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Wind power is the most suitable renewable energy for rapid and cost-effective
implementation. Horizontal axis wind turbines have been greatly developed but some other
technologies, such as the vertical axis wind turbines are still in an initial development phase.
The disparity in the development of these technologies remains unexplained. Nevertheless, the
little development made in vertical axis wind turbines seems to emphasize this technology as
being one of great potential. This present work aimed to create an analysis of this technology.
Models were developed, and a wide range of CFD results were obtained using the kw SST
model. In the end, a small wind turbine intentionally built for this work was tested.
Keywords: VAWT Darrius Giromill H-rotor Vertical axis wind turbine Wind power Kw
Table of content
Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Renewable energy

Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are
naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and
geothermal heat. Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas:
electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid)
energy services.
1.2 Wind energy and wind turbine
Wind energy is generated by converting the kinetic energy of the atmosphere into
useable electricity with wind turbines.
Wind is generated by complex mechanisms involving the rotation of the Earth, the
heat of the sun, the cooling effect of the oceans and polar ice caps, temperature gradients
between land and sea, and the physical effects of mountains and other obstacles.
Among the renewable sources of energy, wind energy converters (wind turbines)
the top spot. Wind turbines are primarily classified as either Horizontal axis wind
(HAWT) or Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) depending on the orientation of the
around which it rotates. HAWT’s are the most efficient type and has thus received
attention and research leading to its use in large scale. However, VAWT’s have been
receiving renewed interest during the past decade, primarily due their ability to get
integrated in to the urban environment.
The complexity of shapes possible with VAWT’s is enormous when compared with
HAWT’s. However, studies on VAWT’s have been mostly focused on straight bladed
barring some private sector companies who manufacture Complex shaped VAWT’s.

1.3 Vertical axis wind turbine

Vertical axis wind turbines are advocated as being capable of catching the wind from
all directions, and do not need yaw mechanisms, rudders or downwind coning. Their
electrical generators can be positioned close to the ground, and hence easily accessible. A
disadvantage is that some designs are not self-starting.
There have been two distinct types of vertical axis wind turbines: The Darrieus and
the Savonius types. The Darrieus rotor was researched and developed extensively by
Sandia National Laboratories in the USA in the 1980's.

1.4 Project Objectives and its scope

Our objective is
2 Chapter 2: Analysis of dynamic force
2.1 Aerodynamic force
2.1.1 General introduction
The aerodynamic force is the force exerted on a body by the air (or some other gas) in which
the body is immersed and is due to the relative motion between the body and the gas. The
aerodynamic force arises from two causes

• the normal force due to the pressure on the surface of the body
• the shear force due to the viscosity of the gas, also known as skin friction.

Pressure acts locally, normal to the surface, and shear force acts locally, parallel to the
surface. The net aerodynamic force over the body is due to the pressure and shear forces
integrated over the total exposed area of the body.

When an airfoil is moving relative to the air it generates an aerodynamic force, in a

rearward direction at an angle with the direction of relative motion. This aerodynamic force
is commonly resolved into two components:

• drag is the force component parallel to the direction of relative motion,

• lift is the force component perpendicular to the direction of relative motion
2.2 Model of Double Multiple Streamtube

Various computational models exist, each with their own strengths and weaknesses that
attempt to accurately predict the performance of a wind turbine. A survey of aerodynamic
models used for the prediction of VAWT performance was conducted by Islam. The DMST
model offers relatively good accuracy with short calculation time. (When compare with
CFD or other methods).

The Double Multiple Stream tube (DMST) version developed by Paraschivoiu models
allowed for the difference between the upwind and downwind passes of each blade by
dividing each stream tube into an upwind half and a downwind half as shown in Figure. The
turbine’s interaction with the wind in the upwind and downwind passes of the blades
separately. The assumption is made that the wake from the upwind pass is fully expanded
and the ultimate wake velocity has been reached before the interaction with the blades in
the downwind pass. The downwind blades therefore see a reduced ‘free-stream’ velocity.
This approach more accurately represents the variation in flow through the turbine.

Each stream tube in the DMST model intersects the airfoil path twice; once on the
upwind pass, and again on the downwind pass. At these intersections we imagine the turbine
replaced by a tandem pair of actuator discs. upon which the flow may exert force. The
DMST model simultaneously solves two equations for the stream-wise force at the actuator
disk; one obtained by conservation of momentum and other based on the aerodynamic
coefficients of the airfoil (lift and drag) and the local wind velocity. These equations are
solved twice; for the up-wind and for the downwind part of the rotor.

Now according to the actuator disk theory shown in 1 above the induced velocity (Vau)
on the upstream wind will be the average of the air velocity at far up-stream (V∞) and the
air velocity at downstream equilibrium (Ve). In which the wind turbine is divided in several
parallel and adjacent streamtubes that are considered to be independent from each other,
having their own wake and induced velocities, as shown in Figure 1
Actuator Disk
Steamtube 1
Figure 1 presented the DMS V8 1 V e1 V w1
V au1 V ad1
model diagram. The actuator
disc is divided in two V au2 V e2 V ad2
V8 2 V w2
actuator disc, each of them
with their own induced V8 3 V au3 V e3 V ad3 V w3
V au4 V e4 V ad4
The induced velocity V8 4 V w4
decreases along the axial
streamtube direction from Upstream Downstream

the left to the right, so the

induced velocity in the
V aui V ei V adi
upstream Vaui is less than the
undisrupted wind speed V∞i
that arrives to the streamtube.

Between upstream and

downstream there is an
equilibrium induced velocity
DMS model diagram
Vei < Vaui.
The induced velocity in downstream Vad is less than equilibrium induced velocity Vei thus.
For the induced velocity Vaui in the upstream we have:

Vau = Vi  uus

Where uus is the interference factor for the upstream that is less than 1 and is given by:
uus =
The equilibrium induced velocity is influent by induced velocity in upstream:
Ve = Vi (2 − 1) = Vi (2uus − 1)
The induced velocity in downstream is given by:

Vad = uds  Ve = udsVi  (2uus − 1)

where uds is the interference factor for the downstream.

uds =
From here we see that the aerodynamic behavior of the blades in the upstream will influence
in the induced velocity on the blade in downside.
The undisrupted wind velocity V∞i is defined by the wind velocity profile and increases along
the wind turbine height.

The DMS prediction model with the VAWT performance equations presented previously, is
possible to predict the turbine performance.
The torque and power coefficient are found by integrating the aerodynamic behaviors of the
several streamtubes.

2.2.1 Analysis of Straight Bladed Darrieus VAWT

Straight bladed Darrieus type VAWT is known for its simplest type of wind turbine.
However, its aerodynamic analysis is quite complex. Flow velocities in the up-stream and
downstream sides of the Darrieus-type VAWTs are not constant.