of Linoya’s compensator and Sliding Mode

Control.

VII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Oscar Camacho thanks PROMETEO project of

SENESCYT, Republic of Ecuador for its support in the

realization of this work. Authors thank to PIJ-15-17 Project

of Escuela Politécnica Nacional for its sponsorship for the

realization of this work.

R EFERENCES

Fig. 8: Noise presence in nonlinear system

[1] O. Camacho, “Sliding mode control in process industry,” Process

Control and Optimization, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 351–359, 2005.

[2] T. E. Skogestad and P. I., Multivariable Feedback Control: Analysis and

In this case the controllers present a good performance but Design. Wiley, 2001.

DSMC is the fastest to get reference value for each case and [3] R. Rojas, W. Garca-Gabn, and O. Camacho, “On sliding-mode control

for inverse response processes,” IFAC Proceedings Volumes, vol. 38,

it is evident as the use of Linoya’s compensator improves the no. 1, p. 525530, 2005.

performance of controllers. [4] A. Koshkouei, K. Burnham, and A. Zinober, “Dynamic sliding mode

control design,” IEE Proceedings - Control Theory and Applications,

vol. 152, no. 4, p. 392396, Jan 2005.

V. R ESULTS [5] J.-L. Chang, “Dynamic sliding mode controller design for reducing

chattering,” Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, vol. 37, no. 1,

To evaluate the simulations results, the DSMC is compared p. 7178, 2012.

with PID, and PID with linoya’s compensator. Set point [6] P. Lesniewski and A. Bartoszewicz, “Hyperbolic tangent based switching

changes (linear = 0% to 0.2% and 0.2% to 0.4%),(nonlinear reaching law for discrete time sliding mode control of dynamical

systems,” 2015 International Workshop on Recent Advances in Sliding

= 70% to 73% and 73% to 76%); disturbances (linear = Modes (RASM), 2015.

±5%), (nonlinear= ±10% of CAf (t)); noise = (linear =5% [7] J. Xu, M. Wang, and L. Qiao, “Dynamical sliding mode control for

),(nonlinear = 5%); the trajectory tracking of underactuated unmanned underwater vehicles,”

Ocean Engineering, vol. 105, p. 5463, 2015.

Furthermore to compare the controllers the average value [8] P. Balaguer, V. Alfaro, and O. Arrieta, “Second order inverse response

of the performance index ISE. This value was obtained in the process identification from transient step response,” ISA Transactions,

simulations and are presented in table (III) and (IV). vol. 50, no. 2, p. 231238, 2011.

[9] B. Ogunnaike and W. H. Ray, Process dynamics, modeling and control.

Oxford University Press, 1995.

[10] K. Linoya and R. Alpeter, “Inverse response in process control,” Ind.

Iype Setpoint Disturbances Noise

Eng. Chem, vol. 54, p. 3949, 1962.

Controller ISE ISE ISE

[11] O. Camacho and C. A. Smith, “Sliding mode control: an approach to

PID 0.8265 0.0511 0.8265

regulate nonlinear chemical processes,” ISA Transactions, vol. 39, no. 2,

PID+Linoya 0.131 0.0080 0.1310

p. 205218, 2000.

DSMC 0.0638 0.0036 0.0638

[12] J.-J. E. Slotine and W. Li, Applied nonlinear control. Pearson Education

TABLE III: ISE comparison for linear system Taiwan, 2005.

[13] V. Alfaro, P. Balaguer, and O. Arrieta, “Robustness considerations on

pid tuning for regulatory control of inverse response processes,” IFAC

Conference on Advances in PID Control, vol. 45, no. 3, p. 193198, 2012.

Iype Setpoint Disturbances Noise

Controller ISE ISE ISE

PID 11.4 0.04805 11.59

PID+Linoya 5.516 0.02955 5.677

DSMC 4.376 0.00084 4.594

observed that the dynamical sliding mode control has a better

performance than others controllers with lower ISE value.

VI. C ONCLUSIONS

In this paper is shown a dynamic sliding mode control in

processes with inverse response. In the examples presented

the results of the controller in front of different type of

disturbances have a better ISE performance, compared to the

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