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CAJU: Cosmic Rays Detector at Campina

Grande, for the LAGO Collaboration

Mauricio Suárez-Durán
mauricio.suarez@saber.uis.edu.co

Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia


Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección y Astropartículas, Buenos Aires,
Argentina

1
Outline


The LAGO Collaboration

The CAJU detector

The CAJU Installation

Capabilities

Remarks

2
The LAGO Collaboration
(Latin American Giant Observatory)

3
The LAGO Collaboration
(Latin American Giant Observatory)

4
The LAGO Collaboration
(Latin American Giant Observatory)

5
The LAGO Collaboration
(Latin American Giant Observatory)

6
The LAGO Collaboration
(Latin American Giant Observatory)

7
How?

8
The LAGO Collaboration
(Latin American Giant Observatory)
α(E ,Z , A )
Φ(E)≃ j0 (Z , A )E

α ' (Z , A ) Emax
E
N ( Z , A)= N ' j 0 (Z , A)
α ' ( Z , A) |
Emin

9
Rev. Mod. Phys., 83, 907–942, Sep
The LAGO Collaboration
(Latin American Giant Observatory)
α(E ,Z , A )
Φ(E)≃ j0 (Z , A )E

α ' (Z , A ) Emax
E
N ( Z , A)= N ' j 0 (Z , A)
α ' ( Z , A) |
Emin

10
Rev. Mod. Phys., 83, 907–942, Sep http://www-conf.kek.jp/past/hadron/QCDCR/project_e.html
Expected Flux of secundaries at
Campina Grande

11
Edyvania Emily, 2017
Wate Cherenkov Detector:
CAJU Detector

12
Water Cherenkov Detector:
CAJU Detector

13
Water Cherenkov Detector:
CAJU Detector

14
Water Cherenkov Detector:
CAJU Detector

15
Cherenkov Effect
c / n dt
cos θ=
β c dt
1
cosθ=
dt

βn
c/n

θ β c dt

n(ω)≡ √ μ(ω)ε(ω)≃ √ ε(ω)≈ n


● Medio material con índice de refracción n = cte
● Partícula cargada con velocidad β c > (c/n)
16/55
CAJU Installation

17/55
CAJU Installation

18/55
CAJU Installation

19/55
CAJU Installation

20/55
CAJU Installation

21/55
CAJU Installed

22/55
CAJU Installed

23/55
CAJU Data
● Analog signal (pulses) at PMT
● Signal Amplifcation
● Three independen channels
● FADC digitalization: 10 bits to 40 MHz (25
ns)

24/55
Characteristic Pulse

25/55
Characteristic Pulse

50
50 51
51 50
50
49 50
49 50 5050
589
589 5151 49
49
362 50
362 50 4949
107
107 5050 49
49
58 51
58 51 4949
84
84 50
50 49
49
50 50
50 50 4949
43
43 49
49 49
49
50 50
50 50 5050
49
49 50
50 51
51
50 50
50 50 4949
## tt 11 1668309
1668309
## cc 193454323
193454323
26/55
Characteristic Pulse

50
50 51
51 50
50
49 50
49 50 5050
589
589 5151 49
49
362 50
362 50 4949
107
107 5050 49
49
58 51
58 51 4949
84
84 50
50 49
49
50 50
50 50 4949
43
43 49
49 49
49
50 50
50 50 5050
49
49 50
50 51
51
50 50
50 50 4949
## tt 11 1668309
1668309
## cc 193454323
193454323
27/55
Defnitions
50
50 51
51 50
50
49 50
49 50 5050
589
589 5151 49
49
362 50
362 50 4949
107
107 5050 49
49
58 51
58 51 4949
84
84 50
50 49
49
50 50
50 50 4949
43
43 49
49 49
49
50 50
50 50 5050
49
49 50
50 51
51
50 50
50 50 4949
## tt 11 1668309
1668309
## cc 193454323
193454323

28/55
Defnitions
50
50 51
51 50
50 ● Pulso canal j
49
49 50
50 50
50
589
589 5151 49
362
362 50
49
50 49
49
V j (t)
107 50
107 50 4949 ● Peak
58
58 51
51 49
49
84 50
84 50 49
50
49 P j =máx [ V j (t)−50 ]
50 50
50 49
49
43 49
43 49 4949
50
50 50
50 50
50
● Area ← Deposited Energy
49 50
49 50 5151 300 ns
50
50 50
50 49
49
## tt 11 1668309
1668309
## cc 193454323
193454323
A j=
( ∫
0
)
[V j (t)−50] dt >0

● Area / Peak:
( A/ P ) j = A j / P j
● Δt (not function of j)
Δ t i =( tagi −tag i −1 )×25 ns
29/55
Defnitions
50
50 51
51 50
50 ● Pulso canal j
49
49 50
589
50 50
50 A1=841 ACDq
589 5151 49
49 V j (t)
362
362 5050 49
49 P 1=589 ACD p●
107 50
107 50 4949 Peak
58
58 51
51 49
49 ( A/ P)1=1.42
84 50
84 50 49
50
49 P j =máx [ V j (t)−50 ]
50 50
50 49
49
43 49
43 49 4949
50
50 50
50 50
50
● Area ← Deposited Energy
49 50
49 50 5151 300 ns
50
50 50
50 49
49
## tt 11 1668309
1668309
## cc 193454323
193454323
A j=
( ∫
0
)
[V j (t)−50] dt >0

● Area / Peak:
( A/ P ) j = A j / P j
● Δt (not function of j)
Δ t i =( tagi −tag i −1 )×25 ns
30/55
Defnitions
50
50 51
51 50
50 ● Pulso canal j
49
49 50
589
50 50
51
50
49
A1=841 ACDq
589 51 49
362 50
362 50 4949 P 1=589 ACD p● V j (t)
107 50
107 50 4949 Peak
58
58 51
51 49
49 ( A/ P) 1 =1.42
84
84 50
50
50 49
49 P j =máx V [j (t)−50 ]
50 50
50 49
49
43 49
43 49 4949
50 50 50 ● Area ← Deposited Energy
50 50 50
49
49 50
50 51
51 300 ns
50 50 49
50 50 49
## tt 11 1668309
## cc 193454323
48

49
48 51
1668309 50
51 50
51
50 51 49
193454323 93
93 51
49 51
48
50
49
51 50
51 50
51
50
50
49
A j=
0
(∫ [V j (t)−50] dt >0
)
48 51 49
49
49 50
50 5050
● Area / Peak:
49 50 49
49 50 49
52
52 49
49 5050 ( A/ P ) j = A j / P j
48 49
48 49 4949
48
48 49
49 48
51 51
51 51 50
48
50 ● Δt (not function of j)
49
49 50
50 5050
## tt 11 1668611
1668611
## cc 193454324
Δ t i =( tagi −tag i −1 )×25 ns
193454324 31/55
Defnitions
50
50 51
51 50
50 ● Pulso canal j
49
49 50
589
50 50
51
50
49
A1=841 ACDq
589 51 49
362 50
362 50 4949 P 1=589 ACD p● V j (t)
107 50
107 50 4949 Peak
58
58 51
51 49
49 ( A/ P) 1 =1.42
84
84 50
50
50 49
49 P j =máx V [j (t)−50 ]
50 50
50 49
49
43 49
43 49 4949
50 50 50 ● Area ← Deposited Energy
50 50 50
49
49 50
50 51
51 300 ns
50 50 49
50 50 49
## tt 11 1668309
## cc 193454323
48

49
48 51
1668309 50
51 50
51
50 51 49
193454323 93
93 51
49 51
48
50
49
51 50
51 50
51
50
50
49
A j=
0
(∫ [V j (t)−50] dt >0
)
A1=34 ACDq 48 51 49
49
49 50
50 5050
● Area / Peak:
49 50 49
P 1=93 ACD p 49 50 49
52
52 49
49 5050 ( A/ P ) j = A j / P j
48 49
48 49 4949
( A/ P)1=0.37 48
48 49
51
49 48
51
48
50 ● Δt (not function of j)
51 51 50
49
49 50
50 5050
## tt 11 1668611
1668611
## cc 193454324
Δ t i =( tagi −tag i −1 )×25 ns
193454324 32/55
Defnitions
50
50 51
51 50
50 ● Pulso canal j
49
49 50
589
50 50
51
50
49
A1=841 ACDq
589 51 49
362 50
362 50 4949 P 1=589 ACD p● V j (t)
107 50
107 50 4949 Peak
58
58 51
51 49
49 ( A/ P) 1 =1.42
84
84 50
50
50 49
49 P j =máx V [j (t)−50 ]
50 50
50 49
49
43 49
43 49 4949
50 50 50 ● Area ← Deposited Energy
50 50 50
49
49 50
50 51
51 300 ns
50 50 49
50 50 49
## tt 11 1668309
## cc 193454323
48

49
48 51
1668309 50
51 50
51
50 51 49
193454323 93
93 51
49 51
48
50
49
51 50
51 50
51
50
50
49
A j=
0
(∫ [V j (t)−50] dt >0
)
A1=34 ACDq 48 51 49
49
49 50
50 5050
● Area / Peak:
49 50 49
P 1=93 ACD p 49 50 49
52
52 49
49 5050 ( A/ P ) j = A j / P j
48 49
48 49 4949
( A/ P)1=0.37 48
48 49
51
49 48
51
48
50 ● Δt (not function of j)
51 51 50
49
49 50
50 5050
Δ t 24=7550 ns ## tt 11 1668611
1668611
## cc 193454324
Δ t i =( tagi −tag i −1 )×25 ns
193454324 33/55
Area Histogram
● Area of each pulse → Area Histogram

34/55
Area Histogram
● Area of each pulse → Area Histogram
EM
Muones A3=841 ACDq

Simultaneous
Particles
MCV

A3=34 ACDq 35/55


Area Histogram
● Area of each pulse → Area Histogram

j=
∫ H ( A)dA
=284.03 pulses m−2 s−1
0
St

36/55
CAJU Capabilities

37
CAJU Capabilities


Cosmic Rays Background

Physics ●
Space Weather


Teaching ●
Muon Decay

Data Analysis

Advanced Laboratory
(Data and Simulation)

38
The LAGO Space Weather
Program
CR Flux Solar Modulation Modulated Flux
(Low energy CR)

Geomagnetic
Atmosphere Primary Modulation
Interactions CRs
Secondary
Particles
Signals

Flux variation of signals at detector level ⇔ Solar Activity 39


Primary particles at atmosphere
border=> LAGO-SW

40
https://courses.candelalearning.com/colphysics/chapter/chapter-33-exercises/
Primary particles at atmosphere
border=> LAGO-SW

Isotropic

41
https://courses.candelalearning.com/colphysics/chapter/chapter-33-exercises/
Primary particles at atmosphere
border=> LAGO-SW
Energy ~ GeV

Isotropic

42
https://courses.candelalearning.com/colphysics/chapter/chapter-33-exercises/
Primary particles at atmosphere
border=> LAGO-SW
Energy ~ GeV

Isotropic
http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/catch/cr2.html

43
https://courses.candelalearning.com/colphysics/chapter/chapter-33-exercises/
El proyecto LAGO Solar

02/08/18 H. Asorey for the LAGO


H. Asorey Collaboration,
- Vida media del muón en Proc. ICRC2013, in44/55
press
El proyecto LAGO Solar

02/08/18 H. Asorey for the LAGO


H. Asorey Collaboration,
- Vida media del muón en Proc. ICRC2013, in45/55
press
Muon Decay

02/08/18 46/55
Un decaimiento en los datos
● Dos pulsos consecutivos: ingreso del muón,
aparición del electrón
- -
μ →νμ ν̄e e
50
50 50
61
139
50 50
61 49
50
49 54
139 49
54
49 602
602
μ μ
50
50 50
49
62
50 50
51
49 51 51
62 50
50
51
50 106
106 e
91
91 51
51 454
454 53 50 117
59 53 50 117
59 50
50 236
236 51
51 51
51 62
62
60
60 50
50 151
151 50 50 55
50 50 55

e
53
53 50
50 87 50
53
87 50 50
50 51
51
53 50
50 61
61 53 51
53 51 5151
50
50 50
50 57 51
51
57 51 50
50 51
51
51 51
51 57
57 49 49
49 49 5252
50
50 50
50 52 51
51
52 51 50
50 51
51
51 49
49 51
51 51 49
51 49 5151
51
51 50
50 50 51
50
50 51 50
50 52
52
50 49
49 51
51 50 49
50 49 5050
51
51 50
50
50 52
52 Δ t=84×25 ns=2100 ns 50
50 51
51 50
50
50 50
50 51
51 52 50
52 50 5151
## tt 44 30008562
30008562
## cc 663486982 Δ p=1 ## tt 44 30008646
30008646
663486982 ## cc 663486983
663486983
02/08/18 H. Asorey - Vida media del muón 47/55
Suma de exponenciales

02/08/18 H. Asorey - Vida media del muón 48/55


Nos concentramos en Δt ~ τμ

02/08/18 H. Asorey - Vida media del muón 49/55


El experimento contraataca

02/08/18 H. Asorey - Vida media del muón 50/55


Solución: Qitar si (A/P)<1

02/08/18 H. Asorey - Vida media del muón 51/55


Diferencia de tiempo entre pulsos

f(t) = a e-(Δt/) +
b
Ajuste →  = (1990 +/- 10) ns

02/08/18 H. Asorey - Vida media del muón 52/55


Muón en el agua
 Muón en agua Tiempo Decaimiento muon
negativo
 μ → Libre
+
Ajuste → μ = (1.86 +/- 0.02) μs
 μ- → Prob. de captura nuclear (similar a la c.e.):
 α Z4 del medio
 Alta absorción en 35Cl y 36Cl (lejía, lavandina, NaClO)
 Procesos que compiten para el μ- :
 Decaimiento
Sólo decaen los que no son
 Captura
absorbidos
 obs = (N+ + + N- -)/(N++N-) μ  
 Se puede medir la relación N+/N-
02/08/18 H. Asorey - Vida media del muón 53/55
Remarks


A new WCD up and running

Data for Space Weather researchers

New tool for teaching physics: muon decay,
data analysis, simulation, etc

Start point for new and upcoming
collaborations

54
CAJU Installed

Obrigado
55/55

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