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ial Jourd October 1994


What is our primary mission? tions. Others get derailed in the one of the two biblical earmarks of
After analyzing major streams of search for correct theology. our identification (Rev. 12:17 and
thought in Adventism (April 1994), Uplifting Christ and teaching Rev. 19:10). It is obvious that the
Ministry editor David Newman sound gospel and solid doctrine "evangelicals" and the "progres
invited reader responses to an will be seen at its best where the sives" are not with it. "Believe in
important question: "What is the members love Jesus and are faith the Lord your God, so shall ye be
primary mission of the Seventh-day fully enthusiastic about Christ's established; believe his prophets, so
Adventist Church today?" We commission (see Matt. 28:19, 20; shall ye prosper" (2 Chron. 20:20).
publish here a sample of responses Rev. 10:11; 14:6-12; John 7:17). Dunbar W. Smith, M.D.,
received. Editors. Don Fehlberg, pastor, Launceston Calimesa, California.
SDA Church, Tasmania, Australia.
The Seventh-day Adventist As a retired pastor and former
Church came into existence through Jesus commanded His disciples president of the East Africa Union,
the providence of God. We are not to make disciples of others. If I am relieved to learn that I am not
just one church among many. We making disciples was so important the only one concerned about an
are a unique body in that God has that Jesus spent most of His minis increasing loss of "focus, mission,
called us to serve Him in a way that try doing this and then commanded and identity" in the church for
no other organization can. Our those disciples to make other which I have spent my life's labors.
mission is found in the words of disciples, why do we hear so little Are we losing our simplicity, our
Revelation 10:11, "Thou must about disciple-making? As long as focus? I believe so. And the reason
prophesy again before many we have baptismal goals instead of is simple: we have neglected to use
peoples, and nations, and tongues, discipleship goals, the church will the prescription lenses provided by
and kings." The immediate context likely continue to grow on the God to give us clear insight. I speak
indicates that this "prophesying" basis of addition. When we take of the Spirit of Prophecy.
would have as its primary focus the seriously Jesus' primary mission of Saul didn't like what God had to
end-time prophecies of Daniel and making disciples we will see the say to him through Samuel and the
Revelation. All of these end-time church grow on the basis of multi priests. One he ignored; the others
prophecies are encompassed in the plication. he killed. His only remaining
three angels' messages of Revela The fragmentation we witness in resource was a witch. Will we
tion 14:6-12. We do not have the the Seventh-day Adventist Church repeat the mistakes of the past?
option of picking and choosing must never consume our focus. Your editorial quotes one who
what portions of this last-day Judaism was fragmented when Jesus claims to represent evangelical
message we are to preach. Our was here. But Jesus never focused Adventism: "Our distinctive
mission is to preach all of the three on that fragmentation. He spent His Adventist beliefs must never be
angels' messages! David H. time making disciples. If we follow allowed to eclipse the gospel."
Sharpe, pastor, Paradise Valley His example, we will experience Surely, they cannot eclipse the
SDA Church, Phoenix, Arizona. growth as explosive as that of the gospel. They are the gospel.
apostolic church! Vialo Weis, Simplified and focused through the
The primary mission of the pastor, Central SDA Church, Spirit of Prophecy, they provide
Seventh-day Adventist Church is Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. the very definition of the identity
evangelism sharing Jesus and His from which we are being seduced
teachings with a perishing world. Your question poses a problem by the illustrious Balaams amongst
Wherever this is neglected or for a progressive, truly evangelical, us. D. K. Bazarra, Kampala,
replaced, the church is on the historical, mainstream Seventh-day Uganda.
retreat. When souls aren't being Adventist. It seems to me that there
won, members become discon are only two streams of Adventists, If all could consider just the
tented. Inevitably they then start depending upon how they regard bare possibility that they might be
finding fault with everything and Ellen White. The "evangelicals" wrong, only so slightly, about some
anything, including the message, state that "they honor Ellen White things, what progress we could
the minister, the church, and the as one of the founders of our make. Let no one, even the adminis
leadership. church," and that's all. The "pro trative church, try to "take over" the
When the church gets side gressives" seem to deny the validity whole body of Christ. It is His. If
tracked from aggressive evange of her work altogether. we are part of Him, how can we
lism, some members end up in a The status of Ellen White as a possibly be superior to any other
multiplicity of activities that are prophet in what we claim is the part of Him?
little more than good public rela remnant church of the end-time is (Continued on page 61)

First Glance

This month will mark 150 years since our spiritual forebears L Letters
believed Jesus would come. Out of that "great disappointment"
sprang one of the largest and most successful missionary move 4 Why are we still here?
ments ever. While 1844 did not bring the second advent it did bring Martin Weber
a new and greater appreciation for Christ's heavenly ministry.
Adventism at 150
George R. Knight
The ancient Jewish sanctuary rituals long neglected by other
Christian groups shed new and impressive light on what Christ 14 1844 is it biblical?
accomplished at the cross and what He is doing for us now in Martin Weber
heaven. While we must be careful not to make the heavenly
sanctuary a replica of the one on earth we must not go to the opposite J.?/ According to the pattern
extreme and deny its existence and relevance for us today. Roy Adams

Focusing on Christ, not ourselves

We present this special issue on the sanctuary in heaven with Norman R. Gulley
the conviction that if we ever lose our prophetic vision we will have
lost the trigger for our mission. That is why even though Knight's .34 The sanctuary and Adventist experience
article is a long one, it is important in explaining why there is still P. Gerard Damsteegt
a Seventh-day Adventist Church today. Weber clearly shows the
biblical basis for the date 1844. 41 The full and final display
Clifford Goldstein
The other articles each focus on different aspects of what the
44 The vindication of God and the harvest
sanctuary message is all or not about. Use this material to preach a principle
series on the practical meaning of the sanctuary today. After all, Woodrow Whidden
what is there better to preach on than Jesus crucified, risen, and
coming again, which is what the sanctuary is really about. The gospel of the sanctuary
Alberto R. Treiyer
Through the kind permission of the Ellen G. White Estate, we
have duplicated on our cover their mural of the Advent experience. 5A Ministry Reports

52 Biblio File

Ministry Reports

63 Shop Talk

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Why are we
still here?
Martin Weber

he devil has aimed some of his perfectionistic perversion of the sanc Equally serious heresies remain to
sharpest arrows at the heavenly tuary/judgment doctrine. haunt us; many Adventists seem ge
sanctuary, with its 1844 judg What a pity! Seventh-day Advent netically incapable of believing our
ment. This Adventist pillar, built upon ists have so much to teach the world. unique doctrines in the context of
Christ, will nurture both assurance of There is nothing missing in our mes orthodox Christianity.
salvation and fervent commandment- sage; God has given us a complete
keeping. Apart from the cross, how package of truth. However, we've had The three angels' messages
ever, the sanctuary/judgment doctrine a problem connecting Adventist doc Some suggest: "Forget this discus
becomes a discouraging, faith-de trine with Christian faith, compounded sion about the gospel. Get down to
stroying heresy. by a desire to debate rather than to sit business and preach the three angels'
Eternal torment is a terrible doc at the feet of Jesus and learn of Him. messages!"
trine of the devil, but at least it doesn't The 1888 episode was supposed to And what does that involve? The
disturb the faithful with doubts about remedy all that. first angel's message proclaims "the
their own damnation. The sanctuary/ But it hasn't. Seeking remedial everlasting gospel" in the context of
judgment doctrine I was taught, how revival, some Adventists want to lead the pre-Advent judgment (Rev. 14:6).
ever, informed struggling saints not the church back to the good old days, How can we do this unless we are sure
yet victorious that if their names had when most members believed basi of what the gospel is? The second
already come up in the celestial judg cally the same thing and few chal angel's message calls us out of
ment and they had flunked the test, lenged our landmark doctrines. A com Babylon, which represents organized
they were going about their business pelling question comes to mind, how righteousness by works, as symbol
already doomed. ever: If the good old days were all that ized by Rome's historic rejection of
"What's the use?" many of my good, why are we still here? Think the gospel. If we haven't personally
teenage friends lamented after Bible about it. Why have five succeeding repudiated a works-based religion, can
classes. "Why even try to be like generations failed to fulfill our rem it truly be said that we've come clean
Jesus if we might already be damned nant mission, perishing in the wilder out of Babylon? We had better clarify
in the judgment?" No wonder some ness of parched possibilities? what it means to be saved by faith and
stopped climbing the steep stairs to Earnest voices call us back to his then know where works come in.
the throne of grace in the heavenly toric Adventism, perhaps unaware that And what is the third angel's mes
sanctuary. Concerned pastors and no Adventist today believes exactly sage? Justification by faith "in ver
teachers redoubled their efforts to save like our earliest pioneers. For example, ity," 1 Ellen White says. But what is
their youth from tuning out the church most of them ate pork at least until justification? Ask several pastors, and
and turning on with drugs. Mostly in the health visions of the 1860s. Along you might get several incompatible
vain. with their unclean meat, they suffered answers. No wonder we often have
People young and old have be spiritual indigestion from unwhole little power in our proclamation: "The
come weary of shame-based, guilt- some Christology, soteriology, and thought that the righteousness of
driven religion, and the tendency is pneumatology. Not until the 1880s Christ is imputed to us, not because of
simply to give up. Loose living or a and 1890s did Adventists hear clear any merit on our part, but as a free gift
lukewarm lifestyle often reflects teaching about the ABCs of Chris from God, is a precious thought. The
burned-outlegalism. Some Adventists tianity: who Jesus was, what really enemy of God and man is not willing
give up on God and the church; others happened on the cross, and the that this truth should be clearly pre
keep attending but divorce themselves personhood of the Holy Spirit. The sented; for he knows that if the people
from the dysfunctional aspects of re ancient heresy of Arianism lingered receive it fully, his power will be
ligion that bring them pain such as a with us into the twentieth century. (Continued on page 62)

Adventism at 150

he year 1994 marks the 150th setting sprang up periodically in their
George R. Knight anniversary of the October 22 midst. The group's proponents even
disappointment of Millerite tually gave up any firm belief in
Adventism. Up to that date the Mil- Miller's prophetic scheme. Joshua V.
lerites had been certain that Christ Himes and Josiah Litch (Miller's
would return in 1844. But suddenly chief lieutenants) belonged to this
their hopes were shattered; their cer segment of Adventism, as did Will
tainties replaced by disorientation. iam Miller himself up to his death in
In the aftermath of On October 23 the disappointed Mil- 1849.
lerites found themselves in the midst A third group eventually concluded
1844, what caused of a sudden and unexpected identity that the Millerites had been correct in
Seventh-day crisis. the dating of the 2300 days of Daniel
8:14 and that something of impor
Adventism to The Adventist denominations tance had happened on October 22,
become a world The subsequent months and years
found those who remained faithful to
1844, but the event was not the Sec
ond Advent. Rather it was the begin
wide movement? their Advent hope in a search for ning of the cleansing of the heavenly
identity. Who were they? What did it sanctuary. This group developed
What are the perils mean to be an Adventist? around several key doctrines, includ
it faces today? The answer to these questions was
not obvious at the time. Further Bible
ing a continuing belief in the near
advent of Jesus in the clouds of heaven,
study and heart searching were in the sanctity of the seventh-day Sab
order. Between 1844 and 1848 three bath, Christ's two-apartment minis
major strands of post-Millerite Ad try in the heavenly sanctuary, the con
ventism evolved. 1 The first was the ditional nature of immortality, and
Spiritualizers. This group gave up the the perpetuity of spiritual gifts (in
literal interpretation of Scripture and cluding the gift of prophecy).
spiritualized the meaning of even con These Sabbatarian Adventists
crete words. Thus they could claim came to see themselves as the only
that Christ had come on October 22 true heir of pre-Disappointment Ad
He had come into their hearts. That ventism, since (unlike the Spiritual
was the Second Coming. This group izers) its advocates continued to hold
spawned a large amount of fanati to a literal Advent and (unlike the
cism. Albany Adventists) they continued to
George R. Knight is a The second group was the Albany hold to Miller's principles of pro
professor of church
history at the SDA Adventists, so called because they phetic interpretation. The foremost
Theological organized along congregational lines leaders of the Sabbatarians were
Seminary, Andrews at Albany, New York, in May 1845. Joseph Bates and James and Ellen
University, Berrien
Springs, Michigan.
Their aim was to distance themselves White.
from the fanatics among the Spiritual Between 1844 and 1866, six de
izers. They continued to look for the nominations arose out of the three
cleansing of the sanctuary as the sec branches of Millerism. The Albany
ond coming of Christ. Further time- Adventists gave birth to four of those

denominations the American Evan divisions and mutual suspicions Adventist denominations. By that time
gelical Conference in 1858, the Ad among the Adventist groups didn't the Seventh-day Adventists had
vent Christians in 1860, the Church of make the task any easier. 3 achieved predominance, with 28,991
God (Oregon, Illinois) in the 1850s, The first Adventist census was members in the United States. The
and the Life and Advent Union in published by D. T. Taylor in 1860. Advent Christians were next, with
1863. The Sabbatarian movement re Taylor counted 584 ministers, with 25,816. Then came the Church of God
sulted in two denominations, the Sev 365 believing in conditionalism and (Oregon, Illinois), with 2,872, the
enth-day Adventists between 1861 and annihilationism, 67 believing in con Evangelicals, with 1,147, the Life and
1863 and the Church of God (Seventh sciousness after death, nine unde Advent Union with 1,018, and the
Day) in 1866. With their diversity, cided, and 143 not reporting. On the Church of God (Seventh Day), with
individuality, and lack of organiza day of worship, 365 held to Sunday, 647. 6
tion, the Spiritualizer wing of Ad- 57 to the seventh day, with 162 not A century later only four of the six
ventism formed no permanent bodies. reporting. Taylor estimated 54,000 Adventist denominations still existed.
Various Spiritualizers eventually lay members, but did not attempt to In 1990 the Seventh-day Adventists
gravitated to other "isms," more break them down according to belief. reported 717,446 members in the
stable Adventist groups, or were ab However, other sources indicate that United States, while the Advent Chris
sorbed back into the larger culture. somewhat more than 3,000 were tians claimed 27,590, the Church of
Sabbatarians. Thus by 1860 the sev God (Oregon, Illinois) 5,688, and the
The changing shape of Adventism enth-day keepers represented a little Church of God (Seventh-Day) 5,749.7
While membership statistics are more than 10 percent of the advent- As noted above, the once-strong
not available, it seems safe to suggest ists. The balance of them, presum Evangelical Adventist denomination
that the Evangelical Adventists and ably, were first-day worshipers.4 had been the first to go. It had disap
the Advent Christians were the peared in the early twentieth
most numerous in the early ^^ century. The Life and Advent
1860s, with the Advent Chris Union had been the next to lose
tians constantly gaining over the its separate identity. By 1958
Evangelicals. One reason for the "The tiniest of the the Union reported only 340
members. Six years later it
Advent Christians' relatively
greater success seems to be Millerite offshoot groups" merged with the Advent Chris
tians. 8
that they had unique doctrines
that gave them something to
was the one which Thus by the early 1990s the
stand for. Their doctrines of would become by far Seventh-day Adventists, with
their more than 700,000 mem
conditionalism and annihila-
tionism provided a focal point the largest." bers in the United States and
for their identity. Those teach more than 7,000,000 members
ings gradually even surpassed ^^H worldwide dominated the ranks
their emphasis on the Advent. of the religious bodies tracing
They became their distinctive doc Taylor's census also gathered esti their heritage back to Millerism. As
trines and provided the Advent Chris mates regarding the subscription lists Clyde Hewitt, an Advent Christian
tians with a rallying point. of the various Adventist journals. The historian, put it, "the tiniest of the
The Evangelicals, on the other Advent Christian World's Crisis led Millerite offshoot groups was the one
hand, had only the premillennial Ad the list with 2,900 subscribers. The which would become by far the larg
vent to separate them from the gen Crisis was followed by the Sabba est." 9
eral Christian populace. When a sig tarian's Review and Herald (2,300)
nificant portion of conservative Prot and the Evangelical's Advent Herald The "why" of success
estantism also adopted forms of (2,100). Taylor went out of his way to At this point one is left with the
premillennialism in the decades after note that the promoters of the Review question of why? Why did the minute
the Civil War, Evangelical Advent- and Herald, "though a distinct minor Sabbatarian movement with its un
ism had little reason to continue a ity, are very devoted, zealous, and popular doctrines not only survive
separate existence. By the early twen active in the promulgation of their but prosper? One can only speculate
tieth century it had ceased to exist as peculiar views of the Sunday and Sab regarding the answer to that question,
a separate religious body.2 bath." The results of that zeal would but several respectable hypotheses can
Statistics among the Adventist show up in the decades to come.5 be argued from the historical data.
groups were not easy to come by in The 1890 United States govern Before exploring those hypotheses, it
their early years. Some feared that ment census not only provides a more should be noted that closely connected
"numbering Israel" might bring a accurate picture of Adventist mem to the query as to why Seventh-day
"curse." Others proved to be more bership but also indicates radical shifts Adventism succeeded is a second is
helpful, even though reluctant. The in the relative size of the various sue, that of why Millerism succeeded.

I suggest that the two movements most successful years during World factors that led to the success of pre-
experienced success for largely the War I. Likewise, Barkun notes that 1845 Millerism and post-1844 Sabba
same reasons. millennarian revivals took place not tarian Adventism. Social forces and
Before moving to my analysis, we only during the economic depression contextual factors are important (prob
should look at the answers that others of the 1840s, but also during those of ably even essential) to the success of
have supplied to the why of Millerite the 1890s and 1930s. 12 any religious movement, but they are
success. Three helpful answers come Doan views one factor in the suc not enough by themselves. The exter
from David L. Rowe, Michael Barkun, cess of Millerism to be its orthodoxy nal factors are not the movement, but
and Ruth Alden Doan all non- its essential harmony with the other the soil for the successful planting
Adventist scholars who have done religious forces of the day in terms of and development of a movement. Both
extensive study in Millerism. doctrine, lay leadership in understand the external and internal factors must
Rowe points out that while many ing the Bible, and so on. Millerism's be in place for a movement such as
"prophets" predicting the end of the one essential heresy was its view of Millerism or Sabbatarian Adventism
world have arisen in American his the premillennial Advent. But the to succeed.
tory, none achieved a mass following movement's very orthodoxy in most We will now look at four internal
like Miller's. Rowe then goes on to matters left the populace open to its factors that seem to have contributed
explain the movement's success in one unorthodox message. Doan's po to the success of Millerism and Sev
terms of revivalism, millennialism, sition, which is currently shared by enth-day Adventism.
and pietism. All three of those forces most non-Adventist scholars, is a re
met at the time of the Millerite move versal from earlier views that treated A view of truth
ment. Rowe argues that while Second Millerism as something strange (if First, it should be noted that apoca
Awakening revivalism provided the not weird) and out of harmony with lyptic movements often attract two
method for spreading Miller- personality types. On one side
ism, millennialism supplied the m _____ we find the rationalism that
idea or dream of the future king unpacks the biblical prophe
dom that gave direction to the cies and develops the apoca
movement, and pietism fur
nished the temperament of faith
Miller's message supplied lyptic scheme of events. On
the other side are the emo
that enabled individuals to re hope in a world in which tional types that gravitate to
ward the excitement of the
spond to the revival and accept
the vision of the new world to
human effort had failed apocalyptic expectancy and of
come. The three working to to achieve the expected ten run into fanatical, irratio
nal extremism.
gether developed a dynamic that
thrust Millerism forward. 10 results. Millerism had both types.
Barkun calls attention to en Thus although it was founded
vironmental factors as contribu- H ^^m upon the cool rationalism of
tors to the success not only of Miller, it also had its Stark
Millerism but also of other millen- its culture. 13 weathers (a fanatical leader in the
narian and Utopian movements of the It should be noted that the various pre-Disappointment period), Gorgases
same era. Thus natural disasters (such suggestions for Millerism's success (R. C. Gorgas was mixed up in fanati
as changing weather patterns) and presented thus far are not mutually cism on October 22, 1844), 14 and
economic/social crises (such as the exclusive. Each appears to supply a Spiritualizers. A movement disinte
panic of 1837) provided a climate in portion of the explanation underlying grates whenever the rational forces
which people were looking for solu Millerism's success (and, by exten are not strong enough to stem the
tions to their individual and collec sion, the success of Sabbatarian centrifugal forces of irrationalism or
tive stress. In such a context, Miller's Adventists). But even collectively emotionalism. It was in this area that
message supplied hope in a world in they supply but a part of the answer to the Spiritualizer wing of Adventism
which human effort had failed to our question. came to nothing. Its irrationalism
achieve the expected results. There The suggestions put forth in the overcame its rationalism until at last
seems to be a rule that the worse rest of this article should not be seen there were no controls on its belief
things get in human terms, the more as being out of harmony with those structure.
feasible millennial options appear to set forth by Rowe, Barkun, Doan, and One of the strengths of Millerism
be. 11 others, but as being complementary was its rational development of its
In support of Barkun's point, it is to them. But whereas their sugges central doctrine. That element drew
an established fact that millennial tions tended to focus on factors exter believers to its cause through its very
groups prosper in times of crisis. Thus nal to the Millerite movement, those logic. But Millerism at its best also
Seventh-day Adventist and dispensa- developed in the rest of this article made room for religious emotional
tional evangelism had some of its look more carefully at the internal ism, and that emotionalism ideally

What the Bible Says
About the End-Time

uring Adventist history there
have been many attempts to set
a date for the Second Coming.
What does Scripture say about the end?
Dr. Jon Paulien traces the development
of end-time thinking through Scripture,
sharpening our view of last-day events
and focusing on Jesus, who alone adds
meaning to the end of time. Hardcover,
160 pages. US$14.95, Cdn$21.65.

Apparent Delay

t's been 150 years
since the Great
Why hasn't our Saviour
returned? Is there
something we can do
to hasten His return?
Or are we thwarting
His plan? Arnold V.
Wallenkampf looks at
what Scripture and
Ellen White's writings
have to say about the
timing of the Second
Advent. Paper,
128 pages. US$8.95,

1844 and
the Rise of
» eproductions
^ of original
_l_ X-documents
providing insights
into the rise and
significance of
Millerism and
Adventism. Includes
William Miller: Herald Promises for letters and articles
of the Blessed Hope the Last Days by such notables as

William Miller,

ompiled from Ellen his collection of
White's writings, this comforting promises Charles Fitch, Hiram
story traces William for these special times Edson, Joshua V.
Miller's contribution to the of need was drawn from Himes, Joseph Bates,
early Advent movement and more than 40 different Ellen and James and Ellen
depicts his followers' sub White sources. Compiled White. Compiled and
sequent discovery of what by J. R. and Phyllis Bailey. Reproductions B! original historical documents edited by George R.
Campiied and edited by George R. Knight
really happened on October Hardcover, 160 pages. Knight. Paper, 208
22,1844. Paper, 96 pages. US$11.95, Cdn$17.30. pages. US$14.95,
US$7.95, Cdn$11.50. Cdn$21.65.

These Review and Herald books are available at your ABC. Call 1 -800-765-6955.
Note: Canadian prices do not include GST and may change according to currency fluctuation.
took place within the bounds of ratio flies against the wind, so there is a other hand, Seventh-day Adventism
nality. That combination gave both dynamic in religious movements that (like Millerism) is close enough to
life and stability to the movement and is vitalized by differences and even orthodoxy in most central doctrines
heightened its appeal. opposition. Being different gives in to get a hearing among other Chris
Seventh-day Adventism has par dividuals and social groups meaning. tians.
taken of much that same balance, al And being different develops com
though it appears at times to wander mitment to a cause, especially when it Organizational structure
too far toward the purely rational pole. entails bridge-burning as one joins a A third element that led to the
Both Millerism and its Sabbatarian religious subculture. 15 evangelistic success of Seventh-day
offspring, of course, have had their In Millerism that bridge-burning Adventism was an organizational
excitable and fanatical elements, but dynamic took place when people were structure sufficient to carry on the
the stability of their success can "cast out of Babylon" for espousing mission and meet the challenges of its
largely be attributed to their ability to premillennial beliefs. An example of perceived message. At first glance it
appeal to the rational element in that dynamic in Seventh-day Advent might seem that Millerism's success
people. Thus they have aimed at con ism takes place in family and work and that of Seventh-day Adventism
verting people to "the truth." struggles that involve the keeping of might vary here. In a sense it does.
the seventh-day Sabbath in a culture But the variable appears to be time
The content of truth that sees Saturday as a workday. rather than organization as such. My
A second element that ap essential point is that Millerism,
pears to have led to the evange- ^^ given its brief existence, had
listic success of Millerism and sufficient organization through
Seventh-day Adventism is the its conferences and periodicals
content or doctrinal factor in
The Seventh-day Adventist to give direction to its mission
their view of truth. Thus Church was the only for its few intense years. But
Millerism had what it consid such a nebulous organizational
ered to be an important Bible one of the Adventist pattern would not have been
truth to offer to individuals
searching for meaning. For
denominations to place sufficient to direct the move
ment's mission over an ex
Millerism, that doctrinal factor significant authority at tended period of time.
was the premillennial return of It was the lack of sufficient
Christ. Millerism was not just a any ecclesiastical level organization that spelled the
part of the ecclesiastical wood
work; it stood for something
above that of the local demise of the Spiritualizers and
the lack of growth for the two
distinctive from other religious congregation. Church of God Adventist de-
groups. Thus it had a message ^ ^^ nominations. Without sufficient
to preach. Many responded to organization they could not con
that message. centrate their resources for mis
As noted above, one of the reasons Seventh-day Adventists have es sion or maintain unity. Costly schism
that Evangelical Adventism died out tablished several doctrinal and was the result.
was that it had lost its doctrinal dis- lifestyle boundary markers that have It is at the point of sufficient orga
tinctiveness once a significant por had that effect. Hewitt, in seeking to nization that the Advent Christians
tion of American Protestantism ac explain Seventh-day Adventist growth and the Seventh-day Adventists also
cepted premillennialism. After that, in contrast to the lack of growth in his parted ways. The Seventh-day Ad
Evangelical Adventism had no fur Advent Christian community, notes ventist Church was the only one of the
ther reason to exist. As a result, it that "the distinctive beliefs and prac Adventist denominations to place sig
blended back into generic evangel tices of the [SDA] denomination, nificant authority at any ecclesiasti
icalism. On the other hand, the Ad while causing it to be viewed with cal level above that of the local con
vent Christians adopted conditional- suspicion by many traditional Chris gregation. Hewitt, in bemoaning the
ism as their new doctrinal distinctive. tian believers, have seemingly given plight of the Advent Christians, indi
Thus they had at least one more rea its faithful members a resoluteness of cates that the lack of a "strong cen
son to continue a separate existence individual and group character that tralized organization" is one reason
than their Evangelical sibling. goes far to explain their successes." that "contraction threatens to over
By way of contrast, the Seventh- Dean Kelley sheds light on this dy come expansion" in their work. What
day Adventists developed a whole namic when he notes that if people are centralized organization they did get,
arena of unconventional beliefs that going to join a church they want to he argues, came too late and, worse
they saw as their special mission to join one that provides a genuine alter yet, represented mere structure with
share with the world. Just as a kite native to the larger culture. 16 On the out significant power. As a result of

their congregational structure, Hewitt emphasized, was built upon an inter interpretation in their denial of the
points out that the Advent Christians pretation of the prophecies of Daniel great time prophecies of Daniel and
were unable to mobilize for united and the Revelation. The Millerites the Revelation. Without that certainty
action. With proper organization, he believed with all their hearts that they of the flow of prophetic history, they
suggested in 1990, the Advent Chris had a message that people must hear. lost their sense of conviction and ur
tians might be "a growing and not a It was that belief and the total dedica gency. They finally had to find mean
dying denomination." n tion that accompanied it that pushed ing for existence in other doctrines,
By way of contrast, two recent the Millerites into tireless mission. such as conditionalism or the nonres-
studies of Seventh-day Advent- urrection of the wicked. That
ist organizational structure indi- m^ may have been good enough for
cate that the denomination's a sort of denominational exist
structure was consciously de ence, but the Albany groups had
signed with mission outreach in Seventh-day Adventism abandoned the mainspring that
mind in both 1861-1863 and had aggressively propelled Mil
1901-1903. 18 Of course, that does is facing major lerite mission.
not mean that the denomination
is without significant problems
organizational problems By way of contrast, the
Sabbatarians founded their
in its organizational structure. in the last decade of the movement on that very main
To the contrary, Seventh-day Ad- spring. They not only maintained
ventism, as we shall see below, twentieth century. Miller's prophetic scheme of in-
is facing major organizational __ terpretation, but they extended it
problems in the last decade of *"" in such a way as to give meaning
the twentieth century. to both their disappointment and
It was that same vision, based upon the remaining time before Christ's
Prophetic consciousness the same prophecies, that provided the advent. Central to that extended in
The fourth, and by far the most mainspring of Seventh-day Adventist terpretation were Christ's work of pre-
important, factor in the rapid spread mission. From their beginning, the Advent judgment in the cleansing of
of Millerism was its sense of pro Sabbatarians never viewed themselves the heavenly sanctuary and the pro
phetic mission and the sense of ur as merely another denomination. To gressive nature of the three angels'
gency generated by that prophetic the contrary, they understood their messages of Revelation 14.21
understanding. Millerism was a mis movement and message to be a ful Those two prophetic extensions
sion-driven movement. One of the fillment of prophecy. They saw them provided the Sabbatarians with the
theses that I argue for in Millennial selves as a prophetic people.20 same sense of urgency that had in
Fever and the End of the World: A That understanding came from the spired the Millerites in the 1840s.
Study ofMillerite Adventism is that it conviction that they were the only While the Sabbatarians saw Miller
was a sense of personal responsibility genuine continuation of Millerism, and Charles Fitch, respectively, as
to warn the world of its soon-coming particularly as that continuation re the initiators of the first and second
end that literally drove William lated to Miller's interpretation of angels' messages, they saw their own
Miller, Joshua V. Himes, and their prophecy. From the early Sabbatarian movement with its emphasis on the
Millerite colleagues to dedicate ev perspective, the other Adventist commandments of God as initiating
erything they had to warn the world of groups had lost their way and eventu the third. Thus, they believed, con
coming judgment. Himes put it nicely ally their mission because of their flict over their unique Sabbath doc
in an editorial in the very first issue of denial of Miller's principles of pro trine would be a focal point in the
the Midnight Cry. "Our work," he phetic interpretation. great struggle between good and evil
wrote, "is one of unutterable magni That denial took two different di right before the Second Coming.22
tude. It is a mission and an enterprise, rections. One was a rejection of the
unlike, in some respects, anything literal interpretation of scriptural pas An end-time movement
that has ever awakened the energies sages that seemed to be quite literal. That interpretation was reinforced
of men. ... It is an alarm, and a cry, Thus the belief that Christ had al by their view of the end-time struggle
uttered by those who, from among all ready come sapped the missiological over the commandments of God pic
Protestant sects, as Watchmen stand strength of the Spiritualizers. After tured in Revelation 12:17 and the
ing upon the walls of the moral world, all, if Christ had already come, what fuller exposition of that verse in Rev
believe the world's crisis is come was the reason for mission? elation 13 and 14. As a result, the
and who, under the influence of this Meanwhile, it can be argued, the Sabbatarians were convinced that not
faith, are united in proclaiming to the Albany Adventists rejected the stimu only were they the heir of Millerism,
world, 'Behold the Bridegroom lus to mission that had convicted and but their movement had been pre
cometh, go ye out to meet him!' " 19 empowered Millerism when they re dicted by God to preach the three
That sense of urgency, it must be jected Miller's principles of prophetic angels' messages to all the world im-

mediately before Revelation 14's great quick to point out that Ellen White In another connection, Hewitt roots
end-time harvest. had predicted in December 1844 that Seventh-day Adventist success in their
That prophetic understanding did those who rejected October 1844 as a conviction that they have a prophetic
the same thing for Sabbatarian fulfillment of prophecy would even mission in the tradition of William
Adventists that it had done for Miller- tually be left in "perfect darkness" Miller.28
ites. It eventually drove them to mis and would stumble in their advent
sion. By 1990 the conviction that their experience.26 Prophetic mission
movement is a movement of proph But it should be noted that merely Hewitt's conclusions go a long way
ecy had resulted in one of the most holding the conviction that they have toward helping us understand the
widespread mission outreach pro the "correct doctrine" is not a suffi spread of Sabbatarian Adventism. Its
grams in the history of Christianity. cient explanation for the spread of mainspring seems to have been much
By that year they had established work Sabbatarian Adventism. After all, the more than merely the fact that the
in 182 of the 210 nations then recog Seventh Day Baptists preached the Sabbatarians believed they had the
nized by the United Nations. 23 seventh-day Sabbath with conviction, "truth" on the Sabbath and the "truth"
That kind of dedication did not but their 5,200 members in the United of the Second Advent. The driving
come by accident; it was the direct States in 1990 is less than what they force undergirding Seventh-day Ad
result of prophetic conviction of their had in the 1840s. As one nineteenth- ventism was the bedrock conviction
responsibility. Central to that pro century Seventh Day Baptist preacher that they were a prophetic people
phetic conviction was the imperative told Bates, the Baptists had been able with a unique message concerning
to the first angel of Revelation 14:6 to "to convince people of the legality of Christ's soon coming to a troubled
preach "to every nation, and kindred, the seventh-day Sabbath, but they world. That prophetic understanding
and tongue, and people" and the com could not get them to move as the of their mission, integrated with their
mand of Revelation 10:11 that the Sabbath Adventists did." 27 doctrines within the framework of the
disappointed ones "must prophesy Likewise, many of the nonsabba- three angels' messages, provided the
again before many peoples, and na tarian Adventist groups preached what Sabbatarians with the motive power
tions, and tongues, and kings." they believed to be the truth of the to sacrifice in order to spread their
Clyde Hewitt, in seeking to ex premillennial return of Christ, but message far and wide. That same dy
plain the success of the Seventh-day without the same results as Seventh- namic operated in Millerism. Unfor
Adventists as opposed to the attrition day Adventists. Hewitt notes that his tunately for Seventh-day Adventism,
faced by his Advent Christians, "Advent Christian people have not that very vision appears to be in jeop
touched upon an essential element been an evangelistic church" and have ardy in the 1990s.
when he noted that "Seventh-day not made much of an impact on the
Adventists are convinced that they world. The result, he points out, has Vitality or death: the shape of
have been divinely ordained to carry been smallness. Not just smallness in Adventist futures
on the prophetic work started by Wil numbers, but smallness "in dreams, The Adventist denominations
liam Miller. They are dedicated to the in visions. Smallness breeds small- growing out of Millerism are facing
task." 24 possible death. That is the in-
In contrast to that convic- m ference of Richard C. Nickels,
tion, Hewitt's father wrote to F. who concluded his 1973 history
D. Nichol in 1944 that the The driving force of the Church of God (Seventh
Advent Christians had given Day) with a section entitled "A
up Miller's interpretation of undergirding Seventh- Dying Church?" The volume's
Daniel 8:14 and the 2300 days
and had no unanimity on the
day Adventism was the ominous last words are from
Christ's message to the Church
meaning of the text. Another conviction that they were at Sardis: "It was alive, yet
dead!" 29
leading Advent Christian
scholar interviewed in 1984 a prophetic people with Similarly, the final section
noted that his denomination no
longer even had any agreed-
a unique message. of Hewitt's three-volume his
tory of the Advent Christians is
upon interpretation on the mil ^B "Should a Denomination Be
lennium the very heart of Told It's Dying?" That section,
Miller's contribution.25 In short, when ness." Hewitt also indicates that Ad published in 1990, contains a heart
the Albany Adventists stepped off vent Christian smallness cannot be felt analysis of the denomination's
Miller's prophetic platform, they be attributed to unpopular doctrines. situation. The final moving words in
gan a process of deterioration in their After all, he argues, the Seventh-day Hewitt's trilogy are: "I devoutly hope
prior understanding of the end of the Adventist list of unpopular doctrines some are listening. Amen!" 30
world. The seventh-day branch of the "includes all those of the Advent Where is the millennial fervor that
Adventist family, of course, have been Christian faith and adds several more." brought these denominations to birth?

And what about the other post-Mil- stances find it easy to downplay their think through thoroughly the massive
lerite denominations? Are they also denomination's distinctive doctrines. organizational changes necessitated
in danger of losing their vision? In But such were the dynamics that by a century of internal and external
particular, what about the strongest spelled the end for Evangelical Ad change. Few seem to be able to catch
of the Millerite siblings the Sab ventism. the vision of possible new structural
batarians? At the opposite extreme of the models for world mission in the
At first sight it would appear that denominational spectrum are those twenty-first century.
the rapidly growing Seventh-day who, in their reaction to their "less At the other extreme are large seg
Adventist Church has nothing to worry Adventist" Adventist neighbors, will ments of Seventh-day Adventists who
about. In May 1994 the denomination be tempted to follow the lead of the are tired of paying the cost of the
was approaching 8 million members Adventist extremists of the post-1844 administrative machinery. These
worldwide. Estimates for the year 2000 period into the fringes of the Chris members see the future of the de
project a membership of 12 million. tian community. Some in this sector nomination in congregational terms.
The problem of aging. Yet all is of the denomination are also prone to That route, of course, is the one fol
not well. It is difficult for the older sectarian sensationalism. lowed by all branches of Millerite
population sectors of the denomina The challenge facing the Seventh- Adventism except the Sabbatarians.
tion to maintain their Adventist iden day Adventist Church is to maintain a For them, Congregationalism resulted
tity. After all, it is hard to keep people healthy middle-of-the-road balance as in denominations that were weak in
excited about the Second Coming for it seeks to uplift both the doctrines ability to maintain their own identity
150 years. The Sabbatarians face all that have made it unique and those and unable to focus resources on ex
the problems of an aging denomina doctrines that it shares with other tended mission efficiently.
tion that afflicted previous religious Christians. Both acculturation to the Thus it appears that Seventh-day
movements down through church his larger community and segregation into Adventism is faced, on the one hand,
tory. Time after time the world with the increasing weight of a
has witnessed vibrant reforma- ^^^ superstructure that could even
tory religious movements tually crush the movement it
harden and lose their vitality
with age. 31
To lose faith in an self. On the other hand, it is
faced with the quite real threat
But beyond the issue of ag actual historical of Congregationalism. Success
ing, some sectors of Seventh- would seem to lie in coming to
day Adventism in the 1990s (par advent is to lose grips with the compromises and
ticularly in such places as North
America, Europe, and Austra
Adventism itself. structural changes that need to
be made if Seventh-day Ad-
lia) appear to be confronted with ^^" ventism is to continue to be a
all the threats that eroded the viable international movement
other Adventist bodies. Thus in a sectarian ghetto sound the death capable of operating efficiently to
their search for meaning in the face of knell for vibrant Seventh-day Advent ward accomplishing its perceived
the seemingly ever-delayed end of ism. mission.
the world, some believers are tempted The problem of organization. A The problem of overinstitution-
to spiritualize the nature of Christ's third tension faced by Seventh-day alism. Clearly related to Sabbatarian
advent. But to lose faith in an actual Adventism is in the realm of organi Adventism's organizational dilemma
historical advent is to lose Adventism zation. On the one hand, denomina is its inclination toward overinstitu-
itself. tional health is threatened by too much tionalism. There is a tendency for its
The problem of affluence. Alter of a good thing. Nearly a century ago extensive educational, publishing,
nately, affluence has made its impact Seventh-day Adventism adopted a conference, and medical institutions
on the beliefs of some members re multitiered administrative structure to become ends in themselves rather
garding the Advent hope. The Protes that, in its trim state, was well fitted than means for the end of taking the
tant ethic of hard work and frugality for mission expansion at the time. But denomination's peculiar message "to
has led many Seventh-day Adventists decades of expansion and change have every nation, and kindred, and tongue,
into cross-generational upward mo created a bureaucracy that is extremely and people." Thus there is the danger
bility. Several generations of such expensive to maintain and appears to of the denomination gaining its self-
mobility can develop a membership be becoming progressively dysfunc image from its institutions rather than
that locates its kingdom on this earth tional in fostering the mission of the from its stated mission.33
and has little felt need for coming church in the most efficient manner. It was at that very point that Joshua
kingdoms. It is easy for such mem While the early 1990s have seen ef V. Himes, Miller's second-in-com
bers to be more at home with the forts at reform, the results have been mand, challenged the Seventh-day
larger culture than with their sectar minimal. Few in the denomination's Adventists in 1895 a half century
ian roots. 32 Many in such circum power structure seem to be able to after the Disappointment. "You have,"

he wrote to Ellen White, "many good Adventism (Boise, Idaho: Pacific Press Pub. Truth About Seventh-day Adventism (Grand
Assn., 1993), pp. 245-325. Rapids: Zondervan, 1960); Dean M. Kelley,
and great things connected with health Why Conservative Churches Are Growing: A
2 David Tallmadge Arther, "Come Out of
reform and the churches, with the Babylon;" a Study of Millerite Separatism and Study in Sociology of Religion (New York:
increase of wealth, and colleges as Denominationalism, 1840-1865" (Ph.D. dis., Harper and Row, 1972).
well, and to me it looks like work in University of Rochester, 1970), p. 306. 17 Clyde E. Hewitt, Devotion and Develop
5 Daniel T. Taylor. "Our Statistical Report," ment (Charlotte, N.C.: Venture Books, 1990),
all these departments that may go on pp. 211, 341, 371.
World's Crisis, Jan. 11, 1860, p. 75.
for a long time to come. . . . There is 4 Ibid., Jan. 25, 1860, p. 81; Seventh-day 18 Andrew G. Mustard, James White and
a great and earnest work being done Adventist Encyclopedia, rev. ed. (Hagerstown, SDA Organization: Historical Development,
to send the message of the third angel Md.: Review and Herald Pub. Assn., 1976), p. 1844-1881 (Berrien Springs, Mien.: Andrews
1326. University Press, 1987); Barry David Oliver,
everywhere but all classes of 5 Taylor, "Our Statistical Report," World's SDA Organizational Structure: Past, Present,
Adventists are prospering in worldly Crisis, Feb. 15, 1860, p. 96; Feb. 8, 1860, p. 89. and Future (Berrien Springs, Mich.: Andrews
things, and heaping up riches, while 6 H. K. Carroll, The Religious Forces of the University Press, 1989).
United States (New York: Christian Literature 19 In Midnight Cry, Nov. 17, 1842, p. 2.
they talk of the coming of Christ as an 20 See Knight, Millennial Fever, pp. 295-
Co., 1893), pp. 1-15.
event very near at hand. It is a great 7 Kenneth Bedell and Alice M. Jones, eds., 325; Knight, Anticipating the Advent.
thing to be consistent and true to the Yearbook ofAmerican and Canadian Churches 21 P. Gerard Damsteegt, Foundations of the
real Advent message." 34 (Nashville: Abingdon, 1992), pp. 270-277. Seventh-day Adventist Message and Mission
8 Benson Y.Landis,ed., Yearbook ofAmeri (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1977).
With those sentences, Himes put can Churches (New York: National Council of 22 James White, "The Third Angel's Mes
his finger on the tendency toward the Churches of Christ, 1959), p. 253; Clyde E. sage," Present Truth, April 1850, pp. 65-69;
institutional and individual secular Hewitt, Midnight and Morning (Charlotte, N.C.: Joseph Bates, The Seventh Day Sabbath, A
Venture Books, 1983), p. 267. Perpetual Sign, 2nd ed. (New Bedford, Mass.;
ization in Seventh-day Adventism that Benjamin Lindsey, 1847). A Vindication for
9 George R. Knight, Anticipating the Ad
was present even in his day. That vent: A Brie/History ofAdventism (Boise, Idaho: the Seventh-day Sabbath and the Command
tendency has not lessened in the past Pacific Press Pub. Assn., 1993), pp. 120, 122; ments of God (New Bedford, Mass.: Benjamin
100 years. Hewitt, p. 275. Lindsey, 1848). A Seal of the Living God (New
10 David L. Rowe, Thunder and Trumpets: Bedford, Mass.: Benjamin Lindsey, 1848).
The peril of losing our vision. A 23 128th Annual Statistical Report 1990
Millerites and Dissenting Religion in Upstate
final temptation faced by Seventh- New York, 1800-1850 (Chico, Calif.: Scholars (Silver Spring, Md.: General Conference of
day Adventism will be to give up its Press, 1985), pp. 48, 70, 71,93. Seventh-day Adventists, 1990), p. 42.
11 Michael Barkun, Crucible of the Millen 24 Hewitt, Midnight and Morning, p. 277.
vision of itself as a people of proph 25 C. H. Hewitt to F. D. Nichol, May 24,
nium: The Burned-over District ofNew York in
ecy, to forget its prophetic heritage. It the 1840s (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse Univer 1944, in Nichol, pp. 455, 456; Interview of
is easy to see how that could come sity Press, 1986), pp. 103, 111, 112, 117-119, Moses C. Crouse by George R. Knight, Aurora
about, but for it to do so would be 139, 143. College, Aurora, 111., Oct. 18, 1984.
12 Howard B. Weeks, Adventist Evangelism 26 Ellen G. Harmon, "Letter From Sister
death to the dynamic that made Sev Harmon," Day-Star, Jan. 24, 1846, pp., 31, 32.
in the Twentieth Century (Washington, D.C.:
enth-day Adventism what it is today. Review and Herald Pub. Assn., 1969), pp. 78- See also Ellen G. White, Early Writings (Wash
To deny its prophetic heritage is a 85; Timothy P. Weber, Living in the Shadow of ington, D.C.: Review and Herald Pub. Assn.,
certain way to kill its "millennial fe the Second Coming: American Premillen- 1945), pp. 14, 15.
nialism, 1875-1982 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 27 Yearbook of American and Canadian
ver" and thereby destroy its missio- 1983), p. 127; Barkun, Crucible of the Millen Churches (1992), p. 276; 0. P. Hull, in Arthur
logical mainspring. nium, p. 152. Whitefield Spalding, Origin and History of
It is in line with that thought that "Ruth Alden Doan, The Miller Heresy, Seventh-day Adventists (Washington, D.C.:
Millennialism, and American Culture (Phila Review and Herald Pub. Assn., 1961), vol. l,p.
we need to understand one of Ellen 257.
delphia: Temple University Press, 1987);
White's most oft-quoted statements. "Millerism and Evangelical Culture," in The 28 Hewitt, Devotion and Development, pp.
"In reviewing our past history, hav Disappointed: Millerism and Millenarianism 334,362,357,156; Hewitt, Midnight and Morn
ing traveled over every step of ad in the Nineteenth Century, ed. Ronald L. Num ing, p. 277.
bers and Jonathan M. Butler (Bloomington, 25 Richard C. Nickels, A History of the Sev
vance to our present standing," she enth Day Church of God (1973), pp. 364-366.
Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1987), pp. 12,
penned, "I can say, Praise God! As I 13; Whitney R. Cross, The Burned-over Dis 30 Hewitt, Devotion and Development, pp.
see what the Lord has wrought, I am trict: The Social and Intellectual History of 267, 373.
filled with astonishment, and with Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 31 See George R. Knight, "Adventism, Insti-
1800-1850 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University tutionalism, and the Challenge of Seculariza
confidence in Christ as leader. We Press, 1950), p. 291; Ernest R. Sandeen, tion," Ministry, June 1991, pp. 6-10, 29; Derek
have nothing to fear for the future, "Millennialism," in The Rise of Adventism: Tidball, The Social Context of the New Testa
except as we shall forget the way the Religion and Society in Mid-Nineteenth-Cen ment: A Sociological Analysis (Grand Rapids:
tury America, ed. Edwin R Gaustad (New York: Zondervan, 1984).
Lord has led us, and His teaching in 32 Malcolm Bull and Keith Lockhart, Seek
Harper and Row, 1974), p. 112.
our past history." 35 14 For more information on Starkweather, ing a Sanctuary: Seventh-day Adventism and
see Knight, Millennial Fever, pp. 174-177; for the American Dream (San Francisco, Calif.:
more on Gorgas, see Millennial Fever, pp. 211, Harper and Row, 1989), pp. 256-268.
212; Francis D. Nichol, The Midnight Cry 33 See George R. Knight, "The Fat Woman
This article is adapted from a chapter (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Pub. and the Kingdom," Adventist Review, Feb. 14,
from the author's Millennial Fever and the End Assn., 1944), pp. 342, 343, 411, 412, 505-508. 1991, pp. 8-10.
of the World: A Study of Millerite Adventism 15 Luther P. Gerlach and Virginia H. Hine, 34 J.V. Himes to E.G. White, Mar. 13, 1895;
(Boise, Idaho: Pacific Press Pub. Assn., 1993). People, Power, Change: Movements of Social cf. Sept. 12, 1894.
Transformation (Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs- 35 Ellen G. White, Life Sketches of Ellen G.
1 See George R. Knight, Millennial Fever Merrill, 1970), pp. 183, 137. White (Mountain View, Calif.: Pacific Press
and the End of the World: A Study of Millerite 16 Hewitt, p. 277; Walter R. Martin, The Pub. Assn., 1915), p. 196.

1844-is it biblical?

id anything special happen in Much is at stake as we examine
Martin Weber heaven in 1844? Some Sev these four assumptions, one by one.
enth-day Adventists, even
pastors, are unconvinced that Jesus 1. One apocalyptic day equals one
began a final phase in His high priestly literal year.
ministry. Adventists did not invent this prin
Many would-be defenders of the ciple of prophetic interpretation; 450
faith rush to the rescue with Ellen years ago it was the historic position
Four provable White quotations. In respect for her
prophetic gift, however, we do well to
of the Protestant reformers. Even some
Catholic and Jewish scholars inter
assumptions lead take her own counsel and stand upon preted Daniel's 2300 days as 2300
the solid rock of sola scriptura. If literal years. 1 As documented a gen
to a compelling 1844 is not an authentic prophetic eration ago by the late Adventist
conclusion. landmark in Scripture, then let's pull
the extrabiblical plug of artificial life
scholar LeRoy E. Froom and substan
tiated more recently in the seven-
support and then respectfully lay it to volume Daniel and Revelation Com
rest. If, however, our theology about mittee series from the Biblical Re
1844 is supported in Scripture, othen search Institute, there is both historic
let's support it ourselves and enthusi precedent and scriptural support for
astically proclaim it. the day/year principle. The fact that
One fact recognized by all is that most commentators of the past 150
the year 1844 as a fulfillment of Bible years have forsaken their own heri
prophecy stands or falls on the 2300- tage of historicism is no reason for us
day time span of Daniel 8:14. This to follow them over the cliff into
article focuses on four assumptions futurism or to plunge into the stag
that, if legitimate, affirm our historic nant pond of preterism.2
interpretation of the 2300 days/years So the day/year principle was not
of Daniel 8:14. If: the invention of overeager Millerites
(1) one apocalyptic day equals one in the nineteenth century, nor was it
literal year, and merely an exegetical ace up the sleeves
(2) Daniel 9 explains the mystery of pope-hating reformers in the six
of Daniel 8, and teenth century. Solid biblical schol
(3) the 490 years of Daniel 9 are arship supports the conviction that a
Jj^ w**' Martin Weber is an
associate editor of cut off from a longer time span of day in apocalyptic time prophecy
Ministry. 2300 years, and equals a literal year. And we don't
(4) the starting date for that 2300- need to replicate the proof-texting
year prophecy is 457 B.C., then the heroics of our Adventist pioneers! Far
year 1844 must be biblically authen more convincing is contextual evi
tic. That fact established would vin dence.
dicate the claim of Seventh-day For example, the context of both
Adventists to be a prophetic move chapters 7 and 8 of Daniel negates the
ment of destiny. notion that their time spans could be

literal. Chapter 7' s little horn emerges A decade or so passes with the and prophecy, and to anoint the most
from the fourth world empire in the timing of that tribulation still a mys holy place" (verse 9:24).
sixth century A.D. and survives till tery. Then we come to Daniel 9, which What vision was Gabriel referring
the time of the judgment and the Ad opens with a reference to Jeremiah's to? The only possible answer is the
vent; verse 25 shows that the period prediction that Jerusalem's desola vision left unresolved by the previous
of "a time, two times, and half a time" tion was supposed to last 70 years chapter. Thus the explanation of
(RSV) must extend over most of those (see verse 2). Only a couple of years Daniel 9 solves the mystery of Daniel
many centuries. This would be impos remained before that scheduled resto 8. As noted by Gerhard F. Hasel,7
sible if only three and a half years ration, yet nothing seemed to be hap there is a compelling connection be
were intended. pening. Was the deliverance delayed? tween the two chapters.
Moving into Daniel 8, we see in Perhaps so, because along with the
verse 17 that the 2300 days of verse pledge of restoration for Jerusalem, 3. The 490 years of Daniel 9 are "cut
14 extend from the restoration of the Jeremiah had warned that God's prom off from the longer time span of
sanctuary, which would happen in the ises were conditional upon the coop 2300 years.
fifth century B.C., until "the time of eration of His people (see Jer. This point is both crucial and eas
the end" a span of about 2300 years. 18:9,10). As Daniel witnessed the ily demonstrated. While most trans
Its fulfillment is specifically aligned continued wickedness and "open lations of Daniel 9:24 use words such
with the latter days, the time immedi shame" (Dan. 9:7) of his people, he as "determined" (KJV, NKJV) or "de
ately preceding the final proclamation feared that God indeed might decide creed" (NASB, NIV, RSV), the trans
of the gospel by the "wise" (see Dan. to delay their deliverance. lation could just as easily and quite
12:3,4). Critics overlook the fact that In that context, the elderly prophet accurately be given as "cut off."
Daniel 8:17 when linked with Daniel fervently prayed with "fasting, sack William Shea notes that "analysis of
12:3-13, conclusively shows that the cloth, and ashes" (verse 3).In one of Hebrew writings such as the Mishnah
2300-day prophecy covers many cen the most heart-touching supplications reveals that although chathak can
turies. of all Scripture, Daniel pled the mercy mean 'determine,' the more common
William H. Shea of the General of God for sinners. He poured out his meaning has 'to do with the idea of
Conference Biblical Research Insti heart in concern for the "desolate cutting.'" 8 Ancient rabbinic litera
tute has done extensive analysis of sanctuary" (verse 17). Then he added: ture employed the word as "ampu
time prophecy as it relates to the day/ "Do not delay, because Thy city and tated." 9 "The well-known Hebrew-
year principle. 3 Particularly fascinat Thy people are called by Thy name" English dictionary by Gesenius states
ing are his scholastic safaris into the (verse 19). that properly it means 'to cut' or 'to
Old Testament poetic writings 4 and Despite the desperate situation, divide.' " 10
the post-Qumran interpreters.5 Shea Daniel's supplications were mingled More than a few classical Chris
bolsters his case for the day/year prin with hope and even confidence. He tian commentators concur with his
ciple by suggesting: "At this time in knew that God loves His people and is toric Adventist interpretation here.
our church history when our attention ever eager to forgive. Furthermore, Consider Phillip Newell's commen
has been called to some of the doc the Lord had commanded Gabriel to tary, for example: "The Hebrew word
trines of the Reformers, such as justi "give this man an understanding of used here . . . has the literal connota
fication and righteousness by faith, the vision" (Dan. 8:16). This mandate tion of 'cutting off' in the sense of
we would do well to heed their prin to Gabriel was yet unfulfilled, leav severing from a larger portion." " The
ciples of prophetic interpretation ing the 2300 days and the desolate Pulpit Commentary is in accord that
also." 6 sanctuary shrouded in mystery. "determined" as already indicated,
Suddenly the answer came. Gabriel means "cut off." 12 The lexicon in
2. Daniel 9 explains the mystery of appeared again and announced: "O Strong's Concordance supports the
Daniel 8. Daniel, I have now come forth to give same conclusion. Seventh-day Ad-
Chapter 8 of Daniel closes with you insight with understanding. . . . ventists are justified, then, in seeing
the aged prophet in deep distress. So give heed to the message and gain the 490 years of Daniel 9 as cut off
Horrified at the atrocities that the understanding of the vision" (Dan. from the larger time span of the 2300
trampling little horn would inflict 9:22, 23). Since the prophet's prayer years in Daniel 8.
upon God's people, His sanctuary, for understanding had involved the The only question left is when to
and His truth, the elderly prophet timing of the promised restoration, start the prophetic countdown. Daniel
faints. By the time he recovers, the Gabriel begins with an explanation of 9:25 said it should commence with
angel is gone, leaving Daniel "as time: "Seventy weeks have been de the command to restore and rebuild
tounded at the vision, and there was creed for your people and your holy Jerusalem. What year did that happen?
none to explain it" (Dan. 8:27).* We city, to finish the transgression, to
should note that the only element of make an end of sin, to make atone 4. The 2300-year prophecy started
the Daniel 8 vision yet unexplained ment for iniquity, to bring in everlast in 457 B.C.
was its timing. ing righteousness, to seal up vision Archaeology now documents the

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Adventist timetable for the historic set forth their convictions in similar third king.
decree to rebuild Jerusalem. Accord vein." 18 Let us remember that the desola
ingly, a recent Zondervan book widely Those who seek to dismantle the tion of Jerusalem involved much more
advertised and acclaimed among prophetic platform of Seventh-day than the destruction of buildings, and
evangelicals, Encyclopedia of Bible Adventists should pause and consider so the Daniel 9 prophecy included
Difficulties, sets 457 B.C. as Daniel that if we deserve censure for our restoration as well as rebuilding. The
9's prophetic starting date (although interpretations, so should the illustri privilege of Jerusalem to administer
the author attempts no connection with ous company of biblical scholars who God's laws had been lost, so the res
Daniel 8). !3 gave us our prophetic heritage. We toration of the city required the rein
Actually, before the twin Jesuit j are simply carrying their torch. stating of civil and religious govern
heresies of futurism and preterism ment. This at last was accomplished
undermined biblical historicism, Clarifying those confusing decrees by the decree of Artaxerxes in the
many respected scholars of various At this point some would protest year 457 B.C., a date we have noticed
backgrounds during the last millen that the actual wording of the com is acknowledged by evangelical
nium placed the starting date for the mand of Artaxerxes I of 457 B.C. scholarship.
2300 day/year prophecy in the fifth makes no explicit mention of any In conclusion: It is true that
century B.C. 14 Among Catholics, order to rebuild the city of Jerusalem (1) one apocalyptic day equals one
"about 1292 Arnold of Villanova said in fulfillment of Daniel 9's starting literal year; (2) Daniel 9 explains the
that the 2300 days stand for 2300 point. This threat to Adventist inter mystery of Daniel 8; (3) the 490 years
years, counting the period from the pretation disappears when we con of Daniel 9 are "cut off from the
time of Daniel to the Second Advent. sider that the decree to rebuild and longer time span of 2300 years; and
. . . Better known to most church restore Jerusalem was actually a com (4) the starting date for the 2300-year
historians is the illustrious Nicholas bined unit of three decrees linked as prophecy is 457 B.C. Therefore, the
Krebs of Cusa, Roman Catholic car one that culminated in the year 457. year 1844 in Bible prophecy must be
dinal, scholar, philosopher, and theo The first of these decrees by Cyrus legitimate and by extension, the au
logian, who in 1452 declared that the the Great in 538 (or maybe 537) per thenticity of the Seventh-day Advent
2300 year-days began in the time of mitted the Jewish exiles to resettle in ist Church as a prophetic movement
Persia." 15 "In the century after the their homeland and empowered them of destiny.
Protestant Reformation, many Prot to build for God "a house in Jerusa
estant expounders from English theo lem" (Ezra 1:2-4). The second decree 1844 must be biblical
logian George Downham (died 1634) came around 519 from Darius I, con Jesus launched His mission as
to British barrister Edward King in firming Cyrus' original decree (Ezra Messiah in A.D. 27 right on schedule,
1798, declared the number 2300 in 6:1-12). So under Cyrus the rebuild to "seal up vision and prophecy" in
volved the same number of years. ing began, and it was finished under Daniel 8/9 regarding the reliability of
John Tillinghast (died 1655) ended Darius (Ezra 6:15). However, it was the predicted time scale. In the midst
them at the Second Advent and Artaxerxes who restored, or "adorned" of the seventieth week of years, Christ
the 1000-year reign of the saints. (Ezra 7:27) the completed temple. was "cut off on the cross right on
Tillinghast was the first to assert the This third decree (Ezra 7:11-26) put schedule. He then ascended to
70 weeks of years to be a lesser epoch the crowning touch on the first two, heaven's sanctuary to mediate the
within the larger period of the 2300 for it commissioned Ezra to appoint benefits of Calvary's once-for-all sac
years." 16 judges with full political and reli rifice, and at the end of the 2300 years
John Fletcher, an associate of John gious authority. Not until this final in 1844 right on schedule He be
Wesley, in 1755 interpreted the cleans order was Jerusalem restored as the gan the final phase of His celestial
ing of the sanctuary as a restoration of national capital. This explains why ministry.
truth from papal error at the end of a the three decrees are listed as a single Everything has happened just as
2300-year period that began with Per unit in Scripture: "They finished the Bible said it would, in harmony
sia. 17 And Johann Petri, a German building according to the command with our historicist heritage. For us
Reformed pastor, "in 1768 introduced of the God of Israel and the decree Adventists, this means we can have
the final step . . . leading to the inevi [singular] of Cyrus, Darius, and full confidence about God's leading
table conclusion and climax that the Artaxerxes king of Persia" (Ezra 6:14). in our message and our mission. And
490 years (70 weeks of years) are the To illustrate this, imagine that for the world, people need to know
first part of the 2300 years. He began Cyrus began building a car and Darius what we have to share.
them synchronously, 453 years be finished its construction, but not until In this article we have reviewed
fore the birth of Christ terminating Artaxerxes issued the vehicle regis both scriptural and historical testi
the 490 years in A.D. 37, and the 2300 tration certificate could the car roll mony regarding the year 1844 and
years in 1847. . . . Soon men on both down the prophetic highway. And so also confronted questions about this
sides of the Atlantic, in Africa, even we must date Jerusalem's rebuilding landmark of Bible prophecy. The evi
in India and other countries, began to and restoration from the order of the dence is clear for all who have eyes to

see it and a heart to believe it. Perhaps Prophetic Interpretation (Washington, D.C.: 8 Shea, "The Relationship Between the
it all comes down to intellectual hon General Conference of Seventh-day Advent Prophecies of Daniel 8 and Daniel 9," in The
ists, 1982), pp. 56-93. Shea's book is one vol Sanctuary and the Atonement, editor Arnold
esty and spiritual commitment ume in the Daniel and Revelation Committee Wallenkampf, (Washington, D.C.: Review and
qualities that will not be lacking in series, compiled by the Biblical Research Insti Herald Pub. Assn., 1981), p. 242. Cited in Sev
God's final remnant. tute and available at Adventist Book Centers. enth-day Adventists Believe ..., p. 330, n. 40.
Perhaps all Adventist pastors would do well to 9 Jacques Doukhan, "The Seventy Weeks
purchase and read the gold mine of exegetical of Daniel 9: An Exegetical Study," Sanctuary
* Unless otherwise noted, all texts are from information, particularly in volumes 1 through and the Atonement, p. 263f, n. 11.
5. 10 Gesenius, Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon
the New American Standard Bible.
4 Ibid., p. 68f. to the Old Testament Scripture, trans. Samuel
s Ibid., pp. 92, 93. P. Tregelles (Grand Rapids: W. B. Eerdmans,
1 See LeRoy E. Froom et al., Seventh-day 6 William H. Shea, "The Year-Day Prin reprinted, 1950), p. 314. Cited in Seventh-Day
Adventists Answer Questions on Doctrine ciple in Prophecy," Pacific Union Recorder, Adventists Believe ..., p. 323.
(Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Pub. Sept. 22, 1980, p. 2. 11 Cited in Desmond Ford, Daniel (Nash
Assn., 1957), pp. 309-316. See also chapters 4, 1 Gerhard Hasel notes that whereas "the ville: Southern Pub. Assn., 1978), p. 225.
12, and 23 in Seventh-day Adventists Believe... normal designation for 'vision' in Daniel is the 12 The Pulpit Commentary, ed. H.D.M.
a Biblical Exposition of 27 Fundamental Doc term hazon," the word used in 8:16 and 8:26, Spence (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1950),
trines (Silver Spring, Md.: General Conference 27 is mar'eh. Significantly, it is mar'eh that Vol. XIII, p. 218.
Ministerial Association, 1988). appears again in 9:23: "understand the vision." 13 Gleason L. Archer, Encyclopedia of Bible
2 Put simply, "futurism" is the belief that "Different scholars have recognized a link be Difficulties (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1982).
the bulk of Bible prophecy is yet to be fulfilled. tween chapters 8 and 9 because of the usage of See p. 290.
At the opposite extreme, "preterism" teaches this term." (Gerhard F. Hasel, "The Audition 14 Questions on Doctrine, pp. 309-316.
that most prophecies met their fulfillment in About the Sanctuary," in Frank B. Holbrook, 15 Ibid., p. 311.
time past. "Historicism" holds that prophecy ed., Symposium on Daniel [Washington, D.C.: 16 Ibid., p. 312. Emphasis by author.
has had an unfolding fulfillment throughout Biblical Research Institute, 1986], p. 437.) See 17 LeRoy E. Froom, The Prophetic Faith of
history, leaving room for its grand culmination also Gerhard F. Hasel, "Revelation and Inter Our Fathers (Washington, D.C.: Review and
in the future coming of Christ. pretation in Daniel," Ministry, October 1974, Herald Pub. Assn., 1954), Vol. II, p. 688.
3 Sec William H. Shea, Selected Studies on pp. 20-23. 18 Questions on Doctrine, p. 313.

icneeps I IPC
We are to repeat the words of the pioneers in our work, who knew what
it cost to search for truth as for hidden treasure, and who labored to lay
the foundation of our work.
Ellen G. White
-RH 5/25/05, (OWE 28)

To help rekindle the flame we offer the following resources:

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Complimentary issue available.

To order, write the Adventist Pioneer Library.

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Message Great Disappiontment

According to the pattern

Roy Adams "According to all that I show you

concerning the pattern of the taber
meaning and significance of the sanc
tuary message, I will address two prob
nacle, and of all its furniture, so you lems with the literalistic approach,
shall make it" (Ex. 25:9, RSV).* and then offer an affirmation on the
"They serve a copy and shadow of reality of the heavenly sanctuary.
the heavenly sanctuary; for . . .
[Moses] was instructed by God, say Problem 1: the elusiveness of the
ing, 'See that you make everything word "pattern"
How shall we according to the pattern which was
shown you on the mountain'" (Heb.
In Exodus 25:9 God commands
Moses to build a sanctuary according
understand the 8:5, RSV). to the "pattern" (Hebrew tabnith) 1 of
heavenly sanctuary? what he had seen on Mount Sinai. At

ow shall we understand these first glance this seems a rather straight
scriptures? Many Adventists forward statement, hardly needing any
insist that these passages in interpretation. However, the situation
dicate a one-on-one correspondence is not quite that simple.
between the earthly sanctuary and the Let us briefly examine those pas
heavenly. In other words, a small table sages in Exodus that relate to building
of shewbread in the earthly sanctuary after a pattern. When we do this against
points to a huge or grander one in the the background of what I call "sancti
heavenly; a small incense altar here, a fied common sense," we begin to get
large one there; and so on. an insight into the kind of freight that
Some may feel that this literal the tabnith idea was not intended to
understanding of the heavenly sanc carry.
tuary is completely harmless. But After its initial use in Exodus 25:9,
doesn't it constitute a serious impedi tabnith reappears in verse 40, at the
ment in our sanctuary apologetics end of an extended description of the
that is, in the way we present the ark of the covenant, the table of
doctrine to nonAdventists and even to shewbread, and the golden lamp-
skeptics? More seriously, might it stands. Conceivably, someone might
actually destroy the message God argue that these pieces of furniture,
would have us present to people of perhaps because of their apparent el
every culture and of every intellec egance, do possess sufficient dignity,
tual or philosophical persuasion? Does so to speak, to be actually found in the
Roy Adams, Ph.D., is
an associate editor of
extreme literalism help or hinder us heavenly sanctuary. Accordingly, this
Adventist Review. in our attempt to focus people's atten instance does not substantially help
tion on what we all consider to be the the case we are trying to build.
essence the core of the sanctuary The third occurrence of the pattern
message? These are important ques concept comes in Exodus 26:30. Here
tions. Surely the meaning and signifi God reminds Moses to erect the taber
cance of the pattern concept invites nacle "according to the plan [mishpat]
our careful study. for it which has been shown you on
To help us better understand the the mountain" (RSV). Although

mishpat (meaning "judgment" or cross. In the type a sharpened knife 1. For the author of Hebrews, the
"rule"), rather than tabnith, is the slit the victim's throat; in the antitype, Hebrew term tabnith (used in Exodus
term used in this text, the context the victim's throat was untouched, 25:40 and to which he refers as proof
makes it absolutely clear that we are but His hands and feet were pierced of his assertion) is adequately ren
dealing with the same idea as in Exo by Roman nails. The type reveals a dered by the Greek word typos ("pat
dus 25:9, 40. Mishpat here is equiva hapless animal victim in the clutches tern," "model"), else he would obvi
lent to tabnith. of a priest; the antitype, the Son of ously not have employed it in transla
Notice now that the pattern idea God, Himself both the priest and vic tion (see Heb. 8:5).
follows a detailed description of the tim. In the type the blood beneath the 2. Typos, in turn, is properly cap
curtains of goats' hair, boards, sock brazen altar flowed and touched its tured in the words hypodeigma and
ets, and bars. At this point the sensi pointed horns through priestly fin skia, for the author uses these two
tive mind begins to wonder about the gers; but no one cupped that crimson terms to explain the relationship be
validity of assuming the presence of stream that flowed at Calvary. tween the earthly and heavenly min
such mundane and purely contingent And so we may go on, if space istries, just as he does with typos in
items in the heavenly sanctuary. permitted. The parallels are real, in the same verse (Heb. 8:5). Further
The fourth occurrence of the "pat deed, but the contrasts equally sharp more, my reading of the context leads
tern" idea, however, gives our sancti and pointed. Nothing in the type por me to conclude that hypodeigma and
fied common sense its first serious trayed the glory of that resurrection skia are used synonymously.
jolt. Without the use this time of any morning when Christ, the cosmic vic 3. This means that hypodeigma
special term (like mishpat or tabnith) tim, rose in triumph from the grave, and skia, both together as well as
the idea comes at the end of a descrip alive forevermore with the keys of separately, are equivalents of typos.
tion of the altar of burnt offerings. hell and death clutched tightly in His Thus we might properly substitute
"And you shall make the altar of aca nail-pierced hands! either word for typos in Hebrews 8:5
cia wood, five cubits long. . . . And The nature of the correspondence in translation of the Hebrew word
you shall make its horns on its four between type and antitype in this par tabnith.
corners. . . . And you shall make its ticular case is very instructive. It raises If our reasoning so far is correct,
pails for removing its ashes, and its the question as to whether the idea of then it is possible to go one step
shovels and its basins and its forks pattern should not be understood pri further. We will do this on the strength
and its fire pans. . . . And you shall marily on a deeper functional and of a very significant contrast made in
make for it a grating of network of theological level. Hebrews 10:1. Here the limitation of
bronze, and on the net you shall make In this connection notice how the the law (of sacrifices) is based on the
four bronze rings at its four corners. book of Hebrews handles the idea of fact that "it has only a shadow [skia]
And you shall put it beneath, under pattern. In Hebrews 8:5 the author of the good things to come and not the
the ledge of the altar, that the net may explains that the Levitical priests very form [eikon] of [those] things"
reach halfway up the altar. And you served "a copy [hypodeigma] and (NASB). So the author puts skia and
shall make poles for the altar.... You shadow [skia]" of heavenly things eikon in sharp contrast.
shall make it hollow with planks; as it an obvious reference, it would seem, Eikon, here meaning "form" or
was shown to you in the mountain, so to Exodus 25:40, in which God en "appearance," 3 is the word the New
they shall make it" (Ex. 27:1-8, joined Moses to construct the taber Testament uses to translate the He
NASB).+ nacle and all its appurtenances "ac brew tselem (image), a word describ
It seems reasonable to conclude cording to the pattern [typos in He ing the physical and spiritual corre
here that though the instruments just brews] which was shown you on the spondence between God and man in
described followed the pattern given mountain" (Heb. 8:5, RSV). the beginning, or between father and
to Moses on the mountain, such an So here three terms have been in son (see Gen. 1:26, 27; 5:3; cf. 1 Cor.
altar, with its accessories, is not to be troduced: hypodeigma, skia, and ty 11:7; 15:49). It is a strong word and
found in the heavens. This conclusion pos. How are we to understand them? has even been employed to describe
is confirmed by the actual outwork Hypodeigma generally means "ex the relationship between Christ and
ing of the antitype. Calvary, as it must ample," "model," "pattern." Here in the Father (see Col. 1:15; cf. 2 Cor.
be clear to all Christians, represents our passage it has the sense of "copy" 4:4). But however strong the word, no
the antitypical altar of burnt offer or "imitation." Skia signifies a careful Bible student would attempt
ings. It is there our Lord was offered "shadow," or a "foreshadowing." Ty to draw a portrait of God based on His
up, but how different in physical form pos is translated "pattern" or "model." 2 reflection in humanity or even in
it was from its typical counterpart! More could be said about the mean the earthly Jesus. A spiritual instinct
In the type we see a sacred court ings of these terms, but context is deters us from such a precarious com
yard ringed with curtains; in the more important, for it shows how the parison.
antitype, the naked, unconsecrated hill author himself understood and used The point is this: If a spiritual
of Calvary. In the type, an altar made these expressions. The context makes instinct deters us from dogmatizing
of bronze; in the antitype, a wooden the following points evident: even where we have a strong (eikon)


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correspondence, how much stronger Jerusalem Temple notices certain played palm trees, flowers, lions, and
ought to be the deterrence when there structural and decorative dissimilari oxen (see 1 Kings 6:18, 20-22, 29-32,
is only a skia (or a typos or an ties between it and the wilderness 35; 7:29, cf. Ex. 26:1).
hypodeigma) relationship! tabernacle. Among these are: 6. One of the courts of the Jerusa
No wonder the apostle refers to the 1. The Jerusalem Temple contained lem Temple contained a large bronze
earthly tabernacle service as a par at least two courts, not just one, as in sea, or tank, standing on the backs of
able (parabole) of the present high- the wilderness tabernacle (see 2 Kings 12 bronze oxen that faced each of the
priestly ministry of Christ (Heb. 9:9). 21:5; 23:12; 2 Chron. 4:9; 1 Kings four directions of the compass. We do
Like a parable, the typical symbol 6:36; Jer. 36:10; cf. Ex. 27:9). (There not find this in the wilderness taber
isms should not be made to "walk on were a "great court" [see 2 Chron. nacle. Also, the Temple court housed
all fours," especially when we re 4:9] to which all the people had ac 10 movable layers instead of just one,
member that the book of Hebrews cess and an "inner court" or "court of as in the case of the tabernacle (see 1
reasons principally by contrast and the priests" or "upper court" [see 1 Kings 7:23-39; cf. Ex. 30:18, 24).
less by comparison. This means that Kings 6:36; 2 Chron. 4:9; Jer. 36:10, 7. At the entrance to Solomon's
the movement is from the new to the RS V] which was mainly for the priests Temple stood two huge stone pillars
old as much as, or even more than, and Levites.) called Jachin and Boaz, crowned with
from the old to the new. To put it 2. There was only one entrance to lilies (see 1 Kings 7:21, 22; 2 Chron.
another way, we should struggle to the court in the wilderness tabernacle, 3:15-17). Solomon "made chains like
show not how much things in heaven whereas six gates led into the pre a necklace and put them on the tops of
resemble those on earth but how dif cincts of the Jerusalem Temple (see 1 the pillars with a hundred pomegran
ferent and inferior things on earth are Chron. 9:18; Jer. 26:10; 36:10; 2 Kings ates on the chains." I have not seen
when set against the heavenly reality 15:35; cf. Ex. 27:16). any speculation on the theological
or archetype. 3. The wilderness tabernacle was a significance of these pillars, but they
It calls for enlightened com constituted one of the most
mon sense to understand that noticeable differences from the
certain things follow from the wilderness tabernacle. Old
concept of pattern and that other Let us resist the temptation Testament scholar William
things do not. And what makes Shea suggests that these pil
the task of discriminating most to subject every scriptural lars had cressets (metallic ves
frustrating at times is that there
are no fixed hermeneutical (in-
symbolism to scientific sels) at the top for light some
thing that the wilderness tab
terpretational) rules to follow. analysis. ernacle did not need, blessed
This should not surprise us. as it was with miraculous di-
A large part of the continuing ^^ vine light.4
relevance and appeal of certain To these dissimilarities may
cardinal truths in Scripture (the atone collapsible, mobile tent. Solomon's be added numerous other items of
ment, for instance) lie precisely in the Temple, for the obvious reason that lesser significance that, when com
figurative language through which Israel was now fully settled in the bined with the obvious difference in
they have been revealed to us, lan land, was a palatial stone edifice (see the appearance of the two structures
guage that often allows them to tran 1 Kings 6:7; cf. Ex. 26:1, 7) which one a lowly tent, the other an ornate
scend temporal, cultural, and even gives us, perhaps, another obvious palatial edifice make for something
conceptual barriers. Let us, then, re reason for not pressing too hard on the that cannot simply be brushed aside
sist the temptation, springing from a correspondence between the earthly by those wishing to maintain a strictly
misguided desire for scientific preci and heavenly sanctuaries. The one literal interpretation of building "ac
sion, to subject every scriptural sym existed on earth; the other exists in cording to the pattern."
bolism to scientific analysis. heaven! Yet we must not forget that the
Thus it would be inappropriate to 4. The wilderness tabernacle con Jerusalem Temple, like the wilder
look for a mathematical, one-on-one tained one lampstand on the south ness tabernacle, was built according
correspondence between the earthly side and one table of shewbread on to a heavenly pattern. "Then David
type and the heavenly reality. The the north. By contrast, the Jerusalem gave to his son Solomon the plan of
word "pattern" cannot carry the freight Temple contained 10 lampstands and the porch of the temple, its buildings,
with which many try to burden it. 10 tables of shewbread and on both its storehouses, its upper rooms, its
sides, north and south, or left and inner rooms, and the room for the
Problem 2: dissimilarities between right (see 2 Chron. 4:7, 8). mercy seat; and the plan of all that he
the wilderness tabernacle and the 5. Like the wilderness tabernacle, had in mind, for the courts of the
Jerusalem Temple the whole Temple interior was adorned house of the Lord. . . . 'All this,' said
Even the casual reader browsing with figures of cherubim. In addition, David, 'the Lord made me understand
through the biblical description of the however, the Temple interior dis in writing by His hand upon me, all

the details of this pattern [tabnith] ' " On this point we draw attention to proach is to concentrate on the theo
(1 Chron. 28:11-19, NASB). certain basic ingredients that charac logical signification, rather than on
Commenting on this, Ellen G. terized all three representations of the the structural specification.
White says that "David gave Solomon sanctuary, regardless of other vari This means that we do not look for
minute directions for building the ants. Among these: heavenly counterparts for the boards
temple, with patterns of every part, a. All three (the tabernacle, and loops and sockets and grills and
and of all its instruments of service, Solomon's Temple, and Ezekiel's basins and the numerous other para
as had been revealed to him by divine ideal temple) faced the same direc phernalia that formed part of the
inspiration." 5 tion of the compass, namely, east (see earthly sanctuary complex. We do not
Moreover, we are sure that Solo Ex. 17:9-16; Lev. 16:14; Num. 3:38; indulge in speculation regarding the
mon's builders, though contracted 2 Chron. 4:10; Eze. 8:16). significance of the kinds of animal
from a heathen nation, followed the b. Each one contained three basic skins used to cover the wilderness
divine blueprint, as evidenced by divisions: (1) the court; (2) the holy tabernacle, no more than we pontifi
God's impressive demonstration of place; and (3) the Most Holy Place. cate on the theological meaning of
approval at the dedication of the c. The basic decoration in all three the stones of Solomon's Temple.
Temple. He filled it with the cloud of was the same: the figures of cherubim As I concentrate on the theologi
His glory, "so that the priests could adorned the interior walls. cal significance of the broad physical
not stand to minister because of the d. The basic equipment and furni aspects of the sanctuary, I have found
cloud, for the glory of the Lord filled ture in each were the same in the it helpful to think of its three basic
the house of God" (2 Chron. 5:14, courtyard: the altar of burnt offer divisions and the ritual associated with
NASB). ings; in the holy place: the lamp- them as pointing to the three funda
The point, then, is this: If both the stand^), table(s) of shewbread, and mental phases or dimensions of the
wilderness tabernacle and the Jerusa the incense altar; in the Most Holy plan of salvation, namely, atonement,
lem Temple were constructed accord Place: the sacred ark, overshadowed intercession, andjudgment. The court
ing to the heavenly pattern, how can by the golden cherubim. yard, with its slain sacrifice on the
"pattern" be understood in a strictly e. In each one the Most Holy Place bronze altar, signified atonement and
literal sense when in so many details was a perfect cube. pointed, in particular, to the great
the two structures exhibited such strik We should look, then, to these transaction at the cross. The holy
ing dissimilarities? And the situation basic structural features when seek place, with its incense on the golden
becomes even more complex when ing to draw out some of the theologi altar, signified intercession, com
we take into account the further varia cal meanings of the tabernacle/ mencing at Christ's ascension and
tions and developments indicated in Temple. continuing to the end of human pro
Ezekiel' s ideal Temple (see Eze. 40:1- 2. The physical appearance of the bation. The Most Holy Place, the fo
43:27). s earthly tabernacle/Temple gives us cus of the great annual Day of Atone
Now, it may be argued that if God no warrant to dogmatize on the physi ment (Yom Kippur), typified the
gave "blueprints" to both Moses and cal appearance of the heavenly origi antitypical day of judgment, com
David, regardless of differences, the nal. It would seem that the safer ap mencing in 1844, and ending with the
details in both should be considered
important. This is true. But at the very
least such differences ought to steer The three fundamental dimensions of salvation
us away from dogmatizing about the portrayed in the sanctuary
exact appearance of the heavenly sanc
tuary based on our knowledge of the
earthly. Surely a large number of the
differences in detail are purely con
tingent, related to time and place and
circumstances the lights of Jachin
and Boaz, for example. These would
have replaced the supernatural light D
(Ex. 40:34-38) of the wilderness tab

So what does "pattern" mean?

Thus the evidence leads us to the
following preliminary conclusions:
Judgment Intercession Atonement
1. It is not the structural details of (with intercession continuing (Cross to 1844) (Cross)
the tabernacle/Temple that are most 1844 to ciose of probation)

important. Rather, it is the basic plan. ATONEMENT

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final eradication of sin and evil from it does not follow that the members of in heaven. In other words, this earth is
the universe. the church grow wool." 8 the outer court of the heavenly sanc
And all three of these together "When a physicist is investigating tuary, as Ellen White states: "Type
constitute Atonement with a capital something which lies beyond his di met antitype in the death of Christ,
A, so to speak (see diagram). rect experience, he ordinarily uses as the Lamb slain for the sins of the
a crutch some more familiar object, world. Our great High Priest has made
Affirming the heavenly sanctuary sufficiently similar, to provide him the only sacrifice that is of any value
Now to the crucial question: how with reference points. . . . [Models] . in our salvation. When He offered
should we picture the heavenly sanc . . schematic in nature . . . are not Himself on the cross, a perfect atone
tuary? intended to be replicas. They are re ment was made for the sins of the
We have sufficient biblical war alities having a sufficiently functional people. We are now standing in the
rant to make the categorical state correspondence with the object under outer court, waiting and looking for
ment that there is a sanctuary in study so that they provide conceptual that blessed hope, the glorious ap
heaven, after whose ministry the tools and vocabulary." 9 pearing of our Lord and Saviour Jesus
earthly was patterned (see Heb. 8:1, In line with this approach, I sug Christ." 10
2; 9:1-12; cf. Rev. 11:19; 16:1). In gest we should not conceive of the If we draw an arrow from the an
fact, the earthly sanctuary was simply earthly sanctuary as a scale reproduc cient typical courtyard, ringed by cur
a shadow. The real sanctuary is in tion or replica of the heavenly reality. tains, to its antitypical fulfillment, we
heaven, as Hebrews 8:1,2 makes clear. Rather the relationship ought to be see the open expanse of Golgotha. If
In the words of William Johnsson: seen primarily in terms of "functional we draw an arrow from the brazen
"While [the author of Hebrews] does correspondence." The earthly pro- altar, with its fire pans in the ancient
not enter upon a description of courtyard, to its anti-typical ful
the heavenly sanctuary and lit- fillment, we see a Roman gib
urgy, his language suggests sev bet, an uplifted cross. If we draw
eral important conclusions. an arrow from the typical ani
First, he holds to their reality. . Beautiful correspondences mal victim, burnt on the altar,
. . Real deity, real humanity,
real priesthood and, we may everywhere, but they are to its antitypical fulfillment, we
see a human figure, the Son of
add, a real ministry in a real/
sanctuary." 7 That question is
spiritual and theological God, with arms extended
bleeding, dying, laid within a
settled so far as I am concerned. —not physical and tomb, without broken bones or
The issue is, rather, the kind
of correspondence we should mechanical. burning. Beautiful correspon
dences everywhere, but they are
reasonably expect between the spiritual and theological not
earthly sanctuary and the heav- m^m physical and mechanical.
enly. With this as a prime example,
vides us with "conceptual tools and we can approach, conceptually, the
Understanding images, figures, vocabulary," allowing us to speak rest of the heavenly sanctuary. We
symbols about the unspeakable, to compre cannot know precisely what is present
It is generally admitted, though hend the incomprehensible, however or what is not present there, but the
the full implications are not always dimly. kind of fulfillment we see in respect
appreciated, that God speaks to us in to the courtyard should restrain any
human language and that more often Applying the lesson tendency toward extreme literalism.
than not, heavenly realities can be In studying the meaning and im Should we expect to find an altar of
made intelligible to us only by means plications of the word "pattern," we burnt offerings in the heavenly
of images, figures, and symbols. singled out for special mention the temple? Not at all. For a Roman cross
Avery Dulles expresses this point one aspect of the ancient sanctuary was that antitypical altar.
in a helpful way: Theologians, and service the ritual in the courtyard Nor should we expect to find
biblical interpreters in general, ought that found its antitypical fulfillment shewbread there from some heavenly
to keep in mind "that images are use right here on earth, before our very bakery. No, the earthly shewbread
ful up to a point, and beyond that eyes, so to speak. And we drew the "pointed to Christ, the living Bread,
point they can become deceptive." obvious conclusion that though there who is ever in the presence of God for
For example, when we call the church was similarity in many details, there us." n We should not expect to find a
the flock of Christ, we must be aware were also glaring dissimilarities. lampstand, but rather Him who is the
that "certain things follow and others The antitypical courtyard turned Light of the world. We should not
do not. It may follow, for instance, out to be Calvary, an unconsecrated expect to find incense burning upon
that the sheep (i.e., the faithful) hear place not the courtyard of the earthly the altar, but rather Him whose merits
the voice of their master (Christ), but temple, let alone an enclosure located and intercession and perfect righteous-

ness were represented thereby. 12 We Three (the most serious of the sig system. We see it through a glass
should not expect to find metallic nals) had been hoisted! colored by the ministry for the eradi
cherubim overshadowing a metallic No, there is reality tangible real cation of sin.
box in an inner shrine, but rather the ity back of the biblical figures and We should realize, however, that
throne of the living God Himself, symbols. this function is only temporary
founded on justice and mercy, and When you stop to think about it, scheduled to end when the plan of
surrounded by throngs of shining an how many sentences can we make salvation is finally finished. Perhaps
gels who attend Him. about salvation without using this is the meaning of Revelation
The book of Revelation, when re figurative speech? As Jesus peered 21:22: "And I saw no temple in the
ferring to the heavenly sanctuary, of through the darkness into the face of city, for its temple is the Lord God the
ten refers to furniture and other para Nicodemus, He said to him: "Ye must Almighty and the Lamb" (RSV). The
phernalia associated with the earthly be born again" (John 3:7). Under sanctuary, however, as the seat of
sanctuary (see Rev. 5:8; 11:19). These standing (or deliberately misunder God's government and His celestial
familiar objects are used as codes standing) Him literally, Nicodemus dwelling place, will continue through
pointers to focus our attention to proceeded to raise scientific ques out eternity.
the heavenly archetype. They say to tions about the impossibility of a That is why I do not visualize an
us, "Look, we are now talking about grown man reentering his mother's empty heavenly sanctuary. The throne
the heavenly sanctuary." But we womb. Again and again the Master of God, in whatever form, is there,
needn't insist that these actual ob Teacher reached for figures and simi surrounded by multitudes of angels.
jects are present there no more than les to describe the kingdom of God. Best of all from our standpoint,
we are to imagine the presence of an at least our All-sufficient High
actual lamb in heaven with its throat Need for calm assurance Priest, Jesus Christ Himself, is there!
slit and bleeding, as we might other If human speech in general and the He fills it full! He stands before the
wise be led to assume from Revela language of salvation in particular are throne of God for us! And that's
tion 5:6. Or that there are "souls" filled with figures and similes and enough for me!
under an altar in the heavenly sanctu metaphors, why is there the tendency
ary (Rev. 6:9). to become nervous and to insist on
We should recogni/e the richness literalism when the heavenly sanctu
of biblical figures and symbols and ary comes up for discussion? What
not confuse them with the reality they we need to keep in mind is that behind This article is adapted from chapters 3
portray. all the figures, symbols, and meta and 4 of the author's book The Sanctuary
phors are powerful theological truths (Hagerstown, Md.: Review and Herald Pub.
No denial of tangible reality and real tangible reality. Assn., 1993).
To say something is figurative or There are some, however, who,
1 In Numbers 8:4 the Hebrew word is
nonliteral is not to deny that there is without saying it out loud, perceive marceh, which means a "view" or "appear
palpable reality behind it. When I the heavenly sanctuary as a building ance."
lived in the Philippines, one or more that God erected on some vacant lot in 2 See W. F. Arndt and F. W. Gingrich, A
typhoons would touch down there Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament
heaven (to put it crassly) following and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago:
every year. Whenever one was ap the entrance of sin on earth so that University of Chicago Press, 1957 and 1979).,
proaching the capital, we would hear Jesus can minister in it. Such a con s.v. hypodeigma, skia, and typos.
the radio announcer say that "Public ception is harmless enough, perhaps, 3 Ibid., s.v. eikon.
4 Personal note in my files.
Storm Signal Number One [or Two, but I doubt we would consider it wor 5 Ellen G. White, Patriarchs and Prophets
or Three] has been hoisted over Ma thy of serious spiritual reflection. It (Mountain View, Calif.: Pacific Press Pub.
nila." tends to make typical and unreal what Assn., 1890), p. 751.
So far as I know, no one ever went is antitypical and real. We are not 6 For a description and artist's diagram of
Ezekiel's Temple, see Seventh-day Adventist
searching for the storm signals not dealing with pointers and symbols Bible Dictionary (Hagerstown, Md.: Review
even children. Everyone understood anymore, but with the real thing. and Herald Pub. Assn., 1979), pp. 1098, 1099.
that the reference to the hoisting of a I prefer to see the heavenly sanctu It has been referred to as Ezekiel's "ideal
temple" because, though he saw it in vision, it
storm signal is merely a way of indi ary as the dwelling place of God, the was never built.
cating the approach of a potentially seat of His government, the nerve 7 William Johnsson, In Absolute Confi
dangerous storm and alerting listen center of the universe. As such, it has dence: the Book ofHebrews Speaks to Our Day
ers to its intensity. always existed. (Nashville: Southern Pub. Assn., 1979), p. 91.
8 Avery Dulles, Models of the Church (Gar
Pity the person who, knowing the But with the fall of humanity it den City, New York: Doubleday and Co., Inc.,
language to be figurative, thought assumed an added function, namely, 1974), p. 20.
there was nothing real or tangible to the solution of the cosmic rebellion "Ibid., p. 21.
worry about and proceeded to take his 10 Ellen G. White, in Signs ofthe Times, June
and the security of the universe. It is 28, 1899. (Italics supplied.)
family out for a sail on Manila Bay in this sense that we picture it when 1 ' __, Patriarchs and Prophets, p. 354.
after Public Storm Signal Number we think of the ancient sacrificial 12 Ibid., pp. 353,354.

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Focusing on Christ,
not ourselves
Norman R. Gulley
eventh-day Adventists find in 7:22, 26, 27) and the little horn that is
both Daniel and Revelation evi destroyed (see Dan. 7:11-14; Rev. 19:
dence for their unique doctrine 11-21). This is the outworking in his
of a pre-Advent investigative judg tory of the double verdict of Calvary.
ment. "Pre-Advent" denotes its time; Internal contextual evidence in
"investigative" denotes its method. Daniel, beyond chapter 7, seems also
Unfortunately, many members seem to support this double verdict. Thus,
to consider the pre-Advent judgment the deliverance (shezab, Dan. 3:17,
We must view the as anything but good news, even
though the first angel's message places
28; 6:16, 20; netsal 3:29; 6:14; malat,
12:1) of Daniel from the lions' den
pre-Advent the judgment in the context of the and of his three friends, from the fiery
judgment in light of "eternal gospel" (Rev. 14:6).* They
apparently consider the judgment
furnace gives insight into the escha-
tological deliverance of those who
the cross, Christ's apart from its relation to the little
horn in Daniel and apart from its roots
have their names written in the book
(sepher, Dan. 12:1), which is the book
intercession, and the in the cross, its relation to Christ's used in the pre-Advent judgment (see
outcome of intercession, and its outworking in
Dan. 7:10). Escalation from local de
liverances to a universal deliverance
Armageddon. The everlasting gospel is the truth
about Calvary. If "the sacrifice of
is involved. 3
The historical deliverances of
Christ as an atonement for sin is the God's people also included destruc
great truth around which all other tion of their enemies both at the fiery
truths cluster" and if "in order to be furnace (see Dan. 3:22) and in the
rightly understood and appreciated, lions' den (Dan. 6:24).4 Likewise, the
every truth in the Word of God, from eschatological deliverance of the
Genesis to Revelation, must be stud saints has its counterpart in the de
ied in the light that streams from the struction of their enemy (little horn;
cross of Calvary,"' then Calvary must see Dan. 7:26, 27). 5
give us insight into the pre-Advent
judgment. No subsequent judgment Good news about the judgment
calls into question the judgment of No New Testament book develops
Calvary; neither does it subtract from so completely the post-Resurrection
nor does it add to, but only reveals and ministry of Christ as does Hebrews.
applies, what was completed there. Christ's intercession for His people is
Judgment day is revealed by Cal a part of Christ's better ministry as
Norman R. Gulley,
Ph.D., is professor of vary.2 Jesus said of the cross, "Now is compared with that of Old Testament
systematic theology the time for judgment on this world; priests, even as His better sacrifice
at Southern College now the prince of this world will be was better than the multiple cultic
of Seventh-day sacrifices. Examination of the records
Adventists, College-
driven out" (John 12:3 l;cf. Rev. 12:9-
dale, Tennessee. 13). Calvary judgment means ulti (see Dan. 7:10) is only one side of the
mate deliverance for God's people judgment. The other is the interces
and destruction of their enemy. In the sion, or advocacy, of Christ (cf. 1
pre-Advent judgment it is God's Tim. 2:5 with; 1 John 2:1). Christ is
people who are delivered (see verses there in the presence of God on our

behalf (huper hemon, Heb.9:24), Joshua had nothing to recommend vides us an invitation to focus on
where He is able to save fully him. He simply stood there with utter Christ rather than upon our character,
(panteles, Heb. 7:25), for He is ever faith in God alone. on His judgment rather than upon
living to intercede (pantote zon eis to "Zechariah's vision of Joshua and ours, and on His perfection rather
entugchanein huper auton, verse 7:25). the Angel applies with peculiar force than upon our own. The first angel's
This is the Advocate-Intercessor to the experience of God's people in message calls God's people to wor
portrayed in Zechariah 3, where the the closing up of the great day of ship and glorify Christ in the judg
cosmic/great controversy dimensions atonement." 7 Therefore Zechariah 3 ment hour (see Rev. 14:7). If some
of the pre-Advent judgment come into is a type of the pre-Advent judgment. Seventh-day Adventists continue to
focus. Joshua, representative of God's As Satan accused Joshua, Christ8 said: focus on their own perfection, their
people, was in dire need. While he " 'Take off his filthy clothes.' Then own works, then they are no better
was dressed in filthy garments, Satan he said to Joshua, 'See, I have taken than the little horn that deflects atten
accused him (see verses 3:1-3). away your sin, and I will put rich tion away from Christ to itself. How
Zechariah's vision sees a law court garments on you' " (verse 4). Oh, the much longer will Christ delay His
scene with an accuser and a Defender wonder of salvation! No doubt Joshua coming in order to let people give up
of the convicted. Joshua is referred to exclaimed words such as these: "I on themselves and come only to Him?
as "a burning stick snatched from the delight greatly in the Lord; my soul God is waiting for His people to be
fire" (verse 2). Keil and Delitzsch rejoices in my God. For he has clothed like Zechariah. For 150 years He has
note that "the fire out of which Joshua me with garments of salvation and waited for people to understand the
had been saved like a brand was the arrayed me in a robe of righteous essence of the gospel in this judgment
captivity, in which both Joshua and ness" (Isa. 61:10). It is precisely this hour. He waits for His people to look
the nation had been brought to the Intercessor-Advocate who comes to beyond judgment to an Intercessor, to
verge of destruction." 6 view in Hebrews, for Christ did not grasp the judgment as part of the
They had deserved the captivity finish His intercession when the judg everlasting gospel, to see judgment as
because of their rebellion against God ment began He continues it, as dem being as much a gift as Calvary and
(see Deut. 28:36-64; 29:25-28), who onstrated by Zechariah's vision. It Armageddon. That truth will set them
gave them over to their captors (see should also be remembered that the free (see John 8:32) to take the good
Dan. 1:1, 2). They had nothing to typical daily morning and evening news to a dying world. Christ waits
recommend them save their utter need. sacrifices were also offered on the for this, not willing for any to perish
This could also be said of the back Day of Atonement. (see 2 Peter 3:9).
slidden Christians to whom Hebrews Saints pass the judgment because
is addressed. Both the Jews of the Focusing on Christ they are different from the little horn.
captivity and the Christian Jews read The end-time remnant needs to They do not speak great words against
ing Hebrews had rebelled like the capture the full impact of Zechariah Christ, nor magnify themselves, nor
little horn. It is precisely for people and Hebrews relative to the continu persecute the saints, nor think to
who have sinned but who realize their ing intercession-advocacy of the con change God's times and laws, nor put
need the little horn never does quering Christ during the pre-Advent themselves in Christ's place, casting
that Christ intercedes. So Joshua stood judgment. Their focus must be on His truth to the ground (see Dan. 7
accused by Satan, and with clothing Christ and not on themselves. Revela and 8). They reflect Christ in their
to prove the charges correct. tion describes the judgment hour saints living. Satan "presents their sins be
Joshua was desperate. Here he was as worshiping Christ as their Creator fore them to discourage them. He is
at the judgment bar and yet clothed in (see Rev. 14:7), realizing that just as constantly seeking occasion against
sin. Later, Christ would speak of the He brought them into this world, so those who are trying to obey God.
king coming in to inspect the guests only He can get them into the next Even their best and most acceptable
and finding "a man there who was not world.9 End-time saints are pictured services he seeks to make appear cor
wearing wedding clothes" (Matt. as naked (see Rev. 3:18), just as Adam rupt. By countless devices, the most
22:11). That man evidently thought and Eve at the Fall (see Gen. 3:7, 10, subtle and the most cruel, he endeav
he could make it on his own in the 21). No fig leaves, or human works, ors to secure their condemnation. Man
judgment, that he was good enough, can supply the need. Only the slain cannot meet these charges himself. In
that his garments would suffice, that Lamb can supply the covering; only his sin-stained garments, confessing
his life record was sufficient. But he the robe of Christ's righteousness (see his guilt, he stands before God. But
was thrown out (verse 22:13). Unlike Isa. 61:10; Rev. 6:11), the wedding Jesus our Advocate presents an effec
this man, Joshua apparently knew his garment supplied by the Lord (see tual plea in behalf of all who by re
need and could Jook only to God for Matt. 22:11, 12), will suffice. The pentance and faith have committed
help. Had not God led Israel back prodigal son needs the best robe to the keeping of their souls to Him. He
from Babylonian captivity just as He replace his tattered rags (see Luke pleads their cause and vanquishes their
had out of Egypt? Could He not res 15:22). accuser by the mighty arguments of
cue him and them spiritually, too? Properly understood, 1844 pro Calvary." 10

Heart of the judgment at the cross. Calvary moves inexora spondence is seen, the implications of the cross to
understanding the pre-Advent judgment need to
We now find ourselves at the heart bly to the deliverance of God's people be explored.
of what is happening in the pre-Ad- and the destruction of their enemies, 1 The deliverance from Babylonian captiv
vent judgment, and for that matter, because both were accomplished by ity, after the 70 years, can be thought of as a type
what will continue in the millennial Christ on the cross. It is by the author of the call to come out of Babylon, in Revelation
14 and 18.
and postmillennial judgments (see ity of Calvary that Christ delivers His 1 If looked at sequentially, the destruction
Rev. 20:7-15). God, being omniscient, saints and destroys Satan and all their came first before the deliverance in the fiery
does not need these judgments for His enemies in the coming battle of Ar furnace incident, and the reverse in the lions' den
own sake (see Ps. 33:13-15; 56:8; mageddon (see Rev. 19:14-21). This experience. Although the typology should not be
overly pushed, there is correspondence in the
139:2; Isa. 44:28; 46:9,10; Mal. 3:16; will be the pre-Advent implementa double result of deliverance-destruction between
Matt. 10:29, 30; Acts 15:8; Rom. tion of the judgment verdict. these two historical events and the result of the
11:33; Eph. 3:10). "The Lord knows We must understand Satan's strat pre-Advent judgment. It would appear that these
historical events give some insight into the result
those who are his" (2 Tim. 2:19). He egy. What he has done on a general of the apocalyptic pre-advent judgment, which is
holds these judgments for the benefit level, in deflecting attention from the climaxed in the deliverance of the saints and the
of created beings." In the pre-Advent authentic heavenly sanctuary service destruction of their enemies in Dan. 12:1 (cf. Rev.
judgment the universe is looking at to his counterfeit earthly priesthood 16-19).
5 Hans LaRondelle rightly sees that "the his
the records of human works, good and (little horn), he is doing on the per torical narratives of Daniel's own experiences in
bad (see Dan. 7:10). But more than sonal level by deflecting attention Babylon and Persia carry also typological signifi
that, they are looking to see whether away from humanity's only Substi cance for the end-time." (Journal of Evangelical
Theological Society, 32/3 [1989]: p. 345). See
individuals have accepted or rejected tute to humans themselves. Looking Hans LaRondelle, Chariots of Salvation (Wash
the saving work that Jesus did for to an earthly priesthood or to our own ington, D.C.: Review and Herald Pub. Assn. 1987),
them on the cross. 12 Their relation to personhood equally deflects the gaze pp. 155-157.
the substitutionary judgment of the away from Christ. 6 C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, Commentary on
the Old Testament, Vol. X, p. 252.
Covenant Saviour is determinative (cf. There is wondrous good news in 7 Ellen G. White. Testimonies for the Church
John 16:26, 27). the pre-Advent judgment. It does not (Mountain View, Calif.: Pacific Press Pub. Assn.,
It is precisely that, and nothing stand by itself but is surrounded by 1948), vol. 5, p. 472.
else, that determines personal des Calvary before it, Christ's interces s The "angel of the Lord" (Zech. 3:1) is the
Michael of Daniel 12:1. or Jesus Christ (cf. Jude
tiny. God is not asking us to be preoc sion in it, and Armageddon beyond it. 9; Rev. 12:7-11).
cupied with our own perfection, but In all three events Christ works con 9 Compare Ellen G. White's first vision in
with His. It is His garment of righ sistently for His people and against which she saw that only those who kept their eyes
on Jesus made it up the path to heaven. Those
teousness that we need. So the pre- their enemies. (This is why the little taking their gaze away from Him fell to the world
Advent judgment is Christ-centered horn is investigated in the judgment below (Early Writings [Washington, D.C.: Re
and not humanity-centered. 13 It is not and receives the judgment verdict in view and Herald Pub. Assn.. 1945], pp. 14, 15).
so much what individuals have or Armageddon.) In all three events 10 White, Testimonies, pp. 470, 471.
" All nonhuman created beings plus the few
have not done per se that is decisive. 14 Christ is "the same yesterday and human representatives in heaven (of whom are
Rather it is whether they have ac today and forever" (Heb. 13:8). What Enoch, Elijah and Moses, and the 24 elders of
cepted or rejected what Christ has Christ accomplished on the cross is Revelation 4 and 5) witness the pre-Advent in
vestigation, all the redeemed witness the
done for them when He was judged in simply unfolding in all subsequent millennial investigation and all the lost witness
their place at the cross (see John 12:31). salvation history, including the pre- the postmillennial judgment. In this way all intel
It is also true that the judgment has Advent judgment. This is why the ligent created beings participate in the evaluation
as much to do with the vindication of "hour of his judgment" (Rev. 4:7) is of God's judgments, and find Him to be just (Rev.
15:3). The issue in the great controversy, calling
God as with the vindication of His part of the "eternal gospel" (verse 6). in question the justice of God, is thus answered.
followers. If God wants to open Him In this judgment hour it is our 12 This involves clinging not only to Calvary
self up for investigation, then that is crucified Saviour who "is able to save but to the Crucified's continuing intercession
His choice. He does it to win the trust completely those who come to God with its benefits from the cross.
13 If the pre-Advent judgment is merely look
of the redeemed and the unfallen be through him, because he always lives ing at what humans have done, and the scriptural
ings so that sin will never arise again. to intercede for them" (Heb. 7:25). principle "By beholding we become changed" is
So the judgment is for the benefit of applied (see 2 Cor. 3:18, KJV; Ellen G. White,
Christ's Object Lessons [Washington, D.C.: Re
all created beings, not just God's hu view and Herald Pub. Assn., 1941], p. 355), then
man followers. This is the breadth of * Unless otherwise noted, Scripture passages a millennium of poring over bad works would be
the eternal gospel context of the judg in this article are from the New International dangerous. I believe that the judgment had far
ment. So the judgment is as much Version. more to do with observing how patiently Christ
worked for each person than where many turned
good news as the gospel! 1 Ellen G. White, Gospel Workers (Washing Him down, and so is far more Christ-centered
The judgment does not repudiate ton, D.C.: Review and Herald Pub. Assn., 1948), than human-centered.
Calvary. It is the Crucified who inter p. 315. 14 Throughout eternity "both the redeemed
2 Scholars rightly find in Calvary the antitype and the unfallen beings will find in the cross of
cedes for us. The pre-Advent judg of the typical Day of Atonement (Lev. 16), but Christ their science and their song" (Ellen G.
ment is part of the unfolding in salva almost all fail to see further correspondence in a White, The Desire of Ages [Mountain View, Ca
tion history of what was accomplished pre-Advent judgment. Once the additional corre lif.: Pacific Press Pub. Assn., 1940], pp. 19, 20.).

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Getting liito the Word nelp:s the'reitder"

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• Applying the Word

this word Then exanune the treat
Seventh-day Adventist SiUe Comm
1. What is my view of greatness? Have 1 Bible dictionary. In what ways is
operation in my daily lifer In what spe helpful in understanding Jesus' w
prove that implementation? it fell short?
2. How have I exemplified mercy this pa
Tbeoeswc «.>»,,uv, Um, mB,, ^
,dmive "me,- is pan oldie gteat ,. Further Study of the Word
1. For general insight, see E. G
Osa.1 432-442, 511-523, S47-55I; E,
BIBLE AMPLI t!he ^ Lessons, 390-404.
2. For an informative summary on
Researching the Word see J. B. Green and S. McKnight, pce
1. Matthew 18:10 brought to our al greatest \n dxe
. We-need to wnferstaod t\m
guardian angels. Through the us
discover what you can about the
gels in both testaments. List thei:
Void where .prdMKited or <jjiierwi^,festricted.
tion to humans, God, etc. After f : Applies only after puref^e,offfiitial :foiii';'|i
study, it will be helpful to compan , biifgood fcroxjghoutM^ of,' series.
The sanctuary and
Adventist experience

P. Gerard Damsteegt expositor Josiah Litch, believed as

hat is the foundation of your
faith?" If asked that ques early as 1841 that the judgment of
tion, a Seventh-day Ad Daniel 7 was commencing prior to the
ventist today might respond, "Jesus Second Coming. They called this judg
Christ, of course!" or "The Bible," or ment the "trial" and said it was sepa
even "Our special lifestyle." But our rating the righteous from the wicked
earliest pioneers would no doubt de and determining who would be resur
clare, "The sanctuary and the 2300 rected at the "execution" of the judg
Looking at a vital days!"
Thus, Ellen G. White said in 1906,
ment at the Second Coming.3
Although the Millerite Adventists
pillar of faith "The correct understanding of the min
istration in the heavenly sanctuary is
knew that Jesus was currently in the
heavenly sanctuary, they did not un
the foundation of our faith."' Years derstand that the heavenly sanctuary
before she had called the heavenly would be "cleansed" in fulfillment of
sanctuary "the very center of Christ's Daniel 8:14. They interpreted the
work in behalf of men" and had warned sanctuary of Daniel 8 as the church on
that an understanding of Christ's sanc earth and also as the earth itself, and
tuary ministry is so vital that those said that both would be cleansed at
who fail to obtain it will be unable "to the Second Coming. The cleansing of
exercise the faith which is essential at the church, according to William
this time, or to occupy the position Miller and most of his followers, was
which God designs them to fill." 2 a cleansing from all sin and apostasy.
Why is that so? And what is the That the margin in Miller's Bible of
"correct understanding" of the heav fered "justified" as a synonym for
enly sanctuary? "cleansed" confirmed Miller in his
anticipation of this spiritual cleans
Millerite Adventist understanding ing. As for the earth, it would be
Before the great disappointment cleansed by fire.
of October 22, 1844, the Millerite
Adventist understanding of Christ's Post-disappointment understanding
ministry in the heavenly sanctuary Failure of the October 22, 1844,
included the belief, held by many expectation led to intensive reexami-
other Christians, that Jesus our high nation of the Bible and with it the
P. Gerard Damsteegt,
Ph.D., is a professor priest began His antitypical day of discovery of additional insights so
of church history at atonement ministry in the Most Holy pertinent that instead of being the end
Andrews University. place upon His ascension to heaven. of Adventism, 1844 became viewed
Unlike other Christians, they believed as a landmark in salvation history and
that He would complete His day of a most prominent sign of the certainty
atonement ministry and leave the and nearness of Christ's second ad
heavenly sanctuary at the end of the vent. Leaders in this early investiga
2300 days, in or around 1844. And tion were Hiram Edson, Joseph Bates,
some of them, led by the Methodist and James and Ellen White, who be-

came founders of the Seventh-day I discovered that just as the second Instead, the cleansing pertained to the
Adventist Church. Others such as I phase of the Old Testament sanctuary heavenly sanctuary and the church.
O.R.L. Crosier chose not to stay with services the yearly, or Day of Atone This new understanding was fully in
the group that later became Seventh- ment took place in the earthly most harmony with the Day of Atonement
day Adventists. holy place, so the antitype of this services, when the people were re
service would be fulfilled by Christ's quired to "afflict themselves," to en
A real heavenly sanctuary cleansing of the sanctuary in heaven's gage in soul-searching, or be judged
Helpful insights came in studying Most Holy Place just before the Sec and cut off (see Lev. 16; 23). The
biblical typology, analyzing Christ's ond Advent. This involved the aston realization that Christ has begun His
New Testament priesthood as anti- ishing discovery that the heavenly final ministry on the antitypical Day
typical of two orders of Old Testa sanctuary itself would need cleans of Atonement had a profound impact
ment priesthood. Christ's ordination ing a truth plainly taught in He on the believers.
under the Melchizedek priesthood brews 9:23. This cleansing would not In the Day-Star for April 18,1846,
authorized Him to function legally as be by the blood of animals, like the two months after the famous sanctu
a heavenly high priest (Heb. 7), while earthly sanctuary, or by fire, like the ary article appeared in the Day-Star
the Aaronic/Levitical priesthood re earth, but by the blood of Christ Him Extra of February 7, O.L.R. Crosier
vealed the pattern of His heavenly self. referred to a perfect harmony between
priesthood (Heb. 8-10). These new insights, derived from activities currently going on in heaven
From these typologies our pioneers Exodus, Leviticus, Daniel, Malachi, and on earth. "There is," he wrote, "a
discovered further that as the Old and Hebrews, led the Adventist pio literal and a spiritual temple the lit
Testament Aaronic priests ministered neers to the conclusion that the end of eral being the sanctuary in New Jerusa
within a sanctuary (a tabernacle or a the 2300 years in 1844 was not the lem (literal city), and the spiritual the
temple), so Christ, the high priest of second coming of their Saviour, but church the literal occupied by Jesus
the new covenant, ministers in a ^^m Christ, our King and Priest
true heavenly sanctuary, one that (John 14:2, Heb. 8:2; 9:11); the
"God pitched and not man," the The realization that spiritual by the Holy Ghost (1
sanctuary of which the Levitical Cor. 3:17; 6:19, Eph. 2:20-22).
sanctuary on earth was a copy Christ has begun His Between these two there is a
(see Ex. 25:8, 9,40; Heb. 8:2, 5;
final ministry had a perfect concert of action, as
Christ prepares the place the
To their surprise they saw profound impact on Spirit does the people. When
that, contrary to their previous
notions and to general Christian the believers. He came to is temple, the sanc
tuary, to cleanse it; the Spirit
opinion, the Book of Hebrews ^^ commenced the special cleans
does not teach that Christ en ing of the people (Mal. 3:1-3)."
tered the Most Holy Place at the time the beginning of the most significant This special work of personal pu
of His ascension. Hebrews says liter new era in the plan of salvation: the rification was to prepare the believer
ally that when Christ went to heaven entering of Christ into His second and to pass successfully the investigative
He entered the "holy places," mean final phase of high priestly ministry, judgment before the Second Advent.
ing simply "the heavenly sanctuary." the cleansing of the heavenly sanctu This insight was fully endorsed by the
The Greek text of Hebrews clearly ary on the antitypical Day of Atone Sabbatarian Adventist pioneers like
gives the plural, "holy places," fully ment. At this time Christ "came to the Joseph Bates, James and Ellen White,
supporting the presence of a two-apart Ancient of days" (Dan. 7:13) to com J. N. Andrews, Hiram Edson, and
ment sanctuary in heaven. Thus, the mence a judgment, investigative in Uriah Smith.
New Testament was seen to affirm nature the first phase of the final The need for a purification of God's
that like the earthly sanctuary, which judgment. people received strong endorsement
had a holy place and a Most Holy from the understanding of the second
Place, so the heavenly sanctuary also Cleansing the sanctuary on two angel's message that Adventists had
has two apartments.4 levels developed in 1843, when they began
The pioneers concluded, in har As noted, the Millerite Adventists to experience persecution. The mes
mony with biblical typology, that as saw the Daniel 8:14 cleansing of the sage forcefully announced the fall of
the first phase of the earthly priestly sanctuary as meeting fulfillment on Babylon, implying that God's true
ministry the daily transpired in the two levels: cleansing the church from people must separate themselves from
holy place, so the first phase of Christ's sin, and cleansing the earth by fire. its apostate influence.
heavenly ministry was performed in After 1844, faithful Adventists con
the holy place of the heavenly sanctu tinued to maintain the concept of a Reforms in beliefs and behavior
ary, not in the Most Holy Place as dual cleansing, but now it no longer The quest for B ible-based doctrines
they had formerly believed. They also included the cleansing of the earth. led Seventh-day Adventist pioneers

to adopt several reforms in belief and the past, the present, and the future." 5 urable, self-sacrificial love and of His
practice in contrast to the established Foundation of our faith. "The cor ongoing grace and power to help us
churches. These reforms included, rect understanding of the ministration sacrifice ourselves in the service of
most notably, worship on the sev in the heavenly sanctuary is the foun others. How are we to explain this
enth-day Sabbath instead of Sunday. dation of our faith." 6 neglect?
Attention to Christ's Day of Atone Essential to true faith. "The sub There also was a decline from the
ment ministry led to an awareness of ject of the sanctuary and the investi historic stand of the pioneers to make
Revelation 11:19: "The temple of God gative judgment should be clearly the Bible the norm of both faith and
was opened in heaven, and the ark of understood by the people of God. All practice. Members were inclined to
his covenant was seen" (NKJV), and need a knowledge for themselves of follow church leaders rather than
this in turn directed their attention to the position and work of their great shape their convictions by personal
the Sabbath commandment. They saw High Priest. Otherwise it will be im Bible study.
Jesus now in the Most Holy Place, possible for them to exercise the faith Additionally, church leaders of the
spotlighting the Sabbath as being still which is essential at this time or to 1880s generally failed to understand
the sign of God's everlasting cov occupy the position which God de the practical implications of Christ's
enant. The new light on the sanctuary signs them to fill.... The sanctuary in death and His day of atonement min
suddenly made Sabbath reform rel heaven is the very center of Christ's istry. Sensing only slightly the need
evant ! This quest for Bible-based doc work in behalf of men." 7 for "afflicting their souls," and seek
trines led to other reforms, such as Endorsed by the Holy Spirit. "As ing the experiential "blotting out of
(1) baptism by immersion; (2) tithes the great pillars of our faith have been sin," believers did not experience as
and offerings; (3) living healthfully presented, the Holy Spirit has borne they should the impartation of His
to prepare believers physically, men witness to them, and especially is this righteousness.
tally, and spiritually for the __ Beyond that, attempts to cor-
Second Advent (1 Thess. 5:23); ^ rect the condition of the church
(4) following a Christlike met strong opposition. The ma
lifestyle characterized by sim
plicity, without jewelry and cos
"The sanctuary in jority of the leaders did not wel
come and in fact disregarded
metics (1 Peter 3:3, 4); (5) be heaven is the very the testimony of Jesus through
lieving that only through the
faith of Jesus (Rev. 14:12) can center of Christ's work the ministry of Ellen White.
Neglecting the earthly dimen
believers be fully partakers of
His righteousness, receiving
in behalf of men." sion of the antitypical day of
atonement profoundly affected
forgiveness of sins, power to ^^ the spiritual condition of the
live a victorious life, and the church, the lifestyle of believ
full assurance of salvation. so regarding the truths of the sanctu ers, and the impact of their witness on
ary question. Over and over again the nonmembers. Emphasis on Christless
The significance of the sanctuary Holy Spirit has in a marked manner doctrines led to the publication of
These Bible-based discoveries endorsed the preaching of this doc doctrinal differences, fueling a cli
transformed a seemingly defeated trine." 8 mate of disunity and party spirit. Dis
group of enthusiasts into an irresist trust and envy pervaded the church
ible army of evangelists propelled by Neglecting the earthly dimension and was manifested in loveless and
a most glorious mission mandate: the Throughout the history of Seventh- inhuman behavior, character assassi
proclamation of the last message of day Adventists various views have nation, and abundant gossip.
mercy that was to enlighten the whole been advocated that have distorted Instead of following God's coun
world with the light of Christ in prepa the biblical view of the sanctuary. sels to complete the mission He had
ration for the Second Advent (see Some advocates of distorted ideas assigned to the remnant, leadership
Rev. 18:1). failed to accept the cleansing of the adopted human strategies that coupled
Key to the disappointment. "The church as integral to the sanctuary with Christless emphasis on the law,
subject of the sanctuary was the key doctrine (the "earthly dimension"). created an unfavorable impression of
which unlocked the mystery of the Leaders in the 1880s, for instance, legalism on nonmembers.
disappointment of 1844. It opened to were able to give thorough Bible stud
view a complete system of truth, con ies on the intricacies of the investiga Neglecting the heavenly dimension
nected and harmonious, showing that tive judgment. They developed skills During the early 1900s Dr. J. H.
God's hand had directed the great in debating as a form of evangelism, Kellogg's pantheism "spiritualized"
advent movement and revealing making them successful in winning away the existence of a real heavenly
present duty as it brought to light the doctrinal arguments. But they said sanctuary. His view that God's pres
position and work of His people. . . . too little about the cross as the su ence permeates everything made
Light from the sanctuary illumined preme revelation of Christ's unmeas- Christ's ministry in a particular place

irrelevant. Social involvement in of the sanctuary with the restoration arrival of the judgment hour and to
medical and humanitarian work of a of the sanctuary truth and the victori the urgent need to participate with
nondenominational nature replaced ous rise of God's remnant people. Christ in overcoming every sin. Re
the practice of spiritual self-examina Saddest of all, perhaps, the spiri- gressing to the pre-1844 sanctuary
tion, the affliction of soul to meet the tualization of the sanctuary deprives view that confined Christ's ministry
coming Lord. It also preempted the people of harmoniously cooperating to only that of Intercessor is a serious
need to proclaim the distinctive pro on earth in the final work our Saviour neglect of present truth. It is a distor
phetic truths of the Seventh-day is currently performing during the tion of the gospel proclamation fore
Adventist Church. "hourof God'sjudgment." Often sanc seen for our time in the three angels'
The theological consequences of tuary discussions become arguments messages of Revelation 14:6-12. And
this spiritualizing of the sanctuary when they should unite us like no it provides a false gospel of false
doctrine led to denial of both Christ's other doctrine. assurance in that it fails to tell people
investigative judgment work and of Downsizing the sanctuary doc what will happen if they reject Christ's
His special work of cleansing His trine. Other contemporary attempts final offer of overcoming grace.
people. Inevitably came the conclu to interpret the sanctuary can be char Negative feelings toward the sanc
sion that nothing at all happened in acterized as downsizing the doctrine. tuary doctrine are not solved by
1844. Recently, for example, one minister 9 downsizing it. Now, as never before,
With these denials came a muting remarked that if you can make sense there is a need for a deep study of the
of the sense of urgency. Prophetic out of the Seventh-day Adventist fun Scriptures. Our pioneers arrived at
preaching declined, and indifference damental belief statement on the sanc their insights through thorough Bible
marked our attitude toward our unique tuary doctrine, congratulations. To study, under the guidance of the Holy
landmark doctrines. Present truth was him the sanctuary has little practical Spirit. Similarly, Seventh-day Ad
redefined in terms of preoccupation relevance. Its investigative judgment ventists today need deep Bible study,
with the social and humanitarian di aspect, he says, has been a stumbling observing correct principles of Bible
mensions of the gospel at the expense block for many young Seventh-day interpretation and guided by the Spirit.
of living in anticipation of Christ's Adventists, undermining the gospel It is true that this doctrine has been
soon return. and promoting perfectionism, legal- misused, but is that a reason to dis
Ellen White called Kellogg's spiri- ism, guilt, and in relation to the time card it? Because some people overeat
tualization of heavenly realities the of trouble, a religion of fear and arro the healthiest food and develop seri
"alpha" of apostasy and warned that gance. Our presentation of Christ's ous diseases, shall we discard healthy
an even worse "omega" was soon to sanctuary ministry, this minister in foods? Because some people keep the
follow. sists, should be limited to His role as Sabbath legalistically, shall we give
Intercessor, a role that involves par up all Sabbath observance? Misuse of
Current distortions ticipation in human suffering, taking the sanctuary doctrine does not jus
A majority of Seventh-day Advent- on Himself our diseases (including tify stripping it of its splendid pro
ists continue to base their understand AIDS). As Christ suffered with suf gressive light.
ing of the sanctuary on the Bible. ferers and intercedes for them, so In my own life it has brought joy
They have concluded that the pioneer Seventh-day Adventists should also knowing that daily my Saviour inter
discoveries of the present truth have alleviate human suffering. cedes for me, my family, my church,
shed great light on Christ's interces In response, we can certainly agree and the world. It has also brought
sory ministry in their behalf. on the importance of Christ's work as urgency, knowing that the final judg
In some parts of the world, how Intercessor. Adventists, indeed, have ment is now in progress and that God
ever, we see a continuation of the already incorporated its various di is eager for me to "afflict my soul"
earlier "spiritualizing" trend. A flood mensions into the fundamental be and overcome all sin. In response to
of new Bible translations aids this liefs dealing with Christ's role, work, His law as well as to His ongoing
process, for most new translations do and ministry (see numbers 2, 9, and grace, I give myself daily in total
not use "cleansed" in Daniel 8:14, but 10). Christ's identification with suf dedication to sharing the good news
prefer "restored to its rightful state" fering humanity may not have been of the cleansing of the sanctuary. Its
or "emerge victorious," and so on. stressed everywhere as it should have proper and balanced understanding
Because these terms do not readily been, but this does not mean that we brings no fear, but abiding assurance
call to mind Day of Atonement imag should downplay the progressive un and strength. I believe that as I coop
ery, some people have downplayed or derstanding of the heavenly sanctu erate with His power and grace in
given up the idea that the passage ary discovered through Bible study in overcoming sin, my destiny is secure.
refers to the cleansing of the heavenly the years following 1844. The work of my High Priest and Judge
sanctuary. However, such is the rich The insights gained in 1844 con in the sanctuary has strengthened my
ness of the Hebrew verb in Daniel stitute a part of present truth that confidence in Him as has nothing
8:14, that it is possible to see the continues to be relevant, seeing it else.
intimate association of the cleansing calls the attention of the world to the "Pre-Advent" instead of "investi-

gative." Although "pre-Advent judg healthy view of the sanctuary doc between God's plan of salvation as
ment" is justifiable, use of it as an trine for the church today bring the portrayed in both the Old and New
intentional replacement for "investi full participation of believers into the Testaments, a harmony that fell into
gative judgment" is motivated by a final compassionate outreach that will disregard as a result of the apostasy of
desire to downplay the nature of the enlighten the whole world and usher the "man of lawlessness." As such,
judgment. In many cases it implies a in the coming of the Lord. the role of the remnant, brought into
rejection of the special cleansing of The greatest threat. The greatest existence in 1844 to make this procla
the soul temple, preferring to empha danger to the sanctuary doctrine is mation, becomes significant.
size instead the legal, or forensic, indifference resulting from failure to A balanced understanding of the
aspect of judgment without integrat see its relevance and practicality. The sanctuary doctrine involves coopera
ing the personal experience of believ first step toward reaching a balanced tion with Christ's mission to the world.
ers, the essential "affliction of soul" interpretation of the sanctuary doc Failure of believers to be service-
of every believer (Lev. 23:29). Some trine is to study the whole scriptural oriented results mainly from viewing
times pre-Advent is used to distance counsel, studying every relevant pas the doctrine incorrectly and neglect
the judgment from 1844, implying sage in its context. The true interpre ing its import in daily experience.
that there will be a judgment before tation will be centered on Christ. Ev What is needed, therefore, is not a
the second Coming, but no one knows ery sanctuary-related passage should downsizing of the doctrine, but a fuller
when. be studied from the viewpoint of what and more balanced view of Christ and
Often associated with the prefer it teaches about the preciousness of His sanctuary ministry through a deep
ence for pre-advent is the view that Jesus and what He has done and is study of the Word, under the guid
the judgment is unqualified good doing for us. Otherwise, the doctrine ance of the Spirit. This will lead to
news. Admittedly, in the past some will not be able to exert its proper following the Lamb wherever He
Adventists have worried unduly about inspiring and transforming influence, leads.
the investigative judgment, their rendering it "irrelevant." The essence of the sanctuary doc
cases pending before the judgment The true interpretation will retain trine is its unique revelation of Christ's
bar. Today many feel that any worry the two-dimensional, or two-level, ministry of reconciliation for and in
is unhealthy, inhibiting the joy of understanding of Christ's day of atone us, enabling us to experience His love,
believers. The judgment, they say, is ment ministry on earth today as well which we can share with others in
nothing but good news. as in heaven. It will see His work as unselfish and sacrificial service so
But doesn't the truth lie some associated intimately with grace, for they see a genuine revelation of Jesus
where between these extremes? It may giveness, and the blotting out of sins as the only hope for humanity. It
be helpful to remember that this judg in the heavenly sanctuary. Proper embraces our mental, spiritual, and
ment is not good news for the little emphasis on this ministration of the physical attributes, and is designed to
horn of Daniel 7, an entity made up of Lamb's blood in heaven will lead transform sinners into victorious
professed Christians who claim to love sinners to repentance. God provides people who are patiently yet actively
and follow Jesus. Their sincere con the abundant grace to lead sinners to awaiting the coming of their Saviour.
victions are no excuse for their un- repentance and believers to a daily "Here is the patience of the saints;
Christlike persecuting behavior. The deepening work of repentance and here are those who keep the com
investigative judgment portrayed in commitment. Thus the believer expe mandments of God and the faith of
Daniel 7 reveals to the universe who riences both justification and sancti- Jesus" (Rev. 14:12, NKJV).
the true heirs of the kingdom are (see fication.
especially verses 21, 22). This process involves (1) belief in
Preoccupation with cleansing Jesus and His saving work as our 1 Ellen G. White, Evangelism (Washing
ton, D.C.: Review and Herald Pub. Assn., 1946),
without faith. An emphasis on cleans personal intercessor in the heavenly p. 221.
ing the soul temple without the faith sanctuary, and (2) reconciliation to 2 , The Great Controversy (Moun
of Jesus is as unhealthy as preoccupa God, which means entering into a tain View, Calif.: Pacific Press Pub. Assn.,
tion with unwarranted assurance. dynamic covenant relationship with 1911), p. 488.
3 See Josiah Litch, An Address to the Public
Those who are preoccupied with the Christ our high priest. It means a work (Boston, 1841), p. 37; The Prophetic Exposi
quest for a perfectly sinless lifestyle of confession, repentance, consecra tions (Boston, 1842), 1:50-54; A. Hale, Herald
in preparation for the Second Advent tion, and restitution. Those who are of Bridegroom'. (Boston, 1843), pp. 22-24;
without an awareness that from a hu truly reconciled to God will respond Midnight Cry, Oct. 13, 1844.
4 See O.R.L. Crosier, "The Law of Moses,"
man perspective such a goal is impos by making things right with those Day-Star Extra Feb. 7, 1846.
sible are engaged in an exercise of they have offended and by loving 5 , The Great Controversy, p. 423.
futility. A major lesson of 1888 was their enemies. 6 , Evangelism, p. 221.
7 , The Great Controversy, p. 488.
that it is only through the imparted 8 , Evangelism, p. 224.
faith of Jesus as a result of total sur Restoring the sanctuary truth 9 Steve Daily, Adventism for a New Gen
render that a Christlike life can be Proclamation of the sanctuary truth eration (Portland, Oreg.: Better Living Pub
realized. The practical results of a fully restores the biblical harmony lishers, 1993), pp. 160-167.


ayer and Small Group Conferences began in 1988 and have since crisscrossed North America,
being held in Oregon, Georgia and Colorado. Numerous options are available in 1994 and 1995.
The conferences are similar type of training varies per
with an emphasis on spiritual location, but includes Small
ity and devotional life. In Groups, Worship, Reaping,
addition, each location will Spiritual Gifts, and Reaching
offer ministry training. The the Unchurched.

For an information packet concerning registration fees, lodging, meals, transportation,

schedules and speakers please contact the following individuals:


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(503) 652-2225, ext. 210 1-800-601-5928 (318) 631-6240


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The full and final display

Clifford Goldstein
hy are we still here? It's lifted the knife, any doubts that the
been 2,000 years since angel might have harbored about
Christ "died for us" (Rom. Abraham's faith vanished.
5:8), "redeemed us from the curse of "The sacrifice required of Abraham
the law" (Gal. 3:13), and cried, "It is was not alone for his own good,"
finished!" wrote Ellen White, "nor solely for the
The answer is that the great con benefit of succeeding generations; but
troversy involves more than human it was also for the instruction of the
The fruit of our ity's redemption accomplished at Cal
vary, or the reconciliation of human
sinless intelligences of heaven and of
other worlds. The field of the contro
sanctuary message ity to God, or even the cross itself. versy between Christ and Satan the

will be a loyal and

The issues regarding sin, rebellion, field on which the plan of redemption
and God's law include the entire in is wrought out is the lesson book of
obedient remnant. telligent universe, which has a stake
in the resolution of the conflict. Only
the universe. . . . Heavenly beings
were witnesses of the scene as the
by grasping this cosmic perspective faith of Abraham and the submission
can we explain the continuance of of Isaac were tested. . . . All heaven
evil long after Christ's victory in our beheld with wonder and admiration
behalf. Abraham's unfaltering obedience." 1
The angel's declaration "For now
Abraham on Moriah I know that thou fearest God" reveals
One hint of the universe's interest the cosmic interest in what happens
in the plan of salvation appears in the on the earth, "the lesson book of the
aborted sacrifice of Isaac on Mount universe." This idea appears in Job,
Moriah. After the command to offer too. Satan twice accused the patriarch
Isaac as a burnt offering, Abraham before the onlooking "sons of God"
binds him on the altar; as he lifts the (Job 1:6; 2:1), so these cosmic beings
knife to slay the boy, an "angel of the must have witnessed the drama on
Lord" cries out, "Lay not thine hand earth. Paul reinforced this reality of
upon the lad, neither do thou anything the universe's interest in what hap
unto him: for now I know that thou pens here when he wrote, "We are
fearest God" (Gen. 22:12). made a spectacle unto the world, and
The angel testified that he learned to angels, and to men" (1 Cor. 4:9).
something new about Abraham:
Clifford Goldstein is Abraham feared God. Had the angel Jesus on the cross
editor of Liberty and
author of numerous reason to doubt? Abraham had lied to Why is the onlooking universe in
articles and books. Pharaoh about the identity of his wife, terested in what happens here, and
and he took Hagar to produce a child what role did the cross play in an
rather than believe God's promise that swering their questions?
Sarah would be "a mother of nations; "The plan of redemption," wrote
[that] kings of people shall be of her" Ellen White, "had a yet broader and
(Gen. 17:16). Now, after Abraham deeper purpose than the salvation of
placed his son upon the altar and man. It was not for this alone that

Christ came to the earth; it was not disposal of all issues regarding the people is not the only factor dealing
merely that the inhabitants of this great controversy. with the honor of God. Though the
little world might regard the Law of Of course, the sovereignty of the cross by far forms the focus and cen
God as it should be regarded; but it King of the universe does not depend ter of the gospel, the plan of salvation
was to vindicate the character of God upon human fidelity. "What then? If itself involves questions that extend
before the universe." 2 some did not believe, their unbelief beyond merely getting us off the
Satan disparaged God's character, will not nullify the faithfulness of planet. The real concern deals with
raising questions about His govern God will it? May it never be! Rather, the character of God Himself. Is He
ment, law, and justice. Christ came to let God be found true, though every fair and just, and does He deserve the
"vindicate the character of God be man be found a liar" (Rom. 3:3, 4, worship, loyalty, and adoration of His
fore the universe." NASB). In His infinite wisdom and creation? The Lord wants to use His
Did the universe, then, have all foresight, the Lord has chosen to use people who have a born-again ex
questions about the character of God fallen humanity as part of His plan to perience that connects them to their
resolved by the life and death of Jesus? resolve the great controversy in an only source of power (see John 15:5;
Heavenly beings saw their beloved open and fair manner that will forever Phil. 2:12; Col. 1:27) to help an
Commander beaten, scourged, mocked, answer Satan's charges. Yet His vin swer these questions.
and spat upon. They saw the One who dication does not have to depend upon "It becomes every child of God,"
created the universe, the One whom us. Rather, the Lord knew what He writes Ellen White, "to vindicate His
they praised in His celestial glory, would be able to do in His people, and [God's] character." 5 We can vindi
condemned by His own creation. They He will accomplish His purposes in cate Him, however, only because of
witnessed the greatest example of self them (see Phil. 1:6). If, however, the cross. Vindication comes only as
less love ever manifested in the his within the limits the Lord has set for we surrender ourselves daily to the
tory of the eternity. Nevertheless, not Himself in dealing with sin, He could provisions of salvation made avail
all the universe's questions about good not have used humanity, then He able to us by the merits of what Jesus
and evil, right and wrong, law and would have found another way to sat accomplished for us at Calvary. No
justice, were yet answered. "His in isfy the questions raised before the human glory is involved.
tent was that now, through the church, onlooking universe. This concept is inseparably tied
the manifold wisdom of God should to the three angels' messages: "And I
be made known to the rulers and The manifold wisdom of God saw another angel fly in the midst of
authorities in the heavenly realms" Nevertheless, the Lord has chosen heaven, having the everlasting gospel
(Eph. 3:10, NIV). to use His church to help resolve the . . ., saying with a loud voice, Fear
After describing Christ's death and great controversy. But how? God, and give glory to him,', for the
explaining how Satan was exposed as "Let your light so shine before hour of his judgment is come" (Rev.
murderer and had "uprooted himself men, that they may see your good 14:6, 7). They start out with "the
from the sympathies of the heavenly works, and glorify your Father which everlasting gospel," which has its
beings," Ellen wrote that neverthe is in heaven" (Matt. 5:16). "Herein is foundation in the cross. Then we are
less, "Satan was not then destroyed. my Father glorified," He said, "that to give "glory to God," and we can do
The angels did not even then under ye bear much fruit" (John 15:8). "And that only by a conversion experience
stand all that was involved in the [he] said unto me, Thou art my ser that results in obedience, which is
great controversy. The principles at vant, O Israel, in whom I will be why the third angel's message says,
stake were to be more fully revealed. glorified" (Isa. 49:3). "Here is the patience of the saints:
And for the sake of man, Satan's ex These verses prove that God is here are they that keep the command
istence must be continued. Men as glorified by the loyal works and the ments of God, and the faith of Jesus"
well as angels must see the contrast character development of His people. (Rev. 14:12). Only by faith in Jesus
between the Prince of light and the "Sing, O ye heavens: for the Lord can God's people remain loyal in
prince of darkness." 3 hath done it: shout, ye lower parts of keeping His commandments and thus
This idea doesn't diminish the re the earth: break forth into singing, ye glorify God before both men and an
ality that the full and complete pen mountains, O forests, and every tree gels.
alty was paid for sin by Jesus in our therein: for the Lord hath redeemed
behalf at the cross. Nor does it com Jacob, and glorified Himself in Is The hour of his judgment
promise the promise that every sin rael" (Isa. 44:23; see also Isa. 61:3; The first angel's cry that "the hour
ner, no matter what his or her sin, can Eze. 36:22; Isa. 60:21). of His judgment is come" (Rev. 14:7)
be accepted and fully pardoned by "The honor of God," Ellen White means not just that God is judging,
what Jesus accomplished on the cross. writes, "the honor of Christ, is in but that He Himself is being judged:
And it certainly does not weaken the volved in the perfection of the charac the hour of His judgment is come
incomprehensible love manifested at ter of His people." 4 (perhaps one reason why we are told
Calvary. Instead, it proves only that Notice the verb she used: "in to give Him glory).
the whole universe awaits the final volved." The character of God's In Psalm 51 David's plea for mercy,

cleansing, and the blotting out of his left the heavenly edifice, release these The full and final display
sins is interrupted with a parentheti horrible scourges upon unrepentant This cosmic perspective helps
cal section: "For I acknowledge my humanity. Having witnessed the judg make sense of the antitypical day of
transgressions: and my sin is ever ment scene itself, they are convinced atonement as well. In the earthly type
before me. Against thee, thee only, of God's justice and mercy, which is the sanctuary was cleansed, symbolic
have I sinned, and done this evil in thy why they cry out, "Thou art righ of the pre-Advent judgment, when
sight" (verses 3,4). Without that sec teous, O Lord, which art, and wast, the heavenly sanctuary is cleansed as
tion, the verses read: "Have mercy and shall be, because thou hast judged well (see Dan. 8:14). In the earthly
upon me, O God, according to thy thus" (Rev. 16:5). No wonder the Bible system, however, not just the sanctu
lovingkindness: according unto the says, "But the Lord of hosts shall be ary was cleansed the people were
multitude of thy tender mercies blot exalted in judgment" (Isa. 5:16). too!
out my transgressions. Wash me thor All through Revelation this cos "This shall be a statute for ever
oughly from mine iniquity, and mic perspective appears. Heavenly unto you: that in the seventh month,
cleanse me from my sin.... That thou beings are seen worshiping God be on the tenth day of the month, ye shall
mightest be justified when thou fore His throne. "Holy, holy, holy," afflict your souls, ... for on that day
speakest, and be clear then thou the four beasts cry, "Lord God Al shall the priest make an atonement for
judgest. mighty, which was, and is, and is to you, to cleanse you, that you may be
Paul quotes from this psalm: "God come" (Rev. 4:8). Using imagery from clean from all your sins before the
forbid: yea, let God be true, but every the judgment of Daniel 7, John writes Lord" (Lev. 16:29, 30).
man a liar; as it is written, That thou of angels around the throne of God: The sanctuary structure itself was
mightest be justified in thy sayings, "And the number of them was ten cleansed "from all the iniquities of
and mightest overcome when thou art thousand times ten thousand, and thou the children of Israel," while the
judged" (Rom. 3:4). Today's English sands of thousands; saying with a people themselves were to be "clean
Version reads: "You must be shown loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that from all your sins before the Lord."
to be right when you speak; you must was slain to receive power, and riches, Thus, this once-a-year ritual produced
win your case when you are being and wisdom, and strength, and honour, a clean sanctuary and a clean people
tried." and glory, and blessing" (Rev. 5:11, together: "He shall make an atone
Though the immediate context of 12). ment for the holy sanctuary, and he
Psalm 51 was David's repentance af Only with the cosmic perspective shall make an atonement for the tab
ter his fling with Bathsheba, the men does the investigative judgment even ernacle of the congregation, and for
tion of the blotting out of sins and the make sense. The Lord doesn't need the altar, and he shall make an atone
idea of God "being tried" evokes the the judgment to know "them that are ment for the priests, and for all the
idea of the pre-Advent judgment, when his" (2 Tim. 2:19) any more than He people of the congregation" (verse
God allows Himself to be "tried" by needed Mount Moriah to know the 33).
how He judges us. The pre-Advent depth of Abraham's faith. Heavenly Besides the cross, the Lord is us
judgment scene of Daniel 7, when the intelligences, though, are not omni ing two factors to help clarify issues
"judgment was set, and the books scient, and they didn' t know Abraham's in the great controversy: the character
were opened" (verse 10), occurs be heart any more than they know all the development of His people, and the
fore "thousand thousands . . . and ten issues in the great controversy. The investigative judgment. On the day of
thousand times ten thousand" heav investigative judgment, by revealing atonement both these elements cli
enly beings, who witness the judg more, is part of God's overall plan to max. God will have a clean people on
ment in heaven. deal with sin and rebellion in a fair earth who, because they have allowed
The cry that "the hour of his judg and just way that will answer their God to cleanse them from their sin,
ment is come" in Revelation 14:7 is questions forever. bring honor and glory to Him; simul
heard prior to the close of probation For this reason, the sanctuary in taneously, in heaven, when the sanc
because it is immediately followed by heaven is real not because God needs tuary is cleansed of sin during the
the warning against the mark of the it for Himself, but because the heav judgment, God is glorified too. The
beast and a call to keep God's com enly intelligences need it to witness day of atonement is the only time
mandments. However, in Revelation how God deals with sin and the pro when both these elements happen at
15, after the "temple of the tabernacle cess by which He saves sinners. once in a grand and glorious climax
of the testimony in heaven was opened Through the sanctuary God allows before the onlooking universe!
[which is the second apartment of the the onlooking universe to clearly see Besides the cleansing that occurred
heavenly sanctuary, where judgment another step in resolving the great in the sanctuary itself, symbolic of
occurs] . . . seven angels came out of controversy. the heavenly judgment, the earthly
the temple, having the seven plagues" "In the judgment of the universe," Yom Kippur was an example in minia
(verses 5, 6). By this time judgment writes Ellen White, "God will stand ture of what God is going to have en
must have already ended and proba clear of blame for the existence of masse: a faithful people who glorify
tion closed. Now the angels, having continuance of evil." 6 (Continued on page 62)

The vindication of God
and the harvest principle

Woodrow Whidden
S ince the mid-1950s some
Adventists have emphasized the
need for a final-generation vin
dication of God against Satan's charge
that God is unfair in requiring obedi
ence to His law and that it is impos
sible to keep it?

What Ellen White says

The advocates of the harvest prin
ence to His law. Often referred to as ciple claim strong support from Ellen
the harvest principle, this school of White. But, as we will note, what she
thought was championed by the late has said about the vindication of God
Does God really M. L. Andreasen, 1 and is currently
promoted, among others, by Herbert
undercuts the theory!
In the published works of Ellen
need the final Douglass 2 and R. J. Wieland. 3 White there are more than 900 refer
generation? What is harvest theology?
ences to "vindicate" and all its varia
tions. I looked up all of them on the
Harvest theology's central theme new CD-ROM index and not one of
is that God cannot bring the great them comes even close to suggesting
controversy to an end until He gets a anything like the final-generation, or
significant group of final-generation harvest theology as advocated by
believers who fully vindicate Him Andreasen and its current proponents.
before the unfallen beings of the uni Instead Ellen White's central burden
verse by demonstrating that perfect in her "vindication" statements is that
obedience to His law is possible. When Christ, in His incarnation and death,
there is such a perfect generation of has essentially vindicated the Father.
saints who do this, then the final har "Christ's death proved God's admin
vest of the earth can come about. istration and government to be with
The proponents of this idea also out a flaw. Satan's charge in regard to
stress two closely related themes: the conflicting attributes of justice
(1) Jesus had a sinful nature just like and mercy was forever settled beyond
other fallen human beings; (2) since question."*
He was totally victorious over temp The Ellen White statement that is
tation those who trust Him can also be most often cited in support of the
Woodrow Whidden,
Ph.D., is an associate
victorious. Thus the post-Fall view of harvest principle is from Christ's
professor of religion Christ's human nature is closely asso Object Lessons: "Christ is waiting with
at Andrews Univer ciated with a high view of perfection longing desire for the manifestation
sity, Berrien Springs, that the final generation can demon of Himself in His church. When the
strate. character of Christ shall be perfectly
This article deals with the ques reproduced in His people, then He
tion Does God absolutely need a final will come to claim them as His own." 5
generation to refute Satan's charges Observe that this statement does
that God is unfair in requiring obedi not say that God must absolutely have

such a church, but that He only seeks Not only is Ellen White clear on to vindicate Him? Does He absolutely
it "with longing desire." this issue that Christ has taken care of need us to help Him refute the charges
If we take all that Ellen White Satan's charges, but the Bible is un that Satan has laid at His door espe
wrote on the theme of vindication, equivocal that God can take care of cially when Jesus has already done
what she said could be summarized as His own character reputation: "For the job on the cross? Consider these
follows: what if some did not believe? shall questions in the light of the following
God in His mercy has chosen the their unbelief make the faith of God declarations: "Not until the death of
church to share His redemptive mes without effect? God forbid: yea, let Christ was the character of Satan
sage. It is not that God needs our God be true, but every man a liar; as clearly revealed to the angels or to the
witness to Christ; it is that He has it is written, That thou mightest be unfallen worlds." 10 "By causing the
chosen to use the church in a mission justified in thy sayings, and mightest death of the Sovereign of heaven,
ary way. However, He has never made overcome when thou art judged" Satan defeated his own purpose. . . .
the accomplishment of His redemp (Rom. 3:3, 4). By shedding the blood of the Son of
tive goals dependent on His church. God, he uprooted himself from the
God's dealings with His people are The fuller revelation affections of the unfallen beings. He
always conditional upon their re The other Ellen White statement was seen by all to be a liar, a thief, and
sponse. If the church fails, the angels that is often used to marshall support a murderer." "
will witness for the good news. 6 It is for the final generation theology is From these and other similar state
our loving missionary witness that from The Desire of Ages, page 761: ments, we can conclude that Ellen
God wants with longing desire, not "By shedding the blood of the Son of White considered that the issue of
that He needs us to get Him off the God, he [Satan] had uprooted himself God's vindication before the unfallen
hook of Satan's charges. from the sympathies of the heavenly beings of the universe was basically
What Ellen White teaches about beings. . . . Yet Satan was not then cared for on the cross, and is not
our role in the vindication of God is destroyed. The angels did not even dependent on some future demonstra
that it is supplementary, not abso then understand all that was involved tion by God's people at the end of
lutely essential: "Christ looks upon in the great controversy. The prin time.
His people in their purity and perfec ciples at stake were to be more fully
tion, as the reward of His humiliation, revealed." The harvest theologians The troubling implications
and the supplement of His glory— would suggest that the fuller revela Thus harvest theology's basic prin
Christ, the great Center, from whom tion is the perfection of God's last ciple of end-time vindication of God's
radiates all glory." 1 people. character through human perfection
What was it that the angels "did is untenable. In addition, let us con
How do we vindicate God? not even then understand"? What were sider some troubling implications of
But what about the statement "It the at-stake principles "to be more this theology.
becomes every child of God to vindi fully revealed"? Ellen White does not First, there is the subtle danger of
cate His [God's] character"? 8 Cer specify. But I would suggest this: drawing away from the work of Christ
tainly the honor of God is at stake in whether God would deal mercifully on our behalf to our own subjective
the lives of His children, but where and justly in the judgment with each efforts. Satan will do anything to get
does the Bible or Ellen White say that sinner, especially in the light of the us to quit concentrating on Jesus and
the final victory of God in the great great manifestation of justice and be preoccupied with our own perfor
controversy ultimately depends on the mercy on the cross. mance. 12 We will always be wonder
performance of God's people? Ellen White is clear that the judg ing if we are doing well enough to get
Let me illustrate it this way. By ment finally reveals to the angels and God off the hook. If such theology is
leading a good life, I bring honor to the universe that God has been abso really taken seriously, we will all
my parents and vindicate their won lutely just and fair in the disposition become sinking Simons in the bil
derful parenting skills. I can also dis of each and every case: "In the judg lowy buffetings of the last great cri
grace my parents through a life of ment of the universe, God will stand sis.
crime, and terribly embarrass and sad clear of blame for the existence or Second, this demand for a final
den them. But ultimately my parents' continuance of evil." 9 generation that must vindicate God
integrity or character does not depend To take this statement from The implies that such a demonstration is
on my life's performance. If the vin Desire of Ages and the one from an essential part of the atonement
dication of God's character is depen Christ's Object Lessons and build a process. Doesn't it amount to saying
dent on a creature's performance, then human-centered finale to the great that humans must add something to
God looks quite awful in the cases of controversy is quite unwarranted. the work of Christ in order to vindi
Lucifer, Adam, Eve, and countless cate the Father?
others. Do we not believe that each The cross and God's vindication Will the Father wait interminably
person is ultimately responsible for Now back to these questions: Is until He gets this final generation, or
his or her own eternal destiny? God really dependent on His people will He finally take matters into His

own hands and send His Son whether mark" for all human beings, "why is The relevance of Jesus' example
we are ready or not? A careful study this model so elusive?" Why does it Jesus' example is not irrelevant to
of 2 Peter 3 shows us that "the day have to be reserved for a final genera our needs; He was sufficiently like us
of the Lord will come" (verse 10), tion? "Would it not be far more logi to be our effectual example and to
with the strong implication that the cal to [say] that the apostles and saints demonstrate once and for all that obe
Lord will come in spite of our state of of the first century, who saw Christ dience is possible. The issue here is
readiness. and associated with Him, would have obedience, plain and simple, and Jesus
Ralph Neall has shown that Ellen a greater advantage in forming per fully exemplified this. Furthermore,
White says nothing about the close of fect characters, in view of the influ His sinlessness of action and nature
probation being contingent on the ence of the Model, than the last gen while He lived here makes Him not
sinless character of God's people: eration separated from Christ by thou only a powerful example for us and a
"The most that can be said in this sands of years?" Vindicator of His Father, but also a
connection is that White pictures a Webster continues: If Jesus in a fully satisfactory sinless substitute.
sequence of events for the last days. "sinful human nature" kept the law As Webster sums up: "If one believes
There is the judgment in heaven si perfectly and has already vindicated that Jesus Christ really vindicated God
multaneous with the cleansing of the His Father, "what requirement would fully in His life and death, no conse
saints on earth, followed by the Lord's necessitate man later endeavoring to quential vindication by man at any
appearing in glory to execute judg do the same? For surely a man who later time is a necessity for the plan of
ment upon the wicked, but it is not never sinned once can vindicate the salvation."
said that one is contingent on the issue far better than the man who has
other." u sinned often and finally stopped." Final generation power surge?
Ellen White herself has made it Furthermore, "since all men have One final issue remains to be ad
clear that God is not ultimately de sinned, what type of vindication would dressed. Is there a special outpouring
pendent upon human response in de be offered by man? Even if he lived a of power uniquely offered to the last
termining when the end of all things sinless life for six months or two generation above anything that has
is to transpire: "God is long-suffer years, would this be required to add to ever been offered to any generation
ing, not willing that any should per Christ's perfect vindication?" before?
ish; but His forbearance has a limit, Now, if Jesus is really uniquely Ellen White states: "While the in
and when the boundary is past, there sinless in nature, then it could be vestigative judgment is going forward
is no second probation. His wrath will argued that He "did not really prove in heaven, while the sins of penitent
go forth and He will destroy without that sinful man could keep the law believers are being removed from the
remedy." 14 and hence a later vindication by fallen sanctuary, there is to be a special
"With unerring accuracy the Infi men would be required." But is such work of purification, of putting away
nite One still keeps an account with a final generation of fallen humans in of sin, among God's people upon earth.
all nations. While His mercy is ten a position to do the job better than . . . When this work shall have been
dered, with calls to repentance, this Jesus? Is not Jesus' role as our ex accomplished, the followers of Christ
account will remain open; but when ample what finally settles the issue? will be ready for His appearing." 17
the figures reach a certain amount Isn't He enough like us to really, truly Ellen White associates this special
which God has fixed, the ministry of prove that one can keep the law per work of purification with the latter
His wrath commences. The account is fectly? rain power of the Holy Spirit. 18 She
closed. Divine patience ceases. There Does not the call for a final gen certainly holds that this outpouring of
is no more pleading of mercy in their eration to produce a must vindication the Spirit has to do with the perfecting
behalf." 15 of God make the role and example of of God's people, 19 but nothing in her
Jesus irrelevant? Webster's response statements on this phenomenal finale
Harvest principle and the nature of is pertinent: "If the controversy re suggests that the perfection experi
Christ volves around the question whether ence of God's final remnant will be
Another interesting aspect of har man can keep the law, then surely a needed as a must vindication of God.
vest theology is the way it employs man who never sinned once is a far In fact, this manifestation of per
the humanity of Christ. The argument better answer than a man who finally fecting power is to (among other
goes like this: Christ had a sinful stopped sinning. Or if [someone] things) aid God's people in their proc
nature just like ours and He was vic wants to show that the real vindica lamation of the loud cry" that ripens
torious over sin; with His example, tion of God is that sinners can stop the earth for the harvest,20 and not to
we too can be victorious over sin and sinning, then in what possible way settle some issue before the unfallen
vindicate God's requirement of per could Jesus have done this?" In other beings of the universe.
fect obedience to His law. words, if Jesus had to be just like us to
Against this argument, Eric C. be our example, can He who never Our joyful privilege
Webster has provided a useful cri sinned be an example for those who We have the good news: Jesus has
tique. 16 If Jesus is really the "bench want to give up the habit? already vindicated the Father! Now

since that work has been done, what See also Eric C. Webster's critique of Douglass Calif.: Pacific Press Pub. Assn., 1956), pp. 70,71.
in his Crosscurrents in Adventist Christology 13 Ralph Neall, "The Nearness and the De
does that say about our work? Again, (New York: Peter Lang Pub., Inc., 1984; also lay of the Parousia in the Writings of Ellen G.
we have good news: We have the reprinted by Andrews University Press), pp. White" (Ph.D. Dis., Andrews University, 1982),
joyful privilege of witnessing to Jesus' 347-428. p. 146.
finished work. Such a witness is sheer 3 Wieland does not seem to be as direct as 14 The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Com
Andreasen and Douglass, but he seems to sug mentary, Ellen G. White Comments (Washing
privilege, not demanded necessity. gest that Christ's plan for a righteous remnant ton, D.C.: Review and Herald Pub. Assn., 1980),
Does God need us? Of course He cannot fail. In his Powerful Good News vol. 7, p. 946.
does, but only in the sense that love (Uniontown, Ohio: New Start Health Educa 15 White, Testimonies, vol. 5, p. 208; see
tions, Inc., 1989), he says; "God has chosen to also p. 524, and vol. 9, p. 13.
always revels in a shared joy and a exercise faith that His people will not fail Him" 16 The quotations in this paragraph and the
mutually satisfying effort. The heat is (p. 41). next four paragraphs are taken from Webster,
off of us! No more wondering if our 4 Ellen G. White in Seventh-day Adventists pp. 422-424.
puny efforts will suffice. No more Answer Questions on Doctrine (Washington, 17 White, The Great Controversy (Mountain
D.C.: Review and Herald Pub. Assn., 1957), p. View, Calif.: Pacific Press Pub. Assn., 1950), p.
anxiety that arises out of deep feel 674; also see p. 679. 425; cf. p. 464.
ings of insufficiency about inevitable 5 ————, Christ's Object Lessons (Wash 18 ————, The Acts of the Apostles (Moun
deficiencies. No more agonized looks ington, D.C.: Review and Herald Pub. Assn., tain View, Calif.: Pacific Press Pub. Assn.,
within, but only an assuring look back 1941), p. 69. 1911), p. 55.
6 ————, Selected Messages (Washington, 19 ————, Testimonies to Ministers and Gos
to the cross and up to the beckoning D.C.: Review and Herald Pub. Assn., 1958), pel Workers (Mountain View, Calif., Pacific
hand of a reassuring Father! N book 1, p. 118. Press Pub. Assn., 1962), pp. 506, 509.
7 ————, The Desire of Ages (Mountain 20 ————, Testimonies, vol. 5, p. 214; SDA
View, Calif.: Pacific Press Pub. Assn., 1940), p. Bible Commentary, Ellen G. White Comments,
680. (Italics supplied.) vol. 6, p. 1055. For an excellent selection of
1 See Roy Adams, The Sanctuary Doctrine: 8 ————, Testimonies for the Church statements about the purposes of the latter rain
Three Approaches in the Seventh-day Adventist (Mountain View, Calif.: Pacific Press Pub. and the loud cry, see the Ellen White compila
Church (Berrien Springs, Mich.: Andrews Uni Assn., 1948) vol. 5, p. 317. tion Last Day Events: Facing Earth's Final
versity Press, 1981), pp. 201-220 and 227-235. 9 ————, The Desire of Ages, p. 58. Crisis (Boise, Idaho: Pacific Press Pub. Assn.,
2 Herbert Douglass, The End: Unique Voice 10 ————, Signs of the Times, Aug. 27,1902. 1992), pp. 183-214; Robert Olson, The Crisis
ofAdventists About the Return of Jesus (Moun 11 ————, Review and Herald, Sept. 1, 1897. Ahead (Angwin, Calif.: Pacific Union College
tain View, Calif: Pacific Press Pub. Assn., 1979). 12 ————, Steps to Christ (Mountain View, Bookstore, 1981), pp. 56-74.

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The gospel of the

physician friend of mine, hear of a substitute (see Lev. 4:13-21; 17:3,
Alberto R. Treiyer ing about the Old Testament 4). In the innocent victim, sinners
sanctuary ritual, remarked: literally brought their sin (hatta't in
"We're nearing the year 2000. What Lev. 4:3; 5:6) and guilt (as ham in
does all that mean today?" Lev. 5:15; 6:6; see also Isa. 53:10; 2
Obviously, the gospel of ancient Cor. 5:21), thus obtaining the joy and
worship (see Heb. 4:2) cannot over peace of divine forgiveness (see Lev.
come modern misconceptions simply 4:20, 26, 31; Rom. 5:1). The sin,
through sound biblical exegesis. * Bib however, remained in the sanctuary
We need it still lical truth—no matter how marvel- until the last liturgical month, when a
today. ous—will suffer rejection unless we
demonstrate its spiritual value to the
special ritual would remove it from
the divine tent (see Lev. 16:16-18,
times in which we live. 30).
b. Defiling the sanctuary. God
Spiritual value of the sanctuary stooped low to dwell amid a dirty
gospel people (see Isa. 6:5) and made Him
In the ancient sanctuary system self approachable (see Lev. 16:11;
God revealed His plan to save the Num. 35:33, 34). He could accept
world from destruction, to vindicate human uncleanness in His sanctuary
His divine attributes, and to destroy if it came by means of a clean animal.
evil. Accomplishing this will grant However, sinners who rejected the
stability and everlasting protection to sacrificial substitute were not accept
the universe. Therefore, knowledge able (see Lev. 15:31; Num. 19:13-
of the sanctuary gospel is essential for 20). Open rebellion implied a self-
all who care about their destiny and justification of human sinfulness, and
their individual role in the cosmic God rid Himself of this burden mak
controversy between good and evil. ing it coming back in the judgment
Let us consider the gospel of the over the guilty ones (see Joshua 24:19,
Alberto R. Treiyer, sanctuary in its various elements: 20; Lev. 20:3, 4). Although in special
Ph.D., is an Adventist a. The human perspective. To teach cases God did not postpone judgment
writer and evangelist them how to approach Him without for the final day, His established time
based in Columbia, of reckoning was, according to the
tarnishing His holiness or being con
sumed by His glory, God required the typical calendar, the Day of Atone
ancient Israelites to pitch a tent in the ment (see Lev. 23:27-30).
midst of their tents (see Ex. 25:8, 9). c. The divine perspective. Jesus
Then He promised to free them from taught that to swear by the temple,
their sins by requiring them to bring was to swear by the One who dwells
their faults into His dwelling by means in it (see Matt. 23:21); likewise, to

defile the sanctuary defames the name d. Final destiny of sin. On the Day the remnant of his inheritance?"
of Him who dwells there (see Lev. of Atonement, after all confessed sins (Micah 7:18, NIV). The forgiveness
20:3, 1 Kings 8:29). In other words, were cleansed from the sanctuary (see of sin that God offers now delivers us
sin is more than a social or political Lev. 16:20), they were sent back to from the anguish of having to justify
matter—and even more than a simple their first cause (see Gen. 3:14, 15; ourselves before a court that has in
offense against God. It slanders the Ps. 7:16). They were placed upon a fallible records (see Rom. 14:10-12).
good name of the Creator before the scapegoat that represented the origi Thanks to the substitionary sacrifice
world and the universe (see Rom. nator and instigator of evil and that, of His Son, it is the King of the uni
2:24, Eph. 3:10). therefore, had nothing to do with sav verse who assumes our defense. "If
An earthly ruler puts his reputa ing atonement. Then this symbolic God is for us, who can be against us?
tion and integrity on the line in the progenitor of sin was expelled to an ... Who will bring any charge against
way he judges a national betrayer. In uninhabited land (Lev. 16:20-22). those whom God has chosen? It is
the same way, God has placed at risk Thus also, after the coming of the God who justifies (Rom. 8:31-33,
His name and His word in vindicating Lord, the devil and his rebel angels NIV).
the redemption of His people (see Isa. will be confined for 1,000 years to Nobody can condemn in the judg
42:21; 48:11; Jer. 14:20, 21). How wandering around this desolated ment those whom the Lamb of God,
could He clear the guilty who refuse world, reaping the fruit of misery and saved with His vicarious death and on
to repent (Ex. 34:7) without jeopar destruction for their evil conspiracy. whose behalf He intercedes at the
dizing the goodwill and the confi Then at the end of the millennium right hand of the Majesty in heaven
dence of His creation? comes the final judgment, annihilat (see Rev. 12:10; Heb. 8:1, 2). Christ is
The Lord requires us to be honest ing the evil one (see Rev. 20:1-3). fully worthy of our confidence. •
in confessing our sins; otherwise, He e. Liberation from the anguish of
cannot save us while also guarantee the judgment. "Who is a God like * For a comprehensive work on this sub
ing the peace of His creation and the ject, see A. R. Treiyer, The Day of Atonement
you," said Micah, "who pardons [lit and the Heavenly Judgment: From the
stability of His government (see Ps. erally: "takes on him" or "assumes"] Pentateuch to Revelation (Siloam Springs, Ark.:
51:4; Rom. 3:4). sin and forgives the transgression of Creation Enterprises International, 1992).

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Disappointed, distracted,
or dedicated?
James A. Cress

fter a night of bitter tears, crest his testimony: "I was stopped about mid "undisappointed" with the continuing
fallen Adventists ventured way of the field. Heaven seemed open to delay of the Advent. Are we Adventists
forth to face the cruel dawn my view, and I saw distinctly and clearly in name only? Does our lifestyle betray
of October 23,1844. Their blessed hope that instead of our High Priest coming the name we bear?
had become what some religious histori out of the Most Holy of the heavenly I suggest that it is better to be disap
ans call the Great Disappointment. For sanctuary to come to this earth on the pointed than distracted. Whatever the
the past 150 years it has stood as some tenth day of the seventh month, at the mistaken expectations of the early
thing of an embarrassment to some end of the 2300 days, He for the first time Adventists, not even their bitterest critics
Adventists. Wrongfully so, I believe. entered on that day the second apartment denied that their hearts were focused on
First, the disappointed Adventists of that sanctuary." better things than business as usual. We
were in good company with true believ So the solution that erased Edson's modern Adventists can learn much from
ers of the first century. Every Christian perplexity and eventually spawned the their example!
of whatever denomination participates Seventh-day Adventist Church was this: The early Adventists had the time
with us in the history of a great disap Rather than ending His work as high prophecy correct but they failed to envi
pointment regarding failed expectations priest on October 22,1844, Christ began sion all that God wanted to accomplish in
concerning Jesus. The New Testament the final phase of His ministry in which this world before Jesus would come.
records the despair of the disciples when God's name is vindicated, the devil's Today we understand the 2300 days of
Christ's death fulfilled the time proph accusations against the faithful are re Daniel 8. But perhaps in our indifference
ecy of Daniel 9. Despite their error in futed through the blood of Jesus, and a we also fail to envision what God wants
understanding how that prophecy would glorious message is proclaimed globally. to do for us and through us before all
be fulfilled, they still comprised God's The Millerites had been correct in their things end. How much longer time will
movement of destiny. He did not forsake computation of time prophecy even last, we do not know. But of one thing we
them. though mistaken about the event. De may be certain: ultimately: "He will fin
Amid the scorn of unbelievers, the spite their mistake, they were a divinely ish the work and cut it short in righteous
two disciples on the road to Emmaus appointed movement of destiny. We can ness, because the Lord will make a short
mourned: "But we were hoping that it thank God for their spiritual inheritance. work upon the earth" (Rom. 9:28,
was He who was going to redeem Israel" NKJV).
(Luke 24:21, NKJV). Then Cleopas, one Better to be disappointed than dis
of the unheralded believers, received a tracted Disappointed, distracted—or dedi
revelation that brought the disappointed Another reason Adventists today cated?
followers a new message and launched a should not feel embarrassed about the Fellow pastor and church leader, we
new movement. Great Disappointment is that the very need be neither disappointed nor dis
bitterness of the experience is a measure tracted. God has a third option available:
History repeated of how much our spiritual forebears We can be dedicated! We can dedicate
So it was among Adventists after our wanted Jesus to come. They were ourselves to our message and our mis
own Great Disappointment that came Adventists in every sense of the word. sion as did our pioneers and
from misunderstanding another proph Pilgrims like Abraham of old, they were our Lord Himself. Jesus declared: "My
ecy in Daniel. Like Cleopas long ago, looking for the heavenly city. This world food is to do the will of Him who sent
Hiram Edson was trudging along in sor held no allure for them; they lived by Me, and to finish His work" (John 4:34,
row when a sudden insight gave birth to faith in the unseen realities of eternity. NKJV).
a new movement of destiny. Can the same be said for us today? I To finish His work! After a century
Avoiding the road, perhaps to escape wonder if some Adventists have become and a half of our existence, this remains
the taunts of neighbors, Edson was walk distracted from the blessed hope. Com our compelling objective. It must be our
ing across a cornfield when, according to fortable with living here and now, are we encompassing obsession. •

Biblio File
The Remnant regarding its future. Goldstein sees Anticipating the Advent: A Brief
Clifford Goldstein, Pacific Press Pub Christ's message to the end-time History of Seventh-day Adventists
lishing Association, Boise, Idaho, church not as a requiem but as a George R. Knight, Pacific Press Pub
1994, 128 pages, US$8.95, paper. reveille. He presents a life-giving call lishing Association, Boise, Idaho,
Reviewed by Brian Jones, pastor, to repentance, revival, and reforma 1993, 128 pages, US$8.95, paper.
Mountain View Conference of Sev tion that steers clear of the ice of Reviewed by Mel H. M. Matinyi, book
enth-day Adventists, Frametown, West cynicism, the lukewarmness of apa editor, Tanzania Adventist Press,
Virginia. thy, and the flames of fanaticism. Morogoro, Tanzania.
Clifford Goldstein, editor of Lib Instead he sparks a steady light of true Anticipating the Advent flows from
erty, again jars us out of our compla consecration. the prolific writing of George Knight,
cency. He does this, not for the sake Those who read this book with professor of church history at the Sev
of being an enfant terrible, but to comprehension will become unspar enth-day Adventist Theological Semi
stimulate us to think honestly, accu ing critics of themselves, turning nary in Michigan. According to the
rately, and biblically on an important from the vanity of condemning author, the "book is the story of how
theological issue. others to repent of their own sins. In Adventists came to view themselves
In his latest book Goldstein sur accepting Christ's remedy, they as a prophetic people, of their grow
veys the Bible concept of the remnant will undergo an internal shaking. ing awareness of a responsibility to
from its inception in Genesis to its Goldstein contends the shaking will take their unique message to all the
culmination in Revelation. do its work to purify the visible rem world, and of their organizational and
In a comprehensive and succinct nant, not by an exodus of the faithful institutional development as they
manner, Goldstein draws parallels from the church, but by the centrifu sought to fulfill their prophetic mis
between the history of God's early gal forces of divine purification that sion." Knight cautions the reader not
visible remnant (Israel until Calvary) will consolidate those who hold to to view the book as a "contribution to
and His last-day visible remnant. Christ and fling out spurious believ knowledge," but rather to see it as
While he treats the flaws and failings ers. largely "a summary of the high points
of the visible church candidly, he No thinking Adventist can afford of Adventist history."
conies to no pessimistic conclusions to overlook The Remnant. The book seeks to develop a posi
tive Adventist history suggesting that
possibilities rather than problems
NEW VIDEO RESOURCES should be the focus of the church as it
moves into the twenty-first century.
Thus the history in the book comes
FOR CHURCH OR HOME across as selective.
Knight provides an interesting
from Pastor/Evangelist Doug Batchelor background of William Miller's reli
gious convictions and calls him "the
reluctant prophet." Knight gives an
ecdotes about the pioneer publishing
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know a loving God through a unique question and answer session on each Through Knight's book we relive
tape. This professionally produced set includes 16 two-hour video -(apes, one the expectations and disappointments
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of the Millerites and those who fol
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CHURCH WORSHIP SERVICES tivity. Knight openly discusses "the
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church, the "Central Church Worship" videos can help you cope with multiple worship hours. cism under Himes' leadership. But
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The Central Church Worship videos provide a 60-minute service cprtsisting of special music, ismatic fanaticism" in post-1844 Ad-
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Ellen White herself never claimed fringe. He has confronted a major fascination some brethren have with
her prophetic gift to be one of the vital problem .within the church by open 1888 and with Jones and Waggoner,
points of the church's faith (see Tes ing some windows and letting in fresh outlining the difficulty he has with
timonies, vol. 5, p. 672).* air. this obsession.
Knight discusses unusual doctri The first chapter outlines the posi Chapter three is historical. Almost
nal concepts held by Jones, Waggoner, tion taken by the "concerned" and half a century has passed since the
and Kellogg, but ignores those of more "disaffected" brethren with regard to wall between Adventists and evan
popular leaders such as Smith and the nature of Christ and their position gelical Christians began to crumble.
Prescott. on perfection. Adams then clearly Few today can appreciate the courage
The book could use more foot shows the weaknesses of their argu and editorial risk Donald Barnhouse
notes or references. For example, read ments. Chapter two deals with the took as editor of Eternity magazine
ers would like to look up Knight's
claim that W. C. White was among
those who "pressed for a reasonable
and not overly rigid view of... Ellen
White's writings." Such documenta A New Self-Study Course
tion would be important in light of the ANSWERS—
minutes of the 1919 Bible Confer
ence. • Is there a real sanctuary in heaven?
From a rather thorough Adventist • Did Jesus begin His priestly minis
history survey, Knight omits the Ger try in the Holy Place?
man schism even though the ramifi • Was a cleansing of the sanctuary
cations from that schism are still be necessary in 1844?
ing felt 77 years later. • Does Christ have a two-phase min
Even though I feel the book is istry in heaven?
somewhat selective in what it pre • Can a basic doctrine be inducted
sents as Adventist history, I still agree from a biblical type?
with General Conference president . . . and many more of your sanctu
Robert Folkenberg that Knight's work ary questions will be answered in—
is a "refreshing and insightful por
trayal of the significant events and
eras in our history."

* See the first issue of Signs of the Times

(July 4, 1874). James White's editorial on the on the book of

25 "fundamental principles" which formed the
basis of church teaching until 1931, discusses
spiritual gifts but does not mention Ellen G.
White. Not until the General Conference ses
sion of 1950, when a 1931 statement was for
mally ratified, did Ellen G. White's name ap
pear as the one through whom the gift of proph
ecy was manifested in the church. In fact, her
name did not originally appear in the 1931
statement, but was added at that session. by Frank B. Holbrook

The Nature of Christ: Help for a This self-study course is based upon Issues in the Book of
Church Divided Over Perfection Hebrews and Doctrine of the Sanctuary, vols. 4 & 5 of the Daniel
Roy Adams, Review and Herald Pub and Revelation Committee Series. The cost of $22.95 includes
lishing Association, Hagerstown, the above volumes and study guide. (Add $5.00 shipping in the
Maryland, 1994, 143 pages, index, U.S.; Canada/overseas additional shipping charges may apply.
US$9.95, paper. Reviewed by
Lyndon K. McDowell, retired pastor, This self study course should be studied in connection with
Scottsdale, Arizona. Studies on the Book of Daniel (HTH 7145 $31.95 plus s/h) and
Roy Adams has done a service to Studies on the Book of Revelation (HTH 7418 $29.95 plus s/h).
the church by writing this book. The
church has been silent too long on the Order from ——————————————————————————————————————————
issue discussed in it, and too many Ministerial Continuing Education/Seminars Unlimited
members have been confused or mis P.O. Box 66, Keene, TX 76059
led. But Adams has done more than Orders: (800) 982-3344 Information: (817) 641-3643
meet the arguments of those on the
when he wrote that Adventists were stands with his back to the church for a current corporate repentance?
fellow Christians. On our part we looking outward to Wieland and Short. Does the virus of perfectionism not
discovered that these Christians were But there are some 300 other groups infect even some in influential
deeply spiritual. As horrified subscrib proclaiming that they have a message positions? Aren't there many who
ers threatened to cancel their sub for the church. Would it not have would stifle discussion, nervous of
scriptions, Barnhouse called the Min been more profitable if Adams had any approach different from their
isterial Association requesting prayers looked inward to the church and asked, own? Such people will heartily con
on behalf of the magazine. "If what I "What is the problem with our theol demn this book, for its finger points
have done is right, as I believe it is," ogy, ecclesiology, or our psyche that unerringly at them.
he said, "God will give us new sub breeds aberrations?" Only implicitly Hopefully this publication will be
scribers." And God did. A whole does the book do this. a catalyst to help us confront these
generation has grown up without As a denomination we have been issues. The book will not be lightly
knowing the full story of what hap far more egocentric than Christo- set aside. It will engender glad accep
pened. Adams has done a service by centric, focusing on ourselves rather tance or angry rejection.
telling some of the story, particularly than our Saviour. Our evangelism has
Andreasen's part in the casuistry that lifted up a unique church more than The Day of Atonement and the Heav
followed the publication of Questions Christ and Him crucified. Too often enly Judgment: From the Penta
on Doctrine in 1957. we have measured righteousness by teuch to Revelation
Chapters four, five, and six ad externals. Adams decries the crass Alberto R. Treiyer, Creation Enter
dress central theological questions. I provincialism that makes the second prises International, Route 2, Box 150,
found the chapter on sin especially coming of Christ dependent upon Siloam Springs, Arkansas 72761
good. Adventists have been too sim Adventists' relationship to 1888, but (800-522-4234), 1992, 720 pages,
plistic about the nature of sin. Sin is were we not conceived in provincial US$29.95, hardcover. Reviewed by
rebellion that manifests itself in many ism? And is our genetic heritage not Angel Manuel Rodriguez, Biblical
ways. Adams then discusses corpo expressed in the glib phrase "finish Research Institute, Silver Spring,
rate repentance and in a final chapter ing the work," as though God were Maryland.
answers the question "What Does dependent upon the number of This work is a revised and ex
God Require?" Adventists baptized? Adams rightly panded version of the author's doc
The book is easy to read. The is points out how the "concerned breth toral dissertation submitted to the
sues are simply described, the ques ren" misuse Ellen White. But isn't Faculty of Protestant Theology at the
tions answered, and the gospel, so this careless use of Ellen White en University of Strasbourg, France, in
often obscured by legalism, shines demic in our speaking and writing? 1982. I consider it the most thorough
through. This reviewer will enthusi Adams repudiates corporate repen scholarly analysis of the ritual of the
astically recommend it to his Sabbath tance over 1888, but is there no room Day of Atonement available in theo-
school class as excellent background
material for Bible study.
The book is not without its blem Covenant Marble and GRANITEWORKS WRITTEN FOREVER
ishes. On page 110 Adams likens those presents WRITTEN IN STONE*
"who piously seek to manipulate THE TEN COMMANDMENTS
Perfect for
God's people" to Jim Jones and David Gray or Rose Pastors
Koresh. The reference is obviously to English
Wieland and Short. This is unfair. Hebrew Study
When Wieland and Short first pre
or Church
sented their thesis to the General Con Office
ference and had it rejected, the two Home
men agreed not to propagate their School
ideas. Although unpersuaded, they Memorials
were true to their promise. Both serve Gifts
the church loyally and should be hon Wedding
ored for this. Housewarming
It was Robert Brinsmead who . Graduate;/-
seized upon their ideas and incorpo
rated them into his divisive heresy. Lasered Style Handcarved Style Slotted for Wall Display
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In his allusion to Waco, Adams


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logical literature today. Treiyer dis nonchalantly refer to as the Great in the past two decades has serious
cusses every element of the Day of Disappointment? study of the Millerite movement blos
Atonement in dialogue with scholars Till Morning Breaks provides that somed. He observes that until this
from different religious traditions and human element. Egbert gives us an breakthrough, research on the subject
theological schools. The result is an imaginative glimpse into the lives of was confined to the ends of a con
encyclopedic volume that places the the Fletcher family who are caught up tinuum between harsh criticism and
Adventist understanding of the Day in the drama of Miller's prediction defensive apology. Millennial Fever
of Atonement on solid exegetical and that the world will end in 1844. attempts to occupy the middle ground.
theological ground. Through the eyes and ears of this New Millennial Fever is a must read for
The book begins with a verse-by- England family, the reader relives Adventist pastors, teachers, and par
verse analysis of Leviticus 16. Treiyer those traumatic days and tastes the ticularly those involved in evange
then addresses methodological issues passion the Millerites felt for their lism. We can idealize the Millerite
raised by those trained in the histori Saviour's appearing. This is history movement and perpetuate distortions
cal critical method. He discusses the with human flesh covering the factual of its messengers in an attempt to
nature of impurity, holiness, and the skeleton. convince the unenlightened of its
contamination and cleansing of the As you read of the Fletchers' in significance. Knight shows a better
sanctuary. A special section is as volvement in the Millerite movement way.
signed to the term "Azazel" and its and the Great Disappointment, you Knight organizes the book around
function on the Day of Atonement. A sense something of what life must three areas: the personalities and
dialogue of the typological signifi have been during that shattering forces involved in the movement up
cance of the sanctuary and its services experience. You marvel how people to 1844; the dynamics of the Great
is followed by a study of the sanctu sacrificed not only possessions but Disappointment, and responses to the
ary and judgment in the Prophets. The the closest of human relationships as Disappointment and their conse
author dedicates the last two chapters they prepared to meet Jesus face-to- quences.
to a study of the sanctuary and judg face. Knight theorizes that a prophetic
ment in the New Testament. Till Morning Breaks is great read self-consciousness is the main dy
For those interested in the Day of ing simply as a story. But as you read, namic of Millerism and Adventism.
Atonement and willing to put in the at least two questions surface: Are we He maintains that this self-understand
time and study required for a deeper today as willing as were our Advent ing consists of a deep certainty of the
understanding of the topic, Treiyer's forebears, by faith, to surrender ev imminence of the Second Coming and
work holds a mine of information. erything in order to meet Jesus? And an urgent sense of responsibility to
Seminar materials, entitled "Glorious could it be that we who live a century proclaim that message. Knight argues
Promise of the Sanctuary," using the and a half later will yet see, in our that this is the "internal mainspring"
book as a text are available in both own lifetimes, the glorious morning that accounts for the success of
English and Spanish from the pub of Christ's return that the Millerites Millerism and, by extension, Seventh-
lisher. expected so fervently? day Adventism.
Major contemporary studies of
Till Morning Breaks Millennial Fever and the End of the Millerism have focused on external
Elaine Egbert, Pacific Press Publish World (social and environmental) and inter
ing Association, Boise, Idaho, 1993, George R. Knight, Pacific Press Pub nal (personal and psychological) data.
256 pages, US$10.95, paper. Re lishing Association, Boise, Idaho, However, the very nature of faith it
viewed by Russell Holt, editorial vice 1993, 384 pages, US$14.95, paper, self often defies such rational expla
president, Pacific Press Publishing $19.95, hardcover. Reviewed by Paul nations, even though the insights gen
Association, Boise, Idaho. Fisher, district pastor, Beaver Falls, erated by such research are valuable.
Most Seventh-day Adventists have Pennsylvania. We need a healthy skepticism re
learned the factual details surround With a title like Millennial Fever garding all human analyses of divine
ing 1844 and the Great Disappoint and the End of the World the reader history. Armed with this insight, all
ment. We remember Miller's Bible would expect a certain fire to pervade who undertake the reading of Millen
study with only a concordance, and the book. It does not. It is history: nial Fever will find that it proves to
the reluctant bargain he made with systematic, detailed, and comprehen be a highly profitable exercise.
God that resulted in his being called sive. The preface has a twofold state
to preach. We know about the charts ment of the purpose of publication. Recently Noted
and charges of ascension robes and First, to provide "a comprehensive We Still Believe, Robert S. Folken-
Edson's early-morning walk in the overview of Millerism," and second berg, Pacific Press Publishing Asso
cornfield. But what would it have to identify the essential ingredients, ciation, Boise, Idaho, 1994, 125
been like to have actually lived in the success of Miller's millennial pages, US$3.60, paper (also avail
through that soul-stirring time of ex movement. able in Spanish).
pectation and terrible anguish we so George Knight suggests that only The president of the General Con-

ference of Seventh-day Adventists pages, US$7.95, paper. Hagerstown, Maryland, 1994, 126
tells why we still believe Jesus is Compiled from the writings of pages, US$8.95, paper.
coming soon. He also tackles the chal William Miller's most well-known As we commemorate the 150th
lenges and discusses why we believe contemporary, we learn about this anniversary of the Great Disappoint
nine other doctrines associated with courageous believer in the Second ment, many wonder if it is something
Adventism. Advent. we as a church have or haven't done
that has postponed Christ's return for
William Miller: Herald of the Blessed The Apparent Delay: What Role Do so many years. Wallenkampf looks at
Hope, Ellen G. White, Review and We Play in the Timing of Jesus' Re Scripture and early church writings
Herald Publishing Association, turn? Arnold Wallenkampf, Review and gives us an encouraging answer.
Hagerstown, Maryland, 1994, 94 and Herald Publishing Association,
With Jesus in His Sanctuary, Leslie
Hardinge, American Cassette Minis
tries Book Publishing Division, P.O.
Box 922, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
17108, 1991, 576 pages, US$24.95
Companion to Studies on Daniel (plus $3.50 shipping), hardcover.
Subtitled A Walk Through the Tab
ernacle Along His Way, this book

Studies on covers all aspects of the sanctuary

doctrine. With Jesus at the center, the
author not only provides information
the book of but moves one to a deeper devotion to
Christ. In spite of its length and the
complex topic it covers, readers will
find the material interesting and easy
to understand.

1844 and the Rise of Sabbatarian

Adventism, George R. Knight, Re
A self-study course explaining view and Herald Publishing Associa
• systems of interpretation tion, Hagerstown, Maryland, 1994,
• significance of sanctuary 192 pages, US$12.95.
typology in Revelation In this book you will find fac
• mark of the beast simile reproductions of 32 source
• anupdateon the modern Papacy documents from Millerism and early
• hermeneutical approach to the Adventism. Short essays by the au
seven last plagues thor provide an overview of the his
• approaches to the millennium tory and development of Millerism
• historicist location of the seals / and early Adventism.
trumpets in the Christian era
and many other issues. Magnificent Disappointment, Mervyn
An indispensable resource for those Maxwell, Pacific Press Publishing
conducting Revelation Seminars. Association, Boise, Idaho, 1994, 175
pages, US$10.95, paper.
Mervyn Maxwell, former profes
Includes study guide and sor of church history at Andrews Uni
two textbooks— versity, gives his perception of what
Symposium on Revelation—
Book I and Book II happened in 1844 and what it means
(DARCOMvols. 6&7). to the church today.
Symposium on
Revelation — Book I Early Advent Singing, Jim R. Nix,
Wplus $5.00 shipping to U.S. address.
Review and Herald Publishing Asso
Additional shipping may apply to orders ciation, Hagerstown, Maryland, 1994,
shipped outside the U.S.
spiral songbook.
A collection of early Adventist
hymns (1842-1915) with stories that
illustrate them.

Ministry Reports

Have we forgotten how to sacrifice?

James A. Cress

H istorically, the Seventh-day

Adventist Church has sponsored
an annual week of sacrifice offering
itself. Focus on the greatest
Sacrifice of all, Jesus.
In light of the sacrifice that Jesus
made for each of us, can we not join
in and offer a small sacrifice in re
turn? •
every fall. This year it will be taken
on November 12. Early Adventists
dedicated a week's wages toward
spreading the gospel. In recent years,
the promotion and emphasis of this
offering has waned in some areas of
the world. This year marks a return of
the focus on sharing and sacrificing to
help finish the work.
The Annual Sacrifice offering is North AmerlCRn Division-Wide
now assigned to Global Mission whose
sole purpose is to finish the work— Evflngellstlc Thrust
entering the unentered. Global Mis In Association with the
sion is asking members to sacrifice Adventtet Media Center
one day's wages for this offering.
One hundred percent of what you give
goes directly to unentered areas for A nationally televised Evangelistic Campaign
witnessing, evangelistic programs, with international Evangelist, It Is Written Speaker/Director • Mark Finley
and establishing new congregations.
Not one penny is used for administra Live into your church or auditorium vifl satellite downlinh beginning
tion. February 18,1995!
What can you do as a pastor to help
your people mature in the Christian Be R DRrt of this coordinated movement for Christ!
virtue of sacrifice? • Handbills • Sermon Materials
• Announcements—remind your • Advertising • Preparation and Follow-up Events
members that many good things
require effort and even sacri • Slides • Seminar Support Materials
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share stories of those who have
given much down through the Ongoing SUPPORT and TRAINING events are in progress NOW!
ages to move God's message
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• Newsletter emphasis—encour HOW you Cfln join!
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• Celebrate sacrifice—plan a
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S Revelation Seminars and Morel
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cation (Eze. 20:20). for the teacher to feel that he or she
In the worship and witness is a "lone ranger." Such teachers
Letters activities that the pastors engage in would welcome the kind of support
From page 2 Sabbath, they lead God's people to that was outlined in your article.
a closer fellowship with God and When a pastor told one of my
with each other. When they preach teachers that he was going to home
the Word, lead in praise, challenge school his children, the teacher
I thank you again for a consider the congregation to a holy living, replied that maybe he and his
able and very useful amount of they are not engaging in ordinary family would "home church."
straight talk that has been coming activities, but holy deeds. Touche! We must present a united
from your desk for the past few From Matthew 12:1-8 we learn front for the total program if the
years. Keep it up. We all need it.— that human need takes precedence work is to be finished.
Frank R. Lemon, Beaumont, over religious rituals and customs Thank you for this emphasis on
California. and that worship involves certain Adventist education. Educating our
necessary works. To illustrate the children takes all of us.—Daniel M.
• The primary mission of the first, Jesus used the example of Peters, superintendent of schools,
Seventh-day Adventist Church is David eating the showbread. To Kansas-Nebraska Conference of
the same as it has been for the past illustrate the second, Jesus spoke of SDA, Topeka, Kansas.
150 years: to prepare a people to the works that the priests did on
meet their Lord and Saviour. There Sabbath. Human calculation may Redemptive discipline
is no other reason for the existence consider such works as profaning Jay Gallimore's article on
of this church. the Sabbath, but the priests are redemptive discipline (June 1994)
Jesus came to earth to show us guiltless before God. So are today's was bold, balanced, timely, coura
the Father, and then He commanded pastors involved in many "works" geous, and sorely needed in our
His disciples to go into all the in providing Sabbath worship. church. The author has addressed an
world to tell of Him. According to —Paulraj Isaiah, associate unpopular subject. Not many
Jesus' instruction, the knowledge of director, Church Ministries, South conference presidents seem to have
God's love and His plan of salva ern Asia Division of SDA, Hosur, a burden in this area. Nor do many
tion is to be made available to the India. pastors and church boards. Church
whole world. Unless ministers, membership in the Seventh-day
doctors, lawyers, businesspersons, Making your school successful Adventist Church ought to be
manual laborers, and welfare I am overjoyed to read James looked on with a degree of awe. It
recipients have a personal acquain Cress's article "Making Your ought to be very significant and
tance with Jesus, they have nothing School Successful" (June 1994). meaningful. But we have countless
to tell the world. Unless they have a While serving as a pastor for eight churches with bloated memberships
passion for the saving of souls, they years I tried to practice many of the of people who don't attend church,
will not tell the story of salvation. points the article emphasizes. As a who are living in open sin, who do
Is failure in this personal commit conference superintendent of not really count themselves as
ment confusing our sense of mis schools for 29 years, I rejoice when Seventh-day Adventists, and whose
sion? I see pastors willing to give high lifestyles deny the gospel and what
Paul states that mission very priority to the church school and the church stands for. There is a
clearly: "For I resolved to know academy. The pastor's personal tremendous need for "carefront-
nothing while I was with you except attitude toward Christian education ation." We must love people enough
Jesus Christ and him crucified" is often the catalyst that ensures the to visit them, help them, pray with
(1 Cor. 2:2, NIV).—Robert A. success of the school. them, and in the spirit of Jesus try
Dexter, M.D., Porterville, Califor My fellow educators will join to win them back or administer the
nia. me in expressing our deep and appropriate discipline. I salute
sincere appreciation for every Ministry for addressing this need.
Can pastors keep the Sabbath? pastor who affirms Christian —Philip W. Dunham, Canyonville,
Can or do pastors keep the education in the manner that has Oregon.
Sabbath (March 1994)? A clear been so well stated by Cress.
understanding of God's intent in —Ken Hutchins, superintendent of • The article leaves unsaid the
instituting the Sabbath will answer schools, Northern California notion that some sins are more
this question. God intended that the Conference of SDA, Pleasant Hill, "interesting" than others. For
Sabbath shall be a memorial of His California. example, if a person is caught
creation (Ex. 31:16, 17), a test of smoking or having an affair, this
obedience (Ex. 16:4), a day of rest — Most of our schools are one- or would be considered a flagrant case
(Isa. 40:28), and a sign of sanctifi- two-teacher schools where it is easy worthy of discipline, whereas the

sins of pride or materialism or acter perfection, can never blot out
skepticism would not. sin. Only Christ's substitutionary righ
Why does this idea matter? The full and final teousness can. Obedience comes when
Because if church discipline was
uniformly applied, the vast majority display we love God and want to glorify Him
before the onlooking universe. "For
of members would be subject to it From page 43 this is the love of God, that we keep
at one point or another in their his commandments" (1 John 5:3).
lives. For example, I recall reading
in Ministry some years ago a Him before the onlooking universe. If The big picture
confession by a prominent minister one person can glorify God by his or Only against the backdrop of this
that early in his career he felt he her character development ("Herein cosmic panorama does Adventism
was lost so far as salvation was is my Father glorified, that ye bear work. The cross and the reconcilia
concerned. If this had been made much fruit" [John 15:8]), how much tion it brought make better sense only
known to others with consequent more a whole generation? What God in the context of God displaying both
discipline, his career as a church did to the people themselves in an justice and mercy before the onlook
official would have been over. cient Israel in type on a small scale ing universe. Christ's high priestly
Gallimore's article is, therefore, symbolized what God wants to do to ministry in a literal sanctuary, includ
theoretical and not practical. The His modern people in reality on a ing the pre-Advent judgment, becomes
church is not ready for a revolving grand scale. This demonstration of more meaningful when understood as
door among either the laity or the the love of God climaxes the plan of another step in ending the great con
leaders.—Glen McCluskey, salvation, when the issues are re troversy in an open and fair manner
solved enough in the minds of the before heavenly intelligences. The
unfallen universe so that God can emphasis on a loyal remnant and faith
justly pour out devastating plagues ful generation—studied in the con
upon the planet and at the same time text of the universe's questions about
resurrect and translate untold masses God's law, justice, and mercy—far
Why are we still into the presence of sinless beings. from conflicting with the truth of jus
here? "The church," wrote Ellen White,
"is the repository of the riches of the
tification by faith, takes that truth to
its grand conclusion.
From page 4 grace of Christ; and through the church Perhaps the most important aspect
will eventually be made manifest, of the cosmic dimension, from a hu
broken." 2 'even to the principalities and powers man perspective, is motive. How much
in heavenly places,' the final and full better to strive for holiness, not as fire
Obviously, clearing up our confu
sion about justification and imputed display of the love of God."7 insurance, but out of love for God and
righteousness must become a top pri a desire to glorify Him before men
Final generation and angels.
ority not only for personal peace and
power but also for our witness to the Unfortunately, the idea of a final, We may then expect that the final
world. faithful generation is usually taught generation will be composed of those
in the context of soteriology and per who are so moved by Christ's sacri
How much longer?
fectionism, not eschatology. What fice that they determine to obey Him,
In our enthusiasm for historic Ad- ever character the final generation no matter the costs so that "the name
ventism, let's be careful not to be form, however strictly they "keep the of our Lord Jesus Christ may be glo
come too historic, lest we deny the commandments of God" and exercise rified in [them]" (2 Thess. 1:12). •
fundamentals of the Christian faith. the "faith of Jesus" (Rev. 14:12), they
It's been 150 years since the Lord are saved only by what saved the thief
entrusted this movement with a spe on the cross: the righteousness that
cial message and mission. How much Jesus wrought out for them, in place ' Ellen G. White, Patriarchs and Prophets
longer will we linger before the of them, outside of them, 2,000 years (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Pub.
ago at Calvary. Anything else is sal Assn., 1958), pp. 154, 155.
world's inhabitants finally hear what - Ibid., p. 68.
God wants us to tell them? vation by works. God is not trying to 3 ————, The Desire of Ages, (Mountain
At what point will the stones have perfect a generation holy enough to View, Calif.: Pacific Press Pub. Assn., 1940), p.
to cry out? • earn their way to heaven; rather, He 761.
seeks those who by beholding Him 4 Ibid., p. 671.
5 ————, Testimonies for the Church,
' Ellen G. White, Evangelism (Washing will reflect His character and remain (Mountain View, Calif.: Pacific Press Pub.
ton, D.C.: Review and Herald Pub. Assn., 1946), loyal in a manner that will honor and Assn., 1911), vol. 5, p. 317.
p. 190. glorify Him before the onlooking uni 6 ————, The Desire of Ages, p. 58.
2 ————, Gospel Workers (Washington, 7 ————, The Acts of the Apostles (Moun
D.C.: Review and Herald Pub. Assn.. 1948), p.
verse. tain View, Calif.: Pacific Press Pub. Assn.,
161. Obedience to the law, or even char 1911), p. 9.

Shop Talk

A refuge for renewal 1915. Although most of youth hold their own young adults like contem
There's a place in the our old hymns are seldom service, with one or two porary Christian music,
Smoky Mountains of sung today, they can still adults supervising while consider having a concert
Tennessee with a clear stir the soul. Available in the rest have a prayer by Robert Mohr. A native
running stream and a compact disc or cassette meeting. Also, ask for Canadian, this talented
home that would be at Adventist Book Centers. youth volunteers to do artist has produced two
happy to accommodate —Richard Dower, Berrien odd jobs or chores for the albums. He testifies that
pastoral couples for rest Springs, Michigan. church. (This makes them "there are no rungs on the
and refreshment. Call for feel a needed part of the ladder to the kingdom of
information and reserva Share your best church family.) Another heaven; we must all come
tions: (615) 856-3750 or Fellow pastors, here is idea is organizing youth and stand side by side at
(615) 396-9990.—Jeannine an opportunity to share in visitation teams to see the foot of the cross."
Fuller, Collegedale, widely your best sermon members who are ill. Write Mohr Music
Tennessee. outlines, ideas, illustra —Manfredo Ruiz, Blythe, Productions, P.O. Box
tions, and children's California. 750123, Dayton, Ohio; or
North American evange stories. I need them in call (513) 439-2552.
lism councils compiling a book of the Interlinear Bible set
All evangelists and best of the best Adventist A favorite exegetical New from Creation
pastor-evangelists and pastors have to offer. tool of pastors every Enterprises
their spouses east of the Sources will be credited where is The Interlinear Two new books can
Mississippi are urged to by name. Send submis Bible, providing the enhance spirituality for
attend the NAD east sions to: Marvin Hunt, original Hebrew and you and your members.
evangelism council in 4217 Covey Trail, Greek text with Strong's Correlated Bible Read
Daytona Beach, Florida, Oakwood, Georgia 30566. numbers above each line ings (US$8.95), by Arl
on December 12-15. and the literal English V. Voorheis, offers three
Directed by Ron Health-care weekend translation below. The systematic study plans
Halversen, speakers are retreat four-volume hardcover that coordinate with
Morris Venden, Leo Physicians, nurses, set comes with the classic books by Ellen White.
Schreven, and Clifford administrators, and other Life and Times of Jesus The Colors of Prayer
Goldstein. For reserva health-care workers are for US$123, postage (US$6.95), by Donna
tions and information, welcome to a weekend included. Send U.S. check Bechthold, is a study
call (404) 299-1832. seminar November 18-20 or money order to Samuel guide for small groups
In the western NAD, at the Marriott Tenaya S. Jacobson, 900 Kennebec and individual study.
come December 11-14 to Lodge on the south border Ave., Takoma Park, Quantity discounts.
the evangelism council in of Yosemite National Maryland 20912. Creation Enterprises
Thousand Oaks, Califor Park in California. International, P.O. Box
nia. C. Lloyd Wyman is Speakers include Richard Contemporary music 274, Siloam Springs,
the director; speakers will Neil, Bryan Lewis, Jim concerts Arkansas. 72761. (501)
be Lyle Albrecht, Dan McMurry, and Larry If your youth and 524-9891.
Bentzinger, Richard Hal Davis of Sonora Commu
versen, Fritz Guy, and Paul nity Hospital. Participants
Landa. Call (805) 373-7612. will learn how to take a Our cover
spiritual inventory, how Ministry's wrap-around cover this month reproduces in part The
What Heavenly Music to appropriately lead Christ of the Narrow Way by artist Elfred Lee. The original floor-
In commemoration of patients to Christ, and to-ceiling mural, based on Ellen White's first vision, covers an
the 1844 event, the how administration can entire 30-foot wall at the world headquarters of the Seventh-day
Andrews University encourage spiritual care Adventist Church, Silver Spring, Maryland. The mural was com
Singers have recorded a while meeting JCAHO missioned by the Ellen G. White Estate, Inc. Copyright 1991. A
96-page, full color inspirational book built around the mural is
collection of early Advent guidelines amid shortened
available from the White Estate $9.95 plus $3.00 shipping.
hymns. Sponsored by the hospital stays. Contact
NAD's Adventist Heri Spiritual Care Ministries, Bible credits: Scripture quotations marked NASB are from the New American Standard Bible,
tage Ministry, What 23680 Porcina Way, Co © The Lockman Foundation 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968. 1971, 1972. 1973, 1975. 1977. Texts
Heavenly Music resur lumbia, California 95310. credited to NIV are from the Holy Bible, New International Version. Copyright © 1973. 1978,
1984, International Bible Society. Used by permission of Zondervan Bible Publishers. Texts
rects the musical legacy —Ritchie Christianson. credited to NKJV are from The New King James Version. Copyright © 1979. 1980, 1982.
Thomas Nelson. Inc.. Publishers. Bible texts credited to RSV are from the Revised Standard
of early Adventists—both Version of the Bible, copyright © 1946, 1952. 1971. by the Division of Christian Education of
Millerite and Sabbatarian Youth involvement the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA. Used by permission. Bible texts
credited to TEV are from the Good News Bible—Old Testament: Copyright © American Bible
—between 1841 and Have a night when Society 1976: New Testament' Copyright © American Bible Society 1966, 1971, 1976.