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III
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22
. ., . .
: . .:
. 10 . . III.
( ). —6- ., . — .: ,
2004. - 800 . - ISBN 5-9221-0530-2.
,
.

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.

III
( )

. .
- : . .

071930 06.07.99. 26.07.04. 6 0 x 9 0 /1 6 .


. . . . . 50. .- . . 48.

« - »
« / »
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........................................... 9
.................................................................... 9
................................................................. 10
.......................................................................................... 12
I.
1. .................................................................... 13
2. ............................................................................... 19
3. ........................................................................................................ 22
4. .................................................. 28
5. .................................................................................. 32
6. .................................................................................. 37
7. ......................................................... 39
II.
8. ................................................................................................. 44
9. ................................ 45
10. ........................................................................ 47
11. ........................................................................................................... 51
12. ........................................................................... 57
13. ................................ 60
14. ...................................................................................... 61
15. ............................................................................................................ 65
16. ......................................................... 70
III.
17. ........................................................................... 74
18. .................................... 77
19. .......................................................................................... 81
20. ........................................................................... 84
21. ........................................... 87
22. ...................................................................................... 91
23. ............................................................................... 95
24. .................................................................103
25. .................................................................... 105
IV.
26. ..........................................................................................112
27. ............................................................. 116
28. ............................................................. 121
29. ............................................................. 124
30. ...................................................................................... 129
31. .................................................................................. 132
V. -
32. - ................................ 136
33. .................................................................................. 140
34. .................................................................... 147
6

35. .................................................................... 150


36. ( ) . . . 154
37. ( ) . 166
V I.
38. , ........................................... 171
39. ...............................................................................177
40. , .................................................. 182
41. ,
...................................................................................... 186
42. .............. 193
43. ......................................................196
44. ................................ 199
45. ....................................... 203
V II.
46. ......................... 208
47. ......................... 212
48. - ....................................215
49. -
..........................................................................................................................222
50. ....................................226
51. . . . . 232
52. ..................239
53. .............. 244
V III.
54. ...................................................................................................................249
55. ............................................................................................. 254
56. ............................................................................................................258
57. ..................262
58. ............................................................. 269
59. ............................................................. 275
60. ....................................... 277
IX .
61. .............................281
62. ........................................................................285
63. ....................................290
64. . ......................298
65. . ..................305
.
66. ........................................................................309
67. ............................................................. 311
68. ......................................................315
69. ........................................................................... 317
70. - ........................................................................321
71. .............. 328
72. .................................................. 329
73. .............................334
74. .................................................................................. 343
75. ........................................................................345
76. .................................................................... 350
77. ...............................................355
7

X I.
78. ................................ 367
79. ......................................................370
80. ....................................... 374
81. .................................................................................................... 378
82.
............................................................................... 386
83. . ......................................................392
84. . ......................................................... 397
85. . d ...............................................401
86. ......................................................404
87. ......................408
88. - ........................................................................................................ 412
89. ......................... 416
90. ............................................................................................. 420
X II.
91. .................................................................... 433
92. ........................................................................... 436
93. ..........................................................................................441
94. .................................................................................. 449
95. .............................459
96. . . . 463
97. ....................................466
98. ...............................................................................471
99. . . . . 476
X III.
100. ....................................481
101. ............................................................. 488
102. . . . . 491
103. ............................................................. 498
104. ......................508
105. ........................................... 514
X IV .
106. ^ - ........................................................................................................ 523
107. ............................................................. 532
108. 6 ^ - ........................................................................................................ 536
109. .............................543
110. - . 546
XV.
111. ....................................550
112. ....................................... 554
113. ........................................................................... 559
114. .................................................. 568
115. ......................................................570
X V I.
116. ............................................................. 572
117. .................................................................................................578
118. ..........................................................................................583
119. .................................................................................. 593
120. ........................................................................... 600
8

121. ....................................... 602


122. ......................... 606
X V II.
123. ........................................................................... 609
124. ............................................................. 614
125. .................................................. 617
126. ............................................................................................. 622
127. .................................................................... 630
128. .............................635
129. .................................................................... 642
130. ..................645
131. ......................................................... 649
132. ................................................................ 657
133. ................................ 666
134. ...............................................674
135. .................................................................................. 680
136. ..................684
137. ......................................................689
138. ....................................692
139. . . . . 697
140. - ......................702
141. ............................................................................................. 708
X V III.
142. .............. 716
143. ........................................... 723
144. ....................................... 726
145. .................................................................... 730
146. .............. 739
147. ....................................742
148. . . . 749
149. ........................................................................759
150. .............. 764
151. .................................................................................. 767
152. ................................ 772

a. ...................................................................................... 779
b . ............................................................................................. 781
c. .................................................................................. 784
d. .............................787
e. ............................................................. 792
f. -
...................................................................................... 794
............................................................................................. 799
« »
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.

1988 . JI. JI.

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, 1973 . . .

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, 1947 . . . , . .
: /
: — dV,
— dq, — d3p
/ ( . . 51) —
f nra (n\ f \ m)
7 = ( — )/
{ /,g } = f g — g f

— 6\
— . . 154, 155

, /, I
— e^i ( .
. 114)

: I— I, « »,
1988; II — II, « », 1989; IV — IV, «
», 1989.
I

§ 1.

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( W. Heisenberg, 1927)2) .
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(§2).
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. . 1925-1926 .,
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§1 15

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(N . Bohr).
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§1 17

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( § 14)
,
.

§ 2.

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q
, a dq—
(
); dq
dV .

,
( , )
( ),
: | |2 dq
20 . I

,
dq
.
1).

( ).
,
*.

J J 4>(q)^{q')v{q,q')dqdq[, (2.1)

(f(q,qf) ,

. *
2) .
,
, , .

.
,

.
,
.

, , .
, | |2
:

j m 2d q =l . (2 .2 )

. | |2 ,

, , .
, , , | |2
(2.2).

)
( . Schrodinger, 1926).
2) (2.1) tp(q,q') = S(q —qo)S(q' —go), S
^- , , § 5; qo
, .
§2 21

| |2 , ,
, | |2

(2.1), *, ,

, —
.
; ,
.

, .
(^)

- 1, 2 ( )— 2.
, 2, . .
\ + 2 2 ( , 2 — ),
, 1,
2. , ,
,
— 2 < , t),


. , ,
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1).
, q\
q2 ,

. ,
2(# #2)
(^ ) 2(#2)

x)TeM , ,
. , ,
: ,
, ( . § 14).
22 . I

:
^ ( ,
12 91 92 ) = ^ 1 (9 1 ) ^ 2 (9 2 )- (2.3)
,

:
(2.4)

§ 3.

/,
. ,

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,

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, , .

( , ),
;
.
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;
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,
/ ;
§ 5.
/ / , 0, 1, 2,
3, . .. ,
/ / , .

/.
,
(3.1)

,
/ f n.
§3 23

,
/ ,
,
, .

= « , (3.2)

, —
.
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
(3.2)
( )
fn /.
, ,

*
*. , , ,
. , fn
,
= , ,
(3.2)
.
, ,
. , ,
| |2
(3.2) fn
/ .
fn ;
,
(3.3)

,
(3.3). \ \2
,
* .
24 . I

/ * dq. ,

(3.4)

, *= * *
* ,

(3.4),

:
(3.5)

(3.2),

(3.6)

5 = 1 — 5 = 0 .
*
. ,

( ,
,— ) .
/ /
.
/ /
,
§3 25

| |2: _
f = ^ 2 f n \ a n \2- (3.7)

/ ,
, .
(3.7) *, ,
*.
, / 1),
. (/ )
/ . /
, (/ )
* /:

/ = * (/ )< . ( 3 .8 )

, /
2) .
, (3.5) ,
(3.7)

7 = Y , = [ *f e / ) dq.
J \ '

(3.8), ,
/
(/ ) = ^ > / . ( 3 .9 )

(3.5) , ,
/

(/ ) = J K ( q , < /) (< /) d q 1, ( 3 .1 0 )

K( q , q f) ( )

= ( - )

1) .
2) , : /( 1 + 2 ) =
= / 1 + / 2 , /( ) = / , 1 , 2 — , —
.
26 . I

.
(3.9) ,
( , ,
), /
f n 1) :

/ = / . (3.12)
,
/

/ = / ,
/ — , —
/,
, .
,
,

/ = / .

, —
.
.
(3.8) ,
J *(/ ) = I (/* *) , (3.13)

/* , / 2).
,
, ,
,
/. / ,
, /,
1) , ,
(/ ),
.
2) , / fifj = ?,
/* ,
§3 27

,
I (/ ) = I (/ )<**, (3.14)

, — .
*, (3.13)
,

/= /* • (3-15)
, ,
1) . , ,

, .

, . . ,
. / .
/* ,

/. , /* ,
/ +. /
, ,
/*. ,
/ +, /*

= J *f+*dq.
,

(/ = J * dq = J fy*dq= J */* dq.

, ,

/+ = , ( .1 )
, / +, , /*.
(3.15)

/ = / +, (3.17)

) (3.10) -
, , K ( q , q t) =
= K * ( q , ,q).
28 . I

. .
(
).
,

, .
f n, f m —
/, , —
: ^ ^
/ = / , / = fm .
,
,— ,
,
^/ - „ ^ = (/„ - fm ) -
dq.
/* = / , (3.14)
,
{fn fm) I „ ^ ^ = 0,

, fn / ,
.

/, ,
,
. ,
/ , g, ... /,
g, ... ,

, . .
f n , gn , ...

/ = / , £ = ,. ..

§ 4.

/ g— ,
/ g, / + g / + g.
,
, ,
. / g
§4 29

, / g
,
/ + g,
f n + gn .
/ g
, / + g .
,

f + g = f+g- (4.1)

f + g, , ,
/ g.
, / g— ,
/ + g, —

/ + g.
. / , go—
/ , g, ( / + g)o —
/ + g. ,
( / + g) 0 ^ / + go- (4.2)
, / g
. ,

. ,
(f +g) (f+g) , ( / + g) = ( f + g )
, , ( f + g) = / + g ^ /o + go,
(4.2).
/ g—
.
,
/ g. ,
,

, .
/ g.
, — / g,

f g ^ n = f ( g Vn ) = f g n ^ n = gnf'&n = g n fn ^ n
30 . I

( fg ,

g , / g ^ ).
fg
g /, .
,
.

, ,
fg gf
.
fg = g f
fg-gf = . (4.3)
/ g ,
. ,
: / g
,
.
( . § 11):
/ g ,
,
.
,

, .
, fp
( — ) /,
- . ,
cp(f) ,
(p(f)
/. (f(f)
, (p(f)
f p.
, / -1
/. ,
/ / -1
, . . / / -1 = / -1 / = 1.
§4 31

/ g ,

. , fg
,
. ,
,

J Vfgbdq = J /( ) ^ = J (^ )(/ ) dq.

/ ,
g ,
: g$ / .
,

J /& dq = J (f'&)(g<f>)dq = J #/ dq.

, ,
.
, gf ,
/g ,

fg = fg , (4.4)
. . , /g ,
,
.
(4.4), ,

( f g ) + = g +f + • (4-5)
/ g— , ( /g ) + = g f .
, fg ,
/ g— .
, fg gf

\ { f g + gf ) - (4.6)

, fg —gf
« » (. . ,
32 . I

).
; , ^ ^
i(fg ~ gf) (4-7)
.

^ ^ ^
{f,g} = f g - g f (4-8)
.
,
{fg, = { /, h}g + f { g , h}. (4.9)
, { /, h} = 0 {g, h} = 0, ,
, , / g .

§ 5.

§3,4 ,
,

.
/ — ,
.
/ ,
.
(3.2)
,
— —

(q) = J af * f (q)df, (5.1)

,
/.
, ,

.
, , .
f
, \af\2 df
,
,
§5 33

/ / + df.
/ ,

J \ a f \2 df = l (5.2)

( (3.3) ).
,
(3.5), , ,
,

J * ^ = J \af \2 df,
, ,

J *^ = J J d f V f V t f d q .

af = J ( )(1 , (5.3)

(3.5).
(5.1)
(5.3):
« / = / « / ' ( / * /'* ? < * ? ) 4 -
af
.
,
(. . f /' / dq) /' /.
f' = f (
d f' ).
, f ^/ ^ ? / —/ ',

.
6( f f — /) :

J f* dq = 5 ( f - f ) . (5.4)

6(f ' — / )
/ ' —/ = 0 ,

J 5 { f - f ) a r d f = af .
34 . I

I S ( f ' - f ) d f ' = 1.

6-
1) . .
5( ) = 0 /0, 5(0) = , (5.5)
, ^

J 6 ( x ) d x = 1. (5.6)

, = 0. f(x)
, = 0,
+
J S ( x ) f ( x ) d x = f ( 0). (5.7)

J 5( - a ) f ( x ) d x = /( ), (5.8)

= a, a f ( x ) —
= . , 5- ,
. .
6(— ) = 6( ). (5.9)
,

f S(ax)dx= [ 5( ) -^ = -— ,
J J
— —
,

6( ) = -— 5( ), (5.10)
\ \

— .

1) -
( . . . Dirac).
§5 35

(5.4)
;
(3.6) . ,
/ / f - .
| |2
.
(9) ,
(5.4). (5.3) (5.1),

(?) = J ( 9 ') ( / ^ f (q,) ^ f ( q ) d f ) d q ' ,

J (q,) f (q)df = 8 ( q - q ,). (5.11)

, ,
,
^ ;(< /) (4) = % '-< ? ). (5.12)

(5.1) (5.4) (5.3) (5.11),


, , , (9)
( ) , ,
, (5.3)
= ( /)
( ), ( ).
( /) , ( ),
; /-
( (q) — (/-
). | ( )|2
dq, | ( / ) |2
/
df. f(q) , ,
/ ^- ,
, ( )
q /- .
(p(f) — /, ,
< / .
( )
. , ,
. ,
36 . I

<() ip

J „( ; ( /) d* = % > ( / ') - ? ( / ) ] ,

(5.4).
5- / ' = /. / 7,
/,
¥> (/')-¥ > (/) = ^ ( / ' - / ) .
(5.10), 1)

% ( / ' ) - ? (/)] = - /)• I5-13)


(5.13) (5.4) , ^

= VI /)/# /' ( 5 ' 1 4 )

,
,
— .
, , ,
.
,
.

0?) = ^ > { ) + f af ^ f (q)df, (5.15)

, —
.
, ,
q. ,
q. ,

) , < ( ) (
),

^[ ,( )] = ^| u 5 (x ~ a i ) ’ (5.13 )
i \ >(«01
OLi — ( ( ) = 0.
§6 37

| ( )|2,

(3.8), , 1)
q = q. (5.16)
,
, q^ q0 = qo'&qo,
qo
q.
= 0, q = q$, ,

2)
90 = % - <? )- (5-17)

§ 6.

. ,
.

, ;
,

.
,
, .
,
,

.
,

( ).
1)
, ,
.
2)
aqo = f ty(q)5(q — ) dq = (^ )-
dqo |ago|2 dqo = | ( )|2 dqo,
.
38 . I

— . ,

.
,
( . II, §53). — -
.
=
ip (
).
,
ip ; ,
,
.
, ,

= <^, —
, < .
,
,
S
( ).

, «
» , . .
.
, , <

S
, . . S = const •(/?.

1) .
( )
= 1, 055 • 10-27 • .
, « »
( , , )
.Q/ti /
= aelS/n. (6.1)

) ( . Planck, 1900). h,
, , ,
/, 27 ( ).
§7 39

. (
) «
» .

0 (

, — 0).
,
,
. ,
,
.
,
,
, «
» ,
( . § 17).

, ,

( );
. ,

.
,

§ 7.

,
§ 1, ,

.
, —
(
). ,
,

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.
(
40 . I

) —« ».
g, gn ;
, ,
, , —

.
,
(£), « » gn
, £ .
,
,
-
g,
, , .
0( (
) , (q) —
(q
).
,

(<?) (0- (7-1)


,
. , ,
,
. , ,
£ q.
(
),

Y , A n (q) „(0, (7-2)

A n (q) — q.
« »

.
,
g (« »)
. ,
+
(7.2),
, « » gn :
»(«) (0- (7.3)
§7 41

, A n (q)
.
, , A n (q) .

,
n- « » .

A n (q) ( )
, ,

A n (q) = J K n ( q , J ) V t f ) d J (7.4)

K n (q,qf),
.
, ,

. ( . § 1),

( ) .
, A n (q)

( ) .
,
( ) = anipn (q), (7.5)
< — ,
, ( )
. (7.4)
K n (q, (/),
q q'\
K n (q,q') = (7.6)
( )

= j *{q)4>*n {q)dq, (7.7)

( )— ,
.
(fn {q) —
. , ,

,
.
42 . I

( ),
— \ \2
, - .
:
1 ] | 2 = 1. (7.8)

(7.7) (7.8) (
) ( ) ( . §3) ,
(q)
( ). , (#)
.

( ), , ,
, — . ,
( )
(n- ) .
(#) ,

( /),
,
.
, ( ), ,
(fn (q) ( , ,

- ).

.
( ), /
/ .
</?n (g), ,
/ -
. ,
,
/ ,
1). (
) , ,
— , ,
. ,
, ;
, .
,
, (
) .
§7 43

<fn{q)
, — ( ) ,
. .

<Pn{Q,t),
ipn (q). m- ,
£, -
/ <pn (q, t ) ^ ( q ) dq.
,
« » —
. «
» ,
,
.
( . §44).
, , .
.
( . § 18),

;
.

, . .
.
II

§ 8.

. ,

,
— ,
,
. ,
<9 j d t

,
, , .

— = , (8.1)
dt ' v 1
— ;
, .
f * dq ,
,

(8.1)
, (
i/H):

j H *^*dq- J * ^ =

= j 4>*H*q>dq- J f * F f d g = J *( * - ) > dq = 0.

, ,
= iJ, . . .
§9 45

, .

(6.1)
_^5
dt h dt
(
). (8.1), ,

—d S /d t. ,
,
.
—d S / d t ,
. ,
,
. , ,
. ,
(8.1)
.
.

§ 9.

,
. ,

,
. ,
,
;
§ 1.

.
/ / ,

/. , , ,

7 7
= - (9-1)
,
/,
46 . II

/:

7=7=11 */ ^ =

= / « - |« d , + J /> d , + 1 * - / f i , .

d f jd t ,
/ , ,
. <9 /<9£, <9 */<9£
(8.1),

7= fv* ^ 4 !d q + %
- j(H*V*)f4!dq-%
-J */( ) dg.
,

’( * *)(/ )^ = J * / <* ;

, , ,
, / = J */ ^^g, ,
, ,
/ 1):

] = ld + lt ( H f - f H ) . (9.2)

1)
/, qi
pi :
df df ( df . df .

, ' , * = «" * = -
dpi dqi

f =f +[ , 1 . _ ( |£ | - | £ | “ ),
[if, /] / ( . I, §42).
(9.2), ,
i ( H f —f H ) ,
, , ( ) — H[ H, f ] .
§10 47

/ , / ,
, /
.
,
, ,
, / = 0.
. / = / = 0, . . / = const.
,
. ,
/ (. .
/),

— .

§ 10.

( ,
— — )
. ,

. , , ,
, , ,
, ,
. ,
.
,
,
.
, ,
.
,
, . .
^ = , —
. , (8.1)

f ug :
i ( J g —g f ) fr[f,g], [/, g] -

,
, g.
48 . II

^
^ = > =
at

= e x p ^ - ^ E nt ) ^ n (q), (10.1)

— .
.

. ,
,

= . (10.2)

= ^ 2 a n e x p ^ - ^ E n ( t ) ) ^ n (q). (10.3)

| |2 , ,
.

| |2 = |^ |25 ,
.
/ = / */ ? = f ijj^ f ^ n d q
/ ( ).
,
. ,

,
( , ,
), -
. ,
,
.
, , ,
.
§10 49

, , ,
/ g,
. ,
, ,
, /.
, g^ (
) ] ,
g, ,
/ g .
, g'ljj ,
, :

(gVO = £ = )-
, ,
, . . .
, ,

, .
,
.
, ,
.
, ,
( ) 1).

, ,
,
.
,
; ,
, ,
.

( ) , = + 2,
q\ , — q<i,

Hi J?2 ,

) ;
,
2,
n ( n + 1 )/2 , . . 2.
50 . II

, .

, . . , -
. ,
f | |2 dq,
, . , , ,
| |2 ,
. ,
, . .
, , .

/| |2 ? . | |2

,
.
/| | 2 dq , | |2
(
). , /| |2 ? ,
,
,
, . ,
( - )
. ,

, f \ ^ \ 2 dq
,
.
,
.
,

| |2= J J aEdEr
* , exp ( ^ { ' - ^ ) dE d E '.

,
exp{i(i^ —E ) t / h },
§11 51

. ,

; ,
1).
,
.

§ 11.

,
(

). = ^

.
(3.8) /,

/ = ^ ^ anamfnm(t) ? (11.1)

fnm (t)

fnm{t) = j K f ^ m d q . (11.2)

f nm(t) ,
/, / (£)
,
2).
/ (£)
( / t )
. (10.1),

) , ,
,

1 |2 = - - | ~ En)t \- - = ^ 2 KV>n(g)|2,
n,m '
. . .
2)
( W . Heisenberg) 1925 .,
. « » ,
( . Born, P. Jordan).
52 . II

,
fnm(t) = f nmeibJnmt, (11.3)

.\
Unm = ---- ----- (11.4)
,

/ = J ' ' dq (11.5)

/,
1).
/
/;
,

/ = 7 = ' ^ 2 ' ^ 2 a n a m f n m {t) . ( 11.6)

(11.3) , , /:

/ = ^ nmfnm{t) (11.7)
( exp(iunmt))
:

(f ) nm = i^nmfnm ~ -^ )fnm- (11.8)

;
.
/
/*

( = J + dq = J ?* ( = J * < ,
. .
( / * ) » = (/ )*' ( .9)

)
( . § 2) / (
[ ( — )\.
.
§11 53

,
, , ,
fnm = fmn ( -10)
(fmn (fmn)*)' ,
, .
= .
, (11.10) ,
. f nn
/ .
.
,
^ /rnnVW (11-11)

, }
,
(3.5). ,
:
= ' ) = fY ,g k n ^ = = J2SknM m .
,
, ,
= £ ( /^ ) ^ ,
,
fg
i f g) — fmkgkn- (11-12)

:
.
.
,

( )
, . .
:
= '^ 2 , (11.13)
54 . II

.
/ = / ,
/.

^ Cm( f ) = / ^ - -

*
dq. f ^ dq
f nm.
f dq
,a f ^L n dq = 1
1):
^ fnm^m = f Cm (11.14)

^(fnm f$ ) = ,

_ 0, ,
° ~ \ 1, = .
,
( ).
,
,
, . .
\ f nm- f Snm\ = 0 . (11.15)
( /
)
/. ,
(11.14) /, - ,
.

) (§5)
(11.13) «
» ( ,
). f nrn
/ ,
(11.14).
/ = E E cn(/nmCm)
.
§11 55

(11.5) /
,
f^jjn = f n^ n

fnm = j 1 ' dq = fm J * dq.

fnm = 0 fmm = fm- ,


,

/; ,
, ,
. , ,

(
,
). , /,

g, , / , g
. , ,

, .
, ,
, , 1) .

§4 :
,
. / g
. fg = g f (11.12)
,
^ 2 fm k g k n = ^^ / -

^ ,
,
/, f m^ = 0 ,
f mmgmn = gmnfnn
gmn(fm ~ fn) = *
fn / ,
fm —fn 0, gmn = 0.
1) , ,
(11.8)
(9.2).
56 . II

, gmn ,
. . i/jn
g. /
(. . ,
),

gmn , , .
,
/,
;
, -
gmn, , ,
,
/ g.

( .16 )

— ,
( ).
, ( — ) = 0
?/;*,

dq
,

J ( H - E n) ^ d q = J -d ^ ( H - E ny r n dq

.
.

( ),
f nm 1)
(11.17)
,
« » / | )

1)
. (11.17) ,
.
§12 57

| ),
( ,
).
« » -
:
, |ni), | 2 ), .

| ) ( \ ):

( \ ) = j ' ' ' dq. (11.18)

§ 12.

. , ,
,
,
,
.
.
^ n (q) ^ nf (q) ( = 1 ,2 ,...) — -
.

^'n = 'Yh (12.1)

'
.

= . (12.2)

S ,
,
. ,
(12.2) f dq = Smn
(3.14),

J { S ^ n) S * r m dq = J r mS * W n dq = Smn
58 . II

, ,
S* S = 1,
S* = S + = S ~ \ (12.3)
. . . ,
, .
= S'_1V4,
(12.1),

^n = Y , Snm^'m- (12-4)

S^S = 1 SS~*~ = 1 ,

J 2 S L S ln = Smn (12.5)
I

J 2 S * m lS n l= S mn. (12.6)
I
- /
« » , . .
' .

J ' 7 ' < = J{S* )(7 ) dq =

= I ^* ^ dq = I ^ §~^'7 '§ dq.

, /

= S-'fS (12.7)
1).

) { / , g } = —ihc / g,
(12.7) { / / , g /} = —ihc', . .
. . . 46 ,
[ /,g ] .

( )— . I, §45.
,
,
.
§12 59

Sp / 1):

Sp f = Y , f n n . (12.8)

S p (/g ) = Sp (g /). (12.9)


,

Sp ( f g) = fnkgkn — gknfnk = S p (g /).

; ,
Sp Ugh ) = Sp ( hf g) = Sp (ghf ) . (12.10)

,
. ,
Sp / ' = S p ( S - 7 S ) = Sp ( S S - ' f ) = Sp /. (12.11)
,
.
, (12.6),

^ \ [\2 = Y , S k i $ ks i = = i ^ i 2- (12 2)
i k,l,i ,I

S = eifi, (12.13)
R— ; , R+ = R ,

S+ = e~iR+ = e~iR = S - 1.

? = S - ' f S = f + { /, iR } + \ { { l i R } ,i R } + . . . , (12.14)

1) Spur — .
trace. ,
.
60 . II

exp(=tzi?) R.
, R
, (12.14)
.

§ 13.

,
,
.

J(t) = J 'S>*(q,t)f'S>(q,t)dq. (13.1)


, ,
, , ,

.
(
) , ,
.
( . (12.13))
5 = (-| * ), (13.2)

— . ,

, . .
( ),
S^n{q) = e x p ( - ^ E nt)ipn (q). (13.3)
, (10.3)

( ,*) = 5 ( ,0), (13.4)


. . S

.
§14 61

, (12.7),

= S-'fS, (13.5)

/ (t) = J '&*(q,0)f(t)i&(q,0)dq, (13.6)

. . /
( ) ,
.
, (13.5),

/ (^),
(11.3).
, (13.5)
( / £),

| (13.7)

(9.2), :
(9.2) /,
/,
(13.7)
/.

§ 14.

— , § 1.
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
( , ),
, a q—
. , ,
62 . II

,
1).
/ ,
.
, q.

7 = J J ^ *( q, x ) f 4f ( q, x ) dqdx . (14.1)

p ( x , x f),

( , ') = j ( q , x ) ^ *( q , x ' ) d q, (14.2)

q\
. (14.2)
, « »
*( , ') = p( xf,x). (14.3)
« »

( , ) = J | (<?, )\2 dq
.
/

7 = J [f p(x, x' )\ xf=xdx. (14.4)

/ ( ^ ') ;
' = .
, , ,
, .
, p ( x , x f)

. , ,
, .
,

) ( , ) ( )
, ,
,
.
(<7, ) ,
,
( . §2). , .
§14 63

, , ,
.

, ( , ') = ( ) *( /).

. ,
( ),
,

( ,
- ). ,
( ),
,
.
,
, ;
,
, - .
, ,
( , x f, t)
,
, . .
p ( x , x f,t) = ( , £) *( /, t).

(8.1),

= i m * { x ' , t ) Jd ^ A + =
dt V ’ ' dt V’ ' dt
= *( ',*) 0 ) - ( ,*) '* *( ',*),

H— , ,
a H f— , '.
*(xr,t) (x, t)
H f, , , -
( '
[ * ,t} = ( - '*) ( , ', t). (14.5)

n(x,t) —
, . . .
;
64 . II

p( x, x' , t ) = =

= ' ' ^) { ) > ( ^ { E n - E m)t). (14.6)

,
(10.3) .

. , ,
,
= • ( 14 7
* )

/ ,
(14.6) (14.4):

7= 171
/ '&l(x,t)f'f>m ( x, t ) dx,
/=££
m n
t t m n f n m (t)—
m n
exp (j^En-Em)t}, (14.8)
fnm — /.
(11.1) ) .

. « » ( , )
, ,
, , .
(14.6) ( x f = ) ,

( £ — )
.
. ,

> 0, (14.9)
)
.
(F . Bloch) 1927 .
§15 65

) ammi

& & ^ l^mn | • (14.10)


« » ,
,
& —^ ^ ' (14.11)
,
« » « »
.

) = ^ ^ 0" = ^ ^ = ^ ^ \ \ =

) = , 9 (14.12)
. . .

§ 15.

,
.
, ,

;
.
S
, -
( — )
5 : —)►r c + Sr. ^ (ri, 2 , ...)

( ± + <5 , 2 + 5 , . . . ) ( 1, 2, . . . ) + <5 ^ 2 =

= ( l + J r ^ V a W ( r b r 2,--0
' '
(V a — r a).

l + < 5 r^ V a
66 . II

,
' (l*1 , 2 ,...) ( \ + 5 , 2 + 5 , . . . ).
,
, ,
, ,

.
. , « »
. ( ) = ( ),
- = ,
. . .

. (
1) , ,
, S -
, — = 0

£ 'V „ ) H - .S ( £ V „ ) = 0 . ( 15. 1)

,
( ) ,

. ,
,
( . I, § 7). (15.1)
;
^2 ^ ,
, ,
— .

V
— :
= -ifiV , (15.2)
:
_ Q _ 0 _
= = Pz = - i h — .
oz
,
(6.1),
= -ih -yvs = vs,
§15 67

. .
VS.
( . I, §43).
, (15.2),
, . , { )
{ ), ,

J ( dx = —iH J ip^- dx = ih J *~^~ dx = J ifjp^ipdx,


.

, ,
:
= 0, PxPz PzPx = 0, PyPz PzPy = 0. (15.3)
,
.

.
ifiS/ = . (15.4)

= const -eipr/n. (15.5)

, , .
, , , pz
.
,
— .

(5.4) f */ dV,
{dV = d x d y d z ), ^-

,
, , ,
^-
, 2 :

1) - ( (5- )
(5- :
5(a) = 5( ax)5( ay )5( az ).
68 . II

, ,

' *, d V = (2irH)sS(p' - ) (15.6)


/■
( ,
5- , 6[( , — )/(27 )]=2 6( , — ) . .).
1)
00
^ J eia^dC = S(a). (15.7)

, , (15.6),
(15.5) const = I 2) :
= eipr/ H. (15.8)
( )
,

j I
:

V(r) = «(p)V’p ( r ) ^ = (15.9)

(S p = dpxdpydpz). (5.3)

( ) = J ( ) *( ) d V = J tp(r)e-ipr/ hdV. (15.10)

( ) ( . § 5)
:
| ( )| 2 _ ^
1 V^ yi (2 )3
— d?p.
) , ,
, (5- (5.8).
, 8( — ), (15.7),
(5.8),

) = J J /(*) £( ~ ) dx — .
2

2) ,
\ \2 = 1 , . . «
». , , — .
.221.
§16 69

,
,

. ,

(15.11)
,
( )

( ) (15.9) ,

(15.10),

(15.11), , -

(15.12)

.
, ,
(
) .
( )
( ) = ( + ).
( + .) ,

, = —ihV:
( + ) = l + Iap + iQ a p ) + ... ( ).
, ,

(15.13)
.
70 . II

§ 16.

.
, , z
,
- = , p xz - z p x = 0 (16.1)
, pz .

( — ) = — —( ) + — = — ).

, —
— ] ,
, pz z. , 1)
- = -ih, - = -ih, p zz - zpz = -ih . (16.2)
(16.1) (16.2)
PiXk - x kpi = - i h 8 ik, i , k = , , z. (16.3)

,
. /( ) —
,
/( ) - / ( ) = —iKVf. (16.4)
,
( / - fl>)4> = - [ / ) - fS/ ] = - i W V f .

/( ) - r/(p ) = (16-5)
(16.4),
,
(15.12).
(16.1) (16.2) ,

) , 1925 .,
.
§16 71

. ,

.
,
,
, , A z. , ,
. ,
/j = ( ) /^, /( ) — ,
.

(. . ). ( )
(15.10)
( ) ( °- ) / .
, ( _ ) /^
, , Az
, ( ). ,
( )
, (pox —px) A x / h < 1, . . . | ( )|2
,
, , pz , ( ) ,— ,
,
.
) , A p Z) , ,
~ , ~ , A p zA z ~ . (16.6)

1927 .
,
(. . ),
,
.
( = A y = A z = 0),
= = Apz = . ,
. ,
,
(
(15.8),
).
72 . II

( . Weyl).

( ), ;
,
.

+ —
/ dx

— .
,

/ x V | 2 <fa = (fa)2,

[ ( x ^ ^ i p + xip:¥— ^ \ d x = [ x d^ dx = — [ \ \2 = —1,
J \ dx dx J J dx J

I = - J r ^ d x = * f r % ,i’ d x =

2(6 2) - + % ^ 0 .
v y H
( )
,
.
SxSpx ^ / /2. (16.7)
/2.
,

= 1^ (^ ° ~ ^ ) ' (1138)
5 — .

\ \2 = — :— ( ---- ——^),
\/27 6 V 2(6 ) )
. . (
= 0)
5 .

( ) = j V’(a;) e x p ( - i ^ ) d a ; .
§16 73

( ) = co n st • exp ( - ^ ^ ).

, \ ( )\2,
=
5 = /25 ,
5 5 h/2.
, . /
g— ,

f g ~ g f = -if£, (16.9)
— .
h ,
(. . h 0)

. , « -
»
(16.9) .

fg-gf =
— =
= —ih , h
h e1) .
rsj ,
/, g

A f A g rsj fie. (16.10)


, ( / = ),
(g) , ,
(9.2), = g

A E A g ~ hg. (16.11)

) / g ( .
. . 46).
III

§17.

,
.

: = 2/ 2 ,
( . I, § 4).


( )
.
= 2/ 2
,
:
(17.1)

(15.2),

(17.2)

= 2/ 2 + 2/ 2 + d 2/ d z 2 — .

(17.3)

; — ,
-
.
§17 75

( )


U (1*1 , 2 , ...), .

1):

= 4 ^ + ^ 2 -); (17-4)

, — .
, ,
,

H = f + U(x, y , z ) = - ^ A + U(x, , z), (17.5)


Zm Zm

U(x, ,z) —
.
(17.2)—(17.5) (8.1)
.

^ = + /( , , ) . (17.6)

(10.2), ,

^ + [ - ( , , )] = 0. (17.7)
Zm

(17.6), (17.7)
1926 . .
(17.7)

^ + = 0. (17.8)

1) , ,

.
76 . III

= 2/2 . ( )

= const • exp ( —j \ E t — p r ) ^ . (17.9)

— —
,
. E/h,
= p/ ; = 27 /
1) .

, , ,
+ . (
= 0) , —
. ,

(17.9),
.
, -
,
.
(17.6) (6.1)
= aelS/ fi, ,
,
— - — + — (V S )2 - — a A S - - V S V a - — A a + Ua = 0.
dt dt 2m 2m m 2m

( , S );
, :

— + — (V S )2 + - — = 0,
dt 2 2

— + — A S + - V S V a = 0.
dt 2
,
2,
f + i < v s >2 + =»• <1? >
. ., , -
S . , , —>> 0
) , ,
(L. de Broglie) 1924 .
§18 77

( ) h .
2

^ + d iv (« ^ )= 0 . (17.11)

: 2

(| |2 = &2); V S / m = /
v . (17.11) ,
, ,
« »
v .

.
.
( ).
,
.
' ( '
V ):
( , t) = const • [ ( —E t ) / h \,
'( ' , t ) = const • e x p [z(p V — E ' t ) / h \ ,
= r '+ V t ,

p = p' + m V , = : + Vp' + 2/ 2
( . I, § 8 ). ,

( ,£) = '( ' , t ) exp


hV 2
= '( — V£, t) exp ( 1)
hV
,
,
.
(1 ) .

§ 18.

,
, .
78 . III

.
, U ( , , z)
.
, .
, , ,
U .
, U= , ,
. . = 0.
, ;
, ,
.
U ( , , z) ,

. ,
U ,
— l/rs s < 2 ( . §35).
Umin U ( x, y ,z ) .

U ,

= + U.
( )
, > 0.
U > Umin, , > Umin.
,
,

> Umin. (18.1)


, ,
; U ( , , z), ,
, .
,
, . . < 0
.
, ,
,
( . §10).
,
;
.
,
;
> 0 , ,
§18 79

( ) ,
f \ \2 dV 1) .
,

, < U, \ \2

, .

,
, U > .
,
< U , . .
— .
;
,

,
,
- .
U ( , ,z) > 0 (
U 0), (18.1) > 0.
, , > 0
, ,
, . . -
.
, U (
) —
U ^ - a / r 3, >0. (18.2)
,
( )
.
;
~ h/r -
2/ $,
— / $.
, s > 2. 2/ $ — / $

.
, ,
,
) , , ,
U(x,y,z) (
) .
80 . III

.
\ \
. «
» ,
, . . « »
= 0.
s < 2,
.

.
. ,

(. . 5 ).
5= 2 § 35.
,
.
, — ,
, (18.2)
( ). ,
« »
< -
2/ ( ) 2, : — / $.
, ( ,
* ).
70 s < 2,
2/ ( )2 — / q .
,
,
.
,
( ,
, U > ,
). ,
,
= 0.
, —l / r s s > 2,

.
,
.

, ,—
.
1). -
) , .
§19 81

. , *
, ,
;
, * , . .
( ,
). ,
,
,

.
( )
, .
, , , t
—t 1).
,
* .
,
, . . .

, ,
t
*. , , ,
, ,
(
§ 7).

§ 19.

v
= m v. ,
,
. ,
v =
(9.2):
v = -( - ).
h
(17.5) (16.5),
) , U
— , ( )
.
82 . III

v = / . (19.1)
, ,

.
, ,
. ,
dt,
dt.
,

,
.
/
/( ), -
- . , / /( ),

;= 1 ( / - / )= ^ / - / 2),
(16.4)
p2/ = p ( / p - ^ v / ) , / 2 = ( / + iH V f)p

/ = ^ ( p V / + V/-p). (19.2)

, .

v = {( - ) = ^( - ) = - .
(16.4),
n r i = —VC/. (19.3)

( )
.
/| |2 /,
V,
.
.

j t J | |2 dV = J ( ^ + * ^ ) dV = ^ J ( * *- * ) dV.
§19 83

= * = - ^ A + U(x,y,z)
2

* _ * = ( * - * ),

dt
j | |2 d V = - J div j dV,
j 1)

j = — ( * - * grad ) = — ( * *+ * ). (19.4)
2 2

divj ,
, ,
V:
d
j m 2 d,V = - j i j d f . (19.5)
dt
, j
.

,
. j | |2

^ + d iv j = , (19.6)
ot
.

(17.9) — ,
( ,

).

= -T=exp[-^(.Et-pr)l, (19.7)
y/V 1 J

v— . , (19.4),
j = /mv, . .
.
L) |^ | ,

j = — \ \2 grade*. (19.4
84 . III

. —
;
2
“ ^ = ^
2

-^ - *+ * = *.

;

{ - ) 1= ^{ * -^* ) = f - di ( *- *^ ).
zm Zm

, ,
, ,

( - )J dV = ,

, ,

J * 4 = 0.

§ 20.

5J *( - E ^ d q = 0. (20.1)

*
. *,

J 5 *( - E ^ d q = 0,

, 6 *,
= . .
,
§20 85

J *( - )5 = j 1 ( * - E)iP* dq = 0,

* * =
= \
(20.1)
. ,

(20.2)

(20.3)

( (20.3))
(20.2)
, . . $ .

$ 1).
( > 0)
,
.

(20.2) \ ±
,
,
(20.3),
f dq = 0.
, $, \ , ... , -1
(
),
(20.2)
:

J 2 dq = 1, J dq = 0, = 0,1, 2 , . . . , — 1. (20.4)

1)
, ( ).
86 . III

,
1).
$
( , , )
2). ,
. ,
( > 0) ,
, ( —
, J dq
).
, $ ,
.
, , $, '0 —
, $.
+ ' '0
; ,
, ',
, . .
.

, = 0
( . § 18).
(20.2)
.
,
.
,
;
,
,
,
.

/ 1 = / - ? -^- + U ^ 2 dq
2

1) ( . )
: . .
. . . . — .: , 1950.
. IX; . , . . . — .:
, 1951. . I, . VI.
2) ( ), ,
,
( . §63).
§21 87

,
.

= diVaO/’Va'i/’) - (V )2•
diva (V;VaV;) dVa
,

,
. ,

+ 2 dq. (20.5)

§ 21.

,
, z .
,

d 2
2 + ^[ - ( )\ = 0. (21.1)
dx2 fV

, ,
U ( , , z) =
= Ui(x) + U2 (y) + Us(z), ,
. § 22-24
«
» .
.
,
.
, >2 — ^
,
.
(21.1),
=^ { _ ) = 2

1 2 — 1 2 —0 ( ).
,
1 2 — 1 2 = c o n st. (21.2)
88 . III

\ = = 0, const
,
1 2 - 2 1 =
[/ \ = 2 / 2 • , \ = const - ,
. . .
{ )
( )
: ( ), + 1-
, (
) 1) .
, U( ) —>> =
(
). U(+oo)
(. . U(+oo) = 0 ) , a U(— ) Uq
, U$ > 0 .
,
;
U{+ ), . . :
< 0, (21.3)
, , > Umin, . .
U( )
C^min < 0.
, Uq :
0< < . (21.4)
,
— ,
= + . ,

. ,
( )
, \, 2
(
— ).

(21.1) U{x)\
»+ |^ = 0.

^ ,
( ) .
§21 89

= acos(kx + ), (21.5)
, 8— , « » = / = /2 / .
(
+ )
(21.4) .

"-^( - ) = 0.

, - ,

= * , = ±y/2m(U 0 - ). (21.6)

— .
,
, < .
, £ > (21 ?)

, —
. .
,
(21.1),

( , ,

).
— -)-
= a i eikx + a2e~ikx (21.8)
—>> — . ,
, ~ — , .
, U( ) — (U(—x) = U(x)).

(21.1) . , ( )
, (— ) ,
{ ) :
{— ) = ( ). , ( ) = 2 { ),
= ±1. , (
= 0)
( (— ) = ( )),
90 . III

( (— ) = — ( ) ) 1). ,
: ,
,
= 0 ( (0) = — (0) = 0).

( ) ,

| |.
,
( — + ).
( — — ,
).

( > 0)
,
, , ;
. ,
,
j> * : dx = 5 ( ^ -) = 2 5( - ') (21.9)

( — ),
(21.5) = 2:
2 cos( + 5) = ^ +5^ + ~ ^ +6 (21.10)

, ,
(21.10)
pf ;
6 = 5f (6 , , ). ,
,
= ; , ,
± (^ ^ ) . ,

/ + / = / .(‘ - >
0 0 —

(15.7) (21.9).

) ,
, . . . ,
,
, .
§22 91

5- ,
(5.14),
f' 1( /2 )^/2 _ 1
\ dE ) /27 hv ’
v— . ,
= - ^ = ^ v = - ^ = {ei(kx+5) + -<(**+«)). (21.11)

, ,
(21.11), 1/(27 ).
,

5- :

,
,
, (
), 1/(27 ).

,
. 5-
, ,

, 1/{2 ).

§ 22.

, . .
U(x),
. 1: U ( ) = 0 0< < a, U ( ) = Uq ( )
< 0, > . ,
< Uq , _____ Uq
> Uq
.
0< < ------------------- 1-------

"+ ^ = 0 (22.1) PmCl

, (
).
92 . III

( ),
"+ ^ ( ~ 0) = 0. (22.2)
= 0,
, =
= = (22.2)
( , < Uq — ).
< Uq
(22.2) = const - ^ ,
3t= 2m (U o-E) (22.3)

( — +
> < 0). \ \2
, < U(x).

'/ . (22.3),
\ '\/ = (22.4)

Uq ( . 2)

( / —^ ).
Uo =
= 0, , , § 18,

= 0. (22.5)
( ,
(22.4). , Uq —>> -
'/ —»> ; '
, = 0.)
(22.1)

= cs m (k x + 5), = (22.6)

—0 —0 5 = 0,
— sin = 0, = ( —
, 1) )

= ^ 2, = 1, 2, 3 , . . . (22.7)
2

) = 0 = 0.
§22 93

.

= v ^ sin & ) ' < 2 2 ' 8 )

«
», . .
[7 = 0 0< < , 0< < , 0<z < U=
. ,

, ,«, = — (\ 4 + 4 + )>
/
n i , n 2,n 3 = 1, 2, 3, . . . , (22.9)

= ] fi; sin{!v x) sin ( » ) sin ( v " ) ■ (22'10)


, ,
(22.7) (22.9), Eq 2/ m l 2, I—
.
:
~ I ,
~ /1;
~ ( /I)2/ .

1.
,
.
. ( ) \ (22.8)

( ) —J ^ dx = J —j sin ex p ^ —i ^-^j dx.


V
,

, . ,2 dp 47 3 2 7

m dp-
2. ,
.2.
. < Ui,
. < 0
= c ie ^ 1®, XI = ( 1 / )y / 2 m ( U i ~ ),
94 . III

>
= 2 ~™2 , 2 = (l/H)\/2m(U2 — ).
(0 < < )

U( x) = c s i n( k x + (5), = /2 / .
'/
2
U!

c t g ( ak + S) = — 2 = — |! -

. 2

sin (5 =
\/2 m U i ’ 4 7 \J 2m ~ U 2
(5,
kh . kh
= nir — arcsin -
\/2mUi \ / 2 mU2 ^ ^
( n = 1, 2, 3 , . . . , arcsin 0 7 / 2 ),
= k 2h2/ 2 . ,
, ; .
arcsin 1, ,
0 \/2mUi/h.
(1 ) , —
. (1)
, = \j2mU\/h . ,

\/2mU\ 7 . l Ui
1 ----------- > ----- arcsin 41 — , (2)
h 2
= 1 , ,
. , Ui U2
,
. Ui = U2
( 2 ), , .
Ui = U 2 = Uo ( ) (1)
hk 7 — /
arcsm — = ------------. (3)
y/2mU< 2
£ = / 2,

c o s£ = d=7 £, 7 = — (4)
m U 0

, tg £ > 0 .

sin £ = ± 7 £, (5)
§23 95

, tg £ < 0.
= 2t;2h2/ 2, (
^ 0 ) .
, , Uq h 2/ 2, 7 1,
(5) . (4)
( ), £ « ( 1 / ^ )(1 — l / 2 j 2).
,

« ».
3. , «
» .
. , , ,
— /
;
. (11.16)

(22.9).
( ) 2 2 2
= --- 1-

§ 23.

,
( ).
2 2/ 2, —
. ,

S = ? _ + r n u W' (23 )
2 2 v )

= = ,
.
.

1).
(19.3);
+ 2 = 0. (23.2)

(^)mn ” ^ % = 0.
) (1925)
.
96 . III

, (11.8),
( ) = { ) = ~ ^ .
( ~ ) = 0.
, ,
, =
,
- 1, . . , ^1 =
? =1 .
,
. ,
. -
(11.10) ,
:
% —% -

^^ .h
= = — —,

{ ) ( ) — ^ ^

(11.12)

^ '(^nlXnlXin 3Cn ln%ln) — 2 . 1 1— % .


z z '
I I
I= = 1,

( +1, ) 2 - ( , _1)2 = (23.3)


Zmnoj
, ( + 1 , )2
, ,
,
.

, ,
, — —
. .
,-1 ,
§23 97

(23.3) = 0, 1 , . . .
:
nh
(% , —l) — 2 m u

,
1):

x n,n- 1 = x n- 1>n = J ^ - . (23.4)


2

= = [( 2)„ + 2( 2) \

• • ,2 1 /
= ~ |/ ^ ^ 1 1 1 1 “ ^x nlx ln =— ~
— /> (<^21 + U n l)X ln-
I I I
I I = = 1;
(23.4),
= ( + 1 /2 ) , = 0,1, 2, . . . (23.5)
,
.
( = 0) It luj/ 2; ,
.
(23.5)
.

= (23.7)

x)M bi ( . . . 52)
, (23.4) +
. ,

.
98 . III

+ - ) = 0. (23.8)

( £.)
£ 2 / £2;
= ^2 =
= ^ / 2. (
,
" = £2?/;.)
£= = ,
. (23.8)
.,
= /2 { 0 • (23-9)
(0 (
2 / —1 = 2 , > ,
> - 1 /2 )
X ~ 2^ + 2 % = 0, (23.10)
%
£ = =
£ ( , ).
(23.10)
( )
( . § );
(23.5).
(23.10)

X = const •#„(£),
{£) — ,
- £,

( 0 = ( - 1) *2^ - (23.11)
const ,
+
J ( ) dx = 1,

( . ( .7))

" ( ) = ( f f ) 1/4-^ 5 (- ¥ “1 { \ [ ^ )' ( 23 2>


§23 99

U x ) = ( r ) 1/ " e x p ( “ i : i 2 ) ' (23' 13)


, .
+
f £ -

; ,
, (23.4).
,
. ,
= ioox

( - ) -1 = -( + ) - = - * (23.14)

(11.11) , -\ = ,

( — ) = 0.
- ^ . d
= — -----
dx

dibo ,
- - = ------ ^ ,

(23.13). ,

( + ) -1 = ( + ) ) -1 =

*■ = + () '- ' =

= - ^ S expf S i M - ? ) * - 1) ’
- (23.13)
(23.12) .

1.
.
.
,

. (23.1) (15.12)
100 . III

= ihd/dp,
2 muo2h2 d 2
=
2 2 dp2
( ) = ( )
( )

dp muj \ 2 /
— , (23.6);
(23.12).
,

| ( )|2 —— = -------- j exp ( ---- -— ^ ( ^ dp.


2irh 2 \ / \ mujh) \\fmuoh)
2 .
(16.7).
. , 2 = 2 + (Sx) 2, 2 = 2 + (Sp)2
(16.7),
-= 2^ 2 2( 2 . 1 / 2 2 (Sp)2
= ------ 2 ------- ^ -------- ( ) --------(Sp) ^ / , 9 + -— — .
2 2 2 2 8(Sp)2 2
( Sp),
,
: ^ fax)/2.
3. ,
, . . ,

SpSx = h / 2 ( . Schrddinger, 1 9 2 6 ) ) .
.

( ,£) = ------ ^--------- - ^ | — - —— ^ -----i(p(t)X . (1 )


v ' ( 27 ) / (<5 ) / I 4 (Sx)2 '

(16.8), = x(t ) = p(t ) = m x ( t ) —


; (19.3)
(U = 2 2/ 2) = — 2 ,
= — 2 -
+ = 0 , (2 )
. . x(t ) .
(1)
f | |2 ? = 1 ;

(p(t). Sx
<p(t) (1 )
2 2 ! 2 2
------------- = -
2 2 dt

1) .
§23 101

(2 )
1 1
2
- XX
) V 4 (5 )4 _ 2 h2 8 (5 )4 4(<5 )2
- - - ) = 0.
(<5 )2 = h/(2mu)
,j_ 2 2 —2 . ^ 1 — |
= — ( — ---- , —— ----- .
2 2 2h 2
,
/ / m c j \ 1//4 ( — )2 1 zcjt !
expi i ' — at ) “ " (3)
= 0, = 0 ( ) ~ ^2 —
.

2 , 2 2 2 , 2 2 hu /_ l\ ...
£ = — + ---------- = + -------------h — = hu + - ; (4)
2 2 2 2 2 V 2/
« » hu
. ,
x ( t ),
( 2 ).
+ ip _ iut . |2 _
-^ - = - = . (5)
\ J2mnu
(3)

= ^ , ^ n (x,t) = ( ) |- ^ + ^ ut^j .

1)

=

J (6 )

-
I 12 2 — ' /i-7\
wn = \ \ = = — , (7)
!
. . .
4. ,
( . 3; Ph. Mo r s e , 1929).
. —
( ),
— .
:

+ - ~2 + 2 ~ ) = 0.
dx 2

1) . 1 §41.
102 . III

2 /2 _
= ------------
ah
( 0 + ) (
, < 0)
_ /—2 /2 ( 1
- s+ — ( 1)
ah ah 2

/" +
I 1_ /' +
I ({ - 1- +
I n-\-s-\-l/2
--------------- ^ ) /= .

£ ±£/2
£ —> 0 £± s .
,
- ^ 2 ^ 4 £s £ —» 0 .

=
w
+ (2 s + 1 — £) w ' + n w = 0 , (2 )

: w £ = 0 , £ —»
it;
£. (2 )
( . §d
)
w = F ( - n , 2 s + 1 ,0 -
, ,
( F ).
(1 ) , ,
ah
— — 1 -
/2 + 2
,
,
/2 1
----------- > + -
ah 2
( s, , ).
, .
\/ 2 1

ah 2 ’
.
5. U = ----- ^ — ( . 4).
ch
. ,
— ; .
?I Uo
§24 103

£ = th ,

/—2 2mUo
= £>[£>-|“ 1|, S=
2

d_ „2 U{ x)
(1 - s( s + 1 ) - = 0 .
di d£. 1 -f .


. -

= (1 —z2y /2w(o
^ (1 — £) = :

( 1 - u)w" + ( + 1)(1 - 2 u)w' — ( — s ) ( s + s + 1 )w = 0 .


, £ = 1 ( . . = ),
= (1 - ^2)£^2F[s - s ,£ + s + 1,£ + 1,(1-£)/2].
£ = —1( . . = — ),
—s = — , = 0 , 1 , 2 ,... ( F ,
£ = —1 ).
, s —s = ,
2
2s, 2
= - - ( 1 + 2 ) + / 1 +
8
, £>0, . . < s.

§ 24.

.
, F
, ;
F = , — .

U = —F x + const; ,
U = 0 = 0, U = —Fx.

^ + ^ + ) = 0. (24.1)

U + — /7 —
— , ,
,
— + .
104 . III

, = —
—)►+ .

<-(*+!) ( ¥ < - 2>


(24.1)
"+ = 0. (24.3)
. ,
,
,
.
(24.3), ,
( . §b )
= (-0 , (24.4)

( £) = -±= J cos ( + < ) du

, —
, .
£ —)►— ^ (0
. , (^)
£,
( . ( .4))

' ^ ( - 5 |{|8/2) ' ( 2 4 '5)


£
(^) ( . ( .5)1)):
) = [ sin ( | £ 3/2 + I ) ■ (24.6)
(5.4)
, (24.4)
5-
+

I ') = 5( ' - ). (24.7)


1) , , (24.5)
(24.6)
(§47).
§25 105

§21

. ,
(24.6) :

(0 ~ ^ { [ # 3/2 - ] + « q > [-» (j{ s/2 - £)]}■


,
,

1/(27 / ),
(2 ) 1/3
= 1/2 1/ 2,3 ■ (24.8)

.
.

= ^ --ih F — ,
2 dp
( )

-ihF — + ----- \ = 0.
dp V2 )
,

( ) = , 1 exp < — F (
-^—F —
V ^ t t HF I HF V 6

/ ciE(p)aE>(p)dp = 8( ' - ).

§ 25.

. 5
: U(x)
(U = 0 —)►— ) (U = Uq —)►+ ).
< Uq ,
,
, ,
106 . III

; > /,
.

> /
.

-
.

.
,
« »
, . .
— : ~ 2 , &2 = ^ / 2 ( — /) (25.1)
(. — ). ,
,
—)►— ;
, . .

— — : ~ elklX + B e ~lklX, \ = ~^2 . (25.2)

( ,
);
.
\, : \ \ \2,
: 2 \ \2. D

:
D = — \A\2. (25.3)
k1
R
;
, R = 1 —D:
R = \ \2 = 1 - - \ \ 2 (25.4)
1
(
).
< /,
>2
— + . , . .
§25 107

. , ,
, < U, ,
.

( > Uq)
—— , —)►+
, :
= A 1eiklX + B ie ~iklX -»• - ,
■ - (25-5)
= ^ 12 + 2 12 — + .

, Ai, \ 2, 2
. 2 = a Ai + / 3 B i, , /3 —
( , ),
U(x). 2
,
. ,
,
* .

* = A \ e ~ iklX + B { e iklX -»• - ,


* = A*2e~ik2X + B%eik2X -»• +
(25.5) -
; %= \ + f3A\ 2= * \ + j3*A\.
, (25.5)

2= + 2= + * . (25.6)

(25.5)
ki(\ Ai \2 - \Bi\2) = &2(| 2|2 - |- 2|2)-
2, 2, Ai, \ (25.6),

(25.7)

(25.6) ,
( > Uq)
,
108 . III

. , ,
(25.5) £> 2 = 0; \ / \ = —/3*/ *.
\ — 0, 2 / 2 = /3/ *.

Bi 2
Ri = !
i? 2 =
2
, R \ = i? 2 -
\ / \ = —/3*/ * 2 / 2 = /3/ *

.
,
.

1.
( . 6 ); >17 .
. > 0
U( x) (25.1), < 0—
(25.2).
0
dip / dx = 0 :
1+ = , 1{ 1 - ) = 2 ,

2\ \— 2
. = =
6
ki - 2 ki - 2
(2 5 .4 ) )
' \— 2 V1 ~ 2
R =
\- 2 Pi + 2
= Uo ( 2 = 0) R , —»
R = ( U o / 4 E ) 2.
2 .
( . 7).
. > Uo
.

= « 1 * + A e ~ ikix < 0 ,
J k 2x e ~ik2x
= Be 0 < < ,
= C e ikix >

1)
.
.
. ,
~ /p
, . . ,
U{x) .
( = 0 ),
.
§25 109

( > ,
). , , ',
^ U(x)
= 0, .
D = ki\C\2/ki = \ \2. - Uo
:
4 \ \
D =
( \ - 2)2 sin 2 2+ \ \’
- 7^ < 7
/2— ;
-7
D 2 i>c2, h>c2 =
= y/2m(U0 - ):
= ________4fc?^________
(ki + 2 )2 sh 2 2 + 4 fcfx 2
3.
,
U{x) = U0/ ( l + e - ax)
( . . 5); > IJo.
. :

* +^ ( - ^ =) = .
dx
, +
= const . / 2 .


£ = -
( — 0 )

= 2/ (0,
w(£) £ —» 0 ( . . ). w(£)

£(1 - £)w" + ( l - — (1 - £)w‘ + \ { k l - k\)w = 0 ,


\ a J a

w = F -( - 2), --(fc i + fc2), - - f c a + l,£


a a a
( ). £ —> 0 1,
. . .
£ —» — ( . . — — ) 1)
—ik,2/ ol [ ) ( 2—ki)/a + 2 ) i(k1+k2)/ _

= ( - l ) ik* / a [Ci e iklx + 2 ~ 1 ],

1 ) . ( . 6 ),
, . .
1 jz .
110 . III

Y ( — ( 2 i / a ) k \ ) Y ( — (2 i/a )k 2 + 1)
1=
r(-(i/a)(fci + fc2))r(-(i/a)(fci + fe) + 1) ’
r((2i/a)fci)r(—(2i/a)fc2 + 1)
2=
T((i/a)(k\ - fc2))r((t/a)(fci - fc2) + 1)'
R = |C 2 /C i | ;

( ) (1 - ) =

R = ( sh[(7r/a)(fci - fc2)] ] 2
1 sh[(7r/a)(fei + fe2)] j
E = £7o (A?2 = 0) R , —»

R= {^i) /
R ,
, .
4.
U(x)
,

Uo
U(x) =
ch
.
( . 8 ); < Uo.
.
5 § 23 Uo,
.

ik
= (1 - f ) ■ ^ F ( _ i ± _ 8j_iA + 8 + l j J ± + l t L z l (1)

£ = th , k= \V 2^E , = - ( —1 + J l - ^
ft 2\ V af t
,
a - 2 ~
). - (£ ->• - 1 )

( .7):

—ikx r (z & /o ;)r (l ik j ) ~ ( — / ) ( 1 —i k / a )


(2)
( - ) (1 + ) T ( —i k / a — s ) T ( —i k / + s + 1)
§25 111

,
D = 1 — R:

8mUo
D = ---------------------- 7------1 \ - 2-2- <
,2 ^ , 2 ( ^ / 1 8m U 0 \
s h ------ h cos — /1 —
2 \/ 2 2
, 2 7
sh 2
n ol 8m U 0
D = --------------------- -------. — 2 > 1.
sh2^ +ch2 ^ , / 8 ^ -
ha J
Uq < 0, . .
,
. , D = 1 , 1 + (8m\Uo\/H2a 2) = ( 2 + I ) 2,
. . \Uo\
. ( 2 ),
s ~ .
5.
—> 0, , U( x)
\ \ , — .
. \ \ 1
. \ \ ,
,
_&_# =0
2 dx2

= \ + \ , < 0, = 2+ 2 , > 0. (1)


\ \ ~ , a i,
bi 2, 2.
ai = 2+ 2, 6 i = z^a2 + r b 2. (2 )
, /i, ,
). (1)
(25.1), (25.2) ,
ai = 1 + , \ = &( 1 — ), 2 = , 2= .
(2) ,
: 2i k / v ,
4 2
2
,
. , 2 4,
, , .

) — =1.
IV

§ 26.

§ 15

.

.

.
,
6( ,
. 6 ( - -
)
<5 = [<5< - ].

^( * ,...)
12

( + 5 2 + 8 2 , ■■■) = ( 1, 2 , • • •) + X I =

= V>(ri,r2, . . . ) + ^ [ & p - r0]VaV> =

= ( l + 5< 5^[reVe])^ (ri, 2, • • • )•

1+ ^ ^ [ r aV a]

. ,
,
( . § 15)
. ,
§26 113

( E [ r « v “0 ^ - £ ( Z [ r « v “0 = °> (2 6 )

.
,
,
( . I, §9). ,
, ,
,
[raV a] — .

— ;
- [ rV] = [ ]
[ ].
, .

I, — L.
, :
HI = [ ] = —iH\rV] (26.2)
:
= ypz - zpy, Hly = z p x - x p z , Hlz = XPy - y p x .
, ,
.
.
, - ,
, ,
,
. , -

. ,
, .

. ,

. ,
,
, ,
, t —t
114 . IV

. ,
, .
,
L = —L; , L = 0.

L
( . § 18).

L = - i h f tl>*(22[raV a])il>dq

, L , ,
, L = 0.

. (16.2)

{1 , } = 0, {1 , } = iz, {lx,z} = -iy,


, } = 0> {Ty,z} = ix, { , x} = —iz, (26.3)
{lz,z} = 0, {lz,x} = iy, {lz, y} = —ix.
,

hy - ylx = \(VPz - zpy)y - y(ypz - zpy) i = ~^{Py, y} = iz.


(26.3)
^
{k,xk} = ieikixt, (26.4)
eiki —
1), « »
.
1) % (
) ,
, e i 2 3 = 1- , 27
6 , , / , /
- 1, 2, 3. +1,
, / , / 1 , 2 , 3
( ), — 1 .
,
CiklCikm = 2 Sim, ^ikl^ikl = 6.
= [ ],
, e^i
Ci = eikiAkBi.
§26 115

{k,Pk} = ieiklPl- (26.5)

H{lxly lylx) = 1 (% XPz) (% xpz)lx =


= (lxz - zlx)px - x(lxpz - pzlx) = - i y p x + ixpy = iHlz .
,
{ly-i^Z} = ilx-, {}zi lx} = {}xily\ — Hz (26.6)
^ ^ ^
{k, h } = ieikik- (26.7)

L x, L y, L z . ,

, , ,

^ - - - ^ = - = * -

,
{Ly, Lz} = i L x , { L z , L x} = iL y, {2/ ,2/ } = i L z . (26.8)
(26.8) ,
(
,
— . ).
,
.
L x, L y, L z
:
L 2 = L 2X + L y2 + L 2z. (26.9)
L x , L y,
L z:
{:L 2, L x } = 0, {L2, L y} = , {L2, L z} = 0. (26.10)
, (26.8), , ,
{ z } = L x \JLx, L z} + { L x, L Z} L X = i( L xL y + L y L x),
"2;
{ iy — i(L xLy + L yL x),
{ L 2Z,'LZ} = 0.
116 . IV

,
(26.10)
(26.10) ,
(. . )
.
Lx, Ly

7-/_|_ — L x ~\~ iLy, L ——L x iLy. (26.11)


(26.8),
:
{!/+, I/-} = 2LZ, { L Z,L+} = L+, { L z , L } = —L . (26.12)
,
L2 = L+L_ + L2 —L z = L_L+ + L2 + L z. (26.13)
,
.
,
= sin cos ip, = sin sin ip, z = cos ,
:
, = -i± , (26.14)

'± = e ± * ' ( ± 5 + iC te^ ) ' ( 2 '15)


(26.13),

2_ 9 — ( si n#-^-) . (26.16)
. sin dip sin \ dip
, ,
, .

§ 27.

, .
(26.14)
= 1 . (27.1)
§27 117

= /( ,6) **,
/( , )— .
, ,
2 . 1)
lz = , = 0, ±1, ± 2 , . . . (27.2)
, lz
,
. < ,
Zz,

< ¥>) = (27-3)

,
2Z7T
^>m (^)^>m/ i}P) — Smm1• (27.4)
/■

^-
, ,
: _ __ __ ^ ^ ^
LZ = M , = 0,= , ± 2 , . .. (27.5)
( , Lz
lz ).
z ,
, 1/ , L y,
,—
.
, , , ,
.
, , ,
1/ , L y, L z

L x — Ly = L z = 0;
,
.

1)
— , ,—
.
118 . IV

L x, L y, L z ,
.
, ,

( )
,
.
,
, —
, ,
z . ,
( )
1).

,
, (26.8).

L 2,
2).
, z
,
= \ \
= —\ \. L (
) ( L 2)
\ \.
, L 2 - L2 — L X
2 + L2
L?x + L 2,
1) § 10

.
.
2) , ,

. (
« »
, . § 36) , ,
.
, -
L2
L 2.
,
.
,
, ,
, ,
.
§27 119

. ^ ^
L ZL±
Lz (26.12),
^ ^ ^
L zL±xjjM = { ± 1) ± - (27.6)
, ± (
) ,
= 1 Lz
+1 = const -L+ , - i = const - - - (27.7)
= L,
L+ = 0, (27.8)
> L, , .
L_
(26.13),

L_L+V>l = (L2 - L2 - L z ) ^ l = 0.
1 — L2
L z,

L2V>l = L 'V l, L 2z^ l = 2 , L zipL =

L 2 = L(L + 1). (27.9)


(27.9)
; L
, .
L Lz =
= L, L — 1 , . . . , —L, (27.10)
. . 2L + 1 . ,
L, , (2L + 1)-
;
. ,
L = 0( ),
. , -
- ; ,
,
.
120 . IV

, ,
« L» ,
, L (L + 1); ^-
« ».
/,
. . (27.9)
12 = /(/ + 1). (27.11)
Lx Ly
, , , L2 Lz
( . Born, W. Heisenberg, P. Jordan, 1926). ,
1/ , L y ,
, . .

( L) .
,
,
.
(27.7) , L+
,
—1 — , L — —1.
,
(26.13) 1)
L ( L + 1) = (M\L+ \M - 1) ( - 1\ L -\M ) + 2- .
, 1/ , L y
(. - 1\L- \M) = {M \ L +\M - 1)*,

\(M\L+\M - 1)|2 = L ( L + 1) - ( - 1) = (L - + 1)(L + ),


2)
( M \ L + \ M - l ) = ( M - l \ L - \ M ) = y/(L + M ) ( L - M + l). (27.12)
Lx Ly

(M \L x \ M - l ) = ( M - l \ L x \M) = ^ ( L + M ) ( L - M + l ) , (27.13)

( M \ L y \ M - l ) = - ( M - l \ L y \M) = - ± y / ( L + M ) ( L - M + l ) .

1)
, ( L).
2)
.
§28 121

L x, L y.

, ,
Lz L x = L y = 0. ,
-
,
L.

§ 28.

I
. ,

(/?,
, .

.
Y/m(0, < ) :

J \ Y lm\2d o = l

(do = sin dQ dip — ).


,
2 lz
ip,

Yim = (< ) 1 (0), (28.1)


((f) — lz ,
(27.3).
(27.4), 0/
^

J |0 /m|2 sin6>d6> = 1. (28.2)

Yim I
:

JJ
27 7

Y i'm 'Y lm sine dedip = Sw Sm m i, (28.3)


0
122 . IV

,
.
(< ) ( . (27.4))
lz,
. ©/ (0)
-
; /,
.

!^,
( (26.16)). ' = 12 :
1 ( . \ , 1 2 , 1(1 , \ , _
_sin~ (\ Sm /) ^---sin “^ ^ —
(28.1),
0/
J _ A ( i e d®irn\ _ ^ ! _ © + + 1)0 = 0. (28.4)
sin \ d9 ) sin 6 lm V ’ lm V '

.
,
, I ^ | |,

P™(cos0) ( . § ).
(28.2), 1)

@1 = ( ~ 1 1 (cos0). (28.5)

, ^ 0.
0/
®1,-\ \ = ( - 1 @ 1 \ \, ( 28. 6)

. . 0/ < 0 (28.5),
\ \ (—1) .

) , ,
. , ,
:
il.
. . 278, 527, 533.
§28 123

,
, ,
. ,
, ,
:
1 1/2
\ \ cos0)eimip.
(28.7)
,
(28.8)

, , ,

(-1 = ; - (28.9)
I = 0 ( = 0)
. ,
, . .

§ 27 .
/, | |,
I2
.
(§21) ,
@im I —\ \
; ,
I —\ \ « » .
, ,
cos sin ^ ^ 1) ?
\ \ « »;
, , /.
, ,
0/ . ,
§ 23 .
(27.8) 1+ = 0.
(26.15) /+

“ = 7 * “* “ ’
) , lz
, , ,
dim.
124 . IV

@
dSu
I ctg 0 0// = ,

@ = const • sin^ .
,

® = > ^ sin' (28-10)


, (27.12),

^/,7 +1 = (J— = \ / (/ )(/ + + 1) Yim,'

(1- )! _ 1 jl - m v
(/ + )! (20!

(26.15)

T-[f(0)eimv] = sin1-m —- — ( /s in m ).
d cos

jl —m
l l - m il9 Q = < j -m g d (81 0 • © u ).
“ ( d c o s 6>)'-mV

, (28.10)
0//,

®1 {0) = (_ ) / 2 + 1 ( + )! 1--------- — sin2/^ (28.11)


> ’ \j 2 (I — ) \ 2 l\smm (dcosO) ’ V ’
(28.5).

§ 29.

1), /

, / — .
1)
- ( ,
).
§29 125

. /
, . . .
,

, ^ ^
{/> L} = 0. (29.1)
/ ,
/
L
. ,

,
, ,
( !L M \ f \ n L M ) (
, L ,
, ).
,
/ L+:

f L + - L + f = 0. (29.2)

n, L, — n ' , L , M + 1. , L+
n, L, — n , L , M + 1,
( ', L, + 1|/| , L, + 1)( , L, + l|L+|ra, L, ) =
= ( ', L, + l|L+|ra', L, )( ', L, |/| , L, ),

( ', L, + 1|/| , L, + 1) = ( ', L, |/| , L, ), (29.3)


, ( /, L, |/| , L, )
( )
.
,

, . . (2L + 1)-
.
, , —
, .
( , , . .
126 . IV

)
.
Li
Ai. —
, , ,
- , (26.4).
, :
{ L i , A k} = ieikiAi. (29.4)

( . ,
. , . , 1926).
, ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
(§107),

.
.

, L
:
L ^ L , L ± 1. (29.5)
, ,
L = 0;

. ,

:
— 1 A j^- — -\- ,
—>> —1 _ = Az — , (29.6)
A z.
,
.
,
,
(
) , § 107.
§29 127

Az
:
( 'LM\Az\nLM) = V L { l + ^ L + 1)(n'L\\A\\nL),

(n'LM\A,\n, L - l , M ) = ^ ^ £ ^ L—) {n'L\\A\\n,L- 1), (29.7)

(n',L - \,M\Aj\nLM) = 1|H||„L>.

(n'L'\\A\\\nL)

— , 1) .

( ' L'\\A\\nL) = (nL\\A\\nfL f)*, (29.8)


A z.

- +.
_

(n',L,M —l\A-\nLM) =

(n ',L ,M - l \ A - \ n , L - l , M ) =

(29-9)

+ ,

( L'M '\A + \nL M ) = ( n L M \ A - \ n L' ') *. (29.10)


1) (29.7), (29.9) L
, § 107.
, , ,
(29.12)
.

( ,
(11.17)).
128 . IV

. ,

= \( + - + - + ) + A ZB Z. (29.11)

( )
L . (29.7)-(29.9)
:

(n'LM\AB\nLM) = — — V {riL\\A\\ri'L")(n"L"\\B\\nL),
2L 1 ' ^
n",L"
(29.12)
L" L, L = 1.
, ,
L. (29.9) (27.12)

(L\\L\\L) = y / L ( L + l)(2L + l),


( L - 1 \ \ L \ \ L ) = ( L \ \ L \ \ L - 1 ) = 0. (29.13)

- ;
.
, , n z = cos#
: = 0.
7

(/ — 1, 0|n^|/0) = J @i_10 cos 6 • @ sin 6 d6

0/ (28.11).
1)
(/ - 1 , 0 |n J / 0 ) = il
’ I I / (2 / —1 )(2 / + 1 )
I— I (
,
— . (30.8)). (29.7)
(l-l\\n\\l) = - ( l\\ n \\ l - l ) = iV i, (Z||n||Z) = 0. (29.14)

1) (/ —1 )-
dcosO. — . (107.14).
§30 129

— ( 1 /3 )5ik ( —
- )
1 , ( . . lz ).
. ,
1.
_______2
'Tli'T^k Sik — CL Uh + hli — + 1)
1
.
U, (
). hi = [ ],
1% = 0. h h l k h = (I 2 ) 2
/2(/ + I ) 2, hlkhh
(26.7) :

hlk h h = h h h h — ieikihhh = (I2) 2 — - e i k i h ( k h — h k ) =

= (I2)2 + K M elkmTtim = (T2)2 -T 2 = f ( l + I)2 - 1(1 + 1)


( , eiu^mki = 2 dim)-

_________ 1
~ ( 2 / - 1)(2/ + 3 )'

§ 30.

(
)
,
. —
,
, . .
;
, .

1) .
-
1)
, - (
).
130 . IV

.
.
1),
( ) :

( ) = ). (30.1)
,

( ) = ( ). (30.2)
,

. , 2 = 2, = . . 2= 1,
= ±1. (30.3)
,
,
. (
) , — .

(. . ) ,
, :
(. .
), 2) .

: ,
, (26.2)
. ,
, ,

L .
, ,
, .

,
L+P — PL+ = 0 ,
(29.3) (29.2).

) parity — .
2) ,
. (
), .
§30 131

.
.

, — ,
(
). /
, , ,
/ , . .
g —)►g —)►
( g
).
P f = —f P \ / « ».
g g
Pgg fgg — fgg Pgg i
Pgg = 1, f gg = 0; ,
f uu = 0. ,
,
. ,
:
: g — g, — ,
(30.4)
: g —)► , —)►g,
,
. , ,
f ug = f */ g dq, ~ , ~
.
, / ;
, , ,

. , f ug = - f ug, . . f ug = 0.

. , ,
, ,
( , ,

). , :
: g — , — g,
(30.5)
: g — g, — .
/.
( — — , —>> — , z —>> —z) ,
132 . IV

,
— , # —)►7 — # , ( ^ ( + 7 . (30.6)

Y/m, ,
, Pj71(cos ) (.
(
( + 7 ^ (—1) ,
6 , — 6 PJ71(cos ) ^ m(—cos ) =
= (—l ) l~mPJ7l(cos ). ,
(—1)1 ( ,
), . . I
= (-1)*. (30.7)
, I , I
.
,
,
I — /, / dz 1 (§ 29). (30.7)

, ,
, ,
:
: / —)►/= 1,
1 1 (30 •8)
: I — I. 4 7

§ 31.

,
.

, L
Li L2 .
Li
L2 ,
Li L2 « » ,
.
, . . ,
, Li L2
L, .

. L
L\
§31 133

, : L z = L \z + L 2Z ,

= {+ 2. (31.1)

« »
.

L 2, L |, L \ z, L 2 Z1) ,
L i, L 2 , M i, 2.
L\ L2 M i, 2 (2L\ + 1)
(21/2 + 1) , (2L\ + l)(2Z/2 + 1)
L\, L 2 .
1 2 1 2-

L 2, L 2 , L 2, L z .

L i, 1/2, L, (
\ 2 )• L\ L2 , ,
- (2Li + l) (21/2 + 1) , . .
Li, 1/2 L, (2Li + l ) (21/2 + 1)
.
.

Mi 2 , :
Mi 2
L1 L2 L1 L2

L \l - 1 S " 1 } +
Li - 1 L2 - 1
L\ L 2 —2 > L i + Z/2 — 2
Li —2 Z/2 I

, =
= Li + 1/2, ( (
M i, 2 ).
, , L, Li + L 2 .
, ( = Li + L 2 —1-
, ;
1) ,
.
, ,
.
134 . IV

L = L\ + 2 ( = L — 1), —
L = Li +1/2 —1 ( = L). = L\ + L 2—2
. ,
L = L\ +1/2, ^ + L 2 —1
Z/ = Z/i + L 2 — 2 .
,
1 1
. ,
, \L\ — L 2\.

, 2L2 + 1 ( L 2 ^ L\). ,
\ \ — 1 /2 1 L.
, ,
L\ 2 L
L = L\ + Z/2, L\ + L 2 — 1 , . . . , \L\ — L 2\, (31.2)
21/2 + 1 ( , L2 ^ \) .
, (2L\ + 1)
(21/2 + 1) , L.
, ( 2L + 1
L) L
(31.2) .

. L i, h 2
L\ 1/2, L
L,
Li h 2] (Li + L 2) L
, [\L\ — 2\) — -
Li \ j 2.
L i, 2
L
L 1 L 2 , L L i, L L 2 .
. L 1L2 L = Li + L2 ,
,
2L iL 2 = L 2 —Z \ - .

= i{ L (L + 1) - L i (Li + 1) - L2(L2 + 1)}. (31.3)

L L i = -2 {L{L + 1) + L i ( L i + 1) - L 2(L2 + 1)}. (31.4)


§31 135

.
, ,
$2
. ,
(. .
),
. , 2
, .

= 2, (31.5)
— , ±, 2 —
. , ,
,
.
, ,
- (
),
_ ^ ^ ^ - ^2 ~I—
--* (31 )
( . (30.7)). ,
, ,
« » . . L .
(
),
.
,
.
, , ,
L = 0,

L = 0. ,
( , , ).
,

( = (—1)° = +1),
+
,
.
V

§ 32. -

,— ,
. (
m i, m 2 ), U(r) ( —
),

(32.1)

A i, 2 — .
- 2
R :
1 1 + 2 2 / QO 0 n
r = r2- r i, R = ------- ;------- ; (32.2)
1 + 777/2

— , a R— -
. ;

(32.3)

( —
R ; mi + m 2 — ; =
= 2/ ( \ + m2)— ). ,
.
, ^ ( r i,^ )
< (R )^ (r), </?(R)
( + m 2 ),
( ) (
m - U = U(r)).

+^[ - ( )] = 0. (32.4)
§32 - 137

1 (
2 d r V^ ) +

+A [ - ^ ( Si n « f ) + - ^ 0 ] + ^ [ E - W W = O. (32.5)
L sin
(26.16) ,
1)
1 / 2

2 ( r2S ) + + {- ) = <32 6)
-
.
I .
I
. ,
(32.6)
ip = R{r)Ylm(e, ), (32.7)
Yim (0,(p) — . 2 ; =
= /(/ + 1) / , « » R(r)

L jL(, 2^ ) - ^ [ - u (r)\R = 0. (32.8)


2 dr V
lz = ,
(21 + 1)-
.

.
R(r) = ^ (32.9)

1)

= - --^-{ ) = - (^ - + ,
\ /

.
138 - . V

(32.8)
# ,
dr2 ^

U( ) ,
,
, , ,
R(r). , %( )
= 0 :
(0) = . (32.11)
( . § 35)
, 0 .
(32.10)

) = )+^- ^, (32.12)
Zm

U(r)
2 + 1) _ / 2!2
2 2

. ,
-
,
( = 0). «
» %,

j \ R \ 2r 2 dr = J \ \2 dr.

(§21).
,
(32.10), . . ,
. ,
I ,
, -
,
/, . , ,

.
§32 - 139

(§21). (
) I ,
,
= 0.

( = 0).
. I -

— .

I ;

:
/ = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
s d f g h k (32.13)

- 5- ;
, I 0
,
.
, I
I.
,
h2l(l + l) /( 2 m r 2),
I.

. ,
lim U (r ) r 2 = 0. (32.14)
—0

R(r) ,
; , R(r)
R = const - 5.

(32.8) 2
— 0,
s(s + 1) — 1(1 + 1).

s = l s = —(/ + 1).
140 - . V

s = —(/ + 1)
; = 0 ( ,
I ^ 0). , s = /, . .
I
1:
Ri « const - . (32.15)

+ dr r 2\R2\
,
, I.

§ 33.

= const • ^ ^

,
( =
= 2/2 ).
, , ,
.

= - = (33.1)
v J
I

= Rkliv)Ylm(d, < ), (33.2)

/(/ - 1)
R'L + ' + - R kt = 0 (33.3)

( (32.8) U(r)). ■
( ) ,
:

I ' ' = 8W8mm, 8 ( * ^ ) .

/, V , '
.
§33 141

2R m Rkidr = = 2 8( ' - ). (33.4)


2'

« /2 », «
», . .
(X )

r 2R m R Ei dr = 5( ' — ),
/■

, (5.14),
1 d k\ V2 1
<3 3 5 »
I= 0 (33.3)
d2
r R k0) + k2r R k = 0;
dr2
, = 0
(33.4) ( . (21.9)),
R k0 = 2- ^ . (33.6)

(33.3) I 0 :
Rki = r lXki- (33.7)

' -^ ' + \
+ 2 = 0.
,

xZ + 2Jl±^xZ + ,2
tv
_ +\ 1 )
= 0-
' = / ,/+1
| 2(/ + 2) / | 72 _
/ +1 ~ / , -1 + Xfc,i+1 — 0,
, -
Xk,l+1 ,

Xk,l+1 = - X i k i (33-8)
142 - . V

(1 d \ l
Xkl = (\ r dr J
) ,
Xko = Rko (33.6) (
, ,
).
,
:

<3 3 -9 >

( ~1 — . ;
(—1)1— ). (33.9)
:

Rkl = ^ f - J i + i / 2 (kr) = 2k j t(kr); (33.10)

)= 1/2( ) (3 3.il)

1).

(33.9) , ,
—>> ,
/- .
, —d / d r , —7 / 2
, :
Rki ^sin(fcr - ). (33.12)

, §21.
(33.12)
Rk (33.6), , R^i (33.9)
.

1) ji:
sin . sin cos x . /3 1\ . 3 cos x
J0 = ------- , 31 = — 2 --------------- > J2 — ( ------) s m x --------- — .
X X X ^X X ' X

jf/,
(33.11) .
§33 143

( ) , sin
,
1):
/1 d sin ^ /1 d\ 1 , (/ )2 +1 _ (-1 )lk2l+1
\rdr) \rdr) (2 / + 1 )! (2 /+ 1 )!!
, R^i

(33.13)

(32.15).
( )
,
, ,
, , .
, I = ,
, (33.6)
( Rk0)
:
= _ ^ +/ (33.14)
1. — -
I
(33.3)
I „± ‘
(33.15)

(33.16)

( — + —).
(33.15)

(33.17)

(33.18)

1) !!
.
144 - . V

,
( )
. ,

j = *,
v = / — .
j>j df = 1,
, . . f j r 2 do = 1, do —
.
, , ,

= ^- = [ ^ . (33.19)
Vv V
, (33.12),

, ( )
, 1) .

, ,

+ 2 = 0
dr

Rkl « 2 sin(fcr-frr/ 2 + &)) (33_20)

6— ( ),
«
/ 2 » 2) . 5/
( R^i —>>0),
,
. Si , , /,

1. / = 0
: U( r) = —Uq < ,
U( ) = 0 > .

) § 124, , 1/ .
2) —/ 7 /2 ,
5i = 0. ,
Si ( 27 );
0 7 .
§33 145

. / = 0 .

~^( ) + 2 = 0, k= \^ 2m (U o-\E \).

, = ,
= (sin )/ .
>

-- ^( ) - = , X = i /2 \ \.

, ,
= ' -^/ .
=
ctg = —> = —\ / 2 m U o / h 2 — 2, (1)
sinfca = h2/ ( 2 m a 2Uo)ka. (2)
, ,
( , ctg < 0 ,
(1)). ( / = 0)
, . .
.
Uo
, « » .
(2 )
.
d= sin =
=
= d is in x ,
,
ctg < 0;
= d is in x .9 . 9
. ,
( Uo) .
, = .9 ,
. . = 2/7 , = /2. a = h / y / 2 m a 2Uo, = ,
,
,
Uo min = 7 2 2/ (8 2). (3)
, .
Ei = 7 /2 \ = 0,
.
\ . =
= Uo/Uom\n — 1
- = ( 2/16) 70 2. (4)
2.
/ (Uo h2/ 2)
(W. Elsasser, 1933).
146 - . V

. , Uo — ,
( . §22).
(33.10),
Ji+1/ 2(ka) = 0,

(Uo —\E\ = h2k 2/ 2 ) /. ,


, :
Is, 1 , I d , 2s, 1 /, 2 , 1g, 2d, l h, 3s, 2 / , . . .

/ 1) .
3. ,
/ Uo.
.
= 0. ,
— , Ri = c o n s t (
(33.3) = 0). Ri R[ ,
, ( rl+1 R i ) ' ,
:
(r l+1R i )' = 0 = .
2) Ri-i, ,
(33.10),

J i ~i / 2 ^ —V2mUo^j = 0;

/ = 0 J i- 1/2 cos.
Uo•
Is, 1 , 1d, 2s, 1 /, 2 , 1g , 2 d , 3s, l h, 2 f , . . .
,
.
4. (
U = (1 / 2 ) 2 2),
.
. U = (1 / 2 ) 2
( 2 -\- 2 + z 2) ,
.
= fyjo{ri\ 712 ~\~ 3 /2 ) = Hl u( t i 3 /2 ).

) (§ 118).
2) (3 3 .7 ),(3 3. 8 ) (r ~ lR i )' ~ r ~ lR i + 1 .
(33.3) / —/ — 1,
( r l+1R - i - i ) ' ~ r l+1R - i .
, R-i R i-i
,
( r ,+1R , y ~ '+1 _1,
.
§34 147

- ,
1);

( + 1 )( + 2 )
2

( 2 2\
iin 2 n3 = c o n st-e x p f ----- — 1 H n i ( a x ) H n2( a y ) H n3( a z ), (5)

; = / mu j / h ( — ).
( —1) . (5)
( —1 ) 1+ 2+ 3 — ( _ i ) n#
\ + 2+ = ,

1 = const ( - ) 1 ( , (f)F ( - ^, 2 2) , (6)


F— , \ \ = 0 , 1 ,...,/, /
0 ,2 ,..., 1 ,3 ,..., — ,
( —1) (5)
( —1)1 ( 6 ), .
,
.
(
, 2 , 3), , :
(Is), (1 ), (Id, 2s), (1/,2 ), (lg,2d, 3s),...,
2) .

§ 34.

,
= z.

= const -elkz.
1
.

= k 2fi?/2 , ,
. , elkz
2 :,

) , ,
.
2)
Z; . . . 164.
148 - . V

, (/?, . .
= 0. , :

&ikz _ = y ^ a i R kiYio,
1=0 1=0
/— . (28.8) (33.9)
/ i?&/,
°° , ,
e- = £ c , p , ( c o S« ^ ) (
1=0
/— .
, ( cos )
.
- ; I >
,
> I Pi (cos )
cos . cos1 /(cos#) (21)\/21(1\)2
( . ( .1)). (33.13),

(2l)!(fcr cos )1
' } 1 2 (Z! ) 2 1 • 3 . . . ( 2 / + 1 )*

(
exp(ikr cos ))
(■ikr cos )1

, / = (— )1(21 + 1).
,
°° , ,
= £(-< > > (2 ! + 1) ,( 8« )( ) ( i £ ) i t . (34.1)
1=0

elhz « ^ ^ i l(21 + l)P/(cos6>) sin (^kr — (34.2)


/=
(34.1) z
.
§34 149

,
.
( . ( . 11)),
P/(cos$)
( ):
I
^ =4 ^ £ 6 ) ^ ( |) ("). (34.3)
/= 0 ——1

ji(kr) ( (33.11))
,
(
— ).
elkz
, . .
( z),
.

= -±-eikz = x[ ^ e ikz (34.4)


Y /v
(v— ; . (19.7)).
(34.1) ^ /
± = ^( ) / ((9,^),

= ^ yfn(2l + 1 ) —( ~ ^ )-
/= 0

( ^ )
, ,
, (
) I(
). elkzjy/v
, «
» ;
« » (
\
, I.
/,
at = J ( 2 / + l). (34.5)
150 - . V

I
I I( , 1 1^1)

" / 4 - 2 / / = 27 ^ /.
^ 2 2
I
=
( — )

27 ,
.
: ,
I (§49).

.
. , , (
.
Qm{p)e'irnip ^ . ( z,

ikz ikp coso? \ / \ im ip


— — ^ CJ \ )£
= —

( = 0 ),
2
Qm( p) = — / exp[z(fcpcos( - m(p)]d(p = zmJ m(£p),
2i7t J
0
Jm( x) — . kp 1 Qm
:

Qm(p) ~ i™\ I - 7 - sin


7 kp

§ 35.

, , ,
,—
,
( ) U(r) ~ - /3 / 2
(/3 > 0);
. § 18, —
,
§35 151

, , « »
.

R" + - R ' + \ R = 0 (35.1)

(R(r) — ),
0
7 = ^ - ( ( 1 + 1) (35.2)

1/ ;
,
.
R R ~ 5; s

s(s + 1) + 7 =

Sl = “ 5 + V i “ 7 ’ S2 = “ 5 “ V 7' (353)

.
—7 / 2
—7 / .
« » , ,
0.
, 7 < 1/4. s1 52 —
, s1 > 52 . >
(
)
R = 51 + 32 (35.4)
( , — ). <

R" + - R! + ^ R = 0,
0

,
R = c = ^ (355)

= R R'
.
152 - . V

rR.

A ( s 1 + l)^ 1 + B ( s 2 + 1)tq
= ctg kro
A r s0 1 + 1 + B r s0 2 + 1

A ( Sl + l)rg 1 + B ( s 2 + l)rg a =
Ar^1 + B t q2 V1 V'
/ ,

^ = const -7 q1-52. (35.6)

—^ 0, , / —$>
( , si > 52 ). ,
(35.1)
,
:
R = A-j L (35.7)

7 > 1/4. s1 52 :

51 = - - 1 +, • / 7 - 1 52 = 51.

,
(35.6), 51 52

^ = const ^ 47-1. (35.8)

— 0
, —^ 0
. (35.8)
:

R = const • cos ( 4 / 7 — - In — + co n st). (35.9)


\/r VV 4 r0 J
,
t q. , ,
(35.9) (
) , ,
,
, ,
§35 153

« »
= — .
, , ,
> U. —)> —
, . .
« » .
« » / ,
, 7 = 1/4 .
—1 / 2 ,
I= 0 , . .
/ = - (35.10)
8 mr
(35.3) ( si) ,
( , U ~ 1 / 2)
— 0 1/ / .
— 0 1 / 2,

U( ) ,
, , . . ~ 1
( §33). ,
1 / 2 ( —l / r s s > 2 ),
5/ 4 - 1 ( . § 49).
= 0 .
,
, U -/ / 2
.
, 7 < 1/4. ,

1). , = 0
(35.1)
(35.4). (35.4) ( 0) ;

,
, . ,
= 0, , .
7 > 1/4,
. ,
= 0
(35.9) ,
.

) , ,
.
154 - . V

, U = —/ / r 2 .
7 > 1/4 . 7 < 1/4,
.
, = 0
(35.7);
, . . ( I)
.

§ 36.
( )

U= = -

( — ).
,
U= — / . ,

( ),
— .
(32.8)
d 2R 2 dR /(/ + 1 )
.2 + R + ^ ( e + ^ ) r = 0. (36.1)
dr r dr

,
.
, ,

,
. , ,

2 h3
, — , ----j.

; ,
2/1 ?.
( ) -

1) = 9,11 -1 0 28 , = 2 ( —
),
§36 ( ) 155

(36.1)

<?R
dr2
+, 2 dR
r dr
- 1(1r+z 1\ r + 2 ( e + ^ ) R = 0. (36.2)

.
:

= 7 ' » = %■ <36-3>

. (36.2)
(36.3)
1 /(/ + 1 )
R" + - R ' + R = (36.4)
~4 ~ 7 ~
( ).
,
, 1( . (32.15)).
R
(36.4) 1/ 1/ 2
R" = /4,
R = ± / 2.
, , , _ / 2.

R = ple~p/ 2uj(p)1 (36.5)


(36.4)
" + (21 + 2 - ) *+ ( - 1 - 1) ; = 0. (36.6)

, = 0

.
2/ = 0,529 • 10 “ 8

( ).
/ 2 = 4,36 • 10 - 1 1 = 27,21
( , R y).
= 4,80 • 10 “ 10 .- . .
, , = 1, = 1, ft = 1.
= Ze2 .
156 - . V

= F ( - n + 1 + 1,21 + 2 , ) (36.7)
( . §d )1). ,
,
( ) (— + 1 + 1),
(36.7) (n —l —1).
, ( . (d.14)).
, ,
, I
^ 1 + 1. (36.8)
(36.3) ,

= - ± , = 1,2,... (36.9)

. ,
\ =
= —1/2 .
;
= 0,
.
(36.9) 2) :

£ = - s ? - < 1 °>
.
, § 32,
— —I — 1 .
I

I = 0 , 1 , . . . , - 1, (36.11)
. (36.9)
. I,

1) (36.6) — 0, 21 1.
2) (36.10) . 1913 .
. .
1926 . , —
.
§36 ( ) 157

.
,
(
- ), /.
( ,
) .
I 21 + 1 ,
n-
—1
(36.12)
1=0

(36.5), (36.7).
,
,
( . §d ).

Rnl = const -ple p/ 2L%ll(p).

1):

2 I{ I !)• — / { j 2/+1 f \ _
2 [(n + /)!]3 V ) ^ V )

2 I ( + /)!
( + )’ (2r)le~r/ nF ( - n + l + l , 21+2, — ) (36.13)
/+2 (2 / + 1 )! ( ——I/ —
—11 )!
)! V /

1) R ni :
1 „~ /2 (1 „ 1 _
158 - . V

( . §f, (f.6 ) ) .
R ni

(36.14)

i?io
~ 1 , . . -
, ~ 2/ .

(f.7). (
):

= ^[ 2 —1(1 + 1)], 2 = ~-[5 2 + 1 —31(1 + 1)],


(36.16)

.
;
/,
0 ( ,
/, ).
(36.3)
:

= — (36.17)

1) ,
(d.13) (
( .8 ) ).
§36 ( ) 159

= /2 1).

Rkl = + 1 + ! ’ 21 + 2) 2 ik r ) ’ (36 8)
Cki — .
( . § d)

R kl = Cki(2kr)le~ikr . J L * « ( l - ^ 2 i“ 4 , (36.19)

, . 102).
£ = 2 ikr(t + 1 / 2 )

Rkl = f e2ikrt (^+ ^ ) 11 ~l_1dt (36.20)


(
t = ± 1 / 2 ).
, £ = 2 ikr
.
*= 0 )
(d.14) 5
. 10
R^.
(d.14) R^i
,
~ /2
Rkl = — ---- X

xRe expH(fcr-(7r/2)a + l) + (l/fc)ln2fcr)]^ + 1+ 1 ) i _ ^ _


I (/ + 1 ^/ ) I
(36.21)
« /2 » ( . .
(33.4)),
CM = 2keK,2k\V(l + l - i / k ) \ . (36.22)
1)
= i/ , = —2ikr\ Rki
, , .
2)
, £ = 0 £ = 2 ikr
. / V (£) = £ - n - z (£ —2i k r ) n~ l ( . § d)
.
160 - . V

, R^i
( (36.21))

Rkl ~ ~ sin ( + - In 2 ——I + 5/Y


\ 2 /
(36.23)

(33.20)
-
. (36.23) (33.20)
; , ,
In ,
,
, .
- , (36.22)
,
.
-
(z + 1) = zT(z), ( ) (1 - z ) =
S in 7T Z

8 11/2
= [ *2 + ( 3 6 -24)

( I= 0 1 ).
§36 ( ) 161

0
.

F ( ^ + 1 + 1,21 + 2 , 2ikr) -+ F ^ , 2 l + 2,2ikr) =

= i _ 2 + (2 )2
(2 /+ 1 )1 ! (2 Z+ 2 )(2 / + 3 )2 !
= (21 + l ) ! ( 2 r ) _/_1/ 2J2/+1(v /8r),
J 2/+1 — . (36.24)
0

« /87 £ +1/ 2.

= J — Ju+xW&r). (36.25)
/jfe / —^0 V

1)

Rki
v/SM = (? ) (36.26)

/ «
», . . R^i Rei (33.5);
Rei —»>0.
(U = / )

.
(36.18)
.

Rkl = j £ f ^ ( 2kr)leikrF( { + l + h 2 l + 2, - 2 ik r ) ,

= + 1+ 1 ) I- •
5—1
(36.27)

1) ,
(§ 4 9 ), (/ + 1 / 2 ) 2 < < ~ 2.
162 - . V

Rkl ~ - sin ( — - In 2 — — + 5/
, ' 2 (36.28)
6t = arg yl + 1 + - J .

= - — [pi] = const (36.29)

( . I, § 15). -

= £ - ;([ 1] - [1 ]), (36.30)


2
, ,
= 2/ 2 - 1/ .

{ :

{ , } = ieikiAh {Ai iA k} — —2iHeikih- (36.31)


Ai ,
, , Az
.
, A z,
lz ,
2. ,
,
(§ 1 0 ) ,—
« »
.

),
( . . , 1935).
,

(36.31)
Ai = A i / /—2 .
§36 ( ) 163

{ , Uk] = ieikiui, { , Uk} = (36.32)


{U^lk} — ieikih

1).
2).
(36.32)
3) .
, 1

ji = I + ), j2 = i(l-u ). (36.33)

{ j u , j i k } = izikljih {j2i,j2k} = ieiklj2h {jii,j2k} = 0. (36.34)

.
j2
ji(ji + 1) j 2(j2 + 1 ), ji,j2 = , 1 /2 , 3 / 2 , . . . 4) .
, 1 = [ ],
:
lu = u l = 0 ,
+ 2 = —1 — ——
2

( + 2 ).

Ji = J 2 = - J ( i + = j { j + 1)

( j = j i = j'2 ) = —^ (2j + I ) 2.

2j + 1 = , = 1,2,3,..., (36.35)
1) / , / , lz
z, x z ,
, , z, , , , —
, , .
2)
: . . . // . : ., 1935.
2 . . 169; Zs. f. Physik. 1935. V. 98, 145.
3) (1926).
4) ,
§ 54 ( -
j).
164 - . V

= ---- -. -
2
, : (2ji + l) ( 2 j 2 + 1 ) =
= (2 j + l ) 2 = n 2. , 1= ji + j2 ,
j i = j *2 = (n — l ) / 2 l
0 2 j = n — 1 x) .

1.
.
2) .

= = ~^ •
V*-
-

( ) —J ( ) ~ 1 dV
( . (15.10)).
;

“( ) = ( I T 7 P
- | ( )|2/(27 )3.
2. ,
.

1) « »
I -
U = 2 2/ 2 ( , . 4 §33).
.
, =
= 2 /2 + racj2 r 2 / 2 pi,
.
_ rnuoxi + ipi _L muoxi — ipi
di = ---- , a j = ---- ,
y 2 mh u j \2mfvjj

H =

af aj, ( )
, (
- ).
,
( )
, ( )
.
2) 1 2 .
§36 ( ) 165

. ( , «
» , -
-
= - 2: ^
1 -2

dr =4 "
, , < (0)
, < ( ) = 0 ,

(f = 1 / + (fe(r) = (1 / + 1 ) -2 .
1 ? « 1/ ( ), 1
?~ _2 ( ).
3. ,
-
U = / 2— / ( . 11 ).
.
, — ;
.
:
d R ^ 2 dR ^
dr2 dr
2

2
-
2 + !) 4 - R = 0 . (1 )

2 \ J-
= -------
:
2
+ 1{1 + 1 ) — s (s + 1 ), (2 )

(3)
- 2

(1)

R + 2 '+ ( + . - £(£+ 1 )
V 4
(36.4). ,

R = ^ F ( —n + s + 1, 2s + 2, ),
—s — 1 = (
), s ( 2 ).
(3) , ,
2
2 8
-E v = 2 + 1 + */ (21 + I ) 2 +
2 2
4. U = 4 + 2 ( . 1 2 ).

. .
:
d 2R 2dR 2 / 21{1 + 1) _ . _
2 = 0.
dr dr 2V 2
166 - . V

/2 2
£ = — z—
:
1(1 + 1 ) + = 2 s(2 s + 1 ),

I2 .
' — — — 4 (n + s) + 3,

3 £ s (s + 1 / 2 )
£R" + - ' + n + sH------- ----------^ R = 0.
2 4 4 i
£ , ^/2,
£ s

1
s = - -1 + ,, ( 2 , + ! ) > + * ! £
4

R = e" ?/2£2w

£w" + (2s + 3 /2 — £) «/ + n w = 0,

w = F ( —n, 2s + 3 /2 , £),
.
, ,

= 4n + 2 + 1 /( 2 Z+ l )2 + ^ = 0 , 1 , 2 ,...

§ 37.
( )

,
,
- .

,
, ,
( )
(§ 77).
§ 37 ( ) 167

], (

= ] ( , y= y/^sm ip, z= -(£-r]),


(37.1)
= / 2 + 2 + z 2 = -(£ + 77 )

:
£= + z, ]= — z, ( = arctg - ; (37.2)

£ rj 0 , — 0 2 .
£ = const rj = const
z .
.

^j2 _ i±ZZ ^ 2 + i ± H drf + ^rjdip2, (37.3)

:
dv = + r})d£drid<p. (37.4)

(37.3)

=
4
£ + V - $, \ £/ + drj V )})/ . - (3 7 -5 )

= - - = ---- —
£+ ]

4
— ( ^ — ) + — ( v — ) ] + — ^ 4 + 2 ( e + — ) ^ = 0. (37.6)
V d£ J drj \ drj) \ £rj dtp V £+??/

= /1 (0 /2 ^) ^, (37.7)
— .
(37.6), (%+ ))/4,
£ 77 , /1 /2

| { - ^ + = ,
) + (37.8)
| -^ + =,
168 - . V

« » /? , / ?2
_ _ „
/ ?1 + /3 2 = 1. (37.9)
( < 0).
, £, rj

n = -± = t pi = ^ \ / —2 = 2 = ^, (37.10)

:
d 2f 1 1 dfi | [~ 1 , 1 ^| | + 1

dp2 pi dpi

/2,

ni = 1 1^-----
+ 1 Ib n/3i,
Q n 2 = - JN +1 ,
—^----- /
2- (37.12)
/0 7 1 0 \

(36.4),
, /1 pi, - ^1/ 2,
pi — ]771^ 2. ,
(37.11)

fi( pi ) = e~pi/2p Jl nl/2w 1(p1)


( / 2) w\
p iw '{ + (\m\ + 1 - pi)w[ + n iw i = 0 .

. , ,

w 1 = F ( - n 1 , \m\ + l, pi) ,
ni .
,

: « » \
2 . («
») (37.9) (37.12)
= \ + 2 + \ \ + 1. (37.13)
, ,
(36.9).
\ \
0 — 1. \ \ \
§ 37 ( ) 169

—\ \ 0 — \ \ — 1. ,
\ \ = ±| |,
,
71 — 1

2 ( — ) + ( —0 ) = 2
=1
§ 36
.
^ nin2m

J JJJ
27

mn2m\2dV = i \^n1n2m\2{C + v)d^d^dr] = 1 . (37.14)


0 0 0

< / W n = 4 / n i m ( % n 2m ( - ) ^ , (37.15)
\ / \ / \Z2t v

= -L |™| + (37. i6)


\m\\ p\
,
,
z = 0. \ > 2
z > 0 ,
z < 0 , \ < 2 — .
( > 0)
/? , / ?2
(37.8) ( , -
(37.9));
. (37.8),
« » /? , /?2 ,
( > 0) .
§ 135,

.
\n 1 n 2 m)
(36.29).
, ,
lz = A z.
A z, ,
A z = n i ~ n\ (37.17)
170 - . V

uz = \ — 2 , « » ji fc.
+ 1- 2 . - 1+ 2 ( \
Jlz = ------ ------- = Ml, J2z = ------ ------- = 2 . (37.18)

\n1 n 2 m) ( , , {n fi i^ ) )

|nlm).
1 = ji + j 2 ,

( , § 106).
« » ji j 2 |nlm) \n 1 n 2 m)
\j 1 j 2 lm) |J iJ 2 M1 M2 ) ? , (36.35) (37.13),
1 1 + 2 + | | /971
31=32 = — = ------- 2 ------- • (37.19)

(106.9)—(106.11)

1 = ^ ^ (Z?T11/ ^ 1 / ^ 2 ) 5
1+ 2=
-1 (37.20)
/XI112 ^ ^ ( / , / i l + f^l>21 1 /-^2) ' nlm
1=0

(D. Park, 1960).


VI

§ 38. ,

,
. , ,
;
,
, .

, —
,
, .
.
,

= 0 + V,
V ( ) «
» Hq. §38, 39
V, (
). ,
, V «
» Hq, .

.
, ^
Hq , . .

(0) = - (0)^ (0). (38.1)

= ( + ) = , (38.2)
172 . VI

. .
.
,
$ . ,
,
.

. -
/( 0 )
= ^2 ' ( >- (38-3)

(38.2),

™( ™ + =

( - ^) = ^2 - (38.4)

Vkm V,
$\

vkm=J ^V^dq. (38.5)

= (°) + W + (2) + . . . , = + $ + ...,

^1\ — ,
V, ^2\ $ — , . .
n-
, : = 1 ,
® = 0, .
(38.4) = ^ + \ - — 4°^ + ^\
. =

4 1} = Vnn = J *v dq. (38.6)


§38 , 173

,
( 0 J)
'
)J.
(38.4)
(1 ) _
" ~ (°) _ (°) ’ ^^ , (38.7)

^ ,
=
.
^ = 0. ,

11 = £ '
-C/n J-^m <38-8)
7
( ,
= ) ®, -
I / (°) . I ( 1 ) 12
\ + \
.
(38.8)
. , , ,
. ,

|ymn| « | 4 ° ) - j 4 ° ) | , (38.9)
. .

^\ (38.4) = ^ +
, ( 1 ) , (2) (0) , (1) , (2)
+ + , = ck + ck ^~ck
e i

. =
(2)0_^' (1)
— / ; vn m L"m >

J! I38-!»)
/ /
( £} (38.7) ,
V: Vmn = V*n
174 . VI

,
. ,
(0 J) ,
(38.10) .

Hq
( -
).

.
v,
; v
,
( ,
,
)1). , , (38.8)

- ]= + 1 ^ ( 3 8 ' )

- /,

= $ + ^ (38.8).
:
___ I j?(0 ) ___ / (0 )
£ _ / (0 ) I \ V n k J I \ VkmJnfc / -i \
Jnm ~ Jnm " F (o) _ „ ( ) F (o) _ F (o) *
n ^

, .

1.
.
. ( ) (38.4)
, ,
!2) , = ^ + ^ + ^

1) ^ (5-
is.
§38 , 175

( )
I 2 V m kV kn j 0 ( ) V nnV m n , 0 ( ) (°) -__/ \Vr
/ I|2
Vn — 2m^ 2-^ *2 , , , , Z_^ rfci 2 U ,2n r n V™
m
9
Z
Z_^
m
fc2
n ^ n m

IJ —
—A, fV^n
/?(°) _ ■ ' )•
2.
.
. (38.4) =
,

1 7 ,( 3 ) _ V ^ ' V ^ ' V nm V m kV kn V ^ ' |K im |2


n _ / v/ v fe2 ^nn / v fe2 2 •
k m m ™ ^ m n

3.

+
2 2
. 3 4
,
(23.4) .
3 „

{ ) —3, —{ ) , —3 —

(X ) —1 , —(X )n,n —1 —
,
3 (
) .
— ,
/ 4. 4

( ) , = ( -----------^ • ~ (^ + + 1 ).
\ / 4
(38.6) (38.10)

, = ’ ( „ 4 „ + l i ) + 5^ f - 5 - V .
V 2 / 4 \ J \ 3 0 / 2 \ mu J \ 2 /
4.
( ),
=
.
( . . , 1959).
176 . VI

.
2 , 2 2
+ , = 1
2 "" 2

—> a x / R , > ay/R , z — c z / R


.R: 2 + 2 + z 2 = .R2.
= 2/ 2 = —h2A / 2 M ( — ;
) = # + V,

h
0= - — , V = — * - 1 + ^ - 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 1 dz2
,
.
R = ( 2 )1//3, V .
« » f3(\f3\ 1),

V = - @ - { 2 - 3f z ).
3
,
:

A E nim = E nim - $ = (nlm\V\nlm)

(/ — ;
/;
). , 2 —3 2 zz-
( ) 5ik 2 — 3PiPk,
(107.2) (107.6), , (nlm\V\nlm) -
( - 1) [_ q ) ,

(■n l m\ V \ nl m > = ( l - ^ )( | | )

( 3^- . 530).

(nl0\V\nl0) = - / ^ + /3^ ) =
dz2

dr do
dz

( ^ = {0)- 1
nl
, ).
§39 177

= R ni(r)Yio(6,(p) ,
Yio (28.11),
;in \
— = [C O S ~ -------
OZ V or =

,(! + 4 ( , - - S , i ) l l Bl0+
[4(7 + I ) 2 - 1 ]1 /2

1/2
[4/ 2 - 1 ]

J RniR'nirdr = J Rnidr,
J R'nir2dr = - 1(1 + 1) J Rh dr,

(33.3)
" | 2 „// 1(1 + 1 ) _ 2 ()
1 -------- J ^ n l ------------------- -------- 1 — --------- - nl •

R 21 ,

/(/ + 1 )
- ' / —4/3 (0 )
(21 - 1)(2/ + 3) !_/(/ + 1 )
,

Enlm — — (0)
21 + 1 J = —1
. . « » .

§ 39.

,
0 .
,

\ , , —
s (s —

. , , ,
,
.
178 . VI

^, ^ ) , . . .
.

,
,
.
(38.4) =
= ^+ ^ \ /~
( )
= , <=
= <°>,. . . ; = 0 , ', ...

‘ 0) = £ ^ ! ?
'

Y,(Vnn' - ^8 /) {^ = 0, (39.1)
'
, ! , ,

(°) ^
,
. ,
\Vnn, - E ^ 5nn'\ = 0. (39.2)
—5 - , , s
.

. (39.2) 1) . ,

Vnn, Vn'ri, • • • — E ^ s~1


.
(39.2)
(39.1) , ^

.
1) ( siecle — );
.
§39 179

, ,
( (39.2), , );
, « » .
, (

, ).
,

, ' , .. . (
).
Vnn>
Vnm ( , ', . . . )
.
Vmn .
(38.4) =
= ^+ ^ (
), £\
, $) = 0 , ', . . . ,

(1 0) = + >$. (39.3)
'

(38.4) = , ' , .. . ,
,

(4°> - = J 2 V™n'C(n’\
'

( 1) '

^ / -J 171(0 )
/ _ '( ) ^
'
(39.3),

(39.1);
,
(39.2)

V„„. V„„. + V
m -C/n
" * ™ ' .,.
J-^m
(39.4)
180 . VI

1.

.
. (39.2)

Vu - £ (1> V 21
=
Vi2 V 22 - E w

( 1 , 2

^ ^ ).
,
(1) = ^[V11 + V 2 2 ± h w (1)], (1)

(1) = / ( V\ i — V2 2 ) 2 + 4| V1 2 12
^\ , , (39.1)
^\ -
</>(0) = + ^ ^ 0)
1/2
Vl2

Vii - V22
<°> =
I 2 |Vi2
1/2 (2)
JO) = ± / J i Vn - F22
1=F
I 2 |Vi
2.
.
. , ^
.
Vnnf, , , (
),
Vnn, Vnfnf
( \1 (1!, \5
/ 0)',
= \ ^ = 1, = 0 .
= ^ + Vnn, = 1+ \ = ^.
(38.4) , ', . . . ,
:
( i 0) - E f ) c ^ = Vknc i0) = Vk n ,

Vkn _______ 7
ck
C (1 )

- n, n ,
E (n0) - £<0)
, = /,
:
= Vn . v+£ 4 ' m ^m
§39 181

( = , ', . . ^ =
(1 ) \ ' /
(1 ) 1 ' / 9

(V
Vv n n ~V
* / ) ^ 7 (°) ~ J ^ m(°)
tL/n '
( ^ ). (1), (2)
^ = ^ )
1) .
, (38.4) = ,

771 ( 2 ) ___ \ / /0\


- 2 ^ 771 0 ()_ 771 0 ( )’ W
■C j 'm

(38.10).
3. t = 0
^ , .
, t -
/2( ) ~
;
.
. :
= -1 + 2 2 , ' = 1 1 + 2 2 ,
ci,c2 \, *2 — , (2 )
1 ( (0 ) ).
:
, 2 - 2 '
! / /
\ 2 — \ 2

' -\- ^
+ ^ , ^\ ^ — (1) 1.
, , :

= 6 (7 ( /? *) \ 2 (-^ {1 ) - c 2i p ' e x p ( - ^ E W ' t )


\ 2 — 2 L V ' V /_
( t = 0 1 = \). , , ' \, 2 ,
1 \, 2 ,
. 2
W2 1 . (1 ) (2 )
1

w 21 = 2 ( ^ 1(i) ) 2 ^1 _ cos(a;(1)t)]-
, / 1) .
£, ,

) , (1 ) (2 ) (

) - (38.9)
, .
,
,
.
182 . VI

, w 2i t 2:

W21 = —^ |V^_212^2;
h

( (40.4)).

§ 40. ,

,
.
,
(
= 0 + V(t)) ,
.

.
,

( . . . Dirac, 1926).
— ( )
.

= ^2 ^^'

^ = ( 0 + ?) (40.1)

= £ * ( * ) £ 0), (40.2)

.
(40.2) (40.1) , ^ -

dt

-f (0 ) d a k T > ,T r( 0 )
§40 , 183

* ,

i n ^ = ^ V m k ( t ) ak, (40.3)

Vmk(t) = J dq = ^ \ = ~^

— ,
( , , ,
V Vmk
).

n- ,
(40.2): ^ = 1, = 0
. .
= (40.3) (
Vmk) = ^.
(1)

^ = Vkn{t)• (4 4)
,
,
&,
= 5> (* )* 1 0)-

,
(40.4)

4 n = ~ { f Vkn{t) dt = ~ i f V k n e ^ d t . (40.5)

,
V = F e~ ilJjt + , (40.6)
F G— , . -
V
Fe ~ iujt + Geiujt = F +eiu;t +
184 . VI

G = F +, . .
= F ^ n. (40.7)
,
vkn(t) = VkneiuJknt = ^ ~ ) + F*kei{-Ukn+U)t. (40.8)
(40.5) ,

m Fu * “ + w )t
}1) = _ _________^ (40.9)
^(^fcn ^) ^(^fcn + )
,
1) , . . ( )
# (°) _ () ± ' (40>10)

/,
.
fnm(t) =

/$ ( * ) = / ^ f ^ d q = f £ l e iuJnmt,

f & ( t ) = J ( ^ 0 )* M } + ^1 )* )) dq-

aj^,’ (40.9),

f(l) (4-\ _ _ j u j nrnt V ^ f ffnkFkm


n{ ^ km , f™Fnk
fnm[ ^ { - ) + fo{Wkn + W
f(0 ) jt>
/r( 771* j?(0 ) 771*
J nk mk J km nk
+
_ |_
(40.11)
foi^^km + ^) C(j)
,
, . . .
uj = 0 (38.12).

) — ,
.
§40 , 185

. , ,
( -
),

. , (40.9),
(40.11)
,
. , ,
,
, , (40.10)
E {± - E ^ > h w , (40.12)

- 7^ — -
.

1. - -
( (40.6)) cj ,
— ^ = H(uj + ), £— .
. ,
^ (40.9) .
(40.3) Vmk(t) (40.8). ,
(40.3),
— .
,
d O m _ F i(u m n -u )t _ F iet _ F * -iet
in — ± mn e u,n — ± mn e an , in — ± rnn e .
at at

iet 7
Qjn6 — bn

iKam — Fmnbn, i^bn ) = Frnna rn.


a m,
bn - iebn + ( l / h 2)\Frnn\2bn = 0 .

= Aeiait, a m = - A ^ e ia2t (1 )

a n = B e ~ ia2\ a m = B ^ e ~ ia' \ (2)


, — (
186 . VI

)
*1 = - /2 + , 2 = /2 + , Q = / 2 / 4 + |^|2, rj = Fmn/H.
, °\
a n ^ l 0) + \1>£? , (1 ) ( 2 ).
(t = 0)

,
t = 0

— £* / 2 f cos — — sin Q t ) — tH—e - t£t/ 2 sin Q t . \j/°) (3)


V 2 /

^ [ 1 - 8(2 )]. (4)


t
. , 2Q,
0 \r]\2/ Q 2.
£= 0 ( ) (4)
(l/2)[l-cos(2|q|i)].
0 1 ; ,
^.

§ 41. ,

, V(t)
( ,
V(t) t = .
( t — — )
- (
).

= ^ <!0),

=4 = “ 7 [ VknelWkntdt, ,
-°° t (41.1)

’ = 1 + = 1 ^ J dt;

§41 187

(40.5) ,
t — — .
( t )
^ ( ),

= J 2 akni ° ° ) ‘

^ ( )
^\ . . -
.
,

. ( - )
(/- ) 1)
+

Wf i - 2
J Vfie^dt (41.2)

, , ,
( ,
, ). ,
t — — , ,
t — . (41.2) ,
. ,
,
. , :

4 = + JT dt.
dt' “ fajjfi
—oo
,

(38.8) (
, —
) , (
)
i /. ,
fi, ,
.
188 . VI

, a Cfi §38 —
). ,
t
|°^ «
» V (+oo) , ,
.

wfi = (41.3)
J dt
,

. ,
( - )
, Vf ( .
§38) Vf Vf + d v f , , , (41.2)

dwi} = dt dv'/• (41.4)

V(t)
~ 1/ujfi, (41.2) (41.3)
.

(. . ujfi)
. , ( )
,
,
( . §53).
,
, d V fi /d t
dV fi Cicjf i t
« ».
dt
- -

. ,
wfi = IV/.-1
-
2
2 2 ‘ (41.5)
ft wfi

, .
§41 189

,
^ Hq.
(. .
, 1 /ujfi
),
, .
, ,
, . . ^
. Wfi -
,
,
^ $
:
wfi J ^i°4}dq (41.6)

,
(41.5), V = H —H q
.

(0) = (0 (0), ' ) = Ef r f


^ ^\ dq
.
,

( Ef - E \ 0)) J r f 4 0)dq = J r f v 4 0)dq.

V ,
E f, ^\
$ ( )—
^ •

J } d4 = -f^~. J ^* \0)< ,
(41.6) (41.5).

1. , ,
.

.
190 . VI

.
( F)

U( x ) = (^ 2 —F x = (^ ( — ) 2 + const,

( = F / m o j 2), . . (
).

( — ), ( )— -
(23.12); ( ) (23.13).
(23.11)
+

£ = y/muj/H.
-

(41.6)

Wk0 = —
- ,
- = — =
\ ’ 2 2 mthu3 '

.
F
, 1.
. w\o ~ .
F ( 1)
:
w = ~ .
2. , ,
, v,

, a/v, — .
« »
( . . , 1939).
. ',
. /v
,
'
. '
mv
' = t / > o e x p ( - i q ^ r 0) , q =
IT ’
— ,
Z .
§41 191

-
, (41.6),

Wkn = | ( f c | e x p ( - i q ^ r o) |0 } |

, qa 1, ,
,
,
■ _ I2
wk0 = ( f c | q ^ r a |0) .

3.
« » ( . ).
.

1 —w = 1— 1 ~ dV
/
Woo — ( =
= ( 3) ~ 1/ 2 ~ / — ;
— ). ,
1
1 — Woo = 1 —

1
1 — Woo ~ Q2a 2, q a ^> 1 — 1 — woo ~ 1 — (2/ q a ) 8.
4. if -
Z /3- . /3-
if-
( . . , 1941; . . , 1939).
1). /3-
if-
, .
V = 1/
(1 Z) . (41.5)
if- = —Z 2/ 2 2)
= 2 /2 d E = dk

dw= 2 dk-
( + Z )
, Vofc,
('■'■' 1 / Z ) ,

.
/ = 0 ( ).
Rio /2 Rko, §36,

) 4 5 .
2) if-
( . §74).
192 . VI

(f.3) 1)

l + k 2/ Z ‘
,
|/-1 | • \ / \2 ( ) c lF C tg QL \
|( 1 + ) ' | = ( — 2 ----------- ,
V a J

/( ):
/ = -4 1, / = /2 1.
if-
dw .
w = 0 , 6 5 Z ~ 2.
5. if-
Z - . -
if- ,
( . . , 1941; J. Levinger, 1953).
. -
.
,
« » , - ,
, ,
if- . V, ,
-
Z /r. 4
—4 2 Z —2, vt
( ;— - ),
2 ( — 4) — ( Z — 2)4 2 ( - 2Z)
—-------------------------— v t = —----------- -vt ,

- 2)

z v.
z:
z = —Z ^ /r 3 ,

) ,
.
2) — 2Z ,
, .
§42 193

if-
, (41.2),

8 (A - 2Z ) 2 >dk
dw = 2 Vo/ i(E o-E )t
dt dk = \Z0k\
/ A2Z2 2

(
~ ( > 0),
—> 0).
z = cos 0 ,
/ = 0, cos
/ = 1;

1( 56»)oi |2 = |20 \ = ^ \ 2.
Roo Rk i ,

° u ( A - 2 Z ) 2v 2
dw = ,/ ,\ ) dk
3 A 2Z 6 (l + k 2/ Z 2f Z )

( / 4).

§ 42.

,
. ,
t = 0
- . uj
,
, > E min - E f \ (42.1)
E m[n — ,
.
§ 40 ,

Ef « »
^ + , . . , Ufi~ .
(40.8)
(
Ufi — ). (40.5) ,

= <422)
194 . VI

,
t = 0 a ji = 0
.
afi

4 sm
• 2 —--------
Ldfi t

W 2 - '*>•' 2 ^ - <4 2 -3 >

, t
t.
, :

= 5(a). (42.4)
t —^oo

, 0 ,
~ sin2 a t , ^
= (J ---- = t , .
ta
da — + (
a t = £),
+ 00 + 00
1 f sin2 a t 1 1 f sin2 £ 7/_
j — i a =~, j — d (= i-
—oo —oo
, ,
(42.4), ,
^- .

\ 2 = ^ 1^ 12 7 ( ^ ^ )

, fujfi
fvu = E f — ® ,
5( ) = 5( )/ :

= Y \F f ( E f - E l 0) -hw )t.

\afi\2dvf
,
dvf. , t
t = 0
§42 195

. dwfi
1)
d w f . = 2 ?- -\Ff i \2 6 (Ef - ™ - ) dvf . (42.5)
, ,
Ef = ® + .
,
Vj ,
« » dvf
= ® + ,

WEi = ^r\FEi \2 • (42.6)

(42.5),
t = 0,
t = —
eXt ,
( ).
= 0 t = — .

Vf i = ^ * -»)*+ ,

(42.2)

f
t
= _± {t) dt _ .. [»(^/ - u )t + At]

—OO

lo f l2 — — \Ff - \ 2 ------ — -------


|0/ | h2 ^ fA (wfi - w)2 + A2 '

— \a fi\ = 2 | ^| .

I™ . 2 , \ 2\ =
—^0 7 ( . + A j
(42.8)

) , (40.8)
, , t,
t —> + .
196 . VI

, (42.4).
, —^ 0:

(42.5).

§ 43.

( )
. ,
.
,
,
: ,
;

.
Vj Vf + dvf
(42.5) ( uj = 0 )

(43.1)

, ,
Ef = {:
.
,
dwfi
;
(1/ ). (43.1)
,

1).
,

) , , ,
, ;
,
.
(43.1)
( . §126).
§43 197

^ -
,
eAt 4 0.
(42.7) ( = 0 )

exp { l ( Ef ~ Ei)t + \t}


1) - /_____ ______
“ >• = <‘ ' . - ^1+ , • 2>

1) . (43.2),

*= ™+f W?' , _b' + J eXP( - i £ i f ) ' (43'3)

—)►0 eXt .
+ 0 (
)
E f, dvf
( ,
).
(43.3) Ef = {,
. i\
Ef.
—)►0
, ,
:

--------- *-------- ------ '--------- (43-4)


(43.3) ,
, , {,
. ,

* = i ’- " + / E , - E l + i / l ] dV> ( 4 3 ' 5 )

) ,

.
198 . VI

( + ) = E ^i.
,
(38.8)1) .

.
.
,
§ 38 ( , «
» ).

1 0) +
/ [ W Ei —
V)„Ki
-
-dv v4°)rft//
Ei —E f +
exp
(44
(43.3),
( ,
) (43.1):

7 27 VfvVvi
dwfi = — dv 8{Ei — E f ) dvf. (43.6)
v> - 4 Ei —E v +

, Vfi
.
(43.6)

, 27 VfvVui
awfj = — [ - dv S ( E f — Ei) d v f , (43.7)
- Ev J
E v = Ei
;
dE v
.
v, Vfv Vvi ,
, /.
,
: v v —)►/ ( , ,
). ,
%— / ,
. (43.7)

) (43.5) ,
, ipi
, ( . § 136).
§44 199

. ,
,
7 2
awfi = —
J

— v,v,vv,„v
(Ei - E v, )( Ei -
vi—
)
vdv, 2
S(Ef — Ei) duj. (43.8)

, ,
(43.4),
_ ^ _ = + iirf(a) (439)
J — — J —
,
= . ,
= ( ), ,

— + (
in) .
— 0
,
(
), (43.9).

1 = —----- \-i 7rS(x — ); (43.10)


— —

,
f(x)/(x — ) .

§ 44.

, -
. ,
,
, .
At
; \ s',
, , s. ,
' + 1 — — ,
.
(42.3) ( = 0)
( t)
'
200 . VI

, '—
ft/t.

(
),
\ + - ' -e '\k t~ . (44.1)
, At,
. ,
/A t .
(44.1)

.
.
,

H/At, A t—
.
(44.1) ,
. , , ,

~ .

; ,

.
, £, ,
. ( + )—
—( E f+ef) (44.1)
+ ,

.
,
— « »,
,
/At. , A s ,. ..
.
, £, (As = A s' = 0),

( - ')~ . (44.2)

.
( )
§44 201

(« ») ,
1).
,
(
) —
.

« »
. , ,
(
), ,

.
, ,
. ,
, , ,
/A t , At —
.

,
« »
; ,
.

'+ ' — — = 0, (44.3)

'+ ' - - \ ~ -—
-- (44.4)
At
( , — ; , —
;
). , ', £, 7,
« »,
, . . .

= ', | ’- \ ~ -—
--
At

= —
<3D = vAP ,’

) ,
« » .
202 . VI

v— ( ),
' = v ' A P ' = v'AP.

(44.5)
,
,
.
. ,
( )
(. .
).
,
.
A t —)► , ,
,
.

« »

,
1).
,
,
, ,
- . $
,
.
, . . ,
.
,
\Eq — — \ ~ / , (44.6)
, £— , .
+ £
. ,

/ .
. ,
- / . (44.7)
) (44.5),
, . (1928).
§45 203

§ 45.

-----
^ (0) + 2 ^ = 0, = = v- (45.1)
.
,
.
,
.
^
:
^ (1 )+ ^ ( 1 ) = 2 ^ , ( 0 ) (452)

(U — ). ,
, «
», . . 1)

( , , ) = ~ J <°> ( ', ', ') “- ^ ,


1 ^
d V f = dx' dy' dz' , 2 = (x — x ' ) 2 + ( — 1) 2 + (z — z ') 2.
, U
, .

^ < ^.
,
. ,
, .
(45.3)
, ^ \U\a2,
^ ~ ( 2 \ \/ 2 ) (°\

\U\ < < 1. (45.4)

1) (45.2),
( . .
(45.1)).
204 . VI

, 2 / 2
— ,
,
( ,
, ~ / ).
, ,
, (45.4). ,

(.R . Peierls, 1929); § 33


- . ,
= 0 ,
: ^ = 1.
^ < ^\ ,
, = 1 + ^\ ;
, ,
, = 0
.
, ,
— « -
» . ,

.
,
. - (. .
)
( .
). , -

( ) 1) .
, ^ 1,
,
. (45.3)
) ^ (
) (45.3) ,
^
----- dx dy d z m H ^ \ k r ) d x ' dy (H ^ — ),

= / ( ' — ) 2 + ( ' — ) 2. — 0 ,
.
, ,
^ikr
^\ 27 ----- dx ( = \ ' — \) — 0 ^

, 1/ .
§45 205

,
, ,
(45.2).
\
= (
).
(1 ) + 2 (1 ) = ^

= /,
,
( ) .
/
df _ 2mU
2ik -

^(1)= eikxf = ~^eikxJ dx. (45.5)


\ ^ \ ~ m\U\a/H 2 k,

\ \ < -^ = —, & » 1 (45.6)


(v = kh/ — ). ,
— , (45.4). ,
,
,
, , 1) .
-
. U = /
, U
, .
, (45.6)
;

f « 1. (45.7)
nv

1)
(45.6) . (45.4),
,
. . 204
^.
206 . VI

,
1).
, ,
,
U ( -
).
,
(
). ,
_ ^ ,
( , , ,
, , ).
, F

= W UF’ <45'«)

= eiktF = const ■eikx (“ JudX). (45.9)

. , , ,
.
(45.8) A F,
F. d 2 F / d x 2,
dF/dx, .
, z ,
< 2.

1.
; , (45.4) .
. , ,
\ \ |?7|.
2 , , . .
= -( ( )- )
dx
, ,
:
d2 _ 2
dx^ ~ lF

) , (45.5) U = / (
) / / 2 + z 2.

.
§45 207

dx ± \ ,
1 1/ , — , = 2 \ \/1%.
U( x)
— + :
+
dip X1 2 [ . .
= ? 1 Udx- (1)
= . (1),

+
2 [ . .
- 2 —
= ^ / Udx \ \ = —_ J U dx^j .
2 J 1 2 2
— —

, ,
( ) ,
.
2. U(r)
( — ) ; ,
f r U dr .

. , ,

ld_ f d ± \ = 2 v
dr \ dr / 2
dr 0 ( < < 1 / ),

J
CXJ
d^> 2
r U ( r ) dr. ( 1)
dr 2 \

1 d ( d'ip\ 2
dr V dr J h
( ) ^=c o n s t ( )\

In . , ~
, ( (1))
,
1 2
) dr,
a In ¥ -a J
0

\\ \ --------2 2
2
[ U r dr
J
0
,
.
VII

§ 46.

L,
,
. ( ,
.)

V +( - ) = 0
2171

= (^ ). (46.1)

< 4 6 -2 >

,
,

= ( 0 + -ai + (-) 2 + ..., (46.3)


V /
.

. (46.2)

— '2 - — " = — U(x) (46.4)


2 2 v ' v '
( ).
=
, :
— ag = — U(x).
2 v }
§46 209

(j{) = = J /2 [ — U ( )] dx.

,
( ) ,
. ( ) +
,

= = J pdx, = /2 ( — [/), (46.5)

(6.1) 1) .
(46.4)
,
, . . h \ a n/ '2 \< 1

< 1.
dx

, (46.5), ' = £>,

dk
dx

= /27 , ( ) = 2 irh/p(x) —
,
( ). ,

.
, .
(46.6) , ,
dp d rz— t t z ----- m dU rriF
f = — y / 2 m ( E - U ) = -----— = -----,
dx dx p dx p

F = —dU/dx ,
. ,

< 1. (46.7)

) , f pdx .
S S = —E t d= f p d x .
—E t ,
.
210 . V II

,
.
, , . .
, ,
, ,
.
( ) = 0, . . = U(x). —>►0
,
.
, , (46.6) (46.7)
-
. ,

(46.4),
.

,
. , ( )
, ,
,
,
« » . ,
, ,
L,
( .
(46.11));

(46.3). (46.4)
'0 [ + <
7 ^ / 2 = 0,
// /
= = ——
1 2< 2 *
,
<71 = In (46.8)
( ).
(46.1), (46.3)

= — (- f pdx ) + — [ —- f p d x ). (46.9)

1/ /
.
§46 211

+ dx \ \2, . .
1 / . ,
« »,
, dx,
( ) .
,
< U(x), ( )— ,
.

^= (“i dx) +7 ' 0 / |p|dx) ' (46 0)


, , , -

« »
,
(46.10), , .

,
(46.3),
, -
.
h2 (46.4)
2 + (1 /2) 1 + (1/2 ) 1 = 0?
( (46.5) (46.8) \)
/ _ V 3 '2
2 4 2 8 3 '
( )
F = '/ ,
mF , 2 [ F2 ,
2 = — + — / — dx.
4 3 8 J 5

= exp [(i/H)a\ = [( / ) + cri] (1 —iHcr2 )

, const imh F 2
= J ^ 5 -dx exp J pdx^j . (46.11)
Vp 4~j? 8
-

(. .
212 . V II

^ f pdx ).
, . . A/L.
(46.11)
1.
(46.7),
(46.7), F2
~ L.

§ 47.

= ( U( ) = ),
U > > ,
.
.

pdx > , (47.1)


^ = ( 4 /
(46.10).

(46.9)
:
X X
= ^ J dx^j + ^J dx^j < . (47.2)

— ( (47.1)) — .
, ,
,

. \ — \

E - U { x ) ^ F 0(x-a), F0 = <0; (47.3)


=
,
.
§ 24,
(47.1) (47.2)
(24.5) (24.6)
§47 213

.
, (47.3) ( ) = y^2mFo(x — ),
^

i J p d x = ^ y / 2 mFo(x - a f / 2

sin (24.5)
(24.6). ,
(47.3)
:
( ),
\ — | , (47.3),
,
(24.5), (24.6) ) .
, , ,

. ( )

— ,
= ,

(A. Zwaan, 1929).


\ — |,
(47.3), (47.1)

^ W = 2 ( 2 m |F ,|) ''‘ ( „ - ! ) ■ / . ^ { 4 / ^ 2" > 1 * (* ~ °)< 4 < « .4 )

— (
) .
^

— = 1, J / — a dx = ( cos ^ i sin ,

< 0 7.
(47.4) ( 0 < < 27 /3)
) , (47.3) \ — \ < L, L—
U(x).
(46.7) \ — \3^2 / y/m\Fo\ . ,
( . .
\ — \ ~ L) , L 3/ 2 hj^m\Fo\.
214 . V II

, 1.
,

^ J y / 2 m\F0\(a - x ) d x = J ( )) dx.

(47.4)

( — )-1 /4 —>►( —- ^)~- V 4e- W 4.


, (47.4)
(47.2) 2 = (1/2) ~ /4.
,
2 (47.2),
.
(47.2)
( ), ,

« » ,
« » (47.2) .
\

. ,
(47.4) (47.2)
\ = (1/2 ) /4.
, (47.1) >
<

'p = $ cai{ i l p d x + i i

,
,

X
: — cos <; - (47.5)
2V ¥ \ { ~ ! Vp W pdx
U(x) > U(x) < E

( . A. Kramers, 1926).
§48 - 215

,
, ,

. , (47.5)
—>>0

( (47.5) )1) .
( = )
,
= = 0 ( . §18).

< ,
(47.6)
= > .

§ 48. —

, , -

. ,
( . §21).

.
,
.
,
.
;
b ^ ^
2) .
) ,
(47.5)
.
2)
( )

(v — ).
216 . V II

(47.5) = b
( )

'P = $ ms( l l pdx-'i)- (481 )

= ,

,
( )
:

dx — ~ = 7

( = (—1)nC f).

(48.2)

§ pdx = 2 f pdx -
. ,

. - -

I = — § pdx
( . I, §49), (48.2)

1(E) = { + 1/2).
§ 41 , ,
« »,
,
. ,

.
§48 - 217

,
,
. , (48.1)
—7 /4 = b ( + 1 /4 )7 = ,
(
b< < ,
)1).

. , , 1/2
(48.2) :

(48.2) ~ /L ,
1( . § 46)2) .

\ \2 b ^ ^ , ( )
. (48.1)
,
, . . 1/2.

/ > = 5 = = 1'

= 2 / —
. ,

, — ,
, .
(48.2)
. §pdx ,

) ,
.
.
2) ( ) (
),
, , ;

. , (48.2),
, ( ) ,
.
218 . V II

(. .
, — ).
27 ,
. ,
(
). ,
,

27 . , ,
,
/(2 ). (48.4)
= /fi,
, /2 . ,
,
( . II, §52).
(48.2)
.
,
. .
. ( )
, (48.2)

< — dx = 2 .
J

/ = v,

= = . (48.5)
,
. (
)

. ,

, . ,
, ,
,
,
.
§48 - 219

,
-
/. , /

.
( . §6),
.

= ^ ,

— ,
1 < < ;
.
/ , ,

/ = f */ dx = am anfm ne ?

, ,
s= — ,

7 = E E < + * a» w iwrt.
S

ujmn = cos (48.5).


/ , -
,
— ,
( — ).

7 = a> n f seiu)st = £ 2 £ f seiu}st,


S s

fs =


. \ \2 = 1;

7 = / ^ -
220 . V II

.
/ /(£),
, f mn
/ _
/(£) .
,

f(t) .
^-
, .

,
, ( )

- ( - ,
. I, §52).

(48.6)

qi 7^ — ,
1).
( -
)
2).
« »
( )
.
.
s

) , -

( = — I — 1— ).
, ^ ^- , .
2) . J. . K e l l e r / / Ann. Phys. 1958. V. 4. P. 180.
§49 - 221

A N = A q 1 . . . A q sA p 1 . . . A p s ^4g ^
(27t H)s

1).

1. ( )
, U ( ),
.
. , « »
, 0 ^ ^
dV,
(4 ' /3 )
(2 )3
(
) , = ( 2/ 2 ) + U(r) ^ 0.
= V —2 m U ( r ) ,

,
U < 0. ( ), U
, r~s s < 2 § 18.
2. - U( )
( . . ).
. -

. , ,
(
)
U3 = U( ) + 2/ ( 2 2).
^ 0 pr = /—2 £7 .
( . . )

r d r d f r = y/2 f l _ u _ M ^ dr_
J 2 2 J 2

dM/ (
Z)
J i / ( - U)rdr.

1) , d 3p / (27 )3 ,
d 3p
.
(15.8), . . 68.
222 . V II

§ 49.
-

-
, ,
. .
( (
) ,

. #, ,
, ,
I (
).

( = )1).
P/(cos$)
( . (28.8))
d2Pi , , „dPi
(49.1)

/( cos (9) = )_ (49.2)


/s in

2
"+ (1+\)e i + 4 sin
X= , (49.3)

.
(49.3) « »

=
+ ^ 1/2

1) , = Z,
,
= 7 /2. ,
/ (cos ) = const • sinZ0 ;
I —» ( IV^2) 7 /2.
§49 223

dk/dx ( (46.6))

61 > 1 , (7 —6)1 > 1 (49.4)


( ).
I
, ,
7 .
(49.4) (49.3)
:

X = /sin 6 Pi (cos 6 ) = A sin ^l + ^ j e + a (49.5)

( , — ).
6 < 1 (49.1) ctg 6 ~
~ 1/6; /(/ + 1) (Z+ 1 /2)2,

(49.6)

,
6 = 0 / = 1. (49.6)
Pi 6 < 1. ,
1/I < 6 < 1,
(49.5), 6 1/1.
61 ^ 1
,

( 1/2 /). -
(49.5), , = /2/ i /, = 7 /4. -
, P/(cos 6 ),
224 . V II

1):

(49.7)

/
( . (28.8))

(49.8)

. § 32
, x (r ) = rR(r) ,

,
Ui(r).
1 = 0 .
, U( )
(46.6), -
. = 0 %= ,
%( )
(47.6).
I 0, (46.6)
. ,
,
= h/p ~ /l (46.6) I 1.
, I ,
.
,
( )>
,
7/ ( ) 1(1 + 1)

) , 1(1 + 1)
(I + 1 /2 ) 2 , ( —1)1
7 — 0, Pi(cosO).
§49 225

(I + 1/2)2 ) :

Ul(r) = U(r) + Y
zm~ il + \ / 2 ) 2 • (49.9)

U= = / .
,
, \U\ ~ \ \, . . ~ /\ \.

~ / /2 \ \
ol /\E\ ;

\ \ « (49.10)

. .
.
(49.10)

I » <4 9 1>

v ~ /\ \/ — . ,
(45.7)
.
(| 7( )| >> £?),

, U >
.
I ,
\U\ \ \,
.
(46.7),
^ dU a rz 777 /
F = - — = —j, ppaV 2m \U \~ J — .

2 / 2, (49.12)
. . , « »
.
1) , (U = 0) ,
(48.1) Ui (49.9), ,
, (33.12).
226 . V II

,
— 0 , = a/rs s > 2.
.
h h r s/ 2
^1 -- - ^1 --
y/m\U\ / ’

dk / 2-1 „
— - ~^= ' < 1;
dr /
.
Ui — — — 0.
~ 1/ /
r s/4 _ 1 .
.
— 0 .
,

J dr |
2 2
(s — 2 )h
_ (s/ 2- i )

§ 50.

,
. 13,
,— , U(pc)
.
U{x)
;
,
I r^JII
/ 1
1
1
1 ^ , « » (
1 ,
b
. 13 U(x)
,

. , , ,
,
.
,
.
= b (

) 2 4 § 25.
§50 227

U( ) < ) :
X

( ~ n fpdx + ? ) ‘ ^5 0 ' ^

< .
, § 47.

E - U ( x ) t t F0(x - ), F 0 > 0,
(50.1)

( ) = ( - V ' 4 e x p { i <2 m F »>1/4 /

— = , iJ / — bdx = sin ^ + cos ,

< 0 7.
( ) , ,

{ ) = / ( a m ^ V F ^ + f

, 1) :
X X
_^
^
Vp e x p { i / < + } ^ ^ {) / } - (50-2)
>b <b
1)
( ) , ,
(< — —7 ) ,
« » (50.2) .
, ( ) , -
,
( —» —7
, .
228 . V II

,
( )

.
I . III
,
;

= j P dx + j (50.3)

v = p/m — , aD— .
(50.2)
II :

j J pdx ) .
X

/ D
' = \ 71
( 1
IVh
I pdx pdx - i

(50.4)
, (47.5), I
:
6

V- = 2 , / - e x p -1 J H<Jx)coS( i I
,

D— ( —^ / dx (50.5)

X
2 ( i f
=
Vv VJ
cos - / p d x + — ) =

1exp(i f pdx+7 + j =v e* p ( - U p d x ~ ’i
§50 229

( — —
~ ewx/h^ , —
.
, D—

. ,
, ,
D 1).
, U(x)
(

). ,

,
. D
, (50.5), -
( (50.5) ) .

1. ,
. 14: U( x) = 0 < 0, U(x) = Uo — F x > 0;
.
.

- S ) 3/2
SHF .
2. ( )
- : U( r) = —Uo < ,
U ( ) = ot/r > ( . 15) 2) .
. - ,
.
/
2
/ ^ 2 m ( ~ E ) dr

1) D ,
I ;

.
2) . . (1928)
(R . W. Gurney, . U. Condon, 1929)
- .
230 . V II

_ /

\ V ( )

— 0

7 ' 2 \
=
h hv )

, , . . /Hv 1.
, , (49.11)
.
3. U(x)
(7 77, . 16), .
,
,
,
.

, ,

.
( U( x) -
).
.
. 16 U(x),

,
{ ), ( )
( , 7), . .
; ( ) ,
7 .
\ 7^2-
, ,

( ) (- ):

) = + (- )], 2( ) = - (- )]. (1)


§50 231

I (— ) ( ),
II — . ( ) (— )
, (1) ,
I II.

■ +^( 0- ) 0 = 0,
h
2 ,
, ^ ( 1 - ) 1 =0,
\, ,
dx 0 . , = 0 \ = \/2 , [ = 0

J 0 1 dx « ~^=
V2 J
J 1 dx = -^=
/2'

1- 0= - — (0) ' (0).

2 —
. ,
2/?2
2- 1= — (0) ' (0).
(47.1) (48.3) ,
/------
(0) = J ^^exp(“^/lpld:r)’ ^ (0) = 1^ (0),
'
vo = / 2(Uo — )/ . ,

2 - Ex = — J

\ \ dx

( — , — . . 16).
4. D (
) U( x ) =
= — 2/ 2 ( . . , 1935) ) .
.
\ \,

\ 1

= const .£± £-1/ 2 (± £ 2/2 ) ,

1)
U(x),
.
232 . V II

£= ( * V /4 = . I™
\h 2) ’ ft Y '
, +
, . . .
= _ £ £_1/ 2 ( £2/2 ) —» , (1)
= ( —£ )- -1 / 2 (— £2/2 ) + (—£ ) £_1//2 ( £2/2 ) — . (2)
(2) , —
( ,
). , ,

£.
(1)
£:
£ = *, £2 = 2 (—sin 2^ + cos 2 ) ,
< 0 7. (1)
(2)
= B(e")is~1/2 = — ~ £; (3)
( /2 < ( < ), | ( £2/2 ) |
, ,
(2) ) .
(2)

|2 + | |2 = 1. (4)
(3) (4)
D = \ \2 = 1 /(1 + ~ 2 £).
.
, D ~ -27 1£1
(50.5). > 0
R = l - D = 1/ ( 1 + 2 )
.

§ 51.

-
/
.
, ,
1)
, (—7 < ( < —7 /2),
( (2)), ( £2/2 )
(— £2/2 ) .
§51 233

, ,
/
(§48). ,
(
)
,

( U ( ))
,
/
. >2 . 17
,
\ E<i ( E<i > \,
. 17); , ^2 .

/1 2 ip i f f o d x . (51.1)
- I

(47.5)
= \ ( )

(51.2)
/ 1 > \

>2 ( 1 2).
(51.1)

. , ,
,
,
.
, , .
.
>2 >2 = 2 + ' 2 > _
( > 0 ,2 )
234 . V II

. (50.2)

/+ —1 2 X < CL2 ,
/—
2 /
(51.3)
2
V>2+ = X > CL2 ]
2 2

^ 2 = (V^)*]-
(51.1)
, /1 2 = + / 12>
. ,
+

/1 2 = J V'l/V,2 _

. , < 2
, < ±
(
< 2 \ ±\ > \ 2 \)-

.
, ( > \)
, ,
> \ 2 > \.
.

= a i,a 2 ,
.
,
.

1 '
± J y/2m(U - E j d x l
\
=
2 [ 2 m( U — i? i)]1/4
4 ai '
(51.4)

2
-iC 2
= 2[2m { U - E 2 ) ] 1 / 4 -~ j y/2m{U - E 2 ) d x \
a2
§51 235

,
< .

= i S r / ( ; /
'

2 '

, , ,
. ,
U(x) = ( \ 2

).

>
U(x)\ - ^
- ____ —___ ^
( ).
- - 18
U(x). , U(x)
= ,

. 18 .
,
/1 2 = 2 Re fy 2
,
/

/1 2 ~
I
j V2 ( 2 —U)dx — J / 2 ( 1 - U ) dx

(51.6)
(JI. . , 1932) ) .

; , ,
1) (51.5), (51.6)
,
, . 18 ,
,

.
236 . V II

. U(x)
, xq (51.6)
,
1).
(51.6) , \ 2
, ,
§ 48,
f[x(t)\. i?2 ,i = =

_______ \
( - w 2ilm J J ™ dx j = ex p (-w 2ilm ). (51.6 a)

XQ ___________ XQ
dx
= ! ^ ‘ = ! v( x)
,
$ . (
v(x) = yj{2{U — { ) ) ) / «
».) , (51.6 )
f[x(t)\
UJ2 1 Im 1.

-
. /( )
(
), I
.
,
, U\(r)
/2 ( ).
(51.5)
, U\(r) /2 ( )
, ,
2 ( )- 1 ( ) = 2 - 1. (51.7)
) , f(x) .
, (51.6)
« » .
, , ,
. f ( x ) = const.
- ,
(51.6).
§51 237

<
j ^2 ( 2 - U2 ) d r - J / 2 ( 1 - ) dr

(51.8)

U\(r) /2 ( ), (51.7).
- ,
dr (51.1)
( — ) + :

0
.
,

+ ,
. , U\(r) /2 ( )—
[U(— ) = U ( )]. X i(r)
( )— , ( . § 21) ) ,
/( ) , 1/ 2
.

( , /( )
),
= 0, (51.8)
= 0.

1. (
) U = Uoe~ a x .
. U( x ) — — .
, (51.6) = — .
+ .
— . —
+ — .

/1 2 ~ ----- —{V2 - V - 1) ,

) U( ) R(r) ( )
( ) /, (
R ~ r l).
238 . V II

Vi = y / 2 E i / m , V2 = / / —
( — ), ,
2. U = /
/ = 0.
. U( r)
= 0. 2 § 50.
(51.8)
„ 7 ( 1 1
~ — I -----------
\V2 Vi,
3.

U{x) = 7^ 2 + [3 4

< & 1: 2 < (1)

.
, (51.6) - .
— = ,
.

J
/ — — \
/1 2 ~ ( - i / s/2m(U — 2 ) dx — y / 2 m ( U — E i ) dx 1 j.
a 2 al

(1)

mcj mcj 1 « /^ (2)

^ 2» , 2, 4.

(Ei^/U) (
) / 4,
( 2 [ d\x\ fd\x\\

(2), . . ~ ^/ ( 2) / /3 ~ 0,2 ~ / 2/ ( 2) ,
~ ai ~ y j \ / ( 2) .
/ 2 , 2 4 Ei 2 4
/1 2 ~ - —— In —— -----h —— In
2 f3E2 2

rii « Ei/ , 2 ~ E2 /fiw,

n”2/2 / 4 (n2“ni)/2
/l2 ~ n ? l/2 \m w 3
§52 239

,
/( ), . f(x)
,
( 2 - ).

§ 52.

,
.
.
.
-
,
« » , ,
,
. , ,
, « » qo,

;
. , S i(gi, qo) + £ 2 ( 2 )

qi « » qo
qo ^2-

w ~ e x p |- |l m [ 5 i ( g i ,g o ) + S 2 (qo, 9 2 )]}- (52.1)


« » ,
, (52.1)
( ,
,
, (52.1) ) ).
(52.1)
-
. , , ,

.
(52.1)

{ . . ,
1) ,
qo.
240 . V II

1932). ,
, (
) (52.1) (50.5)
.
. (52.1)

, . qo
xq «
» ,
, . . U( ) = .
,

.
( § 50)
( )
( + ).
, § 47,
50, /j .

( \— - )

, ( )
xq ( . 19);

,
( -
)

.
xq -
. 19 yjE —U( )

, ,
, . . 1) .

, R

) , ( ,
), + .
§52 241

_ .
. 2
R = = ^ —~ Im J p d x ^ j . (52.2)
+

, ,
;
. 19 C f,
\ xq

R = -4 ( °)/^ ( i,xo)=Im J ( ) dx; (52.3)


XI

( ) ,
\ 1) . , -
(52.3)
( . . , . . , . . , 1958)2) .
, xq
, (52.3)
,

. ( , ,
> 0, . . ,
.) ,
U(x) ,
cr(xi, $) 3) .
,
,
(52.3).
, U(x) -
) ,
.
,
§ 25 /3.
, ,

/ \
X!
1
( (— )
, . §47.)
2) . . (1961).
3) , . 19
U(x).
242 . V II

: , ,
U = , ,
U= ,
( ( 00, x q ) ^ 1) (52.3)
. , ,
,
( . 2) ) .

1.

, ( . .
, 1939).
.
.
—« » ,
.
— , —
; —
( ).
q = r / ( Z e 2/ ) ( Z e — ), ( ,
) « », . . « » ,
qo. , ,

= ^ /2, = Vp/2 1 / qo, = - 1 / qo] (1)


v n , vp , Vd— « » ,
/ / ( — ); v n
, a vp Vd .

- = 1, Vp “ v n = 2Vdi (2)
2
v p = 2i + v n , vd = i + vn, l / q 0 = E + 1 - v n + 2 i vn .

) . . . . -
( . 1961. . 40. . 1713).
§52 243

J J
j--- CXD CXD j
Im S 2 = Z e 2 J — l m l v n dq + J 2 ^E p J dq > —
' ^rtn an

= Z e 2 J — Im < - v nq0 - vpq0 + J —- Arch / q o E p > . (4)

(52.1)

2Ze2 2 ___ 2
1exp — Im — Arch / q o E p ----- — Arch y / q 0E (5)
Ev E

Arch
(4) (3)
Im vp Im Vd (
(2) , Im ( S 1 + S 2 ) > 0).
w
( = —1 — )
( )
. ,
— 0. qo = 1 / ( + 1) (5)

2Ze2 - 1 2 /
• arccos / --------
- 1 +1 \/ + 1

(
) .
S = Si + S 2
,
. = 0 1)

Im S ( E n ) - Im 5 (0 ) (
V dEn
:

dw 2Ze2 3-
dEn (£-1)(£+1)2
- 1
+
V 4 E -1 )5 + 1
2.
, .
(43.1),
— ,

) = 0 Im S ( E n ) ,
— ( < 0
).
244 . V II

^- , 27 h.
d v = dp'/27 , '— . (43.1)
dp ( ^- ),

R =
h2 p2
J U ( x ) e°2ipx/hdx
2
2

. (1)

,
: U a / h v < 1, — ( . . . 205),
/ < 1.
( );
(1) .
3. -
, U( x ) = .
. U( ) -
,

,
; .
(1) 2 ,
( ) = .
= 0,
:
U = —F \ x > 0, U = —F 2 X < 0
F\ F2 . dx
± (
— 0).
2 fc2
\ 2

16 §
= ( 0).

§ 53.

§41,

.
,
(
) (J1. . , 1961).

,
t ±00. , , ipn (q,t) E n (t) —
( ,
),
( ) = E n^ n ]
§53 245

.
W2 1 t —^ +
2 , t —
\.

« »,
( —f E ( t) d t) .

t = to,
^i(^o) = ^ 2 (^0 ) (53.1)
« »
( . §52); , ,
,
(53.1).

t
t = to,
.
, \,
2 t.
(
Lp\, (^2 ),

(53.2)

( t). Lp\, (f 2
t = to-

= «1^1 + 2^2* (53.3)


,
« » t H{t) ( (17.4))
- ( = ),
( *),
U(t) U(t)*.
(53.3) ,
Lp\, 2 , dq.

(53.4)
246 . V II

, \2 = 21
, :
\ + J?i2a 2 = E d 2 ,
(53.5)
12 + J?22a 2 = \.
( \2 — )2 =
= \\ 22

= \2 = / 22. (53.6)
(53.5)

a 2/ a i = ± / # n / t f 22. (53.7)
(53.6) , t = to
22 ;
.
, , t — to-

E{t) — E(to) = =t const -y/t — to, (53.8)


. e. E{t) t = to . 2 ~
~ y/t — to, t = to
, ( \.
,
§ 52 -
. «
» (£) (
§52),
2 2 (—i E 2 t/ti) t +00,
t — — (t) = ± (—iE it / h ) (

+ );
W2 1 = | 2|2. S = —f E(t) dt
,
( ,
( ) f pd x).

t (
), ,
§ 52 ,
.
, 2 > \]
§53 247

t ( ^/ / ^/
). (
(52.2))

W2 1 = [ - Im [ E ( t ) dt ], (53.9)
" 7

. 19
, .
= \, = 2 .
(53.9)

W 21 = f —2 Im J Lo2i ( t ) d t j , (53.10)
' tl '

UJ2 1 = { 2 —Ei)/h] t — £,
to
(53.1),
(53.10)
1). , 1
2 « »
,
. ,
« » 1—^3—^2 (53.10)
(3 1 ) (23)
Lo Lo

J W3 1 (t)dt+ J u>23(t)dt,
« »
E \ ( t ), E 3 (t) E 2 (t), E$(t)\
,

^ + U2 (t)x = 0 (1)

1) to
, E(t) ( -
(53.10) ).
2) ,
, .
248 . V II

u(t) cji t — — 2
t — ( . . , 1960),
. (1)

— , — t\ p(x)/h = ( ) — uo(t),

, § 25.

.
(1) t — =
= ’ 1* + A { e ~ iwi t , -s-- ,
= 2 2* + ^ - ^ 2*, —> .
(25.6)
2= 1+ 1 (2)
/ ,
h = muJiX2 = 2 m u i \ A i \2, I2 = 2 2 \ 2 \2,
, (2):
I2 = 2 2[(\ \2 + \/3\2 \ \2 + 2 R e ( / 2)].
(25.7), \ \2 =
= |/312 + \/ 2,
12 - h = 4: 2[\/3\2 \ \2 + Re ( / * 2)]. (3)
u(t)

. (3 , \ \2 « \/ 2.
( , u 2(t)
t.)
12 — 1\

A I = 12 — Ii ~ \/3\ ~ | —2 Im J u ( t ) d t \ ,
' '
to — t,
I. §51 ( . . I)
. , u 2(t)
,
. ( . . . 241.)
, — — (3)
. ,
7 « 2 /1,

R « — 1/3|2 — « ».
ui
VIII

§ 54.

.
,
, ,
[ ]

- .
§ 28, I
,
— .

.
1) (
L )
2.
, 2, ,
2
. ,
, , (
) 2L + 1 ,
( L) . ,
2L + 1
2) . , . .
(

) .
2) ,
.

, ,
- .
250 . V III

),
L. , ,

,
;

, .
( , ),

.
L ,
;
2L + 1 .
,
, ,

.

,
« »
,
, « » « ».
,
« » ,
.
(
—>> 0)
1).
,
, ,
2) .
, ,
,
( ,
). ( , ,
h) s.

)
« »
« ».
2)
( G . Uhlenbeck, S. Goudsmi t , 1925).
( W . Pauli, 1927).
§54 251

, ,

,
. ,

— ,
,
( z)
(
).
( , , ; )— .

, ;

.
dV,
,
dV 1' ’ > ; )12-

. , -
.
. ,
, ,
'Sz ,
.

. § 26

.
,
,
.

, .
,
,
,
252 . V III

2 ( ,
).
,

, , ,
:
sz} = isX) {sz-) = isy, = is z (54.1)
.
(54.1)

. , § 27 ( (27.7)-
(27.9)),
; L
s. (27.7) ,

, . , ,
,
, Lz
( § 27 ,
(26.14) /^,
).
, sz
,
,
±5. 25
sz . ,
s 0 ,1 /2 ,1 ,3 /2 ,...
,
s 2 = s(s + l), (54.2)
s ( ),
. s sz
5, s — 1 , . . . , —s — 25 + 1 .
, s
25 + 1 1) .
, —
, , , , /i-
) s ,
(h — 0) hs
.
, I .
h /
, .
§54 253

( , , S) — 1/2. ,
—7 - if- ,—
0.

1 s. ,
, ,
.

j = 1+ s (54.3)
« »,
(§31).
, I s
I + s ,1 + s — 1 , . . . , |/ —s\. , ( 1/2)
I
j — I - 1/2; I= 0 j , ,
j = 1/2.
J
j ,
. J

J = L + S, L = J ] l e, S = ^ s a, (54.4)

S , a L—
.
, — (
),
, . ,
,
,
.
j (
J) ,
,
,
.
(27.13)
,

. (
) (29.7)-(29.10)
.
254 . V III

1 /2
s z = 1 /2 .
z , z.
. s , , z
1 /2 . z , ,
z ~sz> = (1 /2 ) cos . ,
s zf = ( 1 /2 )(w + — W- ), w± — s z> = d=l/2.
, + + w~ = 1,
w+ = cos2(#/2), w- = sin2(#/2).

§ 55.

, ,
. , ,
( , , ; ) ,
,
,

.
(
) .
, ,

(55.1)

— ; ftp ,
,
^, ,
/. , f a(7/
,
(11.5)1).
(11.5)
,

(55.2)

1) ,
(55.1) ,
(11.11).
§55 255

1 ( ) 2 ( )— 5Z,
sz = \ sz = ;
,
sz , . .
1):
(< ) = $(7(71, ( 2 ^ ) = $ (72• (55.3)
(55.1)

( )( ) = '^ 2 1 ’' 1( ') = ^ facr'$ ' = facr

, 2 ( ), (55.2)
,
.
, , ,
(2s + 1)- .
, , ,
, (55.1),

( { ) = < ' ( ')- (55.4)


'
( §54) 5 , 5 , 5Z
§ 27 1/ , Ly, Lz,
L 5 :

($ ) , —1 = ($ ) —1,(7 = ~ / (5 O’) ( 5 + 1),

(Sy)cr,cr-1 = -{S y)a-l,a = ~ | \ / (« + -) ^ - + 1), ( 5 5 ‘5 )

(^z)aa = *
.
1/2 (5 = 1/2, = ± 1 /2 )
.

s = i<i, (55.6)

) : 1( ) = z) 5 a i a ; (55.3)
.

sz (ai <7 2 ) <!


(11.11) (55.1).
256 . V III

1)

° “ (l
1 \
)’ ° ~ (?
^ /0 -
*) ’ ° ~~ ( )• (55-7)
(55.7) . s~z = ^
, ,
sz 2).
.
(55.7),

GyGz — &-> Gz®x —


J l=,3 =dl =\„ ®® —
(55.8)

(54.1), ,

“ = 2$ik-> (55.9)
. . .

:
2 = 3, (oa)(ob) = ab + [ ], (55.10)
b— 3).
,
,
; ,
( .
1). , (
) :
Sp<Ti = 0, S p d id k = 2 Sik. (55.11)

) (55.7)
, , —
.
+ 1 / 2 , —1 /2 . , (55.4),
- ,

/ )) ■
1 2

2)
:
.
3) (55 .8 )-(5 5 .1 0 ) ,
, ,
.
§55 257

, .

z.
5(
z.
( — ) 1 + iS(ps'z .
' ( ) ' ( )+ 6 ( ),
6 ( ) = i5(ps'z'ip((j) =
d'ip/dip = ,
, ( )

( = ^ ( a ) e l(T(f. (55.12)
, 2
2? , (—I) 25 ( 2
, 2s). ,
z

,
.

1.