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1) The System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Model

This process is used to model or provide a framework for technical and non-technical
activities to deliver a quality system which meets or exceeds a business’s expectations
or manage decision-making progression. This is also a series of phases: (1) planning, (2)
systems analysis and requirements, (3) system design, (4) development, (5) integration
and testing, (6) implementation, and (7) operations and maintenance; to create a
hardware system only, a software system only or a combination of both to meet or
exceed customer’s expectations.

System Design and Methodology Tools

There are variety of techniques that a system analyst must know to plan in a team
environment, where input from users, managers, and IT staff contributes to the system
Architectural Design - emphasizes the design of the systems architecture that describes
the structure, behavior and more views of that system and analysis.
Logical Design - pertains to an abstract representation of the data flows, inputs and
outputs of the system. This is often conducted via modelling, using an over-abstract
(and sometimes graphical) model of the actual system. In the context of systems,
designs are included. Logical design includes entity-relationship diagrams (ER
Physical Design -relates to the actual input and output processes of the system. This is
explained in terms of how data is input into a system, how it is verified/authenticated,
how it is processed, and how it is displayed.

Computer Aided Systems Engineering

A computer-aided system engineering (CASE) tool is a resource for achieving high-

quality and error-free software. Throughout the early years of software design, the tech
community developed this term to talk about the idea of using computer programs to
help human developers create new systems or applications. It is the tool that is
concerned with analysis and design, and with using design information to create parts
(or all) of the software product, that are most frequently thought of as CASE tools.

System Development Methodologies

There are various methods for developing computer-based information systems.

Structured analysis is the most popular method, but a newer strategies are also used

Structured Analysis - this is also the SLDC – where traditional systems development
technique that is time-tested and easy to understand. Structured analysis uses a set of
processes models to describe a system graphically. Because it focuses on processes
that transform data in useful information, structured analysis is called a process-
centered technique.
Prototyping – is an approach to software development that requires developers to
construct a working representation of the system. Some practitioners say that
prototyping significantly reduces the time between requirements determination and
delivering a system, current system requirements are more accurately reflected in the
final product.

Rapid Application Development (RAD) - is an Object Orientated approach to software

development that includes a method of development as well as software tools. The
primary purpose of a RAD is to speed up the systems development process.

Rational Unified Process (RUP) - is an iterative systems development platform that

provides a complete set of software engineering processes that may be packaged or
customized to the unique needs of each organization.

Effective Technical and Human Implementation of Computer based Systems (ETHICS) -

the focus is to identify what is desired from the new system and compare this to the
current one. This results in the identification and justification of changes. ETHICS is a
participative approach that combines social and technical solutions. It supports
identification of system goals from user, management and organizational perspectives.
At least one key person from each area affected by the system, will be involved.

Soft System Methodology (SSM) - emphasizes the identification of the ideal system and
how it can be reached rather than improving on the current system. SSM models the
problem situation (the real world) with “rich pictures”.

Project Team Roles and Skills

The project team is the staff who actively work on the project, at some stage, during
the lifetime of the project. Some may have a specific roles and skills.

Team member roles will vary depending on the type of project. Typically they might be
to: (1) Provide functional expertise in an administrative process, (2) Work with users to
ensure the project meets business needs, (3) Documentation and analysis of current
and future processes/systems, (4) Identification and mapping of information needs, (5)
Defining requirements for reporting and interfacing, and (6) User training.

2) System Tools and Documentation Techniques

A. Data flow diagram (DFD)

A two-dimensional diagram that explains how data is processed and transferred in a

system DFD is used primarily in the systems development process, as a tool for analyzing
an existing system or as a planning aid for creating a new system

(1) Context Diagrams

Designers typically first prepare a high-level DFD called a context diagram to provide
an overall picture of an application or system.

(2) Physical DFDs

A context diagram shows very little detail. Systems designers usually elaborate on the
elements in the context DFDs by decomposing them into more detailed levels. Physical
DFDs show more detailed processes of the application. The first level of detail is called a
physical DFD.

The physical DFD focuses on physical entities such as the employees involved in the
system, tangible documents, reports, inputs, and outputs that flow through the system.

(3) Logical DFD

A physical DFD illustrates which internal and external entities participate in a given
system but does not give the users a good idea of what these entities do. A logical DFD
addresses this requirement.

Level 0 DFD: It shows only in broad terms what tasks a system perform. But most
systems are more complex and therefore require more detail to describe them

Level 1 DFD: It contains more detailed processes for a specific task.

B. Flowcharts - probably the most common systems technique. This is graphical or

symbolic representation of a process. Each step in the process is represented by a
different symbol and contains a short description of the process step. The flow
chart symbols are linked together with arrows showing the process flow direction.

(1) System Flowchart

A graphical description of the relationship among the input, processing, and output
in an information system. It typically depicts the electronic flow of data and processing
steps in an AIS.

(2) Program Flowchart

A graphical description of the sequence of logical operations performed by a

computer in executing a program.

(3) Document flowchart

A graphical description of the flow of documents between Dept. within a company.

It concentrates on the physical flow of reports and documents.

(4) Analytic Flowchart

An analytic flowchart identifies all significant processing in an application,

emphasizing processing tasks that apply controls. The flow of processing is

depicted using symbols connected with flowlines.

(5) Forms Distribution Flowchart

A forms distribution chart shows the distribution of multiple copy forms within an

organization. The emphasis is on who gets what forms rather than on how these

forms are processed.