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DEVELOPED BY: Bridge Office MANUAL: Bridge Construction

ISSUED BY: Bridge Office DATE: November 1,2005

SUBJECT: Update of the entire Bridge Construction Manual

The Bridge Construction and Maintenance Section of the Bridge Office has made revisions and changes to the entire manual.
(Both Metric and English units are being maintained)


1. Record the transmittal letter number, date and subject on the transmittal record sheet located in the front of the manual.

2. Remove from the manual: Entire contents.

3. Insert in the manual: Revised manual into the respective chapters

4. Any technical questions regarding this transmittal should be directed to Mark Spafford, Bridge Construction Unit, at (65 1)

5. Any questions concerning missing manual sheets or extra transmittal letters should be directed to Map and Manual Sales,
Room G-19, M.S. 260, (65 1) 296-2216. Please firnish in writing any address changes to: Mail Room G-2 1 Transportation
Building, 395 John Ireland Blvd., St. Paul, MN 55155. Any questions concerning mailing of this material should be directed
to the Mail Room G-21 (65 1) 296-2420.

Daniel L. Dorgan v
State Bridge Engineer
The Bridge Construction Manual is intended primarily for the use of bridge construction inspectors and
their assistants. By becoming thoroughly familiar with the contents of this manual, and by following the
recommendations and suggestions therein, bridge inspectors will find that their work is made easier,
their decisions can be made more quickly and with greater confidence. Greater uniformity in the
interpretation of the Plans and Specifications will be provided and the final results are more likely to
reflect the efforts that have been made to obtain a high quality finished product.

Contractors, generally speaking, will have more respect for an inspector who knows and understands the
work, and the contents herein will enhance the knowledge and understanding of all but the very
advanced bridge inspectors. Sections and partial-sections will be added from time to time in an effort to
make the manual as complete and up-to-date as possible.

Daniel L. Dorgan, State Bridge Engineer
Minnesota Department of Transportation
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.index (1)

Section Subsection
Index No. Index No. Subject
5-393.000 GENERAL
5-393.001 Introduction
5-393.002 Technical Certification and Duties for Inspectors
5-393.003 Field Office and Laboratory
5-393.004 Plan Review
5-393.005 Preconstruction Conference
5-393.006 Control of Work
5-393.007 Control of Utility Work
5-393.008 Removal of Existing Structures
5-393.009 Shop Drawings
5-393.010 Safety
5-393.011 Construction Diary
5-393.012 Protection of the Environment
5-393.013 Photographs
5-393.014 Materials
5-393.015 Field Plan Changes
5-393.016 As-Built Bridge Plans
5-393.017 Surplus and Salvage Materials
5-393.018 Vertical and Horizontal Clearance for Traffic
5-393.051 Construction Surveying
5-393.052 Staking Bridges
5-393.053 Benchmarks
5-393.101 General
5-393.102 Cofferdams
5-393.103 Concrete Seals
5-393.104 Excavation
5-393.105 Disposal of Materials
5-393.106 Drilled Shafts
5-393.107 Footings
5-393.108 Foundation Soils Examination and Soil Bearing Tests
5-393.109 Backfill - General
5-393.110 Backfill - Culverts
5-393.150 PILE DRIVING
5-393.151 General
5-393.152 Use of Survey Sheet
5-393.153 Pile Nomenclature
5-393.154 Storage and Handling of Piles
5-393.155 Splicing Piles
5-393.156 Jetting and Preboring
5-393.157 Driving Equipment
5-393.158 Inspection of Pile Driving - Timber Piles
5-393.159 Inspection of Pile Driving - Steel Piles
5-393.Index (2) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

5-393.160 Pile Driving Formulas

5-393.161 Inspection of Pile Driving - Equipment
5-393.162 Inspection of Pile Driving - Process
5-393.163 Pile Bearing Tables
5-393.164 Pile Information Tables
5-393.165 Test Pile and Pile Driving Reports
5-393.166 Pile Driving Analyzer
5-393.167 Pile Load Tests
5-393.168 Payment for Piling
5-393.201 Introduction
5-393.202 Form and Falsework Materials
5-393.203 Deflections and Alignment
5-393.204 Formulas and Standard Loads
5-393.205 Falsework Details and Analysis
5-393.206 Pier Cap Falsework Example
5-393.207 Roadway Slab Falsework Example
5-393.208 Slab Span Falsework
5-393.209 Needle Beam Example
5-393.210 Column Examples
5-393.211 Joist and Stringer Tables
5-393.212 Form Details
5-393.213 Pier Cap Form Example
5-393.214 Abutment Wall Form Example
5-393.251 General
5-393.252 Cutting and Bending
5-393.253 Epoxy Coated Bars
5-393.254 Storage and Protection
5-393.255 Placing, Supporting and Tying Reinforcement Bars
5-393.256 Splicing Reinforcement Bars
5-393.257 Welding
5-393.258 Welded Wire Fabric
5-393.259 Prestressing Steel
5-393.260 Pay Quantities
5-393.261 References and Materials Information
5-393.300 CONCRETE
5-393.301 General
5-393.302 Concrete Mix
5-393.303 Material Requirements
5-393.304 Concrete Quantities
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.index (3)


5-393.351 Preparations for Concrete Placement
5-393.352 Concrete Placement Equipment
5-393.353 Concrete Placement
5-393.354 Concrete Placement in Cofferdams
5-393.355 Removal of Forms
5-393.356 Surface Finishes
5-393.357 Architectural and Special Surface Finishes
5-393.358 Placing Bridge Roadway Slabs
5-393.359 Finishing Bridge Roadway Slabs
5-393.360 Concrete Curing
5-393.361 Cold Weather Protection
5-393.362 Vibration Protection
5-393.363 Bridge Deck Low Slump and Latex Wearing Courses
5-393.364 Diaphragms
5-393.365 Anchor Bolts
5-393.366 Construction Joints in Concrete
5-393.367 Joints Designed for Movement
5-393.368 Joints at Abutments
5-393.369 Joint Filler Material
5-393.370 Expansion Devices
5-393.371 Sidewalk and Curb Plates
5-393.372 Bearing Assemblies
5-393.401 General
5-393.402 Fabrication
5-393.403 Shop Detail Drawings
5-393.404 Structural Metals Shop Inspection
5-393.405 Field Inspection of Materials
5-393.406 Field Layout
5-393.407 Falsework
5-393.408 General Erection
5-393.409 Erection Pinning and Bolting of Field Connections
5-393.410 Erection of Bearing Assemblies
5-393.411 Erection of Beam, Girders, Diaphragms, etc.
5-393.412 Erection of Expansion Devices
5-393.413 Erecting Metal Railing
5-393.414 Bolting of Permanent Field Connections
5-393.415 Welding
5-393.416 Straightening Bent Material
5-393.Index (4) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005


5-393.451 General
5-393.452 Materials
5-393.453 Surface Preparation
5-393.454 Application of Industrial Coatings
5-393.455 Final Cleanup and Miscellaneous
5-393.456 Steel Structures Painting Council Excerpts
5-393.501 General
5-393.502 Materials
5-393.503 Pile Bents
5-393.504 Framing
5-393.505 Wearing Course
5-393.506 Glue Laminated Timber
5-393.507 Connectors
5-393.508 Hardware
5-393.509 Field Treatment
5-393.510 Placing Rip Rap for Timber Structures
5-393.551 General
5-393.552 Diaries and Reports
5-393.553 Surveying
5-393.554 Clearances
5-393.555 Pile Driving
5-393.556 Excavation
5-393.557 Flagging Protection
5-393.558 Material Records
5-393.559 Force Account and Labor
5-393.560 Equipment and Rental
5-393.561 Work Not Covered by Agreement
5-393.562 Certification and Final Force Account Bills
5-393.601 Conduit Systems
5-393.651 Quality Control
5-393.700 GLOSSARY
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.000

Some people are born with this knack of leadership. They
5-393.001 INTRODUCTION never have to argue. They never shout. They say “let’s do
this” and it is done. They command the respect of their
This manual has been prepared for the purpose of guiding associates and run a job well.
Project Engineers and their inspectors while engaged in the
construction of bridges and related items. It is not intended as Conversely, some engineers do not have this knack, and
a substitute for the General Specifications, nor does it cover all never learn it. They find it very hard to get contractors to
phases of the Specifications; it does, however, cover some carry out their suggestions and recommendations.
sections of the Specifications in considerable detail, primarily
for the purpose of promoting more uniformity of interpretation Just what should be the attitude of the engineer toward the
and inspection. Contractor? How can a balanced, harmonious relationship
be attained, and maintained? There are no hard-and-fast
What is a Contract? A contract is a written mutual agreement rules, individuals vary, as do jobs.
between two or more parties and, as such, governs the
relationship between the contracting parties. Each party to the The Contractor is in business to make money. The
contract has certain rights and corresponding obligations to engineer’s task is to see that the job gets done and done
fulfill and neither party has the right to deviate from the scope right. These different viewpoints are not necessarily
of the terms or requirements of the contract without the incompatible.
written consent of the other party.
It is necessary for both the engineer and the Contractor to
A contract executed between the State and the Contractor for realize that all job forces are on the same team. The
construction of a bridge or a highway provides that the Transportation Department wants the best job it is entitled
performance of the work, including furnishing of labor and to, at the earliest possible time. The engineer and the
materials and fulfillment of other obligations, shall be in inspectors are there to get this job done.
accordance with requirements of the Plans, Specifications and
other terms and requirements set forth in the contract. But the engineer also is an arbiter and must resist any
attempt by the Contractor to avoid contract responsibilities.
It is of utmost importance that the Specifications, the Plans, The engineer must be equally diligent in resisting pressure
and the Special Provisions be studied carefully, first for on the Contractor by the Transportation Department to do
general aspects of the job, and then repeatedly for each phase more than the contract calls for or do extra work without fair
of the operations as the job progresses. Mn/DOT 1504 defines compensation. We find that most contractors want to build
the order of priority in the event of a discrepancy between the and maintain a reputation for good work.
Plans, Specifications and Special Provisions.
In the interest of better engineer-Contractor relations, the
Nothing in this manual should be interpreted contrary to the following points are offered for your consideration:
Specifications, Plans, and Special Provisions, since the manual
is not part of the contract agreement, and is not binding upon 1. Be firm. Once you have made up your mind, stick to it
the Contractor except thru the Plans and Specifications. until somebody proves you are wrong.

The following excerpts from an article by Frank A. Howard, Let’s assume that you have thoroughly thought out a
former District Engineer for the Virginia Highway Department situation and have made a decision. You tell the other
contains good advice for all Transportation Department person that you think they should do a certain thing.
employees who deal with contractors. Mr. Howard’s advice They start raising the roof. Don’t let them scare you.
has been updated in the following information: Nine times out of 10 they are yelling for effect-or just to
see how serious you really are.
“The field engineer and the Contractor have a definite
personal relationship to work out. The young engineer on a If you let this noise bother you or change your mind,
project wants to be right, liked, sociable and friendly. you are in for a lot of the same treatment every time.
Make sure you are right and if you think you are, stick
Above all, the engineer wants the job to run smoothly and to it. But if you discover you are wrong, admit it and
efficiently. correct your error. You will not lose standing by being
One of the most difficult problems the field engineer has to
face is personal relations with the Contractor when he or she 2. Don’t let anybody rush you. Many times you may be
is the engineer-in-charge of a project. It is very hard to asked for a quick decision. Don’t be hurried. It’s best
strike just the right note in personal relations. to take the situation back to the office with you and
5-393.002 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

think it over in all its ramifications. You can be sure

that the other person has thought it over. Upon successful completion of either Level I or Level II
requirements, a certification card will be issued. Permanent
Ask yourself if this change or decision you have to make certification cards are laminated. All cards will be signed by
affects only what you are doing now, or will affect the State Construction Engineer. Cards which include
something else later. Remember that you are setting a certification in Bridge Construction are also signed by the
precedent. Nothing looks quite as bad as changing your State Bridge Engineer. The cards show expiration dates for all
mind once you realize the full implications of a snap areas certified. These dates will vary depending on the
decision. You can’t tell a Contractor one thing one day completion of requirements.
and another thing the next...
3. Think ahead. It is taken for granted that the Contractor Certification cards should be carried on your person while on
is thoroughly familiar with what is happening on the the job and should be produced on demand. (Depending on
project today. But how about what is going to happen the agency or company of employment, a request for proof of
tomorrow? certification may come from a Mn/DOT Independent
Assurance Sampler, a Mn/DOT Plant Inspector or field
Try to anticipate tomorrow’s trouble today. Look ahead. inspector, a Mn/DOT Lab Chief, a local agency inspector, a
If you spot any trouble, talk it over with the Contractor. Federal Highway Administration official, etc.)
Your foresight may save both the Transportation
Department and the Contractor some money. Level 1 Bridge Tester is required for all personnel working on
bridge construction projects.
Be diplomatic. A soft answer gets better results than
loud talk. Ask or request rather than order or instruct. Requirements:
Engineers and inspectors on the job act somewhat like
brokers who try to bring both parties - the 1. Completion of the Grading and Base I course along with a
Transportation Department and the Contractor - passing score of seventy or higher on the written
together in harmony; the end result being a job well examination and successful completion of the related
done.” performance review.

Be fair to both parties. Your obligation is to the State but only 2. Completion of the Concrete Field I course along with a
through the use of sound judgement will your efforts to serve passing score on the written examination.
the State be most fruitful. Insist on good workmanship, but
not on the impossible. 3. Completion of the Aggregate Production course along
with a passing score on the written examination.
DUTIES FOR INSPECTORS Level II Bridge Construction Inspector is required for all
Technical certification is required for construction and testing personnel acting as chief inspectors on bridge construction
personnel on all Mn/DOT bridge projects. Extensive program projects. A minimum of one certified inspector per project is
information can be found at www.dot.state.mn.us/const/tcp. required.
The program is made up of two levels of certification.
Level 1 An entry level, which is usually referred to as a
“tester” or “field tester.” This level is for individuals 1. Certified as a Level I Bridge Tester.
of limited responsibility who commonly work under
the direct supervision of another. Often, materials 2. Completion of the Concrete Field II course with a passing
testing and/or sampling are the sole duty of Level 1 score of seventy or above on the written examination.
3. Completion of the Bridge Construction Inspection II
and course along with a passing score of seventy or above on
each of the (3) parts of the written examination.
Level II Advanced certification is usually referred to as an
“inspector.” This level is aimed at individuals who Training programs for certification, certification cards, and
work more independently and are in roles of a recertification of inspectors are responsibilities of the Office
decision making capacity: Chief Inspectors, Mix of Construction and Innovative Contracting. Additional
Designers, etc. information may be obtained from the Technical Certification
Specialist in that office.
Each level consists of the following:

1. Completion of training course

2. Written Examination with passing score
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.003

The inspector should never become involved in disputes with which are not clear to you should be discussed with your
workers. Orders or instructions about performance of the coworkers or with the Engineer, until there is no longer any
work should with the Superintendent or a duly appointed question regarding interpretation.
representative in the absence of the Superintendent.
One of the best methods of becoming thoroughly familiar with
The inspector is responsible for seeing that the work is the Plans is to check the quantities shown on the various
executed in full accordance with the Plans and Specifications. material schedules. Since this is required for estimate
The inspector is responsible for having a thorough purposes as well, it serves a dual purpose. In this way, errors
understanding of the Specifications and for exercising good in the Plans are sometimes discovered before it is too late to
judgment. Often the inspector’s work is the deciding factor make changes conveniently. You will find that, in order to
between a good job and an average or poor one. check the quantities for a structure, you will have to become
quite familiar with the Plans.
It is assumed that good and sufficient reasons exist for the
design, the Specifications, and all items included in the 5-393.005 PRECONSTRUCTION CONFERENCE
contract documents. It is the responsibility of the Engineer
and the inspector to obtain the results specified in the contract In most cases a preconstruction conference will be held to
documents. discuss the contractors proposed work schedule and traffic
control and to obtain information on material supplies,
It is the inspector’s job to review all phases of the work subcontractors, etc. In addition to this conference, it is of
periodically including various operations being performed by considerable importance that the Engineer and/or inspector
the Contractor to ensure that his or her instructions are being view the site with the Contractor prior to starting work to
followed and to keep the Project Engineer well informed of make certain that the Contractor is fully aware of any special
progress, problems, and instructions to the Contractor. Unless requirements which might later cause delays and hardship.
field inspection is aggressively carried out and well
documented, the completed project may well be of unknown For additional preconstruction conference information see the
quality, a potential high maintenance structure, and reflect Contract Administration Manual Section 5-591.310.
badly on the reputation and the prestige of the Department of
Transportation. 5-393.006 CONTROL OF WORK

A competent inspector is thoroughly conscious of the Control of work is covered in the Contract Administration
importance and scope of his or her work and is fully informed Manual Section 5-591.300 and will not be repeated here.
in regard to the design and Specifications. Armed with this
knowledge and with sound judgment gained through 5-393.007 CONTROL OF UTILITY WORK
experience, he or she will not only detect faulty construction
but will also be in a position to prevent it by requiring proper The purpose of this section is to set forth the provisions that
construction procedures and materials. should be made and the practices that should be followed to
obtain adequate inspection of utility installation and relocation
5-393.003 FIELD OFFICE AND LABORATORY work in connection with trunk highway construction.

Basic requirements for field offices and laboratories are “Utility” means all privately, cooperatively or publicly owned
defined under 2031. A number of conveniences which are not communication lines and facilities or systems for the
required under this specification are included in Special transmission and distribution of electrical energy, oil, gas,
Provisions. It is the responsibility of the District to include water, sewer, steam and other pipe lines, railways, ditches,
additional items in their time and traffic for each job so that flumes or other structures which under the laws of this state or
offices of desired size and with adequate facilities will be the ordinance of any town, village or city may be constructed,
provided for in the contract. When bridges are let separate placed or maintained along or on trunk highway right-of-way.
from grading, this item will be carried in the bridge portion of Dependent upon the meaning intended in the context, “Utility”
the contract. also may mean the utility company inclusive of any wholly
owned subdivision.
5-393.004 PLAN REVIEW
Inspection is required to assure that Plans are properly
The importance of comprehensive study and review of the provided and fully understood by all parties, that operations
Plans, Specifications and Special Provisions can not be over- are coordinated, executed and completed economically, that
emphasized. Never assume that the requirements for this job activities and costs are systematically recorded so that bills
are the same as for the last project. It is good practice to can be checked against the performance and the record and the
highlight special requirements in colored pen particularly state’s interests protected and equitable payments made, all in
when they are new to the inspector or different than those accord with state laws and regulations and in accord with
normally used. Make certain that each point covered and each federal laws and regulations, where federal funds are involved.
detail shown is fully understood. Those points and details
5-393.007 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

A written agreement between the state and the utility is goods and satisfactory performance of work in conformance
required in every case in which reimbursement for utility with the terms of the agreement, are properly executed. The
relocation is involved. This is so that representatives of each degree of inspection may vary from spot checking to
involved party will understand the scope of the undertaking continuous and close observation of the relocation work.
and their respective and separate responsibilities connected
with the utility relocation. The inspector should verify the information given in the Plans
regarding the condition of the existing utility prior to any
Utilities presently located on public right of way are required relocation work. Information to be verified may include the
to relocate the utility facility to accommodate highway size, type and material of mains or conduits and other similar
construction at no expense to the State upon written notice and information. Photographs should also be taken if there is any
order from the Commissioner of Transportation or an possibility of future disagreement on the condition of the
authorized agent. Original notice and order are issued by the utility.
Utilities Agreement Engineer as the authorized agent of the
Commissioner of Transportation. The inspector should be as familiar with utility adjustments on
the highway construction project as he or she is with the
The Utility Agreements and Utility Permits Unit negotiates highway construction plans, and should be aware of the many
agreements with each utility entitled to reimbursement for all facts considered in determining the proposed rearrangement of
or part of the relocation of a utility facility prior to the letting utility facilities.
of a highway construction project. Upon completion of the
agreements and encumbrance of funds, notices and orders are It is the inspector’s duty to see that the utility carries its
issued by the Utility Agreements Engineer as the authorized relocation construction to completion in accordance with the
agent of the Commissioner of Transportation directing and agreement and in the manner proposed in the Plans. If the
authorizing the utility to proceed with the required relocations. work or materials are not in conformity with the agreement, it
The Project Engineer will be assigned the utility relocation is the inspector’s responsibility to call it to the attention of the
agreement by a letter from the District Engineer. The Utilities Project Engineer and the utility or its contractor. The final
Agreement Engineer will forward the Job Code TC08, the solution should be to get all defective work remedied or
approved utility relocation agreement and the related utility repaired, or, if necessary, removed and replaced in an
permits to the Project Engineer for use during the progress of acceptable manner by the utility.
utility relocation work. Installations and relocations must
conform to the utility relocation agreements and utility It is the inspector’s responsibility to take reasonable steps to
permits; however, minor changes can be made by the Project assure that the utility’s operations and the Contractor’s
Engineer with prior approval of the Utility Agreements operations are coordinated.
Utility relocations should be made in advance of the
Permits are required in all cases where the utility has facilities Contractor’s operations when such relocations are not
on trunk highway right of way except in those instances dependent upon highway construction, and all relocations
wherein the utility subordinates its property right to the State. should be performed promptly.

Any major changes in a utility relocation agreement requires a Utilities are usually installed after bridge construction is
supplement to the agreement which is negotiated and drafted completed. Inspection is not normally handled by the bridge
by the Utility Agreements Unit. inspector and detailed procedures therefore are not included in
this manual.
If the utility refuses to remove its facilities from the right of
way after being ordered to do so by the Project Engineer, Regardless of the type of arrangement under which the utility
contact the Utility Agreements Engineer or District Engineer. adjusts its facilities, the Utility’s inspector is to keep a separate
diary for the activities of each utility. Entries should be made
Utility companies may be held responsible for damages sought with the realization that these records afford support for
by the Contractor which are a result of failure to cooperate. reimbursement to the utility company, without which, great
difficulty in prompt and equitable payment may be
The Project Engineer is responsible to see that inspection is experienced.
provided for all utility relocations and installations on the
project. The degree of inspection of utility construction will It is the Project Engineer’s responsibility to see that the utility
vary considerably with the nature and location of the work as complies with the notice and order. When conditions warrant,
they affect the completed highway construction. The Project the Project Engineer may grant the utility an extension of time,
Engineer must use judgment in deciding the extent and but this should only be done with the Contractor’s knowledge
regularity of the inspection activities. Certain phases of the and consent to avoid possible claims for delays.
work may require a very close check to make sure that the
highway facility will not be adversely affected and, also, that
the required completion certificates, attesting to receipt of
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.008

5-393.008 REMOVAL OF EXISTING STRUCTURES The Contractor’s responsibility to comply with the applicable
safety requirements, as well as all other Federal, State and
Caution should be taken when the Plans require removal of local laws, shall be discussed at the preconstruction
existing structures or portions of existing conference and documented in the minutes of the meeting.
structures.Reinforced concrete structures may require
additional shoring if portions of the superstructure are to be Where there are conditions which are obvious hazards or pose
removed. Structural steel members that are to be salvaged for an imminent danger to employee safety, the Contractor should
the contracting agency should be match marked and properly be notified immediately. If the condition is not improved by
stored. See 5-393.017 "Surplus and Salvage Materials" for the Contractor, the inspector is to report the problem to the
additional information on salvaged materials. The Contract Project Engineer. It is not intended that inspectors “enforce”
may restrict the type of equipment that can be used when safety regulations other than to notify Contractor and Project
portions of the existing structure are to be reused. Any Engineer of potentially dangerous conditions. If a Contractor
restrictions will be included in the Special Provisions. has been notified of an unsafe condition or operation, the
notice should be recorded in the project diary.
Structural steel and concrete beams that are to remain must be
protected from jackhammer notches and gouges as well as The Project Engineer, as supervisor of the inspection staff, has
from concrete saw cuts. This type of damage results in stress the responsibility of seeing that proper safety clothing, devices
concentrations that could result in fatigue cracking or failure and procedures are used by personnel in performance of their
of a member. Should damage occur, contact your Supervisor. duties. These items may include safety vests, hard hats, safety
No repairs should be undertaken without the recommendations harnesses/lanyards, life vests, respirators, eye and hearing
of the Bridge Office. protection, weekly safety meetings, etc (see
Specification 1706 and special provisions).
Extreme caution should be exercised when blasting to prevent
damage to underground utilities or other public and private 5-393.011 CONSTRUCTION DIARY
property. Thoroughly discuss the removal plans with the
Contractor and your Supervisor. In addition to the Chief inspectors must keep a daily diary of the construction
requirements of 1711, the use of explosives in conjunction operations, particularly of those for which the inspector is
with the removal of bridges shall be subject to approval of the responsible. Make notes in your diary while the information is
Engineer. still fresh in your mind. Illustrate important notations or add
detailed information at a later date.
1. It is recommended that the last few minutes of each day
Shop detail drawings are produced for various bridge items be used for writing up the diary. Make this a habit!
and should be used in the inspection, erection and assembly Comments should include notes on progress of work, size
of those items. Structural steel, bearings, ornamental railings of force, adequacy of equipment, instructions received
and expansion joints are among the common bridge and given, and on temperatures and weather conditions.
components requiring shop drawings. Any particular bridge See Contract Administration Manual 5-591.390 for
may require shop drawings for other items. additional instructions.

Specification 2471.3B contains specific references to the use 2. Weekly Construction Diary
and understanding of shop drawings. Form 2120 - “Weekly Construction Diary and Statement
of Working Days” (See Figure A 5-393.011) is used to
Shop drawings become a part of the contract and may be used report progress of bridge construction work. Major
in lieu of the general plans when specific details are needed. bridge items may be listed separately or an entire bridge
may be listed as one item on this form. Information on
5-393.010 SAFETY the use of this form is contained in Section 5-591.340 of
the Contract Administration Manual. Form 2120 can be
OSHA Safety Standards are lengthy and complex. In addition, found in the CMS (Construction Management System).
they are subject to change by publication in the Federal
Register and the enforcement of specific portions may be 5-393.012 PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT
delayed or postponed. For these reasons, field personnel
should cooperate with the enforcing agencies to the fullest Specifications 1713 and 1717 provide that the Contractor must
extent practicable and be guided by the following policy: take certain precautions for protection of the environment.
Forests, fish, wildlife, air and water are specifically mentioned
Department of Transportation personnel are expected to be in these Specifications. Plans may contain temporary erosion
safety conscious and alert to reasonable safety precautions in control measures, limitations on cofferdam construction,
their daily duties. This has always been true in the past and restrictions on dewatering or other provisions designed to
should continue to be our goal in the future. protect lakes and streams. Earth slopes should be finished,
5-393.013 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

topsoil placed and seeding or sodding completed at the earliest writing by the Bridge Design Unit prior to implementation. A
possible time to provide permanent protection against erosion. pencil notation on a copy of the plan is a good way to provide
plan change information to the Bridge Office. Unless revised
Permits from the Corps of Engineers, Department of Natural plan sheets are issued by the Bridge Design Unit, corrections
Resources, U.S. Coast Guard or Minnesota Pollution Control should be transferred to reproducible copies of the plans by
Agency may have been acquired by Mn/DOT for the project. the Project Engineer to provide a permanent “as-built” record
The Plans and Special Provisions will provide for construction (see 5-393.016).
in accordance with the terms of those permits; however,certain
Contractor operations (construction of work roads, pumping 5-393.016 “AS-BUILT” BRIDGE PLANS
directly into lakes or streams, etc.) may not be allowable under
the terms of the permit. Project personnel should be familiar With the increased number of bridge repair and reconstruction
with the terms of all permits obtained by Mn/DOT for the projects and the number of contractor options and alternatives
project. Even if not restricted by permit, Contractor allowed in bridge plans and special provisions, there is a need
operations may be limited by environmental regulations. for information in Bridge Office files for this info. This need
has been expressed by both the Bridge Office and District
5-393.013 PHOTOGRAPHS Bridge Maintenance personnel.

Photographs have played a very important role in verifying the In order to meet the need for additional information and
engineer’s statements concerning disputed claims. Progress provide a permanent record of bridge construction, Project
pictures taken at appropriate intervals or of unusual situations Engineers, when “finaling” the bridge portion of a project,
may discourage a Contractor from submitting a claim unless shall request reproducible copies of bridge Plans from the
there is ample justification. Bridge Design Unit Leader listed on the plan. Upon receipt of
the reproducible copy, the Project Engineer shall revise each
5-393.014 MATERIALS plan sheet as necessary to provide the following information:

Materials Manual 5-691, Structural Metals Manual 5-394 and 1. All plan changes (including those approved in writing by
Concrete Manual 5-694 cover the sampling, testing and the Bridge Office) including revised standard details
inspecting of materials in considerable detail, and no attempt shown on appropriate plan sheets. Dimensional changes
will be made here to repeat the instructions contained therein. (including elevation changes) should be shown by lining
The point to bear in mind is that all materials used on our out original dimension and inserting “as-built” dimension.
work must be inspected and approved by some authority,
whether it be on the job, prior to shipment, or from samples 2. The options or alternates selected by the Contractor where
taken at some stage of the operations. Even though materials allowed in the Plans or Special Provisions. Check either
may have been inspected prior to delivery to the project, they Concrete Wearing Course or the other (manufacturer’s
should be “field checked” for possible damage and to ensure name should be noted). A standard "as-built" plan sheet
conformance with plan dimensions prior to incorporation into (addition to original plan) will be provided for this
the work. Final inspection and acceptance of material will be information.
made only at the site of the work, after all required tests have
been met. 3. The type and/or size and manufacturer’s (not fabricator’s
or supplier’s) name for the following items: (1) expansion
Study the manuals thoroughly and refer to them whenever joints and glands (2) elastomeric bearing pads (3) non-
there is a question in your mind concerning a particular item. standard hardware items. This information shall be
shown on the appropriate plan detail sheet or standard
Keep a record of all materials received and placed, showing plan sheet.
date, source, quantity, by whom sampled, and for whom
inspected. At the completion of the project, the original 4. For the finish coats on painted bridges, type of paint,
record should be retained in the project file and a copy color and manufacturer’s name. The standard plan sheet
furnished to the Bridge Construction Unit. will provide space for this information.

5-393.015 FIELD PLAN CHANGES 5. Actual rock excavation limits for footings shall be shown
on “as-built” plans. Information shall be sufficient to
Should it become necessary to make a plan change in the field, show the extent of footing supported on rock if only part
such as lowering a footing to obtain bearing on rock, the of the footing is on rock.
Bridge Construction Unit should be contacted. This unit
provides an advisory service on plan changes through three 6. Utilities installed that are not shown on plan sheets.
Regional Bridge Construction Engineers who have direct
access to Bridge Designers for information on the effect of
plan changes. Plan changes which require design changes in
structural components or geometrics must be approved in
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.011
5-393.017 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

"downloads" button and select "Vertical and Horizontal

When the Project Engineer has completed the addition of Bridge Clearance Report". Failure to report this information
preceding information to the plans in ink, the “as-built” plan may result in routing of over dimension vehicles through the
sheets shall be returned to the Regional Bridge Engineer. project with potentially serious safety consequences.
The Regional Bridge Engineer will arrange for microfilming
of “as-built” plans to provide a permanent record in Minimum vertical and horizontal clearances for the
accordance with Mn/DOT policies. completed bridge which may restrict motor vehicle traffic
must be recorded on the "as-built" plan. In addition, these
5-393.017 SURPLUS AND SALVAGE MATERIALS measurements should be reported to the District Permit
Office and the Bridge Office (Attn: Bridge Management
Materials from the project site which the engineer considers Engineer) prior to opening of the affected roadway for use
of salvage value, and surplus materials which remain after by the traveling public as per the Contract Administration
completion of the work, should be properly accounted for Manual 5-591.410, under the heading of "Reporting Final
when the contract work is completed. The engineer will Bridge Clearances".
determine which materials are of salvageable value and their
disposition. The Contractor is compensated for the expense
of materials delivered for the project but determined as

Cutoffs and unused pieces of piling for which the Contractor

receives payment are salvaged only when the Area
Maintenance Engineers express a need for them. Therefore,
the engineer should check with the Maintenance Engineer at
the start of the project and during the project if the project
lasts over a few months, to determine what types and
lengths of piling are to be salvaged. The engineer will then
notify the Contractor, in writing, of his or her decision.

A determination to salvage an existing bridge or parts of it

will generally be made by consulting with the Regional
Bridge Construction Engineer during the planning stage.
Salvage of steel items is usually based on scrap steel prices.

1. Salvaged Materials

Form 17119, Inventory of Salvage Bridge Materials,

(see www.dot.state.mn.us/const/tools/index.html under
"forms") must be prepared upon the completion of each
structure from which materials are salvaged. For cost
accounting purposes a separate itemization must be
made and the total footage shown on Form 17119 for
each size and type of steel H or shell pile pieces which
are 3 meters (10 ft) or more in length. The original and
one copy of Form 17119 are to be submitted with the



Where traffic lanes are open any "temporary" restriction in

clearance during construction must be measured and
immediately reported to the District Permits Office.
Falsework construction, width restrictions due to
excavation, construction of a temporary bridge and bridge
widening frequently result in temporary or permanent
reductions in clearance. The estimated beginning and end
dates for "temporary" restrictions should be included with
clearance information. The form is available on the Bridge
Office website at www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge, click on the
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.017
Mn/DOT TP-17119 (3-79)


Sheet No.____ of____
Location of yard:_______________________________________________

Condition of material or equipment is to be noted for each item listed. Use the following
code: N - New G - Good F - Fair P - Poor Maint. Area No.:_____
No. of Pieces Description Length Cond. Remarks

Date Distribution:
Bridge Construction & Maintenance Engineer (C.O.)
Date Area Maintenance Engineer Bridge Crew No.
Bridge Maintenance Supervisor
Date ___________________________________
Date Bridge Foreman
5-393.018 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005


Metric Measurement

Lengths = millimeter (mm), meter

(m), kilometer (km)

Areas = square meter (m2)

Volume = liter (L) or cubic meter


Mass (Weight) = kilogram (kg)

Force = Newton (N=kg • m/s2)

Pressure, Stress = Pascal (Pa = N/m2)

Energy, Work = Joule (J = N • m)

Torque = Joule (J = N • m)

Speed, Velocity = meter/second (m/s),

kilometers/hour (km/hr)

Acceleration = meter/second squared


Density = kilograms/meter cubed


Temperature = ºCelsius (ºC)

Power = Watt (J/s)

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.018

Conversions From U.S. Customary To Metric (SI) Multiply By

LENGTH/THICKNESS mil mm 0.0254

inch mm 25.4

ft mm 304.8

ft m 0.3048

yd m 0.9144

mile km 1.609344


inch2 mm2 645.16

ft2 m2 0.092903

yd2 m2 0.836127


inch3 mm3 16390

foot3 m3 0.02832

yard3 m3 0.7646

gallon L 3.7854

gal/yd2 L/m2 4.5273

gal/yd3 L/m3 4.9511

MASS (Weight)

ounce g 28.35

pound kg 0.453592

ton metric ton 0.907185


pound N 4.44822

kip kN 4.44822


lb/ft N/m 14.5939

lb/inch N/mm 0.1751


lbs/ft2 Pa 47.8803
kips/ft kPa 47.8803
5-393.018 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Conversions From U.S. Customary To Metric (SI) Multiply By

lbs/inch2 kPa 6.89476

lbs/inch2 Mpa 0.006895

kips/inch2 Mpa 6.89476


foot pound J=N•m 1.35582


ounces/yd2 kg/m2 0.0339057

lbs/ft2 kg/m2 4.88243

lbs/yd2 kg/m2 0.5425

lbs/ft3 kg/m3 16.0185

lbs/yd3 kg/m3 0.5933


(°F-32)(5/9) = °C

Quick Conversions

Water freezes 0° C 32° F

Room temperature 20° C 68° F

Beach weather 30° C 86° F

Normal body 37° C 98° F

Water boils 100° C 212° F

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.018

Typical dimensions found in the Bridge Construction Manual and the U.S. Customary equivalents are shown below:

Millimeters Inches Meters Feet
3 0.12 (1/8) 0.305 1.0
5 0.20 (3/16) 0.610 2.0
6 0.24 (1/4) 1.0 3.28
7 0.28 1.524 5.0
9 0.375 (3/8) 2.0 6.56
10 0.39 3.0 9.84
13 0.51 (1/2) 3.05 10.0
19 0.75 (3/4) 5.0 16.4
20 0.79 (13/16) 10.0 32.8
25 0.98 15.240 50.0
51 2.01 30.48 100.0
75 2.95 100 328.1
100 3.94 1000 3281
152 5.98
305 12.0

kiloNewton Pounds Celsius Fahrenheit
4.45 1000 -40 -40
5.0 1124 -20 -4
8.9 2000 -10 14
10.0 2250 0 32
25.0 5620 10 50
50.0 11,240 20 68
100.0 22,480 30 86
200 44,960 40 104
222 50,000 75 167
445 100,000 100 212
500 112,405 300 572
890 200,000 500 932
1000 224,800 1000 1832
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.050



5-393.051 CONSTRUCTION SURVEYING shown in a tabulation at the lower left-hand part of the sheet.
The tabulation also shows a number of diagonal distances
According to Specification 1508, Mn/DOT is responsible for between working points for checking dimensions. These
furnishing the Contractor sufficient staking for the control measurements should be diligently made to assure that the
points and working points as shown on the Bridge Layout working points have been accurately set.
sheet. Control points include benchmarks in the vicinity of
substructure units. Grade points for substructure and Measurements will be made with either EDM (Electronic
superstructure forms and beam stool heights are also provided Distance Measuring) equipment or standardized steel tapes,
for the Contractor. Refer to the Surveying and Mapping pulled to correct tension.
Manual, Section 6-3, for detailed procedures and a sequence
of activities for Construction Surveying. Mn/DOT 2402.3 requires that, unless otherwise shown on the
plans, bearing assemblies such as rockers and roller nests
5-393.052 STAKING BRIDGES should be set plumb or at a designated tilt at a temperature of
7°C (45°F). The plans, also usually specify that the opening
Staking a structure is a phase of the Engineer's operations between expansion joint extrusions be a prescribed width at
which should receive very careful attention. Serious and 7°C (45°F). To obtain the results required by the plans, i.e.,
costly delays have resulted because of stakes placed out of line specified conditions at 7°C (45°F), it is also necessary that the
and because the work was not properly checked. The substructure units be staked to 7°C (45°F). Temperature
Contractor should not be permitted to start work on a unit until corrections should, therefore, be made to a base of 7°C (45°F).
the location of that unit has been accurately determined and If the temperature of a steel tape is higher than 7°C (45°F), it
verified. will span greater distances between its markings than at 7°C
(45°F); therefore, the computed correction must be subtracted
Whenever possible, the entire structure should be completely from the measured length during the staking operation. If the
staked, checked and referenced before construction operations temperature of the tape is lower than 7°C (45°F), the
are started. Here, again, it is important to consult with the correction must be added.
Contractor so as to avoid placement of reference points where
equipment and materials are to be stored. The amount of correction to be applied can be determined by
using the following formulas:
Do not rely on merely two points to re-establish a line. Set
enough points on each line during the original staking so that a Tc = 0.0000117Dm (7-Tt) (For temperature in °C)
minimum of three points can be sighted on any setup, with
Tf = 0.0000065 Df (45-Tt) (For temperature in °F)
additional check points in the event some points are disturbed.
Points should be placed on both ends of each unit so that it Tc = temperature correction in millimeters
will not be necessary to project lines in order to re-establish a
Tf = temperature correction in feet
location whenever this is possible. Check angles as well as
distances for each unit. Be certain that the lines and Dm = distance to be measured in millimeters
dimensions shown on the plans are correctly interpreted. A
Df = distance to be measured in feet
roadway centerline, for instance, is not necessarily the
centerline of the bridge. The plans may use one line for Tt = temperature of the tape
superstructure details and the other for substructure units.
Beware of such a condition; read the plans carefully! Check
0.0000117 is the coefficient of thermal expansion for
the grading plans to make sure that information is the same as
steel when using temperature in °C.
in the bridge plan.
0.0000065 is the coefficient of thermal expansion for
All bridge plans include a sheet entitled Bridge Layout. The
steel when using temperature in °F.
purpose of this sheet is to provide a line diagram of the bridge
showing only information essential for staking. Generally,
Tables 1 and 2 5-393.052 have been prepared so they may be
one control point is shown which is established by intersection
used to check field computations and so that corrections will
of center lines or survey lines. This would then be the point
not be made in reverse.
where the bridge staking would begin and the working points
established. Dimensions between working points are usually
5-393.052 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Example for temperature in °C: Example for temperature in °F:

It is specified that the opening at Point B be 300 mm at a It is specified that the opening at Point B be 1.00 foot at a
temperature of 7°C. temperature of 45°F.

Temperature on the day of survey is 20°C. Temperature on the day of survey is 68°F

To provide the opening of exactly 300 mm at Point B, a tape To provide the opening of exactly 1.00 foot at Point B, a tape
correction of 46 mm would be required for the 300000 mm correction of 0.15 feet would be required for the 1000.00 foot
true distance between A and B. A taped distance of 299954 true distance between A and B. A taped distance of 999.85
mm would be staked. feet would be staked.

TABLE 1 5-393.052

Distance to Temperature of Tape in Degrees Celsius

be staked
in -30°C -20°C -10°C 0°C 7°C 10°C 20°C 30°C 40°C
50000 50022 50016 50010 50004 50000 49998 49992 49987 49981

100000 100043 100032 100020 100008 100000 99996 99985 99973 99961

150000 150065 150047 150030 150012 150000 149995 149977 149960 149942

200000 200087 200063 200040 200016 200000 199993 199970 199946 199923

250000 250108 250079 250050 250020 250000 249991 249962 249933 294903

500000 500216 500158 500099 500041 500000 499982 499924 499865 499807

TABLE 2 5-393.052

Distance Temperature of Tape in Degrees Fahrenheit

to be
staked in -20°F 0°F +10°F +30°F +45°F +60°F +80°F +100°F
100.00 100.04 100.03 100.02 100.01 100.00 99.99 99.98 99.96

200.00 200.08 200.06 200.05 200.02 200.00 199.98 199.95 199.93

300.00 300.13 300.09 300.07 300.03 300.00 299.97 299.93 299.89

400.00 400.17 400.12 400.09 400.04 400.00 399.96 399.91 399.86

500.00 500.21 500.15 500.11 500.05 500.00 499.95 499.89 499.82

1000.00 1000.42 1000.29 1000.23 1000.10 1000.00 999.90 999.77 999.64

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.053

5-393.053 BENCHMARKS

Benchmarks shown on the survey sheet of the plans should be

checked prior to being used for setting job benches. Report
any errors to the District Land Management Engineer. After
job benches have been set and checked, they should be used
throughout the construction of the entire bridge unless they are

The Contractor relies upon the accuracy of benchmarks to

provide grades for substructure and superstructure forms as
they are needed, and it is very important that any such grades
be correct. Correct grades cannot be established if the job
benchmarks are in error. The resulting discrepancies are quite
embarrassing, as well as costly, and can be the source of
claims for both time extensions and financial reimbursement.
A little extra care taken in establishing good benchmarks is the
cheapest possible insurance against subsequent difficulties.

Benchmark discs are furnished by the Department and should

be placed on new structures at the location designated in the

A permanent record should be kept of all levels and cross

sections taken. Also, records should be maintained on what
process and control was used to set and check the working
points or offsets. These notes may be needed if constructed
work is found to be at an incorrect elevation.

Calculated elevations of tops of girders are available from the

Bridge Designer (Bridge Office). The Designer's name is
shown on the first sheet of the bridge plan (contact the
"reviewer" for consultant plans). It is important to specify the
interval at which elevations are desired (i.e., every 1.5 meters
(5 feet)) and specific locations needed. Information will be
furnished on a computer output sheet.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.100


5-393.101 GENERAL possible precaution should be taken to avoid accidents. For

that reason, it is advisable to check the cofferdam plans.
Before starting excavation, and after staking the substructure Assistance in checking plans may be obtained from the Bridge
units, a visual inspection should be made in order to compare Office. Observe the action of the members during the time it
the work with the layout shown on the plans. Actual is in service, and report any indications of distress to the
measurement checks should be made to features such as Contractor and the Engineer.
railroad tracks, or to other construction, which may have an
influence on the location of the structure. Structures over The adequacy of cofferdams is, in general, the responsibility
navigable waters should receive special attention in this of the contractor, since they ordinarily are not a permanent
respect. part of the structure. The purpose of the cofferdams is to
provide a supported opening within which the contractor can
Cross sections and levels should be taken for the purpose of perform work, which is required by the contract. Cofferdams
determining excavation quantities, when they are required. must be removed to specified limits after they have served
Place cut stakes at convenient locations for the contractor, so their purpose (See Mn/DOT Specification 2451.3A3a). The
as to properly guide the excavation operations. Special Provisions may contain limitations on cofferdam
construction or removal and should be checked prior to any
The excavation limits defined in the specifications are for the work.
purpose of measurement for payment, and are not intended to
confine the contractor’s operations to these limits or warrant a Cofferdams must be large enough to provide room for footing
stable slope. Any excavation outside of the defined limits forms and to allow for drainage between the forms and the
must not interfere with or endanger other work or property. If sheeting. For proper drainage, sump holes are necessary
solid rock is encountered, the excavation must conform to outside the forms at the end of the cofferdam. In laying out
specified limits as closely as practical, since any over the size of the cofferdam, allowance should be made for
excavation must be backfilled with concrete. possible vertical deviation of the sheeting while driving and
for the sump at the end.
In the case of rock excavation it is often necessary to remove
overburden before elevations for computing rock quantities Cofferdams and excavations adjacent to railroads should
can be obtained. The contractor should be informed that rock receive added attention, because any movement or
excavation should not start until the engineer has had an overloading of members here could immediately reflect to the
opportunity to obtain these elevations. tracks. A slight change in either the vertical or horizontal
alignment of a railroad track could result in a serious accident,
A comprehensive record should be kept of the types of soil particularly on a high speed track.
encountered, water table elevation, and soil stability. The
Bridge Office will appreciate receiving such information for Cofferdam plans are usually required by the Railroad when
its files at the completion of each structure, or after completion substructure units are to be constructed adjacent to their
of substructure work. (Notations on copies of the plan sheets tracks, and their approval of these plans is necessary. Also, if
containing soil boring logs is a good way to send in this legal clearance requirements are encroached upon, it will be
information). It may also be required when a decision is to be necessary to get approval of the Mn/DOT Railroad
rendered on whether or not additional soil borings will be Administration Section, Office of Freight & Commercial
required. Vehicle Operations. Read the Special Provisions to determine
whether or not plans are required.
5-393.102 COFFERDAMS
In order to satisfy the requirements of the various agencies
Cofferdams provide a watertight enclosure for the excavation when excavation is performed adjacent to railroad tracks, it is
and construction of structure foundations below the prevailing necessary to submit ten sets of cofferdam plans to the
water surface. To ensure a safe and satisfactory cofferdam, it Mn/DOT Railroad Administration Section. Approval by the
must be built in accordance with the plans and/or drawings Railroad Company, and by the Mn/DOT Railroad
submitted by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer Administration Section when required, will be obtained, and
before construction is started. Bracing and other supports approved prints returned to the Project Engineer for the
cannot extend into the substructure concrete without written contractor and Project Engineer. It sometimes requires two
approval of the Engineer. See Figure A 5-393.102 for an weeks or more to obtain the necessary approvals; therefore the
example of a cofferdam. contractor should be encouraged to prepare the plans well in
advance of the time they will be needed.
Loose, permeable or water-saturated soils, water, and the need
for protecting adjacent work or structures all dictate the needs
for cofferdams. Since our prime concern at all times should
be for the safety of the employees and the public, every
5-393.103 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005


In order to serve the purpose for which they are intended,
cofferdams in water should be reasonably tight to keep Plans for substructure units which must be constructed in
pumping requirements to a minimum. They should be water within a cofferdam may require that a concrete seal be
sufficiently large to provide for driving batter piles in the outer placed directly over the bottom of the excavation before
rows, the construction of forms, and to provide a waterway pumping the water out of the cofferdam. The purpose of the
outside of the footing area. The length of the sheeting should seal is two fold; it serves to act as a barrier against inflow of
allow for lowering the plan footing elevation at least 1 meter water and saturated soils caused by hydrostatic pressure of the
(3 feet), as provided for in the Mn/DOT Specification water outside of the dam and as a bottom frame for the
2451.3A3a. The sheeting should also be long enough to cofferdam. An example of a seal placement is shown in
obtain sufficient toe so that water is not forced below the Figure A 5-393.103.
sheets and up through the soils below the excavation.
Insufficient depth of sheeting creates conditions that could Theoretically, the thickness of a foundation seal must be such
cause complete failure of the dam when it is pumped out. To as to balance the uplift forces and the forces counteracting
avoid failure due to water pressure often requires that the uplift. Practically, the thickness is indeterminate because of
sheets be driven to a depth below the footing equal to one half the variable value of all the factors except the mass (weight) of
the distance, or more, from the bottom of the footing to the the concrete and the sheet piling. The character of the
water level (referred to as head). underlying soil or rock and the number and penetration of the
foundation piles affect the seal design as does the water level
Do not permit employees under your supervision to work during construction or the type of penetration of the sheet
within cofferdams which are considered questionable or piling.
unsafe. In such cases notify the engineer, so that appropriate
action can be taken to correct the situation. When the depth of the water (head) and the character of the
soil is such that the designer anticipates that a concrete seal is
Struts and braces should be located so as to minimize necessary, or that it will be less costly to provide the seal than
interference with pile driving, formwork, reinforcement bars, to drive sheet piling to adequate depth, a seal will be shown in
and placement of concrete. They should be tightly secured the plans. When this is done, a pay item is generally included
and adequately supported. Timber should be sound, and to cover the special concrete required for this purpose. The
should be free of deep cuts, large holes, or other damaging concrete specified is usually a type with a high cement
characteristics. content, because it is likely that some loss of cement will be
encountered during placement, and also because early strength
For more information on cofferdams refer to "Concrete is desirable for the progress of subsequent operations.
Placement in Cofferdams" in Section 5-393.354 of this
manual. When the plans do not require a concrete cofferdam seal, but
the contractor requests permission to place a seal in lieu of
providing and driving cofferdam sheets of a length that will
prevent dewatering problems, the seal will be placed at the
contractor’s expense. No payment will be made for the
additional excavation nor for equipment or material made
necessary by such a change, since it is merely a change in the
contractor’s method of operation.

It is, of course, expected that the contractor’s supervisors will

have had previous experience in cofferdam and seal
construction. It is also expected that adequate cofferdam
material, as well as pumping and driving equipment, will be
supplied. A properly constructed cofferdam with a properly
constructed seal will require a minimum of continuous

Before the contractor is permitted to start concrete placement

for a cofferdam seal, a thorough inspection should be made to
make certain that the excavation has been properly completed
to specified grade. Some failures have occurred in the past
due to mounds of dirt left in the excavation which have
resulted in water spouts through the seal. These mounds of
dirt were left under the struts and wales where it is difficult to
perform the excavation and inspection. Repairing this type of
failure is very difficult, costly and time-consuming.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.104

For more information regarding placement of concrete seals piles are to be driven, it is usually good practice to over-
refer to "Tremis" on page 5-393.352(3) and "Concrete excavate, perhaps as much as a foot or more in some cases.
Placement in Cofferdams", section 5-393.354 of this manual. When a large number of such piles are driven within an
enclosure, particularly in spongy soils, the tendency is for the
ground to heave due to the displacement by the piles. It is
generally easier and less expensive for the contractor to
backfill to grade if the excavation is low, than it is to excavate
in water after piling have been driven. This is, of course, the
contractor’s choice, but it is prudent to discuss the matter with
the contractor in advance of performing the work.

Over-excavation for pile foundations should be backfilled with

granular material, or with concrete, at the contractor's expense.

After excavation has been completed for an underwater

foundation, and before pile driving is started, check the
elevation of the bottom of the excavation thoroughly. Make
certain that mounds of dirt have not been left under the struts,
walers, or bracing. A similar check should be made after pile
driving operations have been completed.

Should the bottom of an underwater foundation excavation be

too high after the piles have been driven, excess material can
sometimes be removed by scouring the area with a water jet
and pumping while the material is still in suspension.


Unless otherwise noted in the contract, all excavation for

substructure units should be used for backfilling to the grade
5-393.104 EXCAVATION and cross section existing before the excavation was started.
When such materials are unsuitable for backfill they should be
In determining excavation quantities, it is imperative that cross replaced with suitable material, furnished and paid for as Extra
sections or levels be taken at the top of the ground before Work, unless other provisions are indicated. All surplus or
excavation is started. unsuitable material should be disposed of as provided for in
Plans, Special Provisions and Specifications 1701, 1702 and
Excavation, regardless of whether it is with or without 2104.
cofferdam protection, should be conducted carefully to avoid
endangering adjacent work or structures. OSHA requires the When the contract requires stock piling of suitable materials
contractor to designate a competent person to be responsible removed from abutment areas for use as sand-gravel fill
for excavation safety. State personnel should have sufficient behind the abutment, care should be exercised so as not to
training to recognize hazardous situations, particularly as contaminate such material during removal operations, or
applies to worker safety. subsequently.

When excavating for a footing where piling will not be used, Excavations for substructure units located in streams or other
extra care will be required to avoid excavating below the waters should also be backfilled to the grade and cross section
bottom of the footing. The final stages of excavation must existing before the work was started, unless a channel change
generally be accomplished by hand work in order to prevent is involved, or unless some other grade is indicated in the
such over-excavation. If excavation is carried too deeply in a plans. Excess materials should be removed and disposed of
natural foundation, the contractor is required by the outside of the stream bed.
specifications to remove all disturbed material, and to backfill
the entire extra depth with concrete at the contractor's expense. It is advisable, particularly in navigable waters, to obtain cross
(The exception to this is when a sand-gravel subfoundation is sections over the entire area which may be affected by the
required.) The concrete mix to be used for this purpose should work. This should be done prior to starting such operations.
be obtained from the Concrete Engineer, unless the contractor Cross sections should be repeated on the same pattern after the
elects to use the same mix as provided for the remainder of the work has been completed and before the contractor removes
footing. When excavation is performed within a cofferdam his or her equipment from the site. Then it will not be
where a substantial number of tubular or timber foundation necessary to require the contractor to return the equipment at a
later date. The Corps of Engineers has jurisdiction over
5-393.106 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

navigable water, and they are very strict about maintaining shafts for bridge foundations have diameters in the range of 1
uniform flow lines for such waters. They “sweep” the bottom to 2 meters (3-6.5 feet).
intermittently to determine whether or not the required
channel depth is available to navigation, and will require that The drilled shaft is most commonly constructed by employing
corrections be made whenever and wherever necessary. rotary drilling equipment to drill a cylindrical hole. Auger
methods are used in earth and soft rock and coring methods in
5-393.106 DRILLED SHAFTS hard rock. Three methods of keeping the excavated hole open
are in general use: the dry method, the casing method and the
A drilled shaft foundation is a cylindrical excavation in soil or slurry-displacement method. The dry method is generally
rock that is filled with concrete with the primary purpose of used if the excavation can be made with little or no caving,
structural support. Reinforcing steel is installed in the squeezing or sloughing, and with little or no water collecting
excavation prior to placing the concrete. Drilled shafts are in the excavation. If the excavation will not maintain its
circular in cross section and may be belled at the base to dimensions, or if excessive water collects, the use of
provide greater bearing area. temporary or permanent casing may be required. An
alternative to the use of casing is to drill the hole using a slurry
Vertical load is resisted by the drilled shaft in base bearing or to prevent caving or sloughing (the slurry-displacement
side friction or a combination of both. Horizontal load is method). After the cylindrical hole is excavated by augers,
resisted by the shaft in horizontal bearing against the core barrels, or drilling buckets, an under reaming tool can be
surrounding soil or rock. used to enlarge the base of the drilled shaft. A rebar cage is
placed and the excavation is filled with concrete. Temporary
Other terminology commonly used to describe a drilled shaft casing, if used, is recovered as the concrete is placed. A
includes drilled pier, drilled caisson, or auger-cast pile. concrete mix with a high workability (slump) is frequently
Excavation of a “drilled” shaft may not utilize a drill or auger. required.
Extraction of the soil or rock may be done by almost any
method. For large diameter shafts, extraction is often done by During placement of concrete into the shaft the inspector
clam shell. Drilled shafts are used because of their very high should carefully monitor the volume to determine if voids are
load capacities. Drilled shafts are becoming more common present or if the walls are uncased, to determine if sloughing
for river crossing bridges as they can be constructed to depths of the walls has occurred. To aid in monitoring the concrete
below predicted scour elevations, even in very dense soils or volume a form has been developed (see figures A 5-393.106
bedrock. The attention to detail in the construction of drilled and B 5-393.106). This form allows the inspector to compare
shafts is critical to ensure a successful foundation. If proper the predicted volume with the actual volume at specific
procedures are used by an experienced contractor, drilled elevations during the placement. Large overruns or underruns
shafts can be installed successfully in a wide variety of in concrete volume may indicate large voids or sloughing of
subsurface conditions. the walls.

Certain limitations exist with regard to the geometry of a After completion of each drilled shaft the Contractor is
drilled shaft. Diameters of 300 to 360 millimeters (12 to 14.5 responsible for compiling an initial data report in a standard
inches) can be used if the length of the shaft is no more than format furnished by the Engineer (see figure C 5-393.106).
2.5 to 3.0 meters (8 to 10 feet). Such small foundations are The report shall be furnished to the Engineer within 24 hours
commonly used to support sign structures and high tower after concreting has been completed for that shaft. Upon
lighting. completion and acceptance of all shafts by the Engineer, a
final report for each shaft--in the same standard format--
As the depth of the excavation becomes greater, the diameter containing any additional data shall be furnished to the
normally must increase. Several factors that influence the Engineer.
ratio of depth to diameter are: the nature of the soil profile, the
position of the water table, whether or not a rebar cage is As there are many variations in the equipment and methods of
required, the design of the concrete mix, and the need to excavation and construction for drilled shafts, this manual
support lateral loading. The concrete may be placed by free does not discuss detailed procedures. Personnel that are to be
fall in shafts if the mix is carefully designed to ensure that the involved with projects having drilled shafts should carefully
excavation is filled and segregation is minimized. Free fall is review the special provisions and obtain the following
defined as concrete falling through air. Therefore, the references available from the Federal Highway Administration
concrete must not fall through the rebar cage or strike the sides and the International Association of Foundation Drilling
of the excavation. which describe the detailed methods of construction that are
used in a variety of subsurface and surface conditions:
Heavy, rotary-drilling equipment is available for large drilled-
shaft excavations. Cylindrical holes can be drilled with Drilled Shaft Inspectors Manual
diameters of up to 6 meters (20 feet) to depths of up to 60 Published by: The International Association of
meters (200 feet) and with under reamed bells up to 10 meters Foundation Drilling
(33 feet) in diameter. Percussion equipment can make PO Box 280379, Dallas, Texas 75228 (214) 681-5994
excavations of almost any size and depth. Typical sizes of
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.106
Figure B 5-393.106 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure C 5-393.106



Bridge No. S.P. No. Pier No. Shaft No.

Prime Contractor

Drilled Shaft Contractor Mn/DOT Inspector


Date Shaft Construction Started Description of Obstructions Encountered in Earth Shaft
Date Shaft Construction Completed
River Pool Elev. Water Temp.
Construction Method: Wet Dry Removal Methods and Tools Used

Permanent Casing Dia.: Plan mm
Date Permanent Casing Set Method
Bottom Elev. of Permanent Casing
Top Elev. of Finished Shaft: Plan Estimated Thickness of Sediment at Bottom of Shaft at Time
As-built of Concreting
Elev. of Initial Contact of Rock
Rock Shaft Dia. Plan mm, As-built mm Concrete Mix No.
Placement Date
Drill Rig Make and Mdl. Placement Method
Total Placement Time
Drilling Tools Used: Water Elev. in Shaft at Time of Conc. Placement


Excavation Tools Used: LOCATIONS
Earth Drilling Start Date , Finish Date
Rock Drilling Start Date , Finish Date REMARKS/COMMENTS/NOTES
Excavation Finished Date
Location and Extent of Rock Cavities or Shaft Caving:
5-393.107 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Drilled Shafts, Publication No. FHWA HI-88-042 smaller springs occur, the flow can be controlled or diverted
Published by: U.S. Dept of Transportation by means of a canvas placed over the area. Holes made in
Federal Highway Administration the canvas to permit piling to project through it should be
Office of Implementation, McLean, VA 22101 sealed by wire wraps just above the ground line. Edges of
the canvas inside the footing area should be buried, and
5-393.107 FOOTINGS drainage should be provided under the forms into the outer
waterway. Well point systems may be necessary for
The design of substructure units is, in part, based on excavations below the water table. The contractor is
information contained on the survey sheet. The borings will required to provide a dry excavation for structure
indicate soil types encountered and the approximate vertical construction at own expense.
limits of each type; the blow counts will give an indication
of soil densities. 5-393.108 FOUNDATION SOILS EXAMINATION
When foundation conditions are found to be quite different
than shown on the survey sheet, the Engineer should be When the plans indicate that footings are to be founded on
notified. Depending on the situation, it may necessitate undisturbed natural soils, without the use of piling, a
lowering or raising the footings, eliminating or introducing thorough visual examination should be made of the
piling, changing pile types, or lengths increasing the size of foundation soils as soon as excavation operations have been
the footings, or any of several other alternatives. If the completed for a unit. Even when it seems apparent that the
Bridge Office is to be notified of the change in conditions, material at the bottom of the excavation is the same as
be sure to submit complete and detailed information of the shown in boring logs, a sufficient number of hand borings
findings, including additional borings below the footing should be taken to establish the uniformity of the material to
elevations. adequate depths. The assistance of the District Soils
Engineer should be obtained whenever there is any question
When a substructure footing is to be placed on a natural regarding the quality of the material encountered during this
foundation, without the use of piling, it is very important examination.
that the material encountered at the bottom of the footing be
uniform, and that it be capable of supporting the design If the above investigation discloses questionable materials a
load. It is also important that uniformity exists for some determination should be made as to whether or not a soil
distance below the bottom of the footing; and again, it bearing test would serve any useful purpose, taking into
would be prudent to obtain additional soils information account the costs for such tests. There is, of course, nothing
when there is any reason for doubt. to be gained from making a soil bearing test if it is evident
from visual examination and hand soundings that the
When the footing is to be placed on a recently constructed foundation material is definitely unsuitable. Also, the
fill of considerable height, special provisions may require a presence of rocks and boulders, or of a water table above the
waiting period, overload or particular sequence of bottom of the footing, would generally preclude obtaining
construction. Settlement plates may be required and reliable information from soil bearing tests. Bear in mind
construction of a substructure may be dependent on analysis that soil bearing tests do not, by themselves, constitute a
of settlement readings. Information regarding installation basis for evaluation of the capacity of a foundation material
and monitoring of settlement plates and additional to sustain high loads over an extended period of time, but
information is available from the Mn/DOT Foundations are only an additional tool to be considered along with all
Unit. other available information.

In some cases, the plans specify that soil load bearing tests When it has been determined that a soil bearing test is
be made on foundations to determine whether or not piling desirable, the test should be made in accordance with
will be required. When necessary, the special provisions instructions from the Mn/DOT Foundations Unit and any
will outline the procedure and sequence of loading in detail. special provisions applying thereto. A record should be
kept of all dial readings taken, and the information plotted
When materials encountered at the established footing on a graph on as shown on Figure A 5-393.108. A separate
elevation are such that they are likely to flow into and sheet, or sheets, showing the results of the visual
contaminate the concrete when it is deposited, correction examination and the borings should be included with the
should be made by one of the methods outlined in above reports, and two complete sets of the complete report
Specification 2451.3. The contractor should be cautioned forwarded to the Bridge Construction and Maintenance
that any contamination of foundation areas due to careless Engineer, along with the Project Engineer’s
operations by his or her forces, must be corrected at his or recommendations. Final determination regarding the
her expense. foundation design will then be made by the Bridge Office
and appropriate notification made. When expediency is
If troublesome springs or boils occur in the footing area of essential, the results of the test, along with other pertinent
an excavation, run-off water should be diverted before information and recommendations, may be telephoned to
placing concrete. This can usually be accomplished by the Bridge Construction Unit, but the required reports
means of an inverted trough placed below grade. If several should follow immediately as a means of documentation.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.108
5-393.109 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

An intelligent determination regarding the adequacy of the Backfilling as discussed in this article includes not only the
supporting soils to support design loads can only be made backfill up to the original ground line but also the
when complete and accurate information is available from the embankment material that is placed on one or both sides of the
field. The type of design and the cost of changing to a pile structure and immediately adjacent to it above the original
foundation may further influence the final decision. In some ground line. It includes that part of the approach fill which
cases the dimensions of the footings may be increased to lies next to the structure.
reduce the square-foot loading rather than change to a pile
foundation design. The Specifications provide that backfill behind an abutment or
wall shall not be placed above the backfill in front of the wall
The general specifications permit the Engineer to delay all for a specified number of days after the concrete is poured. In
construction, except for foundation excavation, until test addition, it is required that abutments that are designed as
conclusions have been determined for all tests which may beams rather than as cantilevers (such as in slab and rigid
have an influence on the type of construction to be used. frame bridges) may not be backfilled until the superstructure is
Discretion should be exercised in the application of this completed and the falsework removed.
specification, however, so as to not unduly delay the work.
Substructure units constructed on spread footings, except
when founded on rock or other unyielding materials, should be When backfilling culverts, the material used must have
checked for settlement or movement subsequent to sufficient moisture to permit required compaction. Loose
construction. In the case of abutments which are to be layers must not exceed 200 mm (8 inches). Rollers may be
constructed on high embankments, movement checks should used, but hand operated mechanical tampers must be used to
be started as soon as the footings have been completed. The secure proper compaction in the area immediately adjacent to
results of these follow-up checks should be forwarded to the the culvert which the roller cannot reach.
Bridge Construction Engineer, so that the Bridge Office may
be kept fully informed of the success or failure of this type of Backfill should be placed and compacted on both sides of the
foundation design, and so that this information can be used as culvert to approximately the same elevation. Backfilling on
a guide for future design. one side to a considerable depth before placing material on the
opposite side should not be permitted.

Too much emphasis cannot be made on the importance of

properly constructed backfills. This work calls for careful
inspection and requires a constant presence during the entire
operation. Particular attention must be paid to tamping the
areas next to the structure and areas which cannot be reached
with the motorized equipment. When the backfill material is
too wet, it should be dried before placing it in back of closed
abutments or walls.

Pneumatic tampers or portable vibratory compactors should be

used to compact backfill immediately adjacent to structures,
when it is impossible or impractical to use heavy compaction
equipment. Vibratory compactors are particularly effective in
granular materials. Hand tamping is unsatisfactory where high
densities are required and should generally be discouraged.

On bridge abutments, the entire excavation behind the

abutment must be backfilled using approved granular material.
It may not be necessary to excavate to the lines shown as the
limit for granular backfill if the embankment is granular as
originally constructed.

Backfill should be brought up evenly to the elevation shown

on the plans. Granular material must be placed in not more
than 200 mm (8 inches) layers (lifts) and should have
sufficient moisture to facilitate compaction. The amount of
fine material is limited by specification to assure that material
will drain freely into subdrains.
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.150


5-393.151 GENERAL the ground. Insist on well constructed cofferdams, shoring or

adequate back-sloping before entering a confined excavation.
Pile driving inspection deals not only with properties of materials
but also with properties of soils. A working knowledge of soil Pile hammers, particularly when combined with long leads, long
classification, soil characteristics, mechanics of pile hammers, booms, and long, heavy piles, provide potential for tipping the
dynamic and static loads, specifications, plan reading, welding, crane or buckling the boom. The inspector should be constantly
and materials inspection are some of the desirable prerequisites alert to the possibility of an accident when these conditions exist,
for a proficient pile driving inspector. and should stay clear of danger areas as much as possible.

The tendency seems to have been, in some cases, to assign pile Life jackets must be worn when working over large rivers or
driving inspection to the least experienced personnel. While lakes and some means of rescue must be readily available such as
there are situations where the driving is quite routine, such as boat and motor, life lines with life buoys, ladders, etc. The
when driving steel piles through relatively low resistance soils to Contractor will be governed by regulations set forth by the
end bearing on a level plane of bed rock, this is the exception. Department of Labor and Industry, Occupational Safety and
Usually pile driving inspection involves the use of sound Health Administration, but common sense and some forethought
judgement which can only be attained through training and could pay off as well.
experience. The inspector must determine the acceptability of
the pile before it is placed in the leads, observe the performance Inspectors should wear ear protection devices, either plugs or
of the hammer, determine when pile damage or breakage has muffs, when they are in close proximity to pile driving
occurred or is likely to occur, and must make a judgement operations. The following charts show sound levels and
regarding acceptable penetration and bearing capacity. durations which may cause loss of hearing:

Since pile driving is a hazardous occupation, the Engineer and DECIBEL CHART
the inspector should take every precaution within reason to
reduce the potential for accidents. The inspector should wear a dB Source
hard hat, hearing protection, and good, hard toed, high top shoes. Extreme 155 Rifle blast; close-up jet engine;
When treated timber piles are driven, s/he should also wear danger siren
protective goggles, and clothing which will provide maximum 140 Shotgun blast (to shooter);
cover. Cold cream or other protective film should be applied to nearby jet engine
exposed skin surfaces to prevent burns from creosote; and stay 120 Jet airport; some electronic music;
on the windward side of the pile, when possible. rock drill

Inspectors should observe the pile closely during driving for any Probable 115-125 Drop hammers; chipping hammers
evidence of failure. Many failures can be readily detected in permanent 110-115 Planers; routers; sheet metal speed
time to avoid a disastrous accident, and some can be detected in hearing loss hammers
time to save the pile. If the head of a timber pile starts splitting at these 99-100 Subway; weaving mill; paper-making
and the penetration and bearing are satisfactory, driving should levels machine
be stopped. 90-95 Screw machines; punch press;
riveter; cut-off saw
Timber piles with knot clusters, bends, sweeps or bows, or other
irregularities, may fail suddenly and without warning. Therefore, Possible 80-95 Spinners; looms; lathes
it is prudent to be alert to these conditions and make proper damage 80 Heavy traffic; plate mill
allowances for them. 70 Busy street
60 Normal speech
Electrocutions have occurred when operating near power lines, 50 Average office
particularly high voltage lines. It is advisable to check with the 45-50 Low conversation
power company regarding Asafe distance@ or to have the power 20-30 Quiet city apartment; whisper;
shut off temporarily when it is necessary to drive piles in the comfortable sleeping limit
vicinity of their lines. Electricity may Ajump@ a meter (3 feet), 15 Average threshold of acuity; leaf
especially in high humidity. rustling
0 Threshold of acute hearing (0 dB is
Unprotected excavations are dangerous at all times, but 1 0.0002 dynes per sq. cm)
particularly so during pile driving as the intense vibrations
caused by the pile hammer are transmitted through the pile into
5-393.152 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006

Sustained exposure to dB above the upper levels may cause The soil borings are now almost always taken with a standard
vibration of cranial bones, blurred vision, even weakening of apparatus (standard penetration test - SPT), consisting of a 63.5
body muscular structure. Frequencies of 500-2,000 Hz are most kg (140 lb) mass which is dropped 760 mm (30 in.). Some older
critical to noise-inducing hearing loss. bridge plans show soundings, using a 22.7 kg (50 lb) mass with a
600 mm (24 in.) drop. Sounding rods, with couplings at the end
When the daily noise exposure is composed of two or more of every 1200 mm (4 ft) section, tend to pick up resistance in
periods of noise exposure of different levels, their combined addition to that which the special point encounters. Therefore,
effect should be considered rather than the individual effect of the blow count per 0.3 meter (1 ft) almost always increases with
each. Exposure to impulsive or impact noise should not exceed depth for that apparatus, whereas with the standard penetration
140 dB peak sound level. equipment only point resistance is measured.

Protection against the effects of noise is required by federal It is also important that the soils information is available for
regulations when the sound level exceeds those shown below: some distance below the anticipated pile tip elevation to assure a
supporting layer of adequate depth.
Duration per day, hours Sound Level dB
Slow Response Soil types are generally indicated on the survey sheet by the use
of letters, to conserve space. Following is a key to the textural
8 90 soil classification system:
6 92
4 95 Organic Org.
3 97 Sand or Sandy S
2 100 Silt or Silty Si
1-2 102 Clay C
1 105 Loam or Loamy L
2 110 Fine F
3 or less 115 Medium M
Coarse Cr.
Authorities generally agree that loss of hearing is caused by Gravel G.
prolonged exposure to noise rather than old age. Loss is Till T
probably caused by progressive destruction of nerve ends when Plastic Pl.
the sound level exceed 80 decibels (dB). Definite danger of Slightly plastic Slpl
permanent impairment exists at levels above 95 dB and
continued exposure to this loudness level in the 300 to 1200 Hz Combination of the above can be written as follows:
range makes personal hearing protection necessary.
Silty Clay Loam SiCL
Ear protectors may be secured from engineering stores in the Clay Loam CL
District office. Silt Loam SiL
Slightly plastic fine
5-393.152 USE OF SURVEY SHEET Sandy Loam Slpl FSL
Loamy Sand LS
The survey sheet or sheets attached to the bridge plan includes Coarse Sand Cr.S.
soils information in the form of borings and soundings. Except Sand and Fine
in the case of driving through soft overburden to rock, both Gravel S & FG
soundings and boring logs are essential. This information, Sandy Loam Till SLT
although intended primarily for the designer, can be very
beneficial to the inspector and to the Contractor and it behooves Peat, muck, marl or any special swamp material designation
the pile driving inspector to study it carefully. should be written out, and the color of the material should be
abbreviated as follows:
Careful study of the soils information will indicate depths at
which: Black blk.
Brown bwn.
1. hard driving will likely be encountered Gray gr.
2. rocks and boulders may cause problems Yellow yel.
3. weak soil layers which should be penetrated, Dark dk.
4. layers of dense material which may be of adequate depth to
support pile loads without the necessity of driving through
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.153 (1)

Other colors will be written out. desired for the sake of appearance, as in a pile bent. Drilled
shafts may also be used for end bearing piles but are generally
Notes stating Awater encountered@ do not necessarily imply water more expensive than steel H or cast-in-place concrete piles.
table elevation as the drilling process requires either a cased hole
or use of Adrilling mud@ which may cause changes in water Friction-end-bearing piles are those which derive their load-
elevations. carrying capacity by a combination of friction and end bearing.
Justification for high loads on this type of pile may require pile
5-393.153 PILE NOMENCLATURE load tests. Cast-in-place concrete piles, utilizing steel shells, are
probably best suited for this type of foundation design, although
Pile (Webster=s Dictionary): AA long slender member usually of either timber or steel H-piles may also be used.
timber, steel, or reinforced concrete driven into the ground to
carry a vertical load as in the case of a bearing pile, to resist a Timber piles are displacement piles and generally obtain most, if
lateral force, as well as a vertical force, as in the case of a batter not all, of their load carrying capacity through friction. Timber
pile (which is driven at an angle with the vertical), or to resist piles are seldom used on trunk highway bridges due to their
water or earth pressure as in the case of a sheet pile.@ relatively low capacity. The use of timber piles is also prohibited
from use in pile bent substructures located in streams or rivers
This section of the manual will cover only bearing piles, which due to their low resistance to lateral loads induced by ice flows
for our purpose includes pile bents, test piles, foundation piles, or debris. The most common use of timber pilling on trunk
and trestle piles, but not sheet piles. For Mn/DOT bridge highway bridges is for abutments of temporary bridges.
structures, piles are used: Specification 3471 specifies the species that may be used for the
various applications, as well as other requirements such as
1. whenever the soils at and below the elevation of the bottom straightness, knots, peeling, twist, density and dimensions.
of the footings are too weak or too compressible to provide a Timber piles are classified by 3471 in three categories: (1)
stable foundation for a spread footing, or Untreated Foundation Piles Below Water Level; (2) Untreated
Trestle Piles; (3) Treated Piles.
2. where there is danger of erosion or scour such as in streams,
or 1. Untreated Timber Foundation Piles are timber piles which
do not require a preservative treatment because they will be
3. where there is a thrust against the walls or columns which totally and permanently below the water level, therefore no
might result in horizontal movement. wetting and drying cycles. Other considerations in
specifying the use of untreated timber would be that the
Piles are supported by end bearing on rock, or other dense water be free of acid or alkaline wastes and from harmful
formations such as gravel or hard pan; or by friction between the marine life.
surface of the pile and the adjacent soil; or by a combination of
end bearing and friction. In order to design a pile foundation, it 2. Untreated Timber Trestle Piles are not used for highway
is necessary for the designer to know what type of support can be structures, except for temporary trestles and bypasses.
expected, which in turn necessitates information that can only be
obtained by adequate borings and soundings. 3. Treated Timber Piles are by far the most commonly used
timber piles for our structures. When treated in accordance
Friction piles are usually displacement type piles such as timber, with Spec. 3491, they have excellent resistance against rot,
concrete, or cast-in-place concrete utilizing steel shells, which acids and alkaline wastes, marine life, bacteria, and wetting
obtain most of their load carrying capacity through friction and drying cycles. Because of their resistance to attack from
resulting from perimeter contact with the soil. The required the above-named sources, treated timber piles can be used
length of this type of pile is difficult to predict. Load tests may above or below water and under most types of adverse
be required to ensure adequate bearing. Steel H-piles are conditions. A booklet by Dames and Moore, published by
sometimes used as friction piles, particularly when the soil American Wood Preservers Institute, entitled Pressure
borings indicate the presence of rocks and boulders, or when Treated Timber Foundation Piles, is a very good source of
considerable resistance buildup is anticipated such as in medium information on this product.
to heavy plastic soils.
Steel H-piles are rolled sections which are made up in a variety
End-bearing piles are those for which the tip of the pile is driven of sizes and from various grades of steel. Currently Mn/DOT
to rock, or a short distance into hard pan or dense gravel Specifications require ASTM A572M/A572 Grade 345 (50)
adequate to carry the design load without reliance on friction. steel, and sizes commonly used are HP 250x62 (10 x 42) and HP
Almost any type of pile can be used as an end bearing pile, but 310x79 (12 x 53) (HP indicates an AH@ section pile, 250 (10)
because of their high load carrying capacity and their capability indicates 250 mm (10 in.) in cross section depth, and 62 (42)
of penetrating relatively dense soils, steel H-piles are often indicates a mass of 62 kg/m (42 lbs/ft)). Steel H-piles, because
selected. However, cast-in-place concrete piles can also be used of their comparatively small area in cross section, displace a
as end bearing piles when the soils information indicates that
they can be driven to the required tip elevation, or when they are
5-393.153 (2) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006

minimum volume of soil. Hence, steel H-piles can be driven cylindrical shells with certain specific requirements regarding
through fairly dense material, even into soft rock, making them a yield strength, wall thickness, diameter, and capability to
popular choice when these conditions are anticipated. They have withstand driving to substantial refusal.
great strength and toughness and can be driven to depths
exceeding 61 m (200 feet) by splicing additional sections on to Cast-in-place concrete piles of uniform cylindrical section will
those already driven. cause more displacement than will timber piles or tapered cast-
in-place piles. However, since the pile shell is of constant
Pile tip protection is sometimes required where driving diameter with a relatively smooth outer surface, friction does not
conditions are difficult and there is concern about damage to the build up as readily along its surfaces as in the case of tapered
pile tip. Steel H-piles are generally driven with manufactured piles. Because of the generally larger diameter at the tip,
pile tip protection welded to the end. The pile tip protection also cylindrical piles are likely to develop greater end bearing
helps to "seat" the pile when driven to bedrock or into hard pan capacity when dense soils are encountered. One of the
materials. In most cases steel H-piling is used where difficult advantages of this type of pile is the ability to visually inspect for
driving conditions are anticipated but occasionally conical points straightness and for damage after driving.
are welded to steel shell piling for this purpose. Approved tip
protection will be listed in the special provisions. Unless conical points are specified, steel shell pile will have a
steel driving "shoe" welded to the base. The shoe thickness for
ASTM A6/A6M is the defining standard for H-shapes. 310 mm (12 in.) and 406 mm (16 in.) is 19 mm (3/4 in.). The
Bethlehem Steel Corporation=s Booklet 2196, and United States shoe is simply a steel plate that keeps soil out, and the pile
Steel Corporation=s ADUCO 25002, both entitled Steel H-Piles, remains watertight. The shoe shall not extend more than 6 mm
are good informational sources on this product, also. (1/4 inch) outside of the periphery of the shell.

Where steel H-piles are required on the plans, thick wall steel The most common cast-in-place pile sizes for bridge designs in
pipe is often allowed in the special provisions as a contractor=s Minnesota are 310 mm (12 in.) O.D., 324 mm (12 3/4 in.) O.D.,
option. This pipe, with a minimum wall thickness of about 13 and 406 mm (16 in.) O.D., although 254 mm (10 in.) O.D., 508
mm (2 inch), is made of high strength steel for use in mm (20 in.) O.D., and 610 mm (24 in.) are sometimes used.
exploration drilling for oil. Material available for bridge
construction has been rejected for its intended oil field use but is Precast concrete piles are rarely used for Mn/DOT structures
suitable for piling. These pilings are very resistant to damage because of their mass and because of the difficulty encountered
because of their cylindrical shape and high strength steel. when splicing becomes necessary. Except for their driving mass,
Welding is more difficult than for A709/A709M Grade 250 (36) their performance can be compared with the cast-in-place
steels and preheating is required. The preheat temperature is concrete piles. Greater care must be exercised during driving to
dependent on carbon equivalent content which is determined keep the pile and the pile hammer in proper alignment, so that
from test data by the ITW Carbon Equivalent Formula (assuming the hammer blows will be delivered squarely. A pile cushion
zero cobalt content) as follows: made of plywood, hardwood or a composite of plywood and
hardwood materials is required to protect the pile head during
Cq = C + Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V) / 5 + Ni / 15 driving. Hammer blows delivered to the top of a concrete pile
slightly out of alignment with the hammer are likely to cause
A chemical analysis for carbon, manganese, chromium, damage by shattering the concrete on the side receiving the
molybdenum, vanadium and nickel must be furnished by the impact.
manufacturer. Contact the Mn/DOT Metals Quality Engineer in
the Bridge Office for more information. Drilled shafts (also called caissons or drilled piers) are used
occasionally for deep foundations although their use has been
Pile tip protection is not required for thick wall pipe as the limited to special cases where end bearing can be obtained.
material strength is about equal to a cast steel point. When Costs for drilled shafts are higher than for driven piling at the
available, the material cost per meter (foot) is generally less than present time and only a few contractors have the special
an equivalent H-pile and where pile points are necessary for H- equipment required to place them. Plans and special provisions
piling, the elimination of these points is an additional cost saving will provide detailed information on this type of piling. Drilled
factor. The piles are driven open-ended and filled with sand or shafts are installed by augering a hole (casing may be necessary
concrete after driving has been completed. and is generally mandatory below water) to the depth specified.
A series of holes of gradually decreasing diameter is often
Cast-in-place piles of the type currently being specified require necessary where casings must be used. Careful inspection of the
that steel shells (generally with closed ends) be driven to drilled hole and of concrete placement is necessary.
required penetration and bearing, checked for buckling, then
filled with concrete. The thickness of the shell must not be less For our purpose, test piles are used for determining the
than the minimum specified, and must be increased if necessary Aauthorized@ length of the remaining piles for a structure, or a
to withstand the required driving. Unless noted otherwise, the portion of a structure. They are almost always carried as a
minimum wall thickness is specified in 3371. The Specifications separate pay item (or items if more than one length or type are
permit the Contractor the option of using either tapered or
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.154
involved) in the contract. The contractor usually includes a large so that the flanges will not be bent. There is perhaps greater
part of his/her fixed costs in the price bid for test piles, because danger of damage to the steel when it is unloaded from the car,
of the possibility that the remaining piles may be reduced in hauled to the work, and unloaded from the truck or trailor at the
length. This results in a loss to the contractor if fixed costs were site. The project inspector must observe that the handling
included in the bid price for APiling Delivered@ and APiling methods at the jobsite are performed carefully to avoid damage
Driven@. The Specifications provide that: ATest piles will not be to the piles.
eliminated from the contract, unless all piles for the unit in which
they are to be driven are eliminated, or unless mutually agreed 5-393.155 SPLICING PILES
upon by the Contractor and Engineer.@ Information gained from
driving test piles should be compared with the soundings and Welding of piling splices must be made by properly qualified
borings on the Survey Sheet of the Plans when attempting to welders. For most field welding, Specifications require a welder
authorize foundation pile lengths. to have passed a Mn/DOT qualification test. The welder should
have a valid Mn/DOT welder certification card. The welder
Penetration usually is considered to be the length of pile below must show proof of certification when asked. If the card is
cut-off elevation; that is, the total length of a pile which will current, this is acceptable as sufficient evidence of a welder=s
remain in the structure. The term penetration is also used in ability. The inspector should verify that each welder is properly
connection with Apenetration per blow@, which is generally certified. Information on welder certification and verification of
determined by taking an average of several blows of the pile certification can be obtained from the Structural Metals
driving hammer, or by counting the blows per 0.25 m (1 ft), and Inspection Unit.
which is plugged into a capacity formula for determining the
bearing capacity. Those responsible for administering the construction contract are
also responsible for materials certification for steel piling. The
APile Placement@ is a pay item used when test piles are not inspector should retain all copies of purchase orders, test reports
provided. Pile lengths are not authorized and the Contractor and Form 2415 listing heat numbers and condition of piling. The
must drive all piling to substantial refusal or bearing satisfactory Mn/DOT Structural Metals Engineer can help answer questions
to the Engineer. The APile Placement@ item includes all costs of regarding welder qualification, welding work in general or
equipment, splicing, drive shoes or tip reinforcement, end plates, sampling and testing of steel piling.
cut off, and other costs except furnishing pile material and
driving the pile. Furnishing and driving is paid for as APiling 5-393.156 JETTING AND PREBORING
Furnished and Driven@.
Jetting is a means of obtaining pile penetration through
5-393.154 STORAGE AND HANDLING OF PILES elimination or reduction of resistance at the pile tip by the use of
water, air, or a combination of these two media, delivered by
When handling treated timber piles, use rope slings. Avoid the pressure through hoses and pipes. The soil is eroded below the
use of chain slings, hooks, or other methods that will break tip of the pile, often permitting penetration merely by the dead
through the protective treatment. Avoid dropping the timber mass of the pile and the hammer. It is particularly effective
piles and bruising or breaking the outer fibers. It is advisable to when displacement type piles are to be driven through dense fine
stack treated timber piles for storage on timber sills so that the sand to desired penetration in firm soils below, but should not be
piles may be picked up without hooking. used in embankments or other areas where it would tend to
destroy densities which have been purposely built into the soils.
The application of preservative oil to cuts, holes and abrasions Also, unless good judgement is exercised, jetting could destroy
should not be minimized. This treatment is vital to the life of the the bearing value of piles already driven, especially when piles
timber pile and is important enough to warrant careful attention. are closely spaced or when they tend to drift away from their
prescribed course. Water jetting has been useful as an aid to
Concrete piles must be handled with care. It is very easy to driving displacement types of piles in sand formations in streams
cause cracks by indifferent handling. Cracks may open up under where water is readily available and pile penetration is equally as
driving, and may spall and Apowder@ to such an extent as to important as bearing capacity.
seriously lessen the strength or life of the pile. Shock, vibration,
or excessive deflection should be avoided by using proper Although the Specifications currently specify certain
equipment and thoughtful handling. When piles are picked up requirements pertaining to the jetting equipment, the prime
with adjustable slings, blocking should be used to prevent objective should be that of performance. Equipment which
breaking off the corners. Unless special lifting devices are would not be satisfactory in some cases may be entirely adequate
attached, the pick-up points shall be plainly marked on all piles in other cases. The booklet by Dames and Moore, referred to
before removal from the casting bed and all lifting shall be done previously under Treated Timber Piling, describes various
at these points. If the piles have been allowed to dry after curing, methods of jetting in considerable detail.
they shall be wetted at least 6 hours before being driven and shall
be kept moist until driven.

When loading steel H-piles at the fabricator=s plant, the

individual piles must be placed with webs vertical and blocked
5-393.157 (1) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006

Preboring, as the word implies, is merely boring holes through or For Double-Acting Steam or Air Driven Hammers (including
into soils prior to driving piling. It is perhaps the most expedient Differential-Acting and Compound Hammers) the ram is raised
and popular method of obtaining pile penetration of displacement by steam or compressed air, as it is in the case of single-acting
piles through or into high density embankments, or through hammers. In addition, however, the same source of power is
crusty upper stratum that must be penetrated because of weak utilized for imparting a force on the downstroke, thus
underlying soils. Preboring is generally accomplished by the use accelerating the speed of the ram. This creates the same effect as
of a power auger of a diameter larger than the maximum would be obtained by a considerably longer stroke of a single-
diameter of the piles to be driven, mounted on the crane used for acting hammer where no force other than gravity is available for
the pile driving or on separate equipment. There are many the down stroke.
variations of preboring equipment; some of these are covered in
considerable detail in the previously mentioned booklet by Some double-acting hammers utilize a relatively light ram,
Dames and Moore entitled Timber Foundation Pile Study. operating at comparatively high frequencies, to develop energy
blows comparable to those developed by considerable heavier,
5-393.157 DRIVING EQUIPMENT slower acting hammers. The advantage of higher frequencies is
that less time is permitted for re-settling of the soils against the
The drop hammer is the original pile driving hammer which has pile between blows, thus increasing driving efficiency and
been used in one form or another for many years. It consists of a decreasing driving time. The disadvantage is that under some
steel ram, forged to a shape that will permit it to be confined conditions considerable damage may be evidenced at the top of
within a set of leads, and to be raised to desired height and the pile, caused by high impact velocities. Therefore, the
dropped on the top of the pile. This type of hammer is now inspector should be particularly alert when a high velocity
rarely used because of its slow operation and because the hammer is being used, since energy dissipated destroys a pile
velocity at impact often results in pile breakage before the head. Only the energy which reaches the tip of the pile, or at the
required penetration and bearing have been obtained. We have, very least the center of resistance, is effective in producing
through our Specifications, increased the requirements for additional penetration.
hammer mass and reduced the height of fall, but even further
adjustments are desirable. Greater efficiency and less damage The energy delivered by double-acting hammers is generally
would result from the use of a 2000 kg (4400 lb.) ram with a related to frequency (strokes per unit of time), and is usually
1500 mm (5 foot) drop than from a 1000 kg (2200 lb.) ram with a obtained by referring to hammer speed vs energy charts
3000 mm (10 foot) drop. It is generally necessary to provide a furnished by the manufacturer. Maximum rated energy probably
steel pile cap to fit over the top of the pile, with a shock block on never would be attained in actual practice. Therefore, if energy
the top of the cap to absorb part of the impact. charts are not available, Mn/DOT Specifications provide for a 25
percent reduction of the maximum rated energy.
Although seldom used today, Single Acting Steam and Air
Driven hammers replaced the drop hammer and were used to Diesel hammers are the most common type of hammer currently
build many of the bridge and structures that are still in use today. used in Minnesota bridge construction. They consist of a cylinder
Both of these hammers are basically drop hammers. The containing a ram and an anvil. The ram is raised initially by an
difference is that the ram (striking part) is encased in a steel outside power source (crane) and dropped as a drop hammer.
frame work and is raised by steam or compressed air delivered As the ram drops, it actuates a fuel pump which injects fuel into
through hoses from boilers or air compressors. The frequency of the chamber or the anvil cup depending upon the make of the
the blows is considerably higher than with a drop hammer, the hammer. The heat of compression, or atomization by impact,
ram mass is usually greater and the height of drop is considerably ignites the fuel, expands the gases and forces the ram upward.
less. The increased frequency of the delivery cycle permits less
time for the soils to settle back around the pile between blows, Three makes of diesel hammers have been used considerably on
thereby further increasing the efficiency. pile driving in Minnesota. These are the Delmag, the MKT and
the ICE (originally introduced as the Syntron, then as a Link-
A typical Single-Acting Steam or Air-Driven Hammer utilized a Belt). The Delmag and the MKT hammers operate similarly in
2000 kg (4400 lb.) ram with a 900 mm (3 foot) drop, delivering that the ram is raised by the explosion to a height that is
approximately 60 blows per minute. A hammer of this size determined by the energy produced by the explosion and then
served very adequately for most pile driving (only when dropped freely as a single-acting hammer. In the case of the ICE
extremely long piles or when unusually high bearings were hammer, the ram raises against an air cushion in an upper
required were heavier hammers needed). It also had the added chamber which is enclosed, compressing the air in that chamber.
advantage from an inspection standpoint of providing for a The compressed air, when the ram has reached its maximum
positive check of the energy delivered by the hammer. To height, starts the ram downward with added momentum,
determine the actual energy output, in N@m (ft. lbs.), one merely somewhat like a double-acting hammer.
multiplies the force of the ram times the height of the drop. If
the drop could not be measured, "manufacturer=s rated energy" at There are other variations in the operation of diesel hammers
operating speed was used with a 25 percent reduction in bearing which affect their performance but which are considered to be
values, per Specification 2452.3. beyond the scope of the general informational coverage of this
manual. Additional information on operation and calibration of
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.157 (2)

pile hammers can be found in AThe Pile Inspector=s Guide to there are any bends or other restrictions to free fall, they would
Hammers@ published by the Deep Foundation Institute. Pile tend to reduce the acceleration of the hammer and consequently
hammer manufacturers are usually quite accommodating about the energy delivered. Timber leads should be steel shod and
furnishing brochures on their equipment upon request. drop hammer leads should be greased to reduce friction.

The energy delivered by diesel powered hammers is perhaps Three basic types of leads are described in Figure A 5-393.157;
more variable and more dependent upon the resistance offered by of these, the swinging leads are most common on Mn/DOT
the soils than is the case for other hammer types. Sudden energy projects.
surges develop whenever areas of high resistance to driving are
encountered whereas areas of low resistance may cause Bases, Anvil Blocks, Driving Caps, Adapters and Shock Blocks
malfunction by insufficient internal pressure to set off an are accessories which are required in varying combinations and
explosion. The MKT company claims only the energy types, depending upon the type, make and model of hammer and
developed by the falling ram (WxH), whereas the Delmag upon the type and size of the piles being driven. The best
Company also includes energy imparted by the explosion. Since assurance that the proper types and combinations are being used
the compression of the air by the ram tends to cushion the blow, is to follow the recommendations of the pile hammer
Mn/DOT has selected the more conservative approach (WxH) as manufacturer as given in their brochures or catalogues.
the most logical.
These items protect the pile and the hammer against destructive
The ICE Series include a gauge which measures back-pressure impact and keep the pile head properly positioned with the leads.
and from which energy output can be determined. If no gauges Shock blocks are required particularly when driving precast
or other measuring devices are provided, the inspector should use concrete piles, since the impact would otherwise shatter the
a saximeter (see the end of section 5-393.161 for more comparatively brittle concrete. Also, the proper arrangement and
information on the saximeter) or stop watch and the formula combination of these accessories will tend to distribute the
indicated in 5-393.161, or as a last resort, manufacturers= rated impact more uniformly over the top surface of the pile, thus
energy at operating speed reduced by 25 percent for use in the protecting it against eccentric blows which might otherwise
dynamic bearing formula. cause failure of the butt of the pile before required penetration
and bearing is obtained. Excessive thickness of shock block
Vibratory and Sonic Power-Driven Hammers are the most recent material, particularly soft wood or spongy material will reduce
developments in pile driving hammers. They are comparatively the energy delivered to the top of the pile and should be avoided.
heavy, requiring handling equipment of greater capacity than
required for conventional pile hammers. Except for self-contained power source hammers such as diesels,
vibratory and sonic hammers, an outside power source is
The two types (vibratory and sonic) are not synonymous, as required for power-driven hammers. Not long ago steam boilers
sometimes believed. The vibratory hammer, as the term implies, were used exclusively for developing power; however, currently
vibrates the pile at frequencies and amplitudes which tend to boilers have been replaced by air compressors.
break the bond between the pile surfaces and the adjacent soils,
thus delivering more of the developed energy to the tip of the Regardless of the source, adequate power must be supplied if the
pile. The sonic hammer operates at higher frequencies than does hammer is to function properly. When an adequate power source
the vibratory hammer, usually between 80 and 150 cycles per is not supplied, continuous driving will deplete the supply to the
second, and is tuned to the natural resonant frequency of the pile. extent that malfunction will generally result. This usually means
At this frequency the pile changes minutely in dimension and that the hammer will operate at something less than specified
length with each cycle, thus alternately enlarging the cavity and stroke or frequency, or both, or that it will cease operating
then shortening the pile. entirely until sufficient power build-up has been attained.

Bearing values for these hammers would have to be determined

by pile load tests. Current Specifications and pile driving
formulas do not apply to these hammers.

Pile hammer leads serve to contain the pile hammer and to direct
its alignment so that the force of the blows delivered by the ram
will be axial to the pile. They also provide a means for bracing
long, slender piles until they have been driven to sufficient
penetration to develop their own support. It is, therefore,
essential that leads be well constructed and that they provide for
free movement of the hammer but not to the extent that they
permit noticeable changes in hammer alignment.

For drop hammers it is especially important that the leads be

straight and true, and that freedom of fall is unincumbered. If
5-393.157 (3) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006

This Lead is hung from a Crane Boom with a single line. In use, this Lead is spotted
on the ground at the Pile location, generally with Stabbing Points attached, and held
Plumb or at the desired Batter with the supporting Crane Line. Short swinging Leads
are often used to assist in driving Steel Sheet Piling.
Lightest, simplest and least expensive.
With Stabbing Points secured in ground this Lead is free to rotate sufficiently to
align Hammer with Pile without precise alignment of Crane with Pile.
Because these Leads are generally 4-6 m (13-20 feet) shorter than Boom,
Crane can reach out farther, assuming the Crane capacity is sufficient.
Can drive in a hole or ditch or over the edge of an excavation.
For long Lead and Boom requirements, the Lead weight can be supported
on the ground while the Pile is lifted into place without excessively
increasing the working load.
Requires 3-Drum Crane (1 for Lead, 1 for Hammer, and 1 for Pile) or
2-Drum Crane with Lead hung on Sling from Boom Point.
Because of Crane Line Suspension, precise positioning of the Lead with
Pile Head is difficult
. and slow.
Difficult to control twisting of Lead if Stabbing Points are not secured to ground.
It is more difficult to position Crane with these Leads than with any other.
You must rely on balance while center of gravity continues to move.
This Lead is pinned to the Boom Point and connected to the Crane Cab by either a
Rigid Bottom Brace for vertical driving or a Manually or Hydraulically Adjustable
Bottom Brace for Fore and Aft driving.
Lighter and generally less expensive than extended type Lead.
Requires only 2-Drum Crane.
Accuracy in locating Lead in Vertical or Fore and Aft Batter positions.
Rigid control of Lead during positioning operation.
Reduces rigging time in setting up and breaking down.
Utilizes Sheave Head in Crane Boom.
Cannot be used for Side to Side Batter Driving, requires precise
alignment of crane with the piling.
Length of Pile limited by Boom length since this type of Lead cannot be
extended above the Boom Point.
When long Leads dictate the use of a long Boom, the working radius
which results may be excessive for the capacity of the Crane.
Does not allow the use of a Boom shorter than the Lead.
This Lead attaches to the Boom Point with a swivel connection to allow Batter in all
directions when used with a a Parallelogram Bottom Brace. Extension of Lead over the
Boom Point must not exceed L/3 of total Lead length or up to 8 m (25 feet) maximum. Proper
selection of components will provide a Lead which can be accurately positioned
hydraulically or manually and which can be remotely controlled (Hydraulic Phase only.)
Requires only 2-Drum Crane
Accuracy in locating Lead in Vertical Position and all Batter Positions.
Rigid control of Lead during positioning operation.
Compound Batter angles can be set and accurately maintained.
Allows use of short Boom with resulting increase in capacity
Boom can be lowered and Leads folded under (for short-haul over the road and
railroad travel) when Crane of adequate capacity is used. (This depends on
the length of Lead and Boom and the configuration of the Crane.)
Heaviest and most expensive of the three basic Lead types.
More troublesome to assemble.
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.158


PILES The test pile for each unit is generally placed at one end so that
the original pile number and spacing can be changed, if
As previously mentioned in 5-393.151, pile driving inspection is necessary to support the superimposed load. After the first unit
a very important function and is deserving of undivided has been driven, blocking can be used between this unit and the
attention. Some agencies specializing in piling go so far as to timber guides for the next unit.
recommend that a trained soils engineer be present to approve
each pile installation and to revise procedures as varying soil Extra care taken during the pile driving, with respect to the
conditions are encountered. Certainly the inspector should have proper location of each pile, will minimize the problems
sufficient knowledge of soil types and characteristics so as to be encountered in placing the caps, bracing or backing. This is
able to relate the soils information shown on the survey sheet to especially true with regard to the corner piles at abutments.
the pile driving operations and difficulties.
Timber piles which do not line up properly after driving should
The inspector should be present at all times when piles are being be brought to line before making the cut-off, so that the top of
driven. This is particularly true when driving timber piles the pile, after cut-off will be at correct elevation and plane and
because breakage below the ground surface may occur at any will provide full bearing for the pile cap. Wooden straight edges
time and may be detected only by an alert inspector. It would should be placed on each side of the pile bent to act as a guide
also be true of any piles driven through or into hard strata, such for the saw, and the actual sawing should be done by experienced
as rock or hardpan, since the tips may be damaged by over- sawyers. Power saws are extremely difficult to control to the
driving or carelessness unless a capable inspector is present. degree required for this type of work and should not be used
except when the Contractor has demonstrated that the proper
Treated timber piles are generally inspected for quality and degree of accuracy can be obtained.
treatment prior to delivery, and are impression-stamped so that
the pile driving inspector will know that they have been Any portion of the top of the timber pile which projects outside
inspected and approved. Occasionally a slightly under-size pile of the front edge of the wing cap should be trimmed off with a
may get by the plant inspector. Specification 1503 states “all sharp axe or adz in a neat manner to an approximate 45 degree
materials furnished shall be in conformance with the lines, slope down and outward from the front edge of the wing cap.
grades, cross sections, dimensions, and material requirements,
including tolerances, shown in the Plans indicated in the Specifications (2452.3F) provide timber pile top cutoff
Specifications”. This gives the Engineer authority to use some requirements. Read these Specifications carefully, and use the
discretion regarding acceptance of occasional borderline or method specified for the particular location. Regardless of the
slightly undersize piles. Piles which are slightly out of method used, the workmanship should be neat and systematic.
specifications for crooks or twists should be called to the
attention of the foreman and accepted only if they can be Where zinc sheets are specified in the plans or special provisions
satisfactorily driven without splitting or breaking. for the tops of timber piles, the portion of the sheet which
extends outside of the periphery of the pile should be folded
Untreated timber piles, except for treatment, are subject to the down alongside the pile. The folds should then be creased and
same inspection as are treated piles. However, these piles are folded back against the pile. The folds should then be securely
often delivered to the jobsite without previous inspection; if so, fastened to the pile with galvanized roofing nails. Rounding off
complete inspection for type, quality, straightness, knots, the corners of a square sheet before placing will produce neater
peeling, density, and butt and tip diameters must be made at the results than would otherwise be obtained. Fabric protection can
site and reported on Form 2415. See Specification 3471. be placed in much the same manner as described above for zinc
sheets. Treatment of tops of timber piles with preservative is
It is very important that timber piles in a bent be accurately required prior to placement of zinc sheeting.
located and properly driven, because little can be done to correct
their alignment after driving without causing damage to the piles. 5-393.159 INSPECTION OF PILE DRIVING - STEEL
The best procedure to assure accurate alignment is to drive the PILES
end piles for each bent first, using piles with the largest
diameters, and then placing a heavy timber on each side long Steel pile is not inspected prior to delivery to the jobsite.
enough to extend beyond each end pile. These timbers should be Therefore, pile inspection must be performed by the project
tied to each other using bolts or scabs. The remaining piles in inspector. For Steel H-Piles and Steel Shells for Cast-In-Place
the bent can then be spotted and driven within this yoke or frame, Concrete piles, Specifications 3371 and 3372 require the
which will assist in maintaining their alignment. A hole should Contractor to submit three copies of mill shipping papers and
be dug for each pile as a means of getting it started properly. certified mill test reports for all steel piling prior to delivery of
Each pile should be observed very closely while it is being piling to the site. These mill test reports are provided by the
driven, to assure plumbness or specified batter. Also, when
driving is hard, check closely for evidence of cracking, breaking
or splitting, so that driving can be stopped before the pile is
severely damaged.
5-393.160 (1) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006

producer steel mill and list physical properties and chemical conditions.
analysis of each mill “heat” of steel involved, and specify
domestic origin of steel and its manufacture. The contractor is 5-393.160 PILE DRIVING FORMULAS
responsible to verify that invoices and mill test reports
correspond to piling delivered. Upon delivery, spot check Several methods have been developed to allow inspectors in the
identification markings on the steel to be certain the source and field to determine the capacity of a driven pile. One of the
heat numbers match those on the mill test reports. At the same simplest methods allows the inspector to record certain pieces of
time, inspect the material for proper section size and gauge, data during pile driving (blows per foot (penetration), and
physical defects such as kinks or buckles, and quality of welding. energy) and by inputting this data into a mathematical formula,
the pile capacity can be determined. This type of formula is
If any piece of piling is not marked with a heat number, the often referred to as a "dynamic" pile formula because it converts
Project Engineer should have the Contractor test the material at the data from a dynamic process (pile driving) into a static force
an independent testing lab to ensure the pieces are associated (the pile capacity or resistance).
with the mill test reports provided. Two tensile tests and one
chemistry test should be conducted from one out of ten pieces of Different dynamic pile formulas are required, depending on the
piling of the same size and thickness with unknown identity. method used to design the bridge foundations. Prior to 2005
Piles that are driven prior to material testing should be identified most bridge foundations in Minnesota were designed using the
in the “Pile Driving Report”. Price adjustments or other Allowable Stress Design (ASD) method. Starting in late 2005
determination can then be made at a later date, should this be the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method was
necessary because of the deficiencies in the material. In any implemented for the design of foundations for most new trunk
event, contractors should be made aware that piles driven prior to highway bridges. However, most non-trunk highway (county,
delivery of required materials information are subject to price city, township, etc.) bridges continue to be designed using the
adjustment until quality and domestic origin has been properly ASD method.
The differences between these design methods can be explained
Welding for splices, except in isolated cases must be made by as follows:
Mn/DOT certified welders. A typical exception might be when
one or two unanticipated splices are necessary and a certified The ASD method involves determining the load capacity for a
welder is not immediately available, but a reputable uncertified given pile and reducing it by a safety factor to get what is called
welder is available. Keep in mind that this should be interpreted the allowable pile load. Then the design loads affecting the pile
as applying only to exceptional and isolated cases, and should such as the weight of the concrete it supports, earth loads, traffic,
not be general practice. See Section 5-393.155 for information etc. are added together, resulting in what is called the actual pile
regarding welding and welder certification. load. The actual pile load must be less than the allowable pile
load in order for the design to be adequate. Some shortcomings
When trestle piles or pile bents are involved, painting of this method are:
requirements should be reviewed. Generally a complete prime
coat is required for the full length of steel piles which extend • The safety factor is only applied to the capacity and not
above ground except for those sections below splices which are the load. ASD does not consider the fact different loads
at least 600 mm (2 feet) below ground. have different levels of uncertainty.

Holes for handling steel H-piles should not be made in the • Selection of the safety factor is subjective, and does not
flanges of the piles, except when they are made near the top of consider the statistical probability of failure. This
the pile and are to be included in the cut-off portion or in the means that there is not a uniform level of safety for all
portion which will be embedded in the concrete. Burning holes designs.
with a torch should not be permitted, even in the web of the pile,
because of carelessness generally associated with the torch. It When the ASD method is used, the bridge plan includes one pile
has been agreed, in a discussion with representatives of the load table for each substructure unit and the minimum load that
Federal Highway Administration, that holes may be drilled in the piling should be driven to in the field is referred to as the
webs near the longitudinal centerline of the pile, but that these “Design Load” in the table, see Figure A 5-393.160 for an
holes should be no larger than necessary to accommodate the example.
connector used for lifting the pile.
In any event, caution must be observed when using holes in steel D.L. & EARTH PRESSURE 40.1
piles for handling purposes. Sharp or jagged edges may cut or OVERTURNING 15.5
fray the lifting cable, and thereby weaken it possibly causing * DESIGN LOAD 61.8
premature failure. Although it is the Contractor’s responsibility * 61.8 = 49.5 REDUCTION AS PER AASHTO
to conduct his/her work in a safe manner, an alert inspector
should report unsafe conditions to the foreman as well as to the FIGURE A 5-393.160
Engineer in charge. Pile driving is an inherently dangerous
operation, but precautionary measures can be done to improve
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.160 (2)

The LRFD method includes a safety factor on the loads applied ASD methodology and the inspector should use the dynamic
to the pile and to the resistance of the pile. The safety factor formulas discussed in section 5-393.160A below.
applied to the load is called the load factor and increases the load
based on the uncertainty of its magnitude. The safety factor An alternative method to determine if the LRFD design
applied to the resistance of a pile is called the resistance factor methodology was used for the foundation design is to review the
and reduces the resistance based on the uncertainty of its pile load tables shown in the bridge plans (the pile load table
magnitude. The values used for the load and resistance factors indicates the bearing resistance that the piles need to be driven to
are based on the statistical probability of failure and therefore to support the structure). If the pile load tables are similar to that
provide a more uniform level of safety than the ASD method. shown in Figure B 5-393.160, with a statement in the bottom
table indicating "Required Nominal Pile Bearing Resistance Rn"
For LRFD, the factored load must be less than the factored then the foundation was designed using the LRFD design
nominal pile bearing resistance in order for the pile design to be methodology and the special provisions will include the equation
adequate. When the LRFD method is used, the bridge plans will discussed in section 5-393.160B. If only one pile load table is
include two pile load tables for each substructure unit. The first shown for each substructure, and if it looks similar to that shown
table will report the factored pile loads and the second table will in Figure A 5-393.160 and it does not include the terminology
report the load for driving, Rn , See Figure B 5-393.160 for an "Required Nominal Pile Bearing Resistance Rn", then the
example. inspector can assume that the foundation was designed using
ASD methods and the dynamic formulas discussed in 5-
PIER 393.160A should be used to determine the pile capacity in the
FACTORED DEAD LOAD 84.0 A very significant difference between the two methods is the
FACTORED LIVE LOAD 36.0 magnitude of the computed loads. Generally speaking, the loads
computed using LFRD methodology will be approximately 3.0 -
3.5 times higher than loads computed using ASD methods. To
* FACTORED DESIGN LOAD 120.0 better illustrate this, the table below indicates a range of
"normal" capacities for several types of pile using each design


REQUIRED NOMINAL PILE Pile Type Load Range Load Range
BEARING RESISTANCE Rn 12" CIP 60-75 tons 210 - 250 tons
TONS/PILE (0.25" Wall thickness)
HP 10 x 42 60-75 tons 210 - 275 tons
Mn/DOT NOMINAL Because of the differences in the magnitude of the loads, the
0.4 300.0
importance of using the correct dynamic formula in the field
PDA 0.6 200.0
cannot be overstated. If you review the bridge plan for a
particular project using the criteria and information provided
*R n = FACTORED DESIGN LOAD / Фdyn above and are still not sure which design method was used, do
not hesitate to call the Bridge Construction Unit for further
FIGURE B – 5-393.160
assistance. Using the wrong dynamic formula to determine pile
capacity in the field can result in the construction of an unsafe
The inspector in the field will need to know which design
foundation. It is incumbent upon the inspector to be 100% sure
methodology (ASD or LRFD) was used to design the bridge
that the correct dynamic formula is being used.
foundations, because each method uses a different dynamic
formula to compute the pile capacity in the field. There are
Also, the inspector should always read the special provisions
several ways to determine which design method was used on a
carefully, since in some cases the use of the pile driving analyzer
particular bridge. The simplest is to review the "Construction
may be required. Refer to section 5-393.166 of this manual for
Notes" on the first sheet of the bridge plans (this sheet shows the
more information on the pile driving analyzer.
general plan and elevation of the bridge). If the foundations
were designed using LRFD methodology the following note will
A. Dynamic Formulas Used With Allowable Stress Design
appear "The pile load shown in the plans and the corresponding
bearing capacity (Rn) was computed using LRFD methodology.
Nominal pile bearing resistance determination in the field shall
Dynamic pile driving formulas provide a means of converting
incorporate the methods and/or formulas described in the Special
resistance to a dynamic force to resistance to static force. Many
Provisions." The special provisions will include the nominal pile
variations of dynamic formulas are currently in use throughout
bearing resistance equation discussed in section 5-393.160B
the country, and most of them include the following factors: (1)
below. If the "Construction Notes" do not include the statements
mentioned above, then the foundation was designed using the
5-393.160 (3) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006

the energy in Newton-meters (foot-pounds) delivered by the Some variations in the above formulas have been used for power-
hammer, (2) the losses sustained through temporary compression driven hammers, but the reduction factors have been arbitrary
of all parts below the top of the anvil including the soil and without consideration for the weight being driven or the
surrounding the pile, (3) the resistance to penetration offered by response of different pile materials and types to driving.
the soils.
The original Mn/DOT formulas were adopted shortly after WWII
The resistance offered by the soils while being disturbed by as a means of introducing certain variables which have an
vibrations and displacement may be quite different than that influence on driving results, and which are accounted for only
which will subsequently be offered against long-time static loads. arbitrarily by a constant “reduction factor” in the Engineering
Some soils will readjust subsequent after completion of driving, News Formulas.
so that the high resistance during driving may be only temporary.
It is claimed by Chellis in his book on Pile Foundations that it For gravity (drop) hammers the following english form is used:
has been reported that piles driven in saturated coarse-grained
cohesionless soils have shown up to 50 percent decrease in 3 WH W + 0.1 M
P = x
resistance to driving during the first 24 hours after initial driving. S + 0.5 W + M
Dynamic formulas can be used safely only when redriving
results after rest are not significantly less than the results from For power-driven hammers with timber, concrete, and shell type
the final original driving. In plastic soils, the resistance to piles, the following english form is used:
driving will likely increase after a delay, but resistance may not
increase significantly for granular soils. Therefore, it is prudent 3.5 E W + 0.1 M
P = x
not to place too much reliance on anticipated build-up of driving S + 0.2 W + M
resistance during a delay period.
The most simple of all dynamic pile driving formulas is the one
commonly known as the Engineering News Formula. This P = Safe bearing capacity (resistance) in pounds
formula does not take into account the mass that must be set in W = Weight of striking part (ram) in pounds
motion by the ram, this assumes the loss to be constant H = Height of fall in feet
regardless of the mass. Therefore, many states, including E = WxH for single acting power-driven hammers; it also
Minnesota, have adopted other formulas which do consider this, equals the foot pounds of energy per blow for each
as well as other factors. This is not to say that we believe our full stroke of either single acting or double acting
formulas to be the final answer; as a matter of fact, it is fully hammers as given by the manufacturer’s rating for
recognized that even formulas that are considerably more the speed at which the hammer operates.
sophisticated than those appearing in MnDOT Specifications still S = Average penetration per blow (set) in inches per blow
do not account for all of the variables in a pile driving system. for the last 5 blows for gravity (drop) hammers and
for the last 10 or 20 blows for power-driven
The original Engineering News formula was developed to be hammers, except in cases where the pile may be
used for pile driving with drop hammers, in the following form: damaged by this number of blows.
M = Total weight of pile and driving cap
0.5, 0.2 = Assumed losses sustained due to temporary
Where compression in the pile cap, cushion, pile and in the
soil system.

R =
S + 1.0 For gravity dropped hammers the energy (WxH) was determined
as follows: since H is given in feet and S is in inches, it becomes
necessary to introduce 12 as a numerator in the first term. The
R = resistance first term thus becomes
F = foot-pounds of force or energy imparted by the hammer 12WH
S = set, or penetration in inches per blow S + 0.5
1.0 = assumed losses sustained due to temporary compression
in the pile cap, cushion, pile, and in the soil system. It is recognized that losses sustained in a drop hammer due to
line drag, friction against the leads and other factors, tend to
Since F is equal to WxH (weight of hammer in pounds times reduce efficiency to approximately 75 percent. Therefore,
height of drop in feet) and S is measured in inches, it becomes 12WH becomes 9WH. Also, since it is desirable to provide a
necessary to reduce F to inch-pounds by multiplying F by 12. built-in safety factor of 3, 9WH becomes 3WH. For power-
However, in order to account for all losses except temporary driven hammers the equation assumes more energy and less
compression losses, as well as to provide some factor of safety, assumed losses.
2F is used arbitrarily instead of 12F, thereby introducing a
“reduction factor” of 6.
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.160 (4)

W + 0.1M Again, however, the static resistance at the time of driving does
The W-M relationship in the second term,
W + M not necessarily reflect the true resistance to long time loads, or to
soil set-up due to consolidation.
recognizes that the damping effect on energy delivered by the
hammer is related to the mass to be set in motion; that is, the B. Dynamic Formulas Used With Load and Resistance
larger the pile mass, the greater the damping effect, and the Factor Design (LRFD)
greater the reduction in energy delivered to the point of the pile
to do the work. The effect of this term can readily be determined For foundations designed using LRFD methodology the nominal
by referring to the pile bearing tables included in this section of pile bearing resistance determination in the field can be
the manual, and noting the reduction in bearings as you read determined by using yet another dynamic formula or by using the
from low to high pile weights at constant penetration per blow. Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA). Section 5-393.166 provides
further information on the pile driving analyzer.
An additional refinement using 0.2 instead of 0.1 in the second
term numerator accounts for cushioning effect losses at impact,
and recognizes that steel H-piles consume less impact energy To determine the nominal pile bearing resistance of driven piles
through cushioning than do other types, particularly when driven Mn/DOT uses the following single formula for timber, concrete,
with power-driven hammers and when using only steel shock steel H-piling, and shell type piles, all driven with power-driven
blocks or caps. hammers:

For gravity (drop) hammers the following form for metric 867E W + 0.1M
Rn (metric) = x
bearing capacity is used: S+ 5 W+M

10.5E W + 0.1M
P =
2.5 WH
W + 0.1 M Rn (english ) = x
S + 13 W + M S + 0.2 W+M

For power-driven hammers with timber, concrete, and shell type
piles, the following metric form is used: Rn =Nominal pile bearing resistance in Newtons
W =Mass of the striking part of the hammer in
kilograms (pounds).
289 E W + 0.1 M H =Height of fall in millimeters (feet).
P = x
S + 5 W + M S =Average penetration in millimeters (inches) per
blow for the last 10 or 20 blows, except in cases
where the pile may be damaged by this number of
Where: blows.
M =Total mass of pile plus mass of the driving cap in
P =Safe bearing capacity (resistance) in N kilograms (pounds).
W =Mass of striking part (ram) in kg
H =Height of fall in mm *The following definition is for Metric units, see English
E =WxHx0.00981 for single acting power-driven units below:
hammers. It is equal to the joules or newton-meters of
energy per blow for each full stroke of either single E =WHx0.00981 for single acting power-driven
acting or double acting hammers as given by the hammers. It is equal to the joules or newton-meters
manufacturer’s rating for the speed at which the (joule = newton-meter) of energy per blow for each full
hammer operates. stroke of either single acting or double acting hammers
S =Average penetration per blow (set) in mm for last 5 as given by the manufacturer's rating for the speed at
blows for gravity (drop) hammers and for the last 10 or which the hammer operates.
20 blows for power-driven hammers, except in cases
where the pile may be damaged by this number of *The following definition is for English units:
M =Total mass of pile and driving cap in kg E =WH for single acting power-driven hammers. It is
13, 5 =Assumed losses sustained due to temporary equal to the foot pounds of energy per blow for each
compression in the pile cap, cushion, pile and in the soil full stroke of either single acting or double acting
system. hammers as given by the manufacturer's rating for the
speed at which the hammer operates.
5-393.161 (1) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006

C. Dynamic Formulas – Notes will result in a false resistance value, as well as undue waste of
piling and excessive driving time. The importance of providing a
Regardless of which formula is used, when provisions are not pile cap which fits properly on the top of the pile can perhaps be
made available for field determination of the energy output on a better understood if you will visualize what might happen if the
power-driven hammer, such as measurement of the drop for cap were removed and the ram were permitted to strike one edge
single-acting hammers, or such as pressure gauges or or one corner of the pile. The same results could occur without
determination of energy on the basis of the frequency of the the proper cap. In both cases the pile butt could be damaged,
blows (cycles per minute) for double-acting hammers, the even without encountering high resistance. Some driving caps
manufacturer's rated energy shall be reduced by 25 percent. This have provisions for cushion blocks, generally of hard wood or
reduction is not intended to apply when determining the required soft metal, to avoid excessive impact on the steel block and on
hammer size (when qualifying a pile hammer). Double-acting the pile head.
hammers, for the purpose of these requirements, will include all
hammers for which a power source is utilized for acceleration of Pile caps for timber piles should be recessed so as to receive the
the down-stroke of the ram. The dynamic formulas discussed pile head, which in turn should be trimmed to fit snugly into the
previously are only applicable when: recess. This offers protection against splitting and brooming,
particularly when hard driving is encountered.
(a) The hammer (ram) has a free fall.
(b) The head of the pile is free from broomed or crushed The auger used for preboring holes through embankments, or
fibre. through or into dense soils to obtain additional penetration
(c) The penetration of the pile is at a reasonably uniform should be checked for diameter dimension. Make certain that the
rate. prebored hole will be larger than the maximum diameter of the
(d) There is not noticeable bounce after the blow. When piles to be driven.
there is a noticeable bounce, twice the bounce height
shall be deducted from H to determine the value of H in A. Hammer Qualification
the formula.
Inquire as soon as possible as to the make and model of the pile
The information recorded in the field by the inspector is the same hammer the Contractor proposes to use for the job. It is then
no matter what Mn/DOT dynamic formula is used. So regardless advisable to determine immediately whether or not that hammer
of whether the bridge was designed using the ASD or LRFD will be adequate for the pile weight to be driven and for the
methodology, the inspector records the same data during pile bearing required. Read the special provisions and
driving, but inputs the data into the appropriate formula, Specification 2452.3C carefully as it applies to Equipment for
depending on the method used to design the foundation. Driving and for Penetration and Bearing.

5-393.161 INSPECTION OF PILE DRIVING – The special provisions will provide information regarding the
EQUIPMENT method to be used to qualify a pile hammer if the LRFD design
methodology (see section 5-393.160 of this manual) was used to
The pile hammer to be used for driving test piles, foundation design the piling. Generally speaking for LRFD designs, the
piles, and trestle piles must meet certain minimum specification contractor will be required to have a wave equation analysis
requirements for mass of ram and rated energy. In addition to completed. The wave equation is a recent development in
these requirements, or in lieu of them, special requirements are determination of pile capacity that uses a one-dimensional wave
sometimes written into the Special Provisions for the job. This equation computer program. After inputting pertinent
helps to assure that adequate penetration and/or bearing capacity information about the pile driving system and the soil types at the
will be obtained. Design pile loads, especially for steel H-piles proposed site, the program uses a complicated mathematical
and for cast-in-place concrete piles, have been increased model to predict the following information for one blow of the
substantially in recent years, thereby creating an ever increasing ram for the specified soil resistance; (1) stresses in the pile, (2)
demand for larger and better pile driving equipment. displacement of the pile (penetration), (3) static nominal load
resistance of the pile for a specified resistance and distribution.
After thoroughly understanding the pile hammer requirements, The proposed pile driving system is analyzed to ensure that
the inspector in charge should discuss them with the Contractor. minimum bearing values can be achieved without over stressing
This may save time and embarrassment later, in the event of the piling. Figure A 5-393.161 provides an example of a Pile
misinterpretation by either party, especially if the Contractor had and Driving Equipment Data Form that is used to collect
been considering the use of a pile hammer which did not meet all information needed to perform a wave equation analysis.
of the requirements. Pile hammers which are at considerable Review the project special provisions for complete details on the
variance with each other with respect to mass, energy rating, and criteria and requirements that must be satisfied as part of the
frequency, may also produce variance in results. wave equation analysis.

The inspector should determine whether or not the driving cap to

be used is suited for the type and size of pile to be driven. An
improper cap may cause damage to the top of the pile, thus
resulting in substantial loss of driving energy to the pile. This
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.161

Figure A 5-393.161
Pile and Driving Equipment Data Form
5-393.161 (2) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006

For foundations designed using Allowable Service Design (see the amount of energy that it can absorb without becoming
section 5-393.160 of this manual) the inspector should enter the excessively damaged. Timber and precast concrete piles are the
pertinent information into the appropriate formula given under most susceptible, particularly when timber quality and size is
Determination of Bearing Capacity and determine whether or not marginal, or when driving is difficult. It would be advisable to
the required bearing can be obtained at a penetration per blow try to discourage the Contractor from using a hammer with a ram
that is not less than substantial refusal. Maximum rated energies mass greater than about 2200 kg (4850 lbs.) for timber piles.
for a number of commonly used pile hammers are listed in Table The inspector should consult with the Contractor and the
A 5-393.164. Physical properties of timber pile, steel shells, and Engineer whenever it becomes apparent that the hammer being
H-pile are listed in Tables B-F 5-393.164. used on the job is too large for the piles being driven, regardless
of type or size.
B. Energy Determination
The plans indicate that the piling were designed using the
Allowable Stress Design (ASD) method. Review of the special Perhaps one of the most baffling determinations an inspector
provisions and specifications indicate that power driven hammers encounters when making pile bearing computations is the
are required to yield a computed bearing of 130 percent (may be determination of energy delivered by driving hammers. Keep in
160 percent in some cases, refer to the special provisions) of the mind that the energy claimed by the manufacturer for power-
design load at a penetration of not less than 1.3 mm (0.05 inch) driven hammers is almost always the maximum attainable under
per blow. ideal conditions and with the pile at “refusal.” A “refusal”
condition generally does not exist except when the tip of the pile
Say Design Load = 100 ton is on rock. The following information is based on hammers
1.30 x 100 = 130 ton which are functioning properly. If the hammer is
Single-Acting Diesel Hammer malfunctioning, repairs should be made to restore it to proper
Max. Energy Rating = 43,200 ft. lbs. operation or a replacement hammer is to be furnished by the
Contractor. In no instance should driving be permitted with a
Note that no energy reduction is applied in the determination hammer that is not functioning properly.
of adequacy of the hammer. (Don't apply a 25% reduction
in energy for unknown stroke). Some double-acting hammers are rated on the basis of the
number of cycles per minute, and some on the amount of
Pile Mass (16" CIP 42.05 lbs @ 50') = 2102.5 lbs pressure developed in the top chamber as measured by a special
Cap Mass = 2150 lbs gauge. When the hammer speed versus energy charts or special
M = 4252.5 lbs provisions are provided, then the energy developed can be
Ram Mass (W) = 4190 lbs determined during driving. If no means is provided for field
determination of energy, then a 25 percent reduction should be
(3.5 x 43200) (4190 + ( 0.2 x 4252.5)) applied to the bearing computations; except when it is known
P = x that the tip of the pile is on bed rock, in which case the full
(0.05 + .2) (4190 + 4252.5) energy rating may be used. For double-acting hammers where
energy ranges are given by the manufacturers, the lower limit
P = (604800) x (.5970) should be used as the rated energy unless details are furnished
P = 361066 (÷ 2000) which justify using a higher rating.
P = 180 ton
Single-acting power hammers are also rated by the manufacturer
Therefore, the proposed hammer greatly exceeds the 130 ton on the basis of maximum energy attainable. This is limited by
requirements. If, however, the design load were 150 ton, the the maximum length of stroke. The inspector should determine
required bearing for substantial refusal would be 1.30 x 150 ton whether or not the maximum stroke is being obtained, and adjust
= 195 ton. Then, the proposed hammer would not qualify and a the energy when it is not operating at the maximum stroke. This
larger hammer would have to be furnished. is particularly true of single-acting diesel hammers, where the
stroke is dependent upon the force of the explosion, which is in
The Specifications regarding pile hammers may vary somewhat turn dependent to some extent on the resistance being offered by
from one edition of the Standard Specification book to the next, the soils. Application of a 25 percent reduction may not be
or even for different jobs under the same Standard sufficient for these hammers. At times the length of the stroke
Specifications. In addition, the inspector should always check may be only one-half of the maximum stroke and, therefore, a 50
the Special Provisions as well as Standard Specifications. percent reduction would be appropriate.
Remember that the Special Provisions govern over the Standard

Although the Specifications have placed no upper limit on the

size of hammer that may be used for pile driving, good judgment
will dictate that every type and size of pile will have a limit as to
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.162 (1)

If the length of stroke cannot be measured, but the hammer is and structures, including old road beds, pavements etc.
operating close to the maximum stroke, the “manufacturer’s rated
energy,” may be used with a 25 percent reduction in bearing The inspector should make certain that the pile driving foreman
values. correctly interprets the working points from which the pile layout
is staked. While the actual staking is the Contractor’s
Some single-acting diesel hammers have an “energy range” for responsibility, a conscientious inspector would not proceed with
manufacturers’ rated energy. Where this occurs, the stroke the driving without verifying that the pile stakes had been
should be determined by the stroke indicator rod. When there is properly placed. To be indifferent in matters of this importance
no stroke indicator attached to the hammer (and no other method would indicate a lack of responsibility on the part of the
of measuring stroke can be devised), the stroke can be inspector.
determined by the formula: Stroke (feet) = 0.04t2 - 0.3 where t is
the time (in seconds) required for 11 hammer blows (10 strokes) The end of the pile which is to receive the pile cap should be
under operating conditions. This formula assumes vertical squared off normal to the longitudinal axis of the pile. Timber
operation of the hammer and must be modified if driving piles piles should also be trimmed at the butt end so as to fit into the
battered flatter than 3 in 12. The rated energy is then determined cap.
by the ratio of the measured stroke to the maximum stroke times
the upper limit of the “energy range.” A. Test Piles

The saximeter is a hand-held unit which uses sound recognition Test piles should be marked off in 0.25 m (1 ft) increments for
to automatically detect hammer blows. Background noise is the full length of the piles, with special markings at 1.5 m (5 ft)
managed through manual or automatic adjustment of the sound increments, before they are placed in the leads, to provide a
level at which a blow is detected. When the pile has penetrated means for determining the number of blows required to drive
one depth increment (such as 1 foot) the operator presses a each 0.25 m (1 ft). Markings on steel or dry timber can be made
button. The saximeter then displays the blows per increment quickly and easily with yellow lumber crayon or spray paint, but
(blows per foot) and the average hammer stroke over the for freshly treated timber piles roofing discs are often used,
increment. This makes filling out test pile reports much simpler fastened with shingle nails.
as the saximeter automatically determines the stroke, which can
be converted to energy by multiplying by the ram weight, and it Driving a pile, particularly a test pile, should be as continuous as
also provides the blows per foot. practical. Delays should be permitted only when they are
unavoidable, or when authorized or directed by the Engineer.
Since the energy of drop hammers is determined by multiplying When it is necessary to drive piles through dense overburden, or
the weight of the ram (W) times the height of free-fall (H) times to considerable depths through moderately heavy to heavy plastic
the acceleration of gravity. It may be necessary to reduce the soils, a delay in driving before reaching the required depth may
energy if the fall is not completely “free,” i.e., friction between permit the soil to "freeze" or "set-up" the pile sufficiently to
the hammer and leads. See Section 5-393.157 for additional prevent additional penetration when driving is resumed.
information on drop hammers. Occasionally the Engineer may request that a pile be redriven a
short distance after a delay period to determine whether or not
5-393.162 INSPECTION OF PILE DRIVING - resistance has built up during the delay period. Under some
PROCESS conditions the resistance is actually reduced during the delay, a
phenomenon that may occur in course-grained, saturated soils.
Before pile driving is started, the excavation should be
substantially complete, at least to the extent that bearing values It is to be expected that test piles will usually be longer and will
will not be adversely affected by material which will later be be driven harder than the remaining piles in the unit, since their
removed. Also, except for cofferdams which are to be sealed purpose is to provide information for authorizing length for
with concrete, water within the excavation should be pumped out foundation piling. It serves no purpose to continue driving when
to the extent that pile placement and hammer operation will not it becomes obvious that minimal additional penetration will be
be impaired. Underwater driving requires a “closed” hammer, obtained. Keep in mind that bearings computed using dynamic
with a rod attachment for penetration measurements. Punches or formulas are only a tool to be used in determining appropriate
chasers are not permitted under any circumstances. pile lengths. Comparison of computed bearings to “design
bearings” is one basis for establishing a minimum acceptable pile
Study the information on the Survey Sheet of the Plans to penetration. Routinely, pile lengths are authorized longer than
become completely familiar with the soil types and densities that the length needed based on dynamic formulas.
will be encountered during the driving. Have an awareness of
the existence and depth of layers of rocks and boulders and the Driving of displacement type test piles should be continued until
depth to impenetrable hard pan or bed rock. With the above substantial refusal has been obtained or the driving resistance is
information in mind, the inspector will be in a better position to so great there is concern regarding the capability of the pile to
make quick and intelligent decisions should problems arise withstand further driving.
during driving. Also study the Plans and Special Provisions for
special requirements, and for the location of underground utilities
5-393.162 (2) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006

In some cases, plans may require minimum tip elevations which surface. When a steel pile is driven to rock, especially a battered
must be obtained and may require driving beyond substantial pile to sloping rock, the pile may “refuse” momentarily or may
refusal. Substantial refusal is defined by the Specifications and, slow down, then bend and take off down the rock slope. An alert
unless modified by the special provisions, is the minimum inspector who has studied the soils logs will often be able to
resistance all test piles should be driven to, unless pile damage detect this the moment it occurs. See Figure A, B, E, F 5-
will result. The definition for substantial refusal is related to 393.165 for examples of test pile reports.
design load, type of driving hammer, and the energy developed
by the hammer. The inspector should be familiar with the term B. Foundation Piling
and its implications. End bearing pile should be driven to the
planned hard soil layer or rock using care not to damage the When the test piles have been driven and the final lengths have
piling by overdriving. It is impossible from a practical been authorized, inspection of the foundation pile driving is still
standpoint to set hard and fast rules or Specifications that would a very important function of the Bridge Construction Inspector.
cover all situations, and this is where sound judgment must Not only does the inspector make certain that the piles are driven
govern. Unless the inspector has had considerable experience to adequate bearing and penetration, but also avoids excessive
and background, it would be prudent to seek advice from the driving which may result in severe damage to the piles. Either
Engineer when there is doubt about minimum pile penetration or extreme may render the piles useless, and could result in the
bearing. Before making a final judgment, be certain that you failure of a foundation. In general, appropriate bearing capacity
know the job requirements and that you are familiar with the criteria for foundation piling is established from test pile data and
available soils information. application of criteria for substantial refusal to driving of
foundation piling is not appropriate.
When it is found that timber test piles for a unit are of
insufficient length to develop the required bearing value, and Make certain that all piles for a unit have been satisfactorily
longer piles are on hand at the site for other units, it might be driven, and redriven where required, before indicating approval
expedient to drive one or more of the longer piles for the unit in of the driving for that unit. Do not delay the contractor
question. It would be advisable for the inspector to discuss such unnecessarily, but do not let him pressure you into making a
arrangements with the Project Engineer before proceeding unless premature determination. If in doubt, consult with the Engineer.
there is a previous understanding regarding the inspector’s
authority on these matters. In the case of steel H-piles, or steel Establish cut-off elevation and measure and record the cut-off
shells, the contractor should have splicing material on hand so length for each pile. Require the specified preservative treatment
that the test piles can be extended if necessary to obtain of 2452.3F3 for the top of treated timber piles.
sufficient bearing.
Following is a list of some of the responsibilities and duties of
In most cases, all test piles should be driven for a unit before the inspector on a pile driving operation.
authorizing the remaining piles for the unit. In the case of short-
span pile-bent bridges, with one test pile per bent, test piles MAKE CERTAIN:
should be driven for as many bents as practicable before making
pile length determinations. This is particularly desirable when 1. that the pile locations have been staked (by the contractor)
the test pile locations are staggered for adjacent bents. The and checked (by the State) before driving is started. Where
interior of steel shells should be visually inspected for damage driving within a cofferdam, the pile lines should be marked
prior to authorization of foundation pile lengths. The extent of off in both directions on the cofferdam walers and struts,
damage must be included with information provided to the with proper allowance for batter when necessary.
Bridge Office for pile length determinations.
2. that the pile material has been inspected in accordance with
When the Contractor has a pile driving crew tied up waiting for the requirements. The final inspection and acceptance will
delivery of piling after driving the test piles, it behooves the be at the site of the work. Even though the material may
inspector to make special effort to expedite the authorization of have passed previous inspection, it may have been damaged
foundation pile lengths. The Bridge Office will review test pile in handling or shipment (this is particularly true of timber
information and authorize lengths immediately when urgency is piles). The thickness of the steel in H-piles and shells
indicated. should be checked, and a visual inspection made of the
general condition of the piles, including welds on welded
A complete record must be kept of the driving. If preboring is Steel Shells, and the flange to web connections on H-piles.
required for the piles which are to be authorized on the basis of
results of the test piles, then preboring should also be required
for the test piles. The diameter of the auger and the depth of Review the Mill Test Reports to verify that the material is of
preboring should be given when calling in test pile results and domestic origin.
indicated on the test pile reports. The blow count should be
noted for each 0.25 m (1 ft) and for any abrupt change within a
given range. Complete notes may give important clues regarding
possible damage to, or breakage of, the pile below the ground
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.162 (3)

3. that the equipment meets requirements (hammer is 18. that “penetration per blow” readings are taken well in
qualified). advance of final penetration, when this is possible or
practical, particularly when approaching the “substantial
4. that the piles are properly prepared for driving. refusal” range.

5. that the welder (if steel H-piles or shells are to be used) has 19. that timber piles are not driven to cut-off length since some
passed Mn/DOT qualifying tests. All splices should be damage is done to the top wood fibers by the hammer
made in accordance with approved standard details for the impact even though this may not be visible. Provide for at
type of pile. least 150 mm (6 in.) of cut-off. Steel, piles or shells may be
driven to cut-off if the top of the pile is in reasonably good
6. that the length and diameter of the pile is measured and condition.
recorded before being placed in the leads.
20. that final penetration measurements are made by the
7. that the pile is properly positioned (usually by digging a inspector and are not delegated to the worker.
small hole for the tip of the pile with a pointed shovel at the
staked location for timber piles). 21. to drive all piling to the bearing capacity satisfactory to the
Engineer, to substantial refusal or to the required
8. that the pile is plumb, or at the specified batter. penetration. Do not continue driving a pile after substantial
refusal has been obtained merely to reduce cut-off length,
9. that the driving cap fits properly on the head of the pile. An unless a shallow hard layer is suspected, or unless the
improperly fitting pile cap, particularly on a timber pile, contract specifies a minimum depth of penetration.
could create a hazard in addition to damaging the pile.
“Chasers” are not permitted as transmittal of hammer impact 22. to signal the foreman when the pile has been driven to the
to the pile cannot be assured. required penetration or substantial refusal. If there is a
10. that the pile is properly supported laterally so as to avoid failure to signal the operator immediately, and a failure
“whip” when driving, particularly if there is a noticeable occurs as a result, the accident is the contractor’s
bow in the length of the pile. responsibility. As the Specifications are currently written,
Mn/DOT will be responsible for any damage which occurs
11. it is sometimes necessary to secure the leads with guy ropes to the pile if there is an order to continue driving beyond
to control their position. substantial refusal.

12. when possible, to insist on starting the pile with reduced 23. as the top of the pile approaches cut-off elevation, inspect it
energy until the pile is well seated, particularly for timber visually for evidence of damage, and avoid, if possible, the
piles. inclusion of damaged areas below cut-off. Slightly
deformed steel sections are not necessarily considered as
13. to observe the action of the pile very closely as it starts damaged.
downward, and insist on immediate correction if it moves
out of position, plumbness, or specified batter. 24. to observe piles which have been driven to determine
whether or not they may be heaving when driving adjacent
14. to observe the operation of pile hammers and determine piles. Order redriving of piles which have heaved. Plastic
whether or not they are functioning properly when full soils sometimes have this characteristic, particularly with
power is supplied. Energy reductions in excess of 25 closely spaced tapered piles.
percent may be necessary if hammer is not operating
properly. 25. to require removal of earth that may have swelled above the
bottom of footing elevation during pile driving. Areas
15. to note whether or not the pile and the hammer are in which were over-excavated may be backfilled with
alignment. A pile can be easily damaged when not properly approved material and compacted or filled with concrete.
aligned with the hammer, and the damage may be blamed by See the appropriate section of Specification 2451.3.
the foreman to “overdriving.”
26. when obstructions, such as rocks or boulders, are
16. to observe the pile closely, especially timber piles, for encountered near the surface they should be removed. If
evidence of cracks, splits, or fractures, which may cause this cannot be done, then the pile pattern may have to be
sudden failure and perhaps an accident. Timber piles may modified. Consult the Project Engineer, or the Bridge
release splinters large enough to cause serious injury when Office, if necessary.
dropping from considerable height.

17. to observe any strain that may be created on the equipment

due to high booms and/or heavy loads.
5-393.163 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006

The inspection procedure for trestle type piles is much the same As soon as practical after phoning in the test pile results, the
as for foundation piles, with the following additions: reports should be prepared and forwarded as per the distribution
list on the back of the reports.
1. Require that guides or templates be used when necessary in
order to keep the piles in proper alignment and at the correct A sketch should be shown on the back side of the report,
batter. The tolerances are necessarily more rigid than are indicating the location of the test pile covered by that report with
those for foundation piles. relation to the footing lines. Also show direction by a North
Arrow, the centerline of piers, the centerline of bearing for
2. Timber or plank guides, set to correct grade and slope, abutments, the centerline of bridge, and any dimensions
should be used when timber pile cut-offs are made, since the necessary to determine the location of the test pile. If the test
pile cap should fit snugly on the pile without the use of pile is a batter pile, indicate the direction of batter with a short
shims or fills. Cutting off trestle piles should be done only arrow extending from the pile location.
by experienced sawyers or welders. Super-elevated
roadways, or skewed bridges on grade, often require that the When test piles are redriven after a delay, as provided for in the
caps be placed on a slope, thereby necessitating that the cut- Specifications under certain conditions, the length of time delay
off guides also be placed on a slope. as well as computed bearings before and after redriving should
be noted on the report. See Figures M-P 5-393.165 for
5-393.163 PILE BEARING TABLES examples.

Pile bearings should be computed using the appropriate formula When preboring for test piles, be certain to note the depth
from Specification 2452.3D. Be sure to verify whether the prebored and the diameter of the auger used for preboring. The
foundation was designed using ASD or LRFD methodology, as design load should be shown on all test pile reports.
different dynamic formulas will be used depending on the design
methodology. As an aid in computing pile capacities a computer Be certain to follow the instructions on the reverse side of the
program has been developed that allows the user to input the Test Pile Report form. Reports are often received which clearly
required data and the program generates the bearing capacity (see indicate that the person preparing them had not read these
Figure A 5-393.163). This computer program is available from instructions, or did not understand them. If there is any question
the Bridge Office website at www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge Click regarding the information requested, which cannot be resolved,
on the “downloads” button and look for "Pile Capacity Program". please do not hesitate to call Bridge Construction Unit personnel.
Figure B 5-393.163 provides a tabulated conversion from blows
per foot to penetration in inches per blow for input into the Examples of test pile reports are shown in Figures A, B and E, F
dynamic formulas. Figures C 5-393.163 and D 5-393.163 and I, J and M, N 5-393.165.
provide examples of tables that can be developed to determine
pile capacity for various pile lengths and penetrations. Similar The pile driving report should be prepared as soon as the piles
tables can be developed using a spreadsheet program also have been driven for a unit. See the distribution information on
available on the Bridge Office website. Click on the the reverse side of the reports for what to do with the finished
"downloads" button and look for "Pile Bearing Table". reports. When the bridge carries railroad traffic, an additional
copy should be made for each railroad involved, and should be
5-393.164 PILE INFORMATION TABLES sent to the Mn/DOT Office of Railroad Administration. In the
event there is some question regarding the adequacy of the piles
Figure A 5-393.164 lists information regarding energy, ram driven for a unit, the matter should be discussed immediately
weight, max stroke for many hammer types. This information with your supervisor without waiting for a review of the reports
was obtained from the GRLWEAP General Users’ Manual by the Bridge Office.
which is provided courtesy of Gobal, Rausch, Likins &
Associates. Figures B-F 5-393.164 tabulate pertinent data The instructions for preparing the report are defined on the
relating to H-piles, timber piles and pipe pile dimensions. This reverse side of the form, and should be read and followed. Many
may be used for pile mass or weight estimation by the inspector. reports are received which indicate the instructions have not been
read. Examples of pile driving reports are shown in Figures C, D
5-393.165 TEST PILE AND PILE DRIVING REPORTS and G, H and K, L and O, P 5-393.165.

Test pile driving results should be transmitted to the Bridge For drop hammers, entries in the column headed Final Energy
Construction Unit as promptly as possible after completion of Per Blow should be equal to the weight of the hammer multiplied
driving, except when additional test piles are to be driven before by the height of free fall. Appropriate reductions should be made
an authorization can be made. Unless it is convenient to hand- for factors which tend to reduce the energy delivered by a drop
carry the reports, the quickest method of obtaining a hammer, such as noticeable bounce, heavy batter, line drag, poor
determination is to relay the test pile information by telephone, hammer pile alignment, etc.
fax, or e-mail.
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.163
Figure B 5-393.163 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure C 5-393.163
Rated Energy Per Blow _________
*39780 ft. lb. 4840 lb
Ram Wt._______ Delmag D-22
Make of Hammer ______________
* Single acting - not field measured Formula used: 3.5 E x W + 0.1 M x 0.75
S + 0.2 W+M
Multiplying Factor for Steel H Piles
Figure D 5-393.163








Blows Per
M (Weight of Pile Plus Weight of Cap)
per Blow


foot (in.)


6 2.000 21 20 19 19 18 18 17 17 17 16 16 16 15 15 15 14 14 13 13 12 12 11 11 11 10
7 1.714 24 23 22 22 21 21 20 20 19 19 18 18 18 17 17 17 16 15 15 14 14 13 13 12 12
8 1.500 27 26 25 24 24 23 23 22 21 21 21 20 20 19 19 19 18 17 17 16 15 15 14 14 13
9 1.333 30 29 28 27 26 26 25 25 24 23 23 22 22 21 21 21 20 19 18 18 17 17 16 15 15
10 1.200 32 31 31 30 29 28 27 27 26 26 25 24 24 23 23 23 22 21 20 19 19 18 17 17 16
11 1.091 35 34 33 32 31 31 30 29 28 28 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 23 22 21 20 20 19 18 18
12 1.000 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 30 29 28 28 27 27 26 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 20 19
13 0.923 41 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 33 32 31 31 30 29 29 28 28 26 25 24 23 23 22 21 20
14 0.857 43 42 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 34 33 32 32 31 30 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 22
15 0.800 45 44 43 42 40 39 38 37 37 36 35 34 33 33 32 32 31 30 28 27 26 25 24 24 23
16 0.750 48 46 45 44 43 41 40 39 38 38 37 36 35 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24
17 0.706 50 48 47 46 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 38 37 36 35 35 34 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25
18 0.667 52 51 49 48 47 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 38 37 36 35 34 33 31 30 29 28 27 26
19 0.632 55 53 52 50 49 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 40 39 38 37 36 34 33 32 30 29 28 28
20 0.600 57 55 53 52 51 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 39 37 35 34 33 32 31 30 29
21 0.571 59 57 56 54 53 51 50 49 47 46 45 44 43 43 42 41 40 38 37 35 34 33 32 31 30
22 0.546 61 59 57 55 54 53 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 39 38 36 35 34 33 31 31
23 0.522 63 61 59 58 56 55 53 52 51 50 49 47 46 46 45 44 43 41 39 38 36 35 34 33 32

24 0.500 65 63 61 59 58 56 55 54 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 42 40 39 37 36 35 34 33
26 0.462 69 67 65 63 61 60 58 57 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 45 43 41 40 38 37 36 35
28 0.429 72 70 68 66 64 63 61 59 58 57 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 47 45 43 42 40 39 37 36
30 0.400 76 73 71 69 67 66 64 62 61 60 58 57 56 55 54 53 51 49 47 45 44 42 41 39 38
32 0.375 78 76 74 72 70 68 66 65 63 62 60 59 58 57 55 54 53 51 49 47 45 44 42 41 40
34 0.353 83 80 78 76 74 72 70 68 66 65 64 62 61 60 58 57 56 54 51 49 48 46 44 43 42
37 0.324 87 85 82 80 78 76 74 72 70 69 67 66 64 63 62 61 59 57 54 52 50 49 47 45 44
40 0.300 91 88 86 83 81 79 77 75 73 72 70 68 67 66 64 63 62 59 57 54 52 51 49 47 46
43 0.279 95 92 89 87 84 82 80 78 76 75 73 71 70 68 67 66 64 62 59 57 55 53 51 49 48
48 0.250 101 98 95 92 90 88 85 83 81 80 78 76 74 73 71 70 69 66 63 60 58 56 54 52 51
52 0.231 106 102 99 97 94 92 89 87 85 83 81 79 78 76 75 73 72 69 66 63 61 59 57 55 53
60 0.200 113 110 107 104 101 98 96 94 91 89 87 85 84 82 80 79 77 74 71 68 65 63 61 59 57
66 0.182 119 116 112 109 106 104 101 99 96 94 92 90 88 86 85 83 81 78 74 72 69 67 64 62 60
80 0.150 130 126 122 119 116 113 110 107 104 102 100 98 96 94 92 90 88 84 81 78 75 72 70 67 66
96 0.125 140 136 132 128 125 121 118 115 113 110 108 105 103 101 99 97 95 91 87 84 81 78 75 73 71
120 0.100 151 147 143 139 135 131 128 125 122 119 117 114 111 109 107 105 103 98 94 91 87 84 81 79 77
160 0.075 165 160 155 151 147 143 140 136 133 130 127 124 121 119 117 115 112 107 103 99 95 92 79 86 83
240 0.050 182 176 171 166 162 158 154 150 146 143 140 137 134 131 128 126 123 118 113 109 105 101 98 94 92
November 6, 2006

480 0.025 201 196 190 185 180 175 171 167 162 159 155 152 149 146 143 140 137 131 126 121 116 112 108 105 102
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.164 (1)
Figure A 5-393.164 (2) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.164 (3)
Figure A 5-393.164 (4) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure B 5-393.164

H Bearing Piles - Dimensions and Mass (Metric Units)

Nominal Mass Depth Web
Size and per meter (mm) Thickness
Mass (kg/m) Width Thickness (mm)
(mm) (mm)

HP 360 x 174 174 361 378 20.4 20.4

HP 360 x 152 152 356 376 17.9 17.9
HP 360 x 132 132 351 373 15.6 15.6
HP 360 x 108 108 346 370 12.8 12.8

HP 310 x 110 110 308 310 15.5 15.4

HP 310 x 94 94 303 308 13.1 13.1
HP 310 x 79 79 299 306 11.0 11.0

HP 250 x 85 85 254 260 14.4 14.4

HP 250 x 62 62 246 256 10.7 10.5

HP 200 x 54 54 204 207 11.3 11.3

H Bearing Piles - Dimensions and Weight (English Units)

Nominal Weight Depth Web
Size and per Foot (in.) Thickness
Weight (lb/ft) Width Thickness (in.)
(in.) (in.)

HP 14 x 117 117 14 1/4 14 7/8 13/16 13/16

HP 14 x 102 102 14 14 3/4 11/16 11/16
HP 14 x 89 89 13 7/8 14 3/4 5/8 5/8
HP 14 x 73 73 13 5/8 14 5/8 1/2 1/2

HP 12 x 74 74 12 1/8 12 1/4 5/8 5/8

HP 12 x 63 63 12 12 1/8 1/2 1/2
HP 12 x 53 53 11 3/4 12 7/16 7/16

HP 10 x 57 57 10 10 1/4 9/16 9/16

HP 10 x 42 42 9 3/4 10 1/8 7/16 7/16

HP 8 x 36 36 8 8 1/8 7/16 7/16

Figure C 5-393.164 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006


BUTT DIA. (mm)

Length Tip Dia.
meters mm 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400
200 165 170 180 185 195 205 210 220 230 235 245 255 265
5 225 180 190 200 205 210 220 230 235 245 255 265 275 285
250 200 205 215 225 230 240 250 255 265 275 285 295 305
200 195 205 215 225 235 245 255 265 275 285 295 305 315
6 225 215 225 235 245 255 265 275 285 295 305 315 330 340
250 240 250 255 265 275 285 300 310 320 330 340 355 365
200 250 260 270 285 295 305 320 330 345 355 370
7 225 275 285 295 310 320 330 345 355 370 385 395
250 300 310 325 335 345 360 370 385 400 410 425
200 287 300 310 325 335 350 365 380 395 405 420
8 225 315 325 340 355 365 380 395 410 425 440 455
250 345 355 370 385 395 410 425 440 455 470 485
200 320 335 350 365 380 395 410 425 440 460 475
9 225 355 365 380 395 412 425 445 460 475 495 510
250 385 400 415 430 445 460 480 495 510 530 545
200 360 375 390 405 420 440 455 475 490 510 530
10 225 390 410 425 440 460 475 490 510 530 550 565
250 430 445 460 480 495 515 530 550 570 590 610
200 395 410 430 445 465 480 500 520 540 560 580
11 225 430 450 465 485 505 520 540 560 580 600 625
250 470 490 510 525 545 565 585 605 625 645 670
175 390 410 430 445 465 485 505 525 545 570 590
12 200 430 450 465 485 505 525 545 570 590 610 635
225 470 490 510 530 550 570 590 610 635 655 680
175 520 545 565 590 615 635 660 685
14 200 565 590 615 640 660 685 715 740
225 Note: 615 640 665 690 715 740 765 795
Masses shown are based on
175 595 620 645 675 700 730 755 785
720 kg/m3, which is approximate
16 200 650 675 700 730 755 785 815 845
average of commonly used
225 types of treated timber piles. 705 730 760 790 815 845 875 905
175 These weights are considered
670 700 725 760 790 820 850 885
sufficiently accurate to be used
18 200 730 760 790 820 850 885 915 950
for computing pile bearings.
175 Massses for diameters which 745 775 810 840 875 910 945 985
20 200 differ from those shown may 810 845 875 910 945 980 1020 1055
175 be interpolated or extrapolated
820 855 890 925 965 1000 1040 1080
as the case may be. See
22 200 Specification 3471 for 890 925 965 1000 1040 1080 1120 1161
150 minimum diameter 820 855 895 930 972 1015 1055 1095
24 175 requirements. 890 930 970 1010 1050 1095 1135 1180

The above table may also be used for green, untreated softwood piles. For air-dry softwood piles, multiply by 0.80.
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure D 5-393.164


BUTT DIA. (in.)

Length Tip Dia.
(ft.) (in.) 11 11 1/2 12 12 1/2 13 13 1/2 14 14 1/2 15 15 1/2 16
8 360 382 400 420 440 460 490 510 540 560 590
16 9 390 420 440 460 480 500 530 550 580 600 630
10 430 460 480 500 520 550 570 600 620 650 680
8 450 470 500 520 550 580 610 640 670 700 730
20 9 490 520 550 570 600 630 660 690 720 750 790
10 540 570 600 620 650 680 710 750 780 810 840
8 620 660 690 730 760 800 840 880 920
25 9 680 720 750 790 820 860 900 940 980
10 740 780 820 850 890 930 970 1010 1060
8 750 790 830 870 910 960 1000 1050 1100
30 9 820 860 900 940 990 1040 1080 1130 1180
10 890 940 980 1020 1070 1120 1170 1220 1270
8 870 920 970 1010 1070 1120 1170 1230 1280
35 9 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1210 1260 1320 1280
10 1040 1090 1140 1200 1250 1300 1360 1420 1480
8 1000 1050 1100 1160 1220 1280 1340 1400 1470
40 9 1090 1150 1200 1260 1312 1380 1440 1510 1570
10 1190 1250 1310 1370 1430 1490 1550 1620 1690
8 1120 1180 1240 1300 1370 1440 1510 1580 1650
45 9 1230 1290 1350 1420 1480 1550 1620 1700 1770
10 1340 1400 1470 1540 1610 1680 1750 1820 1900
7 1130 1200 1260 1330 1400 1480 1550 1630 1710
50 8 1240 1310 1380 1450 1522 1600 1670 1750 1830
9 1360 1430 1500 1570 1650 1730 1800 1890 1970
7 1390 1470 1540 1620 1710 1790 1880
55 8 1520 1600 1670 1760 1840 1930 2020
9 Note: 1650 1730 1810 1900 1980 2070 2160
7 Weights shown are based on 1620 1600 1680 1770 1860 1950 2050
45 lb/ft 3 , which is approximate
60 8 1650 1740 1830 1920 2010 2100 2200
average of commonly used
9 types of treated timber piles. 1800 1890 1980 2070 2170 2260 2360
7 These weights are considered 1640 1730 1820 1920 2020 2120 2220
8 sufficiently accurate to be used 1790 1880 1980 2080 2180 2230 2380
65 for computing pile bearings.
7 Weights for diameters which 1770 1870 1960 2070 2170 2280 2390
70 8 differ from those shown may 1930 2030 2130 2240 2340 2450 2570
7 be interpolated or extrapolated 1900 2000 2110 2210 2330 2440 2560
8 as the case may be. See 2070 2170 2280 2510 2630 2750
75 2400
Specification 3471 for
6 minimum diameter 2850 1960 2070 2180 2300 2420 2540
80 7 requirements. 2020 2130 2250 2360 2480 2600 2730

The above table may also be used for green, untreated softwood piles. For air-dry softwood piles, multiply by 0.80.
Figure E 5-393.164 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure F 5-393.164
Figure A 5-393.165 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure B 5-393.165
Figure C 5-393.165 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure D 5-393.165
Figure E 5-393.165 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure F 5-393.165
Figure G 5-393.165 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure H 5-393.165
Figure I 5-393.165 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure J 5-393.165
Figure K 5-393.165 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure L 5-393.165
Figure M 5-393.165 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure N 5-393.165
Figure O 5-393.165 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure P 5-393.165
5-393.165 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006

Sometimes all of the requested information is not shown; this is A. Pile Redriving
the case especially with the column headed Net Driving Time,
where driving time should be shown for at least enough piles to As mentioned in section 5-393.160 of this manual, the resistance
give representative information. Other times the entries are such offered by soils while being disturbed by vibrations and
as to be suspect of “manufacture” after the driving was displacement during pile driving may be quite different than that
completed. Certainly it is much better to omit an entry than to which will subsequently be offered against long-time static loads.
falsify one, since an entry that can be shown to be false by an Some soils will readjust after completion of driving and provide
attorney during a court case, could also discredit other entries. a high driving resistance after the soil has "set-up". In plastic
Recording the actual driving time on the reports tends to (non-granular) soils the resistance will likely increase after a 24
discourage claims by contractors that inspectors are requiring hour delay, in some cases as much as 50 percent or more.
overdriving. The pile driving foreman is not likely to use this as Granular soils generally do not indicate large increases in
an excuse for a slow operation if our records will prove resistance after similar waiting periods.
otherwise. The driving time record could also be very beneficial
in determining price adjustments in the event of conditions In some cases the special provisions will require the Contractor
different than those which were anticipated. to "redrive" the test piles after a specified waiting period to
determine the capacity that can be obtained by including pile set-
The column headed Authorized Splices is intended to be used for up. Subsequently, an additional number of foundation piles may
recording those splices which are eligible for payment as defined be also be designated for redriving to verify that adequate
under 2452.5B, unless otherwise noted under Remarks. The bearing capacity has been achieved.
Specifications provide for payment for splices under three
conditions, one of which is when it is necessary “to make up Piles designated by the Engineer to be redriven shall have a
lengths longer than the length of the longest test pile shown in required minimum time delay as stated in the special provisions
the Plan were authorized by the Engineer for a particular unit, between the initial driving and the redriving. During this time
and then only for any extra splices required.” This would mean delay, no other piles shall be driven, unless authorized by the
that if the plan required 25 m (80 foot) test piles and the Engineer.
Contractor had 15 m (50 foot) lengths on hand, an “extra” splice
would not be required unless foundation lengths longer than 30 All redriving shall be performed using a "warm" pile hammer.
m (100 feet) were authorized since it would be necessary for Generally, applying at least 20 blows to a previously driven pile
him/her to make a splice to furnish 25 m (80 feet) lengths. or timber mats shall warm up the hammer. Redrive hammer
strikes shall generally not exceed 20 blows for each pile. Piles
The column headed Remarks is sometimes unnecessarily filled shall not be trimmed to the Plan cut-off elevation until the
with information that can better be shown elsewhere on the Engineer has determined the need for redriving.
report, such as notations indicating “Batter Pile” which could
readily be indicated by arrows on the sketch on the back side of No pile in any one substructure unit shall be filled with concrete
the form. Also, since the “penetration per blow” is shown in a until the Engineer decides that all piles in the unit have been
separate column, it is not necessary to note the penetration for driven to adequate bearing capacity and the pile shells have been
the last 5, 10, or 20 blows under Remarks, although this trimmed to the cut-off elevation.
information should be included somewhere on your working
copy or field notes. When piles have been redriven after a delay as a means of
determining whether or not set-up can be expected, the pile
The Butt and Tip diameters of timber piles should be shown in capacity before and after the delay period should be shown on
the Remarks column, or may be shown in other unused columns the pile reports. Generally only a small percentage (5-10
if the Remarks column is needed for other reasons. Remember, percent) of the piling in a substructure unit will be redriven.
there are definite minimum diameter requirements for timber However, the average results from the piling that have been
piles in Specification 3471. The depth of jetting or preboring redriven will be used as acceptance criteria for the remaining
and the diameter of the preboring auger should also be shown. piling in the unit. The inspector should therefore add a note to
the pile reports indicating the average increase in capacity due to
Where there is insufficient space in the Remarks column to set-up, such as "Based on 4 redrives performed after a 24 hour
provide for notations, identify notes by (1), (2), etc., and place waiting period, the average increase in capacity at the West
them at the end of the tabulation. abutment is 30 percent". This type of note is particulaily
important on reports where redriving is necessary to achieve the
When abbreviations are used, be certain that they are standard minimum design bearing specified in the plans. Without such a
abbreviations, or at least that they can be readily interpreted. If note it may appear the piling were driven and accepted at bearing
there is any doubt about interpretation, explain the abbreviation capacties less than required by the plans. Examples of a test pile
at the end of the tabulation. Someone may have to interpret these and pile driving report that incorporate pile redrives are shown in
reports many years after they were prepared, as is often done Figures M, N & O, P 5-393.165.
now in the design office with reports that were prepared forty to
sixty years ago, and clarity is essential.
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.166

5-393.166 PILE DRIVING ANALYZER Quick-Load Method for Foundation Load Testing.”

The pile driving analyzer (PDA) is a device to measure and Chellis, in his book on Pile Foundations states that: “Basically,
analyze the effect of hammer impact on the pile and determine therefore, a pile load test can determine only the ultimate bearing
bearing capacity. Strain gauges are attached to the exposed capacity and not the settlement characteristics of the pile group.”
portion of pile and electronic instruments record the strain This is because settlement is related to time, and even though a
pattern as the hammer impacts the pile. Soil resistance will pile load test is a better indicator in this respect than are any of
affect the measurement and calibration is necessary for each site. the dynamic pile driving formulas, long time settlement must still
A laptop computer is programmed to analyze the strain pattern rely on soil mechanics computations for a more reliable answer.
and can give information on maximum bearing value, hammer Cohesive soils are more susceptible to long term settlement than
efficiency, and possible pile damage. This equipment is best are granular soils.
suited to projects with a very large quantity of piling or piles
with very high loads. Special training is required for operation Several methods of applying load to the top of a pile have been
of the equipment. satisfactorily used, and the method to be used for a particular
load test is usually determined by the Contractor on the basis of
For piling designed using LRFD methodology (see section 5- available materials, equipment, and conditions. The most
393.160 of this manual) the pile driving analyzer may be used in common method is providing a reaction by driving piles at
lieu of a dynamic formula to determine the ultimate bearing locations adjacent to the pile to be load tested and connecting a
capacities in the field. If the special provisions require that the reaction beam across the top of these piles, over the load test
PDA be used to determine pile capacity, in most cases the pile. A calibrated hydraulic jack of adequate capacity is then
Contractor will be required to provide the equipment and the placed on the pile and the load applied in increments by jacking
necessary services will generally be provided by a geotechnical against the reaction beam. Calibration requirements are
subconsultant. See your job specific special provisions for more contained in 2452.3D3a.
information and further requirements.
Sometimes jacking is done against a load, such as a quantity of
5-393.167 PILE LOAD TESTS steel H-piles which will subsequently be used on the project, or
against a piece of heavy equipment or other material.
Pile load tests are recognized as the most reliable method of
determining the capacity of a pile to carry a static load. They Regardless of the type of reaction used, whenever load is applied
are, however, costly and time consuming, and can only be to the pile by jacking, the gauges must be observed at close time
justified when large numbers of piles are required in an area intervals to ensure against any significant relaxation of load due
where the soils conditions are reasonably uniform, or when it is to pile settlement or due to leakage in the jacking system.
necessary or desirable to load piles much higher than their
normally accepted capacity. We therefore, as a general practice, A second method of loading is to provide a platform over the pile
rely on dynamic formulas. onto which materials (sand, concrete, steel, or any other
material) can be placed in the required load increments, while the
A pile load test may be required by the Contract for the purpose platform is supported solely by the pile. The load can also be
of justifying a design load which is higher than normally applied by incremental filling of a water tank supported by the
permitted for the type and size of piles specified and for ensuring pile.
adequate support from the material into which they are to be
driven. Pile load tests may also be used as a means of Pile settlement readings should be determined by the use of
determining the safe capacity of the pile by applying an Ames dials furnished, placed, and read by Department personnel,
appropriate factor of safety after the ultimate capacity has been and for which the Contractor is required to provide and install the
determined. necessary supports. It is essential that any posts or other
supports be unaffected by the pile load test, so that reliable
Specification 2452.3D3 requires that a total load be applied readings will be obtained. (Note: in handling the Ames dials,
which is not less than 200 percent of the design pile load for a avoid releasing the plunger shaft abruptly as this is likely to bend
Type 1 Load Test and a total load of 400 percent for a Type 2 or break the indicator needle). As a back-up for the Ames dial
Load Test and that the applications of the load be in increments readings, and as a check on their support system, level readings
which are defined as percent of the total load. It also provides should be taken either by instrument or by stretching a piano
for holding these loads for a specified period of time after a wire over two temporary bench marks which are free from
settlement of less than 250 µm (1/100 in.) during a 15 minute disturbance. In this way, if anything should happen to the dials,
interval. Before proceeding with a pile load test on the basis of the test can be continued by referring to the back-up system.
the requirements of 2452.3D3, review the Plans and Special
Provisions to determine whether or not they contain additions to,
or modifications of, the general requirements. The Type 2 Load
Test was developed in accordance with procedures of the Texas
Highway Department and additional information on these
procedures is available in the users manual entitled “The Texas
Figure A 5-393.167 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006
Load on Pile - kN
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800
November 6, 2006

5 Ultimate

Slope = 0.14 mm/kN



35 Plunging Failure Load

Gross Settlement -mm





PILE LOAD TEST No.___________

50 BRIDGE No.____ Des. Ld____kN
Unit No._______ Date____________
Proj. Eng.______________________
55 Inspector______________________
Ultimate bearing
capacity 1400 kN
Figure B 5-393.167
Figure C 5-393.167 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006


100%=1400 kN
Percent of Total Load Apllied







1 Ass
ng E
c Sh
2 = Reb

used for this purpose by changing the title (and

0.085 mm

Form 21810, Soil Bearing Test Graph, may be


the values as may be necessary).


Design Load = 700 kN

5 S.F. = 2
Settlement at Top of Pile (mm)

0.085 mm/kN



6 hrs. @ 100%

12 hrs. @ 100% Load

13 Pile Load Test No. 1 Br. No. xxxx
Pier No. x Design Load 700 kN
Proj. Engr.
14 Inspector
Approaching failure @ 1400 kN
700 kN design load okay. S.F.=2
By Date
November 6, 2006 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.168

When setting the Ames dials, the plunger shaft should be A 5-393.169 - pile no. 2 and Figure G 5-393.165 pile No. 1).
depressed very nearly the full 50 mm (2 inches) of travel, and the
needle zeroed by turning the adjustment knob at the bottom of The Contractor should not drive beyond the authorized length
the plunger shaft. Thus, when the pile settles, the plunger shaft without approval of the Inspector. When a pile longer than the
will extend by spring action and the amount of extension can be initial authorized length is placed in the leads and is driven
read directly from the face of the dial. The equipment should be beyond the initial authorized length as directed by the Inspector
protected from the sun and the weather to maintain reasonably in order to obtain required bearing,, show the final authorized
uniform temperatures. length equal to the length below cut-off (see Figure A 5-393.169
- pile no. 3).
The reference in the Specifications to failure at 50 mm (2 inches)
of settlement is only for the purpose of terminating the load test, When the Inspector orders the Contractor to use Mn/DOT cut-
and is not intended as an indication than the pile has not failed offs, the required splices will be paid for by Mn/DOT and the
until that settlement is reached. The determination as to the load following procedure is recommended. Show the final authorized
at which failure of the pile was reached will be made by the length as the actual length in the leads minus the length of
Engineer, in consultation with the Bridge Office based on a Mn/DOT cut-off used as noted in the "Remarks" column. Show
plotting of the results. the number of authorized splices used and the length of Mn/DOT
cut-off driven. The cut-off from the pile, if any, is shown in both
Pile Load Test reports should include Pile Load Test Data, Pile the actual and Mn/DOT columns (see Figure A 5-393.169 - pile
Load Test Log, and Graphical Plotting sheets, as shown in no. 4).
Figures A-C 5-393.167. If immediate determination is essential,
the information may be called in to the appropriate Regional
Bridge Construction Engineer in advance of preparing the


Test piling is paid for as plan quantity item per each pile. No
deductions are made if piling is shorter than planned length. All
costs of material, delivery and installation are included. Many
contractors include their “fixed costs” for all pile driving in this
item to ensure recovery of these costs in the event foundation
pile quantities underrun. If lengths longer than shown in the plan
are authorized, payment for extra length is made under items
“Piling Delivered” and “Piling Driven.”

Foundation piles are paid for under two pay items. For most
projects these items are “Piling Delivered” and “Piling Driven”
with “Piling Driven” including all costs other than material and
delivery. On some contracts the items are “Pile Placement” and
“Piling Furnished and Driven” (see 5-393.153 for additional
information). Quantities for “Piling Delivered” would be the
total of the “Final Authorized” column on the pile driving report
excluding test pile quantities. “Piling Delivered” is increased for
extra test pile length authorized and decreased if the fabrication
pile length in leads is less than final authorized length (see
Figures C and G 5-393.165). Quantities for “Piling Driven”
would be the total of the “Penetration Below Cutoff” (meters)
(feet) column on the pile driving report excluding test pile
quantities (adjustments for extra test pile would be added to this
total). Quantities for Mn/DOT cutoffs driven and authorized
splices are listed separately for payment.



When a pile that is shorter than the initial authorized length is

placed in the leads and is driven to required bearing (pile is
accepted at less than initial authorized length), show the final
authorized length equal to actual length in the leads (see Figure
Figure A 5-393.169 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 6, 2006
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.200


(Note: This section uses English units only)

5-393.201 INTRODUCTION Dressed or surfaced lumber - lumber which, to attain

smoothness has been planed on a planing machine on either
The finished appearance of a concrete structure is dependent one side (S1S), two sides (S2S), one edge (S1E), two edges
to a large extent on the forms and falsework used in the (S2E) or a combination thereof (including complete planing
concrete construction. Concrete lines and surfaces will S4S)
usually reflect the degree of care and skill used in the design
and construction of the forms and falsework. Unsatisfactory Rough timber - lumber which has not been dressed but has
concrete construction due to faulty form and falsework design been sawn to the extent of showing saw marks on the full
or construction is very difficult to correct after the concrete is width of each of the 4 faces, also described as “full sawn
cast. In an extreme case, the result of a faulty design or lumber.”
careless workmanship on the forms and falsework could lead
to their collapse during construction operations, with serious Sized lumber - lumber, either rough or dressed, which is
consequences. The Department, by its Specifications, has prepared in standard dimension increments, with a plus and
placed certain restrictions on the design and construction of minus tolerance assigned to each size.
forms and falsework. These restrictions do not prohibit the
Contractor from exercising ingenuity in the construction of Nominal dimensions - the cross-section dimensions of the
form details and the economical selection of materials. The piece in inches as a full sawn piece (dimension prior to
Specifications do provide guidelines for forms and falsework surfacing).
that should be safe and that will result in satisfactory concrete
lines and surfaces. B. Falsework Requirements

A. Definitions and Nomenclature Usually the need for falsework is self-evident; however,
bridge plans often require the construction of some concrete
Forms are those members (usually vertical) that are required to item at or below ground level which has no footing. Typical
maintain plastic concrete in its desired shape until it has set of these are:
up. Forms resist the fluid pressure of the plastic concrete, the
additional fluid pressure generated by mechanical vibration of 1. cantilevered wingwalls on the abutments,
the concrete and the impact of placing the concrete in the 2. tie beams between concrete walls or between footings,
forms. Forms may be stripped when the concrete is set up and 3. high abutment side walls (or curtain walls) as on box type
its fluid pressure is reduced to zero. abutments.

Falsework is the supporting framework required to maintain a Judgment must then be exercised as to whether the existing
concrete unit in the desired position (when it cannot be soil can adequately support the weight of the concrete without
supported directly on the ground, as a footing or on previously settlement, or if falsework support is necessary. (Note, the
cast concrete) until the concrete is strong enough to carry its falsework referred to is in addition to that which is used to
own dead weight. Falsework must be strong enough to carry hold sheathing to shape the lower concrete surface, as on the
its own dead weight, the dead weight of the forms and bottom of most abutment wingwalls.)
concrete and the live load of construction crews and their
equipment. Wingwalls and tie beams can normally be formed directly on
the underlying soil, providing that the soil is stable and well
Sheathing used on the underside of a concrete unit, such as compacted. (Beware of plastic soils that will become unstable
sheathing under deck slabs or pier caps, serves the dual with rain.) However, the higher abutment sidewalls will
purpose of a form and a falsework member but, for design, is usually require falsework and falsework piling when the
classified as a falsework member, as the dead weight of the underlying material is not rock.
concrete plus live load is used in the design loading rather than
the fluid concrete pressure. Specific falsework requirements are given in Specifications
2401.3B4. For certain structures, the special provisions will
Common terminology for members of a falsework pile bent contain requirements for falsework plans and construction.
and for a typical form system are shown on Figure A 5- These requirements are in addition to those contained in
393.201. In addition, the following nomenclature will be used construction specifications and this Manual.
in this manual when referring to form lumber:
Forms must be used on all vertical or battered surfaces except
Side = wider face }regardless of how the piece is positioned the portions of footings that extend into solid rock. Casting
Edge = narrower face} concrete against an earth face will not be permitted (see
Specifications 2401.3B). One exception to the above is that
5-393.201 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

the 1 inch radius required at the front face of sidewalks can function as intended. See Section 5-393.202 for more
normally be shaped with a 1 inch radius edger. However, the information.
3 inch radius required at the front face of 6 inch high curbs
must normally be shaped by a form built to the specified A continuing inspection should be made during placement of
radius since hand shaping of this radius is seldom performed form and falsework members to assure conformance with
satisfactorily. approved plans (if used), to assure structural soundness and
accuracy, and to minimize the need for last minute corrections.
C. Contractor Responsibilities This inspection is discussed in more detail in Section
The Contractor is responsible for the design of all falsework
and forms and shall submit detailed plans of the proposed Concrete pours are to be made in accordance with approved
falsework and form construction to the Engineer on request pour sequences. Where approval of pour sequences is not
(see Specifications 1502 and 2401.3B). In accordance with required, pours should be with the form or falsework design
these Specifications, all working drawings are subject to and should provide balanced loading to the extent possible. A
review and approval or rejection by the Engineer prior to follow-up inspection during and after concrete placement
performance of the work involved. should be made to assure that the forms and/or falsework
function as intended with regard to deflections, tolerances, etc.
When trying new or untried devices or systems for falsework
and/or forms and when using materials with unknown strength
properties, it is the Contractor’s responsibility to verify to the
Engineer’s satisfaction the strength and safety of the device or
system and the workability of the device or system as related
to the desired end product. This verification has in the past
been provided in the form of (a) full scale field tests, (b) tests
by a reputable testing laboratory, (c) certified design
calculations, (d) manufacturers literature, or a combination of
the above items.

The Contractor is responsible for constructing the falsework

and forms in reasonably close conformity with the approved
falsework plans.

D. Engineer's (Inspector's) Responsibilities

When falsework and/or form plans are requested by the

Engineer or required by the Contract, these plans should be
reviewed for acceptability as to strength, method of
construction, safety, potential problems, and ability to produce
the desired finished product. Approval to use such plans
should be noted as being approved as to type of construction
and should also bear a note that such acceptance is conditional
to making changes which the Engineer has noted thereon.
When evaluating a new or untried device or system, approval
(if given) should be given only on a performance basis. Such
approval of plans does not relieve the Contractor of
responsibility for results obtained by use of the plans (see
Specifications 1502 and Specifications 2401.3B).

For certain types of structures, a review by the Contractor's

engineer is required prior to acceptance of the completed
falsework. The inspector should be present during this review
and no use of the falsework should be permitted until this
engineer has completed the review and authorized use
(normally a written certification is provided).

Check the material that will be used for forms and falsework
for agreement with sizes, shapes and qualities shown on the
Contractor’s plans. If not in conformance with approved
plans, the material must be evaluated as to its ability to
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.201

Bridging Sheathing Stringers

Pile cut off
Pile cap

Drift bolts Pile cap

splice point

Posts or piles Sway


Bolt, nut
and washers


Concrete strike-off elevation Upper plate

Chamfer strip

Wood spreader

Waler Form bolt

(tie bolt)
(tie rod)

Sheathing or form lining

Stud backed with sheathing

Tie plate (washer) Tie cone

Lower plate


5-393.201 (2) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Symbols and Units

The following symbols and abbreviations will apply to forms and falsework:

psi = pounds per square inch

psf = pounds per square foot
pcf = pounds per cubic foot

Symbol Description Units

A area in.2

B width of beam inches

h depth of beam inches

t thickness of web for steel member inches

w uniform load per foot of length lb/lin.ft

d least dimension of a column inches

D diameter inches

ℓ length (center to center of supports for beam spans; unsupported length for columns) inches

E modulus of elasticity psi

I moment on inertia in.4

c distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber inches

S section modulus in.3

r least radius of gyration (for steel columns) inches

P concentrated load lb

p lateral pressure of concrete psf

R reaction at beam support lb

R1 rate or pour for concrete ft/hour

T concrete temperature in Fahrenheit at time of placement °F

v shear stress psi

V shearing force lb

V1 the vertical force causing horizontal shear in a timber beam lb

M external bending moment inch lb

f stress in member psi

H maximum horizontal shear stress in timber beams psi

∆ deflection inches
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.202 (1)


Form and falsework materials described below are listed with either an allowable maximum working stress or a basis for
determining safe load.

Working stresses, when shown, are based on use of sound material for temporary construction.

In general, used material is permitted, provided it is in good condition.

The material requirements for falsework piling are stated in Specifications 2401.3B. Maximum allowable pile loads are as

Size of Dia. At Timber (tons) Steel Steel

Cut-Off (inches) Friction (tons) Point Bearing (tons)
Butts smaller than 8 in. are not permitted
8 16 16 9000 lb per sqare inch of
10 20 20 point area (or least cross-
12 24 24 sectional area of the pile)
14 28 28
16 32

General requirements for lumber for falsework and forms are specified in Specifications 2401.3B1c. In addition to these general
requirements, it is specifically recommended that material used for studs and walers be sized and dressed to at least S2E to
provide for true concrete lines.

Lumber that must withstand stress should be checked for conformance with the appropriate allowable stresses shown in the table
of “Allowable Working Stresses for Design of Wood Forms and Falsework” in this section.

The following notes apply to use of this table:

1. NEW LUMBER -Each piece of graded lumber is stamped. On new material, information as to timber species and grade or
stress rating can be obtained from this stamp for use with the allowable stress table in this section of the manual.

2. USED LUMBER -In the event the mill stamp is missing or eradicated, the species and grade or stress rating must either be
determined by visual examination or judgement or an assumed identification must be applied. In case of uncertainty, assume
Norway Pine common structural grade to be on the safe side.

3. Regardless of whether new or used lumber will be used, a visual check should be made of stressed members with the
following consideration in mind:

Any reduction in section in or near the middle 1/3 of the length of a beam reduces the capacity to resist bending. Such reduction
in section could be a damaged area, large knots, notches, or holes in the upper or lower 1/3 of the section. If such pieces are used
for beams, only the sound portion of the section can be considered as effective for calculating stresses.

Notches or reduction in beam depth near the support point will reduce the beam’s capacity to resist horizontal shear. Special
calculations are necessary to determine the horizontal shear stress when such pieces are used (see Section 5-393.204).

When forms or falsework are constructed of used material which is judged to be not equal in strength to sound material, the
allowable stresses in the table should be reduced by an appropriate amount.

The allowable stresses and modulus of elasticity (E) values listed in the chart below are in accordance with the recommendations
of AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. A 25% stress increase has been included in these values (except E
values) in view of the anticipated short time loading. Stresses for species or grades not listed below should be obtained from the
Office of Bridges and Structures and conform to AASHTO Specifications.
5-393.202 (2) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005



Max. Allowable Fiber Stress, psi

Species and Commercial Size Horizontal Side End* Modulus of
grade Classification Bending Shear Bearing Bearing Elasticity, E, psi
Douglas Fir - larch,
No. 1 2 to 4 in. thick 1875 120 480 1562* 1,800,000
Southern Pine, No. 1 ≤ 4 in. thick 1812 112 506 1562* 1,700,000
No. 2 1500 112 506 1250* 1,600,000

*The strength of a wood column is dependent on its ℓ/d ratio, which must not exceed 50. The allowable stress in a wood column
will be either

1. f = the allowable end bearing stress listed in this section for the wood species used

0.30 E
2. f = 2
d = dimension of least side of column
⎛ l⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎝ d⎠

Use whichever allowable stress value is smallest.

The maximum allowable compression stress for Douglas Fir columns and Norway Pine columns (as determined by the above
criteria) may be obtained from the graph below.

Douglas Fir-Larch
1562 psi

Red Pine
1030 psi
Allowable No
compressive .1
stress for Gr
columns, psi No ad
.1 e

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

3. For convenience in making calculations involving dimension lumber, a tabulation of standard lumber sizes and their
respective properties has been included in Figure A 5-393.202.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.202 (3)

General requirements for plywood sheathing are specified in

Specifications 2401.3B. The plywood sheathing most
commonly used is Douglas Fir Associations Exterior
“Plyform,” which is available in two strength varieties known
as Class I and Class II. Both Classes are fabricated using
exterior glue and have sanded grade B face plies.

New panels of plyform can be identified by the following

trademark stamped on the panels:
Plywood used the strong way
(Face ply grains are perpendicular to supports)
The data in Figure B 5-393.202 may be used for quickly
determining the safe spacing of studs or joists using Plyform
CLASS I Class I or Plyform Class II under two different loading
EXTERIOR conditions. These charts are recommended by the American
PS 1-66 000
Plywood Association. The applicable allowable stress values
for bending and horizontal shear are shown for each situation.
When the brand name or grade stamp is visible on the
plywood being used, the requirements of Specifications
2401.3B can be quickly verified. When no grade stamp is
CLASS II visible, it is the Contractor’s responsibility to verify to the
EXTERIOR satisfaction of the inspector that concrete form grade plywood
PS 1-66 000
has been furnished.

When it is determined that form grade plywood has been

furnished but the specific Class of plywood is unknown, the
following limiting stress values will apply:
In considering the bending strength, shearing strength, or
deflection of a panel, only those plies have their grain Maximum allowable bending stress = 1,500 psi
perpendicular to the supporting joist or stud are assumed to be Maximum allowable shear stress = 70 psi
stressed. The safe span length is therefore dependent not only
on whether Class I or Class II Plyform is used but also on Modules of Elasticity = 1,600,000 psi
whether the grain of the face plies runs across supports
(perpendicular to the joist or stud), or parallel to supports Maximum allowable bearing stress at
(parallel to the joists or stud). right angle to the plane of the plywood = 285 psi

Plywood used the weak way

(Face ply grains are parallel to supports)
5-393.202 (4) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Plywood section properties, which will be necessary for checking stresses when not using the plyform charts, are tabulated below:


Sanded Number Effective 12-in. width, used with face grain perpendicular to 12-in. width used with face grain parallel to
plywood, of plies thickness supports supports
net for shear
thickness, all
inc. grades,
using Area for Moment Effective Rolling Area for Moment Effective Rolling
exterior tension and of inertia section shear tension and of inertia section shear
glue compression I (in.4) modulus constant compression I (in.4) modulus constant
(in.2) S (in.3) I/Q (in.) (in.2) S (in.3) I/Q (in.)

1/4 3 0.241 1.680 0.013 0.091 0.179 0.600 0.001 0.016 -

3/8 3 0.305 1.680 0.040 0.181 0.309 1.050 0.004 0.044 -
1/2 5 0.450 2.400 0.080 0.271 0.436 1.200 0.016 0.096 0.215
5/8 5 0.508 2.407 0.133 0.360 0.557 1.457 0.040 0.178 0.315
3/4 5 0.567 2.778 0.201 0.456 0.687 2.200 0.088 0.305 0.393
7/8 7 0.711 2.837 0.301 0.585 0.704 2.893 0.145 0.413 0.531
1 7 0.769 3.600 0.431 0.733 0.763 3.323 0.234 0.568 0.632
1 1/8 7 0.825 3.829 0.566 0.855 0.849 3.307 0.334 0.702 0.748

Information from "Plywood Design Specification", American Plywood Association, Tacoma, Washington. Use listed S values in
bending calculations, and use I only in deflection calculations.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.202 (5)

The reuse of plywood sheathing will be dependent on its The increasing use of special devices, (made of material other
condition with respect to damage due to prior use, amount of than wood) for forms and falsework has, in general, resulted in
permanent set from prior use, amount of face ply separation, a speed-up of work as well as improved quality of work.
and the nature of the concrete surface being formed (exposed However, there is usually a degree of uncertainty about each
or not exposed, etc.). Plywood that is no longer suitable for its new device until it is proven in use. A partial listing of
intended purpose must be rejected. devices which have been used both successfully, and in some
instances unsuccessfully, is as follows:
Form lining requirements both as to material and usage, are
specified in detail in Specifications 2401.3B. Forms 1. Wall Form Panels
incorporating form lining backed by sheathing will be used The form panels referred to are the mass produced brand
rarely except in the case of architectural treatment of concrete name form sections (constructed either of steel or steel
surfaces. In situations like this, special form lining material and wood) which are produced in small segments so as to
requirements will usually be specified in the contract. be adaptable to a variety of concrete shapes and a variety
of types of construction. Past experience with certain
When angles, channels, wide flange beams, H-piles or other brands of these form panels resulted in the
rolled shapes are used in critical portions of the falsework, the recommendation that form panel construction should not
section should be identified by making measurements of the be permitted for concrete exposed to view. The reason
depth, width and thickness. These dimensions can then be for dissatisfaction on the work referred to was as follows:
used to identify the member further by referring to the AISC
Steel Construction Manual, where all standard rolled sections a. Objectionable offsets existed at abutting panel edges.
are listed along with their dimensions, weights and the
necessary design properties. Since this material cannot be b. There were an excessive number of joints. (The
visually identified as to grade of steel, the following allowable frequency of panel joints should generally be no
stress limits should be assumed, unless the Contractor greater than in conventional plywood-form
furnishes satisfactory assurance that the steel is of a higher construction.)
c. After being reused a number of times, permanent set
Rolled Steel Shapes (Assume ASTM A36 Steel) (permanent deflection) in the panels became
Maximum allowable bending stress 25000 psi excessive.
*Maximum allowable compression stress (columns) =
d. Adequate provisions were not made for overall
⎛ KL ⎞
2 alignment of the form work nor for providing mortar-
16,980 - 0.53 x ⎜ ⎟ tight joints.
⎝ r ⎠

Only a form panel system which adequately overcomes

L = unsupported length these objections with respect to appearances can be
K = 1.0 for pinned ends considered for use on concrete surfaces exposed to view.
r = governing radius of gyration
Design of the forms, with respect to size and spacing of
* must not exceed 120. members, is normally furnished by the manufacturer
r either as part of the advertising literature or as a special
design for the job along with a safe rate of pour for
The values listed above will be sufficient for checking most concrete in the form system. These should be carefully
falsework problems involving rolled steel members. Any adhered to.
additional design considerations (as for steel falsework trusses
and other special cases) should conform to the provisions of 2. Circular Column Forms
AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, Specific requirements for circular column forms are stated
as required in Specifications 2401.3B. in Specification 2401.3B. Such forms have been
fabricated of steel, fiberglass and paper or other fibers and
When used material is to be incorporated into the work, the all have been used with varying degrees of success.
extent of damage (caused by previous usage) and corrosion
should be evaluated. If corrosion is determined to have Since some circular forms can be damaged through
reduced the net thickness of a section, it is allowed to use the mishandling or improper storage, it is necessary to check
section properties of a rolled shape in the AISC manual with the roundness and smoothness when making a judgment
thickness dimensions compared to those of the intact material. as to acceptability of each individual form. The form
diameter on any axis should not be more than 1/2 inch
Additional requirements for structural shapes are given in under the specified diameter. This requirement is to
Specifications 2401.3B. assure proper cover on the column reinforcement. (Dents
in paper tubes are normally not so critical since concrete
5-393.202 (6) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

pressures during filling will round out the tubes. a. Adjustable Steel Posts (See Figure C and D 5-
Flattened or elliptical tubes will not be perfectly round 393.202, types 4 and 5.)
when filled with concrete).
This system basically replaces the wood legs of the
Reusable steel forms are susceptible to damage in the wooden "horse" system with adjustable steel posts.
form of small dents and kinks. These result in unsightly These posts are normally supported on wood joists
dimples on the concrete surface. Repair of such forms spanning between the bottom flanges of adjacent
should normally be requested prior to permitting their use. beams. The strength of the system will normally be
In addition, abutting panels should be adjusted so as to controlled by the wood members in the system.
eliminate offsets at panel joints. If they have been
overpoured in the past, the face panels may be stretched. b. Steel Hangers (See Figure C and D 5-393.202, types
Straight edge for acceptability. 2, 3 and 6.)
This is basically a hardware item which is laid
Due to the possibility of very fast rates of concrete transversely across the top flange of the beam to
placement in column forms, the pressure at the bottom of receive a vertical bolt on either side of the flange.
the form can be extremely high. Fasteners for the vertical The bolt in turn supports the main falsework member.
form-joint on segmental forms (such as on steel or
fiberglass column forms) can readily be checked for Balanced loading of the two sides of the hanger
ability to withstand these pressures. (NOTE: These forms (simultaneous loading of both bolts) is important in
usually provide for a variable number of bolts or pins in the early stage of falsework construction unless
this joint.) measures are taken to hold the hangers in place.
Welding of these hangers to the shear connectors is a
Since circular paper or fibre forms are commercially permissible method of hold down; however, welding
mass-produced in several strength grades, the adequacy of to the beam flange is not permitted.
their design for a specific case will normally be
determined by checking the manufacturer’s literature. Safe working loads for steel hangers are listed in the
Note carefully whether this literature lists a safe loading manufacturer’s literature.
or a failure loading (or bursting pressure). When only the
bursting pressure is given, a safety factor must be applied c. Steel Bar Joints (See Figure D 5-393.202, Type 7.)
to determine a safe load. Normally a safety factor of 2 This is a steel falsework beam which can be adjusted
will be adequate. to a variety of lengths. Load capacity, allowable
spacing and deflection data are available from the
If paper tubes have become wet prior to use, they should manufacturer’s literature which should be used for
be inspected for weak areas in advance of concrete checking the system.
placement. Paper tubes should also be checked to assure
that no conspicuous seam ridges are present on the inside Such steel bar joists have been used as joists to
surface since these cause objectionable spiral ridges on support longitudinal falsework stringers and also
the finished concrete surface. used at closer spacing with the sheathing placed
directly on them. In the event the latter system is
3. Friction Collars For Pier Caps used, no wood nailer is available to hold down the
Friction collars for pier caps are steel devices which are sheathing and a system of wire ties or some other
clamped around the top of circular concrete columns to approved method of hold down is necessary.
support the pier cap falsework and pier cap concrete.
Serious failures have resulted because of inattention to the Precautions must be taken to allow for residual
placement of these collars. Since the entire falsework in camber in this type of falsework system. The amount
this case is dependent on the stability of the collar, the of residual camber anticipated after placement of the
tightening of the collars must be properly performed. The concrete should be determined (by field tests if
collars must be level to assure full bearing on the necessary) and adequate allowance made in setting
concrete. Manufacturers literature should be used to stool heights to obtain the specified slab thickness.
determine the necessary bolt tension. In addition, the
total applied vertical load must not exceed the safe load d. Corrugated Steel Forms
specified in the manufacturer’s literature. Corrugated Steel Forms are commercially mass-
produced corrugated sheet metal forms for the bottom
4. Slab Falsework - Interior Bays of the slab which require no additional supporting
Several types of slab falsework other than the all-wood falsework.
type which have been successfully used by contractors are
as follows: Each unit spans transversely from beam to beam on
the bridge and acts in the capacity of a complete
structural entity of falsework and sheathing. These
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.202 (7)

units are galvanized and are normally intended to For either bracket, when unusual loading conditions are
remain in place at completion of the work. Safe encountered, a full scale field test is recommended. An
loads and deflections for each size of member are overload should be applied to assure that there is a safety
available in the manufacturer’s literature. factor.

Under the current policy, this type of falsework is not Since cantilever brackets tend to rotate the fascia beam
permitted unless specifically indicated in the Special (push the bottom flange inward), special bracing
Provisions. precautions, as specified in Specification 2401.3B4, are
occasionally necessary. For beams depths of 24 in. or
5. Slab Overhang Falsework less, the difficulty of obtaining good concrete lines
Several types of slab overhang falsework (other than the increases when this type of overhang falsework is used
all-wood type) that have been successfully used by and serious consideration should be given to the use of
contractors are steel hangers, which have been previously needle beams as shown in Type 1, Figure C 5-393.202.
discussed, and Steel Overhang Brackets.
6. Tubular Steel Scaffolding
Typical application of steel overhang brackets is shown in The basic components of Tubular Steel Scaffolding
Figures C and D 5-393.202, Types 3, 4, 5 and 6. Shoring as shown by the following picture are end frames
of various designs and dimensions which are assembled
Details and design data pertaining to two commonly used with diagonal bracing and lock clamps. Vertical
overhang brackets (Capitol and Superior) are given in adjustments are made by adjustable jacks either at the
Figures E and F 5-393.202. It is intended that spacing bottom or top of the frames. Frames are normally fitted
and deflection of these brackets be determined by these either with flat top plates or U-heads for supporting the
details as furnished by the manufacturer. However, falsework and forms.
several precautions must be observed as described below.
These towers are rated by the load carrying capacity of
Information for the Capitol brackets states that the either one leg or of one frame (two legs). The
brackets should be spaced at 6'0" centers. However, manufacturer’s rated capacity should not be exceeded.
experience has shown that the 6'0" spacing must be
reduced under certain conditions. For example, when the Adequate rigid bracing involving several units of steel
strike-off rails are placed on top of the coping forms or shoring should be provided. Full bearing for the base
when a very wide slab overhang is specified in the plans, plates should be provided, such as being set in fresh
a much higher load is applied to each bracket unless this mortar pads when resting on rock-like formations.
spacing is reduced. Mudsills placed on yielding earth should not be permitted
for supports.
When installing Capitol brackets, the 2" x 4" member
U-Head or other framing
placed in the top horizontal member of the bracket must
be firmly seated and the hanger “chain” must be tight. Cross braces
Poorly aligned concrete surfaces have resulted when
seating occurred during concrete placement.
Lock for
The influence lines in Figure F 5-393.202 for checking braces
the Superior brackets may be used with a variety of
loading conditions. The actual load in the critical End frames
members can be determined by use of this chart and joined here
checked against the safe working loads shown on the

A wood filler block is required when using these brackets

on prestressed concrete girders. This filler must be varied
as necessary to provide a bearing surface on the beam at
the end of the top horizontal member and at the end of the
diagonal member. The filler should not bear on the
End frames Adjustable jacks
vertical member of the Superior bracket.

The deflection graphs given for each of these brackets 7. Void Tubes For Voided Slab Spans
should be used only as a guide since the graphs apply Void tubes for voided slab spans are similar to the fibre
only to the specific loadings pictured on the tubes used for column forms except that galvanized steel
manufacturer’s details. tubes are also permitted. The circumferential crushing
pressure and straight crushing pressure of these tubes will
5-393.202 (8) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

normally be listed in the manufacturer’s literature. When In this event, the safe load may be set by determining the
checking stresses, it is necessary to determine if the cross-sectional area of the member and the yield point of the
manufacturer has listed a safe pressure or a failure steel by tension test in the laboratory. The applied load should
pressure. not exceed 70% of the yield strength of the device. NOTE:
the yield point of the steel (psi) is not the same as the yield
Since stress in the void tube is very high at the tie-down strength of a particular bar. On portions of the structure
straps, a careful visual inspection is necessary at this exposed to view, form bolts must be so designed that all metal
location. Wetting of paper tubes can result in isolated can be removed to a depth of not less than 1 inch from the
weak spots where the waterproof coating has been concrete surface. Tie wires may be used only in locations
scratched or damaged and the water has penetrated into where they will not extend through surfaces exposed to view
the paper or fibre layers. Such pieces should be rejected in the finished work.
unless they can be satisfactorily reinforced.
The hardware used to secure form bolts against the forms is
Void tubes must be mortar tight. When several lengths of usually reusable. This hardware is normally designed to be
tube are necessary to make up the length of void shown in stronger than the portion of the device that remains in the
the Plans, each segment of tube should have sealed ends. concrete and, therefore, will not be the limiting strength factor
Butting tube ends together and taping around the in the form tie.
perimeter of the joint will normally not be acceptable
since deformation of one of the joined tubes during Crimp ties or snap ties are wire form ties with a notch or
concrete placement would likely rupture a taped splice. reduced cross-section at the point of break-back. These ties
are not reusable. After the concrete is set, the portion of the
Information pertaining to nails and spikes are located on wire which extends outside of the concrete surface is twisted
Figure H and I 5-393.202. off and removed. A washer is sometimes welded to the wire
at the face of the form to act as a form spreader. On concrete
General requirements governing bolts or form ties are given in surfaces exposed to view, a cone should be used in place of
Specifications 2401.3B. One specific provision is that a major the washer since satisfactory patching of the shallow
portion of the device must remain permanently in the concrete. depression left by the washer is very difficult.
Several types of commercially available form ties meeting this
description are shown below. Because these ties do not always break off at the intended
point, but sometimes break instead at the face of the concrete,
Normally the manufacturer’s literature will list the safe load plus the fact that they do not provide a rigid member for
that may be applied. However, when the load capacity is support of the workcrew, they are not recommended for use on
questionable or unknown, laboratory tests will be necessary to heavy construction. Their use is primarily restricted to light
determine the safe load. work such as box culverts, etc.


Coil bolt

Wedge shaped holder


Nut washer or May have hole for
other locking unit nailing to stud


November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.202


SIZE (S4S) I = bh bh inches3
h 12 inches S = 6
b h b h Area Weight
(in.) (in.) (in.) (in.) =bxh lb / lin. ft. S4S Full Sawn S4S Full Sawn

1 11 1/4 3/4 8.44 2.3 0.40 1.00 1.05 2.00

1 1/4 1 11.25 3.1 0.94 1.95 1.88 3.13
1 1/2 1 1/4 14.06 3.9 1.83 3.38 2.93 4.50
2 1 1/2 16.88 4.7 3.16 8.00 4.22 8.00
4 1 1/2 3 1/2 5.25 1.5 5.36 10.67 3.06 5.33
6 5 1/2 8.25 2.3 20.80 36.00 7.56 12.00
8 7 1/4 10.88 3.0 47.63 85.33 13.14 21.33
10 9 1/4 13.88 3.9 98.93 166.67 21.39 33.33
12 11 1/4 16.88 4.7 177.98 288.00 31.64 48.00
14 13 1/4 19.88 5.5 290.78 457.33 43.89 65.33
4 2 1/2 3 1/2 8.75 2.4 8.93 16.00 5.10 8.00
6 5 1/2 13.75 3.8 34.66 54.00 12.60 18.00
8 7 1/4 18.13 5.0 79.39 128.00 21.90 32.00
10 9 1/4 23.13 6.4 164.89 250.00 35.65 50.00
12 11 1/4 28.13 7.8 296.63 432.00 52.73 72.00
14 13 1/4 33.13 9.2 484.62 686.00 73.15 98.00
4 3 1/2 3 1/2 12.25 3.4 12.51 21.33 7.15 10.67
6 5 1/2 19.25 5.3 48.53 72.00 17.65 24.00
8 7 1/4 25.38 7.0 111.15 170.67 30.66 42.67
10 9 1/4 32.38 9.0 230.84 333.33 49.91 66.67
12 11 1/4 39.38 10.9 415.28 576.00 73.83 96.00
14 13 1/4 46.38 12.9 678.48 914.67 102.41 130.67
16 15 1/4 53.38 14.8 1034.42 1365.33 135.66 170.67
6 5 1/2 5 1/2 30.25 8.4 76.26 108.00 27.73 36.00
8 7 1/4 39.88 11.1 174.66 256.00 48.18 64.00
10 9 1/4 50.88 14.1 362.75 500.00 78.43 100.00
12 11 1/4 61.88 17.2 652.59 864.00 116.02 144.00
14 13 1/4 72.88 20.2 1066.18 1372.00 160.93 196.00
16 15 1/4 83.88 23.3 1625.51 2048.00 213.18 256.00
6 7 1/4 5 1/2 39.88 11.1 100.52 144.00 36.55 48.00
8 7 1/4 52.56 14.6 230.23 341.33 63.51 85.33
10 9 1/4 67.06 18.6 478.17 666.67 103.39 133.33
12 11 1/4 81.56 22.7 860.23 1152.00 152.93 192.00
14 13 1/4 96.06 26.7 1405.41 1829.33 212.14 261.33
16 15 1/4 110.56 30.7 2142.72 2730.67 281.01 341.33
6 9 1/4 5 1/2 50.88 14.1 128.25 180.00 46.64 60.00
8 7 1/4 67.06 18.6 293.75 426.67 81.03 106.67
10 9 1/4 85.56 23.8 610.08 833.33 131.91 166.67
12 11 1/4 104.06 28.9 1097.53 1440.00 195.12 240.00
14 13 1/4 133.56 34.0 1793.11 2286.67 270.66 326.67
16 15 1/4 141.06 39.2 2733.82 3413.33 358.53 426.67
6 11 1/4 5 1/2 61.88 17.2 155.98 216.00 56.72 72.00
8 7 1/4 81.56 22.7 357.26 512.00 98.55 128.00
10 9 1/4 104.06 28.9 741.99 1000.00 160.43 200.00
12 11 1/4 126.56 35.2 1334.84 1728.00 237.30 288.00
14 13 1/4 149.06 41.4 2180.82 2744.00 329.18 392.00
16 15 1/4 171.56 47.7 3324.92 4096.00 436.05 512.00
Figure B 5-393.202 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005



Panels continuous
1400 1400 across two or more
Panels continuous across two or more spans
Shear stress
1200 Shear stress of 75 psi 1200 of 70 psi


Flexure stress of 2000 psi Flexure stress
1000 1000 of 1700 psi
Average panel deflection of 1/270th Average panel
of span deflection of
800 800 1/270th of span

600 600

400 400 1
1-1/8 7/8
200 7/8 200 3/4
5/8 5/8
0 0
0 8 12 16 20 24 32 1/2 0 8 12 16 20 24 1/2
Stud or joist spacing, Stud or joist spacing,
inches. (center to center) inches. (center to center)

1400 Panels continuous
Panels continuous across two or more 1400 across two or more
spans spans
1200 Shear stress of 70 psi Shear stress
1200 of 70 psi

Flexure stress of 1500 psi


Flexure stress
1000 of 1500 psi
Average panel deflection of 1/270th 1000
of span Average panel
800 deflection of
1/270th of span
1-1/8 1-1/8
200 1
7/8 200 7/8
3/4 3/4
5/8 5/8
0 0 1/2
0 8 12 16 20 24 32 1/2 0 8 12 16 20 24
Stud or joist spacing, Stud or joist spacing,
inches. (center to center) inches. (center to center)
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure C 5-393.202


Filler on top of each joist Sheathing Stringers

Posts under Cleat (preferably on both sides of each post)
each joist Posts under each joist
Walk Runner Supporting bolts for needle beam

Needle beam


Borg hanger
Bolt thru web

Wood overhang
bracket with Add struts as necessary
hanger support


Hanger Stringers Hanger

Steel overhang
bracket with
hanger support Add struts as necessary



Bolt thru web

Steel overhang
bracket supported Adjustable steel posts
by bolt thru
beam web
Add wedges when strutting
of fascia is necessary (both ends)
Figure D 5-393.202 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Sheathing Stringer Sheathing


Bolt anchorage
Adjustable steel posts

Steel overhang Support for steel posts

bracket supported
by bolt in
beam web TYPE 5

Sheathing Hanger Stringer Sheathing Hanger


Wood filler
as necesary
Steel overhang
bracket with
hanger support


Overhang falsework
similar to type 5 or 6
Borg hanger

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure E 5-393.202

11" for 36 " girder

13" for 42" girder
15-1/2" for 54" girder
2 x 6 for 36 " girder
2 x 8 for 42" girder

For light beams

use a drive fit
brace as shown Adjustment 2
Adjustment 1

See anchor detail

Adjustable. Use max. AOH

that beam permits.
60" or 72" 1"
COH 7500
6-1/2" adjustable 22" Vertical
DOH 30"
22" 6000

Load - Lbs.
BOH form
Beam Precasting

1" 01/2 1 1-1/2

Deflection Inches

ITEM DOH 1/4 x 2 Cap Screw

ITEM COH Plastic Cone ITEM BOH 3/4 x 3 Stud Tapped Reusable 4'-0"


Deflection taken as
shown above

ITEM EOH 3/4 x 3 Bolt

ITEM AOH Special Anchor
9600 Capacity @ 2000 psi concrete CAPITAL OVERHANG BRACKET
Pat. Applied for


Figure F 5-393.202 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005


(As produced by Superior Concrete Accessories Inc.)


Ductile A 14" max.

SECTION A-A Coil wing
nut Coil rod

9000 54"
Failure: Buckling
of Diagonal Member
Load (lbs)



3 Point loading
1500 WF connection

0 .25 .50 .75 1.00 1.25
Deflection (inches)

* LOAD is the total weight

of concrete and forms
applied on the bracket by
the stringers
Slot A

Ductile coil 14" max.

wing nut
9000 54" Coil rod

Failure: Buckling
Load (lbs)

6000 of Diagonal Member

Filler block

3 Point loading 4 Bracket support points

concrete beam connection against beam
0 .25 .50 .75 1.00 1.25
Deflection (inches)
Figure G 5-393.202


These influence curves indicate the effect a unit joist load, at any point along
the horizontal member, has on other members of the bracket. Loads are 6" 12" 12"
cumulative depending upon the number of joists that are used. Note that the Joist loads 400 lbs. 500 lbs. 200 lbs.
influence factor (vertical axis) has two unit designations, one for the vertical "C" "B" "A"
member and one for the coil rod.
45 Coil rod and diagonal member: lbs/lb of applied load


Determine load on 45 coil rod due to joist loads shown above.

3.0 Joist "A" = (200 lb) (2.2) = 440

Joist "B" = (500 lb) (1.85) = 925
Joist "C" = (400 lb) (1.75) = 700
Total load on rod 2065 lb
A (Safe working load of rod 9000 lb)
B Rod
C Coil Loads on the diagonal member are determined in a similar
45 be
em manner.
M 2
al Area of diagonal member: 0.44 in. . Allowable load (lb) on
ag diagonal member 4733 lbs. Compare this allowable with actual
1.0 load that is obtained from influence chart.
NOTE: Pres-steel hanger must also have a safe working load of 9000 lbs.
November 1, 2005

54 48 42 36 30 24 18 12 6 0
Out board end NOTE: For use with Superior
JOIST LOCATIONS (Inches) brackets only.
of bracket
Figure H 5-393.202 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005


Driven into the side grain of seasoned wood. Load applied in any lateral direction.


At penetration in diameters noted for each group,
SIZE LENGTH DIAMETER into piece holding the point. SPECIES
WEIGHT INCHES IN INCHES 10 x D 11 x D 13 x D 14 x D
COMMON NAILS (Flat Head, Diamond Point)
Note (1) Length from underside of head to tip of point. GROUP I
6d 2 0.113 104 84 68 54 Ash, Elm,
Maple, Oak
8d 2 1/2 0.131 129 104 86 68
10d 3 0.148 154 126 102 82
12d 3 1/4 0.148 154 126 102 82
Douglas Fir,
16d 3 1/2 0.162 176 142 118 93 Larch,
SPIKES (Countersunk Head Diamond Point) Southern
Note (1) Length overall Pine
10d 3 0.192 228 186 151 121
12d 3 1/4 0.192 228 186 151 121 GROUP III
16d 3 1/2 0.207 254 206 168 134 Hemlock,
DUPLEX HEAD NAILS (Heavy Double Head, Diamond Point) Red Pine
Note (1) Length from underside of head to tip of point.
6d 1 3/4 0.113 104 84 68 54 GROUP IV
8d 2 1/4 0.131 129 104 86 68 Cedar,
10d 2 3/4 0.148 154 126 102 82 White &
16d 3 0.162 176 142 118 93 Balsam
20d 3 1/2 0.192 228 186 151 121 Fir,
30d 4 0.207 254 206 168 134 White
SMOOTH BOX NAILS (Large Flat Head, Diamond Point) Sugar
Note (1) Length from underside of head to tip of point. Ponderosa
6d 2 0.099 84 68 56 44 and Lodgepole
7d 2 1/4 0.099 84 68 56 44 Pines,
8d 2 1/2 0.113 104 84 68 54 Cottonwood,
10d 3 0.138 136 101 83 67 Spruce,
COOLERS (Flat Head, Diamond Point). SINKERS (Flat Countersunk Head,
Diamond Point) as per BOX NAILS except length overall is 1/8” less than shown.

When the penetration in nail or spike diameters is less than that shown in the above heading for each timber species group, but
at least equal to 1/3 of that shown in the heading, the safe load may be determined by straight line interpolation between zero and
the load tabulated above. For example, driven only 7 diameters into Group II timber species, the safe load would be only 7 / 11 of
the tabulated load. Driven less than 1/3 that shown in the above heading, the nail or spike should not be considered as capable of
carrying any lateral load. For example, for Group II timber species, the minimum penetration should be 11 / 3 or 3 2/3
diameters, at when penetration the safe load would be 1/3 of the tabulated load.

End distance, side distance and spacing to be such that unusual splitting of the wood is avoided: pieces to be in close contact.
Stagger nails, with fairly uniform spacing, along contact surface.

Basic Formulas: Safe Load = 1.33 x K x D 3/2 Group I : K = 2040, Group II : K = 1650
Group III : K = 1350, Group IV : K = 1080
Formulas may be used when nails other than diameters listed are used.

* Based on values given in Nat’l. Design Spec., “Stress Grade Lbr. and It’s Fastenings”, recommended by the Nat’l. Lbr. Mfg.
Assoc. latest Edition. The values given in this publication, which are for normal load duration of 10 years have been increased
by 1/3 due to short duration of static load on falsework and high factor of safety against failure in the values.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure I 5-393.202


The following diagram may be used as an aid in size identification of nails used in formwork.

60d 50d 40d 30d 20d 16d 12d 10d 9d 8d 7d 6d 5d 4d 3d 2d

COMMON NAILS - Flat Head Diamond Point

Length Gauge Diamond Approx.
In. No. Head No. to Lb
2d 1 15 11/64 847
3d 1 1/4 14 13/64 543
4d 1 1/2 12 1/2 1/4 294
5d 1 3/4 12 1/2 1/4 254
6d 2 11 1/2 17/64 167
7d 2 1/4 11 1/2 17/64 150
8d 2 1/2 10 1/4 9/32 101
9d 2 3/4 10 1/4 9/32 92
10d 3 9 5/16 66
12d 3 1/4 9 5/16 61
16d 3 1/2 8 11/32 47
20d 4 6 13/32 29
30d 4 1/2 5 7/16 22
40d 5 4 15/32 17
50d 5 1/2 3 1/2 13
60d 6 2 17/32 10

Length from underside of head to tip of point.

Safe loads for nails shall conform to the values listed in Fig. H 5-393.202.
5-393.203 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

5-393.203 DEFLECTIONS AND ALIGNMENT deflection of the overhang falsework must not exceed 1/2
inch even though compensated for. When the main
Deflection will occur in any form or falsework member in overhang falsework support members (the overhang
which beam action is involved regardless of the design used or bracket, needle beam or equivalent) are spaced at less
the material of which the forms or falsework are constructed. than 48 inches, the anticipated deflection of these main
The surface and lines of the concrete being formed will reflect members must not exceed S/100, where S = member
these deflections. Such deflections may detract from the spacing in inches.
appearance of lines or surfaces which are exposed to view.
For this reason, a limit is placed on the amount of anticipated The following criteria will govern acceptance or rejection of
deflection of the form and falsework members which will be the Contractor’s form details with regard to deflection of
used for concrete exposed to view. structures that are exposed to view:

The anticipated deflection of the members involved should be 1. Deflection in any form member which acts as a beam
computed and checked against the allowable deflection should not exceed 1/270 of its span or 1/8 inch, whichever
described later in this section prior to approving a form or is least.
falsework system.
2. Concrete diaphragms for prestressed concrete girder spans
The dead loads and concrete pressures used to compute will normally not, for this purpose, be considered to be
deflections are the same as those used to check stresses in the exposed to view and their forms will not be subject to
member except that live load will normally not be included in deflection controls.
the deflection loading.
3. Except when used as pedestrian underpasses, the walls of
When it is anticipated that the allowable deflection will be box culverts will not be classified as concrete exposed to
exceeded, the size or spacing of the members must be view. Head walls and wings of box culverts, or the
modified. In lieu of such modification of the members, in projecting ends of interior walls of multiple opening box
certain cases it is possible to compensate for these deflections culverts, will be classified as concrete exposed to view.
during construction of the forms or falsework by use of profile
strips or wedging to induce reverse deflection equal in amount Forms for concrete surfaces that will be exposed to view must
to the computed deflection. Certain restrictions are placed on be so aligned and of sufficient stiffness that irregularities in
this practice of compensating for deflections which are any 10 foot length on the finished concrete surface will not
discussed below. exceed ¼ inch.

The following criteria will govern acceptance or rejection of When the Plans indicate that a bridge (or portions thereof) is
the Contractor’s falsework details with regard to deflection of to be constructed to a horizontal curve, the forms for edges of
structures that are exposed to view: slab, curbs, copings, medians and railings must be constructed
to their proper degree of curvature within a tolerance of 1/8
1. On concrete surfaces exposed to view the computed inch in 10 feet. Midordinates of 1/8 inch or more in 10 feet
deflection of any member shall not exceed 1/270 of its will occur with a degree of curvature of about 5Eor more. For
span or 1/4 inch, whichever is least, unless adequate a degree of curvature of less than 5E, concrete forms may be
provision is made to compensate for the deflection as was constructed on short chords along the intended curve line.
discussed above. (The 1/270 criteria will be applicable
for spans up to 67 inches.) It is intended that forms which can easily be placed to a
scribed line on the falsework or on previously placed concrete,
2. Between fascia beams, the falsework supporting the deck will be placed on the specified curved alignment. This would
slab will not be limited by the foregoing. In this area, a include forms for the edges of slabs, curbs and medians.
limiting cumulative deflection (deflection of sheathing
plus deflection of stringers plus deflection of joists, etc.) Forms for curved railings, however, cannot always be aligned
of ½ inch should be applied. This limit is to avoid this easily. It is the intent of the Specification tolerance to
excessive addition of dead weight to the superstructure. permit rail construction on chords between railposts when the
curvature is small enough (5E or less) so that a chord
3. At locations of transverse construction joints in the construction would not be visually objectionable.
roadway slab, the falsework supporting the bulkhead must
be sufficiently strong to reduce the computed bulkhead No offsets should exist at abutting joints of sheathing or at
deflection to not more than 1/16 inch. abutting form panels.

4. Deflection of slab overhang falsework must normally be The variation from plumb or from the specified batter in the
compensated for by wedging or raising the edge of lines and surfaces of columns, piers and walls should not
overhang falsework by an amount equal to that of the exceed ¼ inch per 10 feet of height and, in any event, shall not
anticipated deflection. The anticipated cumulative exceed ½ inch.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.204 (1)

5-393.204 FORMULAS AND STANDARD LOADS term (R-2h) in place of R. This applies to both continuous and
simple spans.
Practically all falsework members act either as columns or as
beams. The internal stresses and the deflections in these V' based on loads in this area only
members due to the weight of the various construction loads
(weight of forms and falsework, weight of concrete, weight of
h h
equipment and workcrew, etc.) can be determined by standard h
methods of Engineering mechanics and compared to the
allowable stresses listed in Section 5-393.202 and the
allowable deflections listed in Section 5-393.203 to aid in
determining the acceptability of a proposed falsework system.
Typical examples of the calculations necessary for checking
the falsework systems are given in Sections 5-393.206 to
5-393.209. Concrete pressure on forms have formulas that are
recommended by ACI Committee 347. The formulas apply to
The following formulas will apply to falsework and form standard concrete weighing 150 pcf having a maximum slump
analysis: of 4 inches and internally vibrated during placement.

M For forms with rate of concrete placement not exceeding 7 feet

1. Flexure formula (bending stress) f = per hour, and for all column pours, the maximum lateral
pressure at a given point shall be equal to:
2. Direct stress formula
a. p = 150 +
a. Direct tension stress f = T
A or b. p = 150h

P or c. p = 3000 psf
b. End bearing f =
Use whichever is least.
The allowable side bearing stress given in Section 5-
393.202 applies to bearing surfaces 6 inches or more in Note: R1 = rate of concrete placement per hour
length. For bearing surfaces less than 6 inches in length T = temperature in degrees Fahrenheit
and located 3 inches or more from the end of the timber,
the allowable working stress may be increased by a factor The forms with a rate of concrete placement exceeding 7 feet
of per hour, the maximum lateral pressure at a given point shall
l + 3/8 be equal to:
where R is the length in bearing. (For circular bearing 43400 2800R1
areas, R= diameter.) Figure A 5-393.204 lists safe side a. P = 150 + +
bearing loads for several common form and falsework or b. p = 150h
details as derived from the above formula.
or c. p = 2000 psf
3. Shearing stress formulas
Use whichever is least.
a. Shear stress in steel members v =
th In the event that the above conditions do not apply (for
example, if a greater than 4 inch slump is to be used), or if
b. Shear stress in plywood, known as rolling shear other factors are involved such as the proposed use of a
V′ retarder, the actual concrete pressure will increase and
v =
( I / Q) b appropriate adjustment must be made in the calculated
NOTE: I/Q is known as the “rolling shear constant” and pressures. Vibration and depth of placement in layers should
is tabulated in Section 5-393.202 for the various conform to Specifications if these formulas are to be
thicknesses. applicable.

c. Horizontal shear stress in timber beams H = 1.5
To simplify the calculation for determining VN, use the
appropriate beam formula for determining shear but insert the
Figure A 5-393.204 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

WIDTH 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4
1 1/2 (1) 4.50 6.00 7.50 9.00 10.50 12.00
(2) 1.25 1.19 1.15 1.13 1.11 1.09

3/4" Min.
2 (1) 6.50 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00
(2) 1.19 1.19 1.15 1.13 1.11 1.09
2 1/2 (1) 7.50 10.00 12.50 15.00 17.50 20.00 Bearing Area
(2) 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.13 1.11 1.09 Shown Hatched
3 (1) 9.00 12.00 15.00 18.00 21.00 24.00 width
(2) 1.13 1.13 1.13 1.13 1.11 1.09
NOTE: Allowable stress increase
3 1/2 (1) 10.50 14.00 17.50 21.00 24.50 28.00 factor = L+3/8 where L is the
(2) 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.09 L
length of bearing along grain.
4 (1) 12.00 16.00 20.00 24.00 28.00 32.00 Use only if stud is less than 6"
(2) 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09 and not nearer than 3"
from the end of a member
3 1/4" 3 3/4" 3/4" 9.75 1.12
5" 3 1/4" 3/4" 12.50 1.08 Y Tie plate
3 3/4" 3 1/2" 3/4" 10.31 1.10
3" *3 3/4" 3/4" 9.00 1.13
5" *3 3/4" 3/4" 15.00 1.08
5 1/4" *3 3/4" 3/4" 15.75 1.07
5 3/4" *3 3/4" 3/4" 17.25 1.00 L
6" *3 3/4" 3/4" 18.00 1.00
6 1/4" *3 3/4" 3/4" 18.75 1.00
6 3/4" *3 3/4" 3/4" 20.25 1.00 1 1/2 1 1/2
5" 3 3/4" 1" 13.75 1.08
5" * 4" 1" 15.00 1.08 X
5 1/4" * 4" 1" 15.75 1.07
5 3/4" * 4" 1" 17.25 1.00
6" * 4" 1" 18.00 1.00 X + 3"
6 1/4" * 4" 1" 18.75 1.00
6 3/4" * 4" 1" 20.25 1.00
* or more

(Piles assumed circular) area shown
6 7 1/2 8 9 1/2 10 11 1/2 12 13 1/2 14 Cap W/2
Dia. of Pile at Cut-off in Inches

14 81.4 99.7 105.6 121.9 127.0 140.4 144.2 152.7 153.9 width
13 1/2 78.2 95.8 101.3 116.7 121.4 133.6 136.9 143.1 sin 0 =
13 75.1 91.8 97.0 111.4 115.7 126.6 129.4 132.7 W/2
12 1/2 72.0 87.8 92.7 106.0 109.9 119.4 121.5 122.7 R
12 68.9 83.7 88.3 100.6 104.1 111.9 113.1 Area = (W) (h)
11 1/2 65.7 79.7 83.9 95.1 98.1 103.9
11 62.6 75.6 79.5 89.4 91.9 95.0 0 ) (M) (R)2
+ ( 90 Pile
10 1/2 59.4 71.4 75.0 83.6 85.5 86.6 diameter
10 56.2 67.2 70.4 77.5 78.5
9 1/2 52.9 62.9 65.7 70.9
9 49.7 58.6 60.8 63.6 NOTE: Bearing area at rt. end of
8 1/2 46.4 54.0 55.8 56.7 each line = area of pile at cut-off of
8 43.0 49.3 50.3 diameter shown at left. Use when
cap width equals or exceeds pile diameter.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.204 (2)

When the ends of a beam are notched, as shown below, the horizontal shear stress should be determined by use of the
accompanying formula. As shown by the formula, notching beams adds proportionately to the horizontal shear stress and
should be avoided.

he h

H = 1.5 V x h V = W

b(he) he 2 (L - 2he)


Column deflection formula (elastic shortening)

= AE

Beam Formulas - Reactions, Moments, Shears and Deflections.

max. R max. M max. V max.

a. Simple span - uniformly loaded
2 4
wL wL wL 5wL
2 8 2 384 EI

b. 2 continuous spans - uniformly loaded 2

w 3wL wL 3wL
3 R 1 = M3 = V1 = 3 =
8 14.2 8
2 4
5wL wL 5wL wL
1 L 2 L R 2 = M2 = V2 =
4 8 8 185 EI

c. 3 or more spans - uniformly loaded

w R 1 = 0.4 wL M 3 = 0.08 wL V 1 = 0.4 wL 3 =

0.0069 wL
1 L 2 L L R 2 = 1.1 wL M 2 = 0.10 wL2 V 2 = 0.6 wL

d. Cantilever beam - uniformly loaded

w 2 =
2 R 1 = wL M1 = V 1 = wL
2 4
1 L 8 EI

A more complete listing of beam formulas for use with point loads or other load variations may be found in the AISC Steel Con-
struction Manual.
5-393.205 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

The following loads and unit weights will be used in falsework analysis:
lumber - 40 pcf
steel - 490 pcf
plain concrete and
reinforced concrete - 150 pcf
construction live
load* - 50 psf on the
upper concrete

*This live load is considered a minimum and must be increased where known concentrated loads may produce higher live loads
on the member. In addition, when a falsework platform extends outside of the concrete surface to provide working room, as for
most pier cap construction, the 50 psf live load should be applied to such walk space as well as to the upper concrete surface.


The inspector must be satisfied that the Contractor’s falsework plan or scheme is in conformance with the Specifications. A
common way to do this is to compute the maximum deflection and maximum stresses (bending, bearing, shear, etc) based on
plans of the proposed falsework and the assumed loading conditions. These computed stresses and deflections are then compared
with the allowable values. If the computed stress and deflection is less than or equal to the allowable value, the member qualifies
for use.

The examples of falsework investigation given in this section are presented as being representative of commonly used methods.
It is not intended that the Contractor’s methods be restricted to the details shown here. However, when it appears that unsafe or
improper methods are being used, these details may be suggested as a guide.

The American Concrete Institute recommends that three basic simplifications be used in checking forms and falsework. These
are as follows:

1. Beams such as joists, studs and walers should generally be assumed to be uniformly loaded with the exception of that when
only one or two point loads occur in a span then the assumption of uniform load should not be used.

2. Beams supported over three or more spans are regarded as continuous and the appropriate continuous beam formulas should
be used.

3. For beams continuous over two spans, design values for simple spans may be safely used except for reaction loads.

In the event that the results of the preliminary investigation of the falsework appear marginal, more exact methods should be used.
For very large members (falsework pier caps, etc.) more exact methods are recommended.

Formulas used in the following computations are found in Section 5-393.204. Allowable stresses are listed in Section 5-
393.202 and allowable deflections are listed in Section 5-393.203.

Particular attention should be given to writing the unit (inches, feet, pounds, etc.) with each number used in the calculations to
assure correct answers.


A check of the pier cap falsework details shown in Figure A 5-393.206 would require the following investigation:
(NOTE: items above plyform for bottom of pier cap in this figure will be checked in Section 5-393.206.)

1. Plyform for Bottom of Pier Cap

a. bending stress
b. rolling shear stress
c. deflection
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.206



6'-6" 24'-6" 6'-6"

A 2'-8" dia.



3/4" Plyform, Class I

2" x 4" @ 16" O.C.

1/2" dia. coil bolt with 4"x5"

washer spaced @ 4'-0"


2 - 2" x 6" (walers)

2" x 4" Brace @
4' O.C. both sides
4' x 8' x 3/4" Plyform, Class I

HP 12x53 x 40' long 2" - 6" x 10' Long @ 10" O.C.

Friction Collar

All lumber to be used material (species unknown)
5-393.206 (1) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

2. Joists
a. bending stress
b. horizontal shear stress
c. bearing stress
d deflection

3. Main Support Beams (HP12x53)

a. bending stress
b. shear stress
c. deflection

4. Friction Collar
a. Check against manufacturer’s safe carrying capacity.
b. Tighten collar bolts to correct torque.

The necessary calculations corresponding to the above example items are as follows:

1. Plyform for bottom of pier cap

Determine applied uniform load, w:

concrete 3.67 ft x 150 lb/ft3 = 550 lb/ft2

3/4" 2"x6"
plywood .06 ft x 40 lb/ft 3
= 3 lb/ft 2
Plyform Joist

live load = 50 lb/ft2

Total load w = 603 lb/ft

From the chart for Class I Plyform in Figure B 5-393.202 for face grain parallel to supports, for a concrete pressure of 603
psf, the maximum allowable stud spacing would be about 11 inches. Therefore, the proposed 10 inch spacing is safe. (Note
that the 8 foot panels must be parallel to the joists in this detail and, therefore, the grain of face plies will be parallel to the

In lieu of using the chart (as when the class of plywood is unknown), the following calculations would be necessary:
(Assume 3 span continuous design conditions.)

a. Bending stress f = M = 0.10 wL2 = 0.1 x 603 lb/ft x (10 in.)2 x 1 ft/12 in.

= 503 in. lb

S = 0.305 in.3 [from Section 5-393.202]

503 in. lb
F= =1649 lb/in.2
0.305 in.3

This stress is higher than the allowable stress of 1500 psi (which would apply when the class of plywood is unknown).
Therefore, care must be taken in determining type of plyform used. NOTE: the allowable stress of 1700 psi can only be
used when it has been determined that a concrete form grade of plyform Class I is being used.

b. Rolling shear stress v = V = 0.6 wL
( I / Q) b
= 0.6 x 603 lb/ft x .83 ft

= 300 lb
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.206 (2)

I 300 lb
From Section 5-393.202, = 0.393 in. b = 12 in. v= = 64 lb/in.2
Q 12 in. x 0.393 in.

This is acceptable since it is less than the allowable stress of 70 psi.

0069 w L4
c. Deflection - ∆ = w = (603 lb/ft) - (50 lb/ft live load) = 553 lb/ft, L = 10 in.

NOTE: live load is not to be included in deflection computations.

From Section 5-393.202 E = 1,600,000 lb/in.2

From Section 5-393.202 I = 0.088 in.4

0.0069 x 553 lb / ft x (10 in.) 4 ⎛ 1 ft. ⎞

∆ = x⎜ ⎟ = 0.023 in.
1,600,000 lb / in.2 0.088 in.4 ⎝ 12 in.⎠

This span is less than 67 inches long; therefore, the allowable deflection = 1/270 x 10 in. = 0.037 in.

Since actual deflection (0.023 in.) is less than allowable, (0.037 in.) the sheathing is acceptable.

2. Joists Width of applied load

Determine applied uniform load due to weight w
of forms per linear foot along cap:


2"x6" joist
plywood = 16 ft x 1 ft x .062 ft x 40 lb/ft3 = 39.7 lb 39.7 lb

12 in.
studs = 3.67 ft x 2 x x 1.5 lb/ft = 8.3 lb 8.3 lb
16 in.

plates = 4 x 1 ft x 1.5 lb/ft = 6.0 lb 6.0 lb

walers = 8 x 1 ft x 2.5 lb/ft = 20.0 lb 20.0 lb .

Total 74.0 lb/lf of cap 74.0 lb/lf of cap

⎛ 10 in.⎞ = 62 lb/joist 55.5 lb/joist

forms = 74 lb / lf of cap x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 12 in.⎠

⎛ 10 in.⎞ = 1298 lb/joist 1168.4 lb/joist

concrete = 2.83 ft x 3.67 ft x 150 lb / ft 3 x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 12 in.⎠

Total 1360 lb/joist 1224 lb/joist

(10 in. Spacing) (9 in. Spacing)

5-393.206 (3) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

This weight is spread over a length of 3.0 feet for all practical purposes; therefore, the corresponding uniform load on the
joists is:

1360 lb / joist 1224 lb / joist

form + concrete =
3 ft 3 ft

= 453.3 lb/lf of joist 408 lb/lf of joist

50 lb 10 in. 50 lb 9 in.
live load = x x
ft 2 12 in. ft 2 12 in.

= 41.7 lb/lf of joist 37.5 lb/lf of joist

weight of joist = 2.3 lb/lf 2.3 lb/lf

Total uniform w = 497 lb/lf = 448 lb/lf

(10 in. Spacing) (9 in. Spacing)

a. Bending stress f =
NOTE: for beams with a very wide bearing area (such as the 12
inches wide beam flange in this example), it is reasonable to 3'-0"
assume the span begins about 2 inches back from the edge of the Uniform load
support. For example span length would then be = (3'-10") - 8" =
3' - 2". To simplify calculations, assume the load w is for full
length of the 3'-2" span. This will result in only an insignificant
stress increase. Maximum bending stress in this example occurs 2" x 6"
with no load on the cantilevers.
L = 3'-2"
497 lb / ft x (3.17 ft ) 3'-10"
M = = = 624 ft lb
8 8
S = 7.56 in.3 (For the member sizes used here, all lumber will be S4S.)

⎛ 624 ft lb ⎞ ⎛ 12 in.⎞
f = ⎜ ⎟ x⎜ ⎟ = 990 lb / in.2
⎝ 7.56 in.3 ⎠ ⎝ 1 ft ⎠

Allowable bending stress (assuming the proposed form lumber is used material with no visible grade stamp, the
allowable stress for Red Pine will be used) = 1375 psi. The member is acceptable with regard to bending stress.

V1 w (L - 2h) 497 lb / ft (3.17 ft - 2 x 5.5 in./12 in./ft )

b. Horizontal Shear Stress H = 1.5 V1 = = = 560 lb
bh 2 2

1.5 x 560 lb
b = 1 ½ in. h = 5 ½ in. H= = 102 lb/in.2
. in. x 5.5 in.

This is more than the allowable horizontal shear stress of 88 psi for Red Pine and is, therefore, not acceptable. Thus,
reduce the 2" x 6" joist spacing from 10 inches to 9 inches. (9/10) x 102 = 92 psi about 88 psi and, therefore, acceptable.
Bending stress will reduce also, so it is also acceptable.

c. Bearing stress in joist on the HP12x53 beam

Determine total load of joist

⎛ 9⎞
Form Lumber = 74 x ⎜ ⎟ = 55.5 lb / joist
⎝ 12 ⎠
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.206 (4)

⎛ 9 in. ⎞
Concrete = 2.83 ft x 3.67 ft x 150 lb / ft 3 x ⎜ ⎟ = 1168.4 lb / joist
⎝ 12 in.⎠

⎛ 9 in. ⎞
Live Load = 50 lb / ft 2 x 8 ft x ⎜ ⎟ = 300.0 lb / joist
⎝ 12 in.⎠

Weight of Joist = 2.3 lb/ft x 10 ft = 23.0 lb

Total = 1547 lb/joist

1547 lb
The bearing weight at each support = = 774 lb

P 8'-0"
Bearing stress f =

P= 774 lb Live load Dead load + live load

A = 1 1/2 in. x 12 in. = 18.0 in.2

2"x6" joist x 10'-0" long
f = = 43 lb/in2
861 lb 861 lb
This is less than the allowable side bearing stress of 350 psi (for Red Pine).

d. Deflection of joist

Assume similar loading condition to that which causes maximum bending stress. w = 448 lb/lf (for 9 inch spacing)

) = w = (448 lb/lf) - (37.5 lb/ft live load) = 410 lb/ft
384 EI
L = 38 in.

E = 1,300,000 psi (Red Pine)

I = 22.53 in.4

5 x 410 lb / ft x (38 in.) 4 ⎛ 1 ft. ⎞

∆ = 4 x ⎜ ⎟ = 0.032 in.
384 x 1,300,000 lb / in. x 22.53 in. ⎝ 12 in.⎠

The allowable deflection = x 38 in. = 0.141 in.

Since actual deflection is less than allowable, the member is acceptable.

3. Main Support Beams (HP12x53)

Loads will be as determined for bearing stress in 2 c) above except that the live load can reasonably be reduced to 50 psf on only
the horizontal concrete surface area for this member.

Determine dead load on each joist which bears on the two HP 12x53 beams.
Form Lumber = 55.5 lb/joist
Concrete = 1168.4 lb/joist
Weight of Joist = 23 lb
Total Applied Dead Load = 1247 lb/joist
5-393.206 (5) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Convert to uniform load on each 12HPx53 beam.

1247 lb / joist ⎛ 12 in.⎞

Dead Load = x⎜ ⎟ = 831 lb / ft
2 ⎝ 9 in. ⎠
⎛ 2.83 ft ⎞
Live Load = 50 lb / ft 2 x ⎜ ⎟ = 71 lb / ft
⎝ 2 ⎠
= 53 lb / ft
Weight of Beam
w = 955 lb / ft

a. Bending stress f =

Bending stress must be checked at locations Î and Ï. There are no available formulas to determine these moments
directly. Therefore, moments will be determined by combining two known loading conditions in the AISC Steel
Construction Manual as follows:

2 1
w = 955 lb/ft


6'-6" 24'-6" 6'-6"

Friction collar supports

w = 955 lb/ft w = 955 lb/ft w = 955 lb/ft

6'-6" 24'-6" 6'-6"

20174 ft lb
71655 ft lb

This results in the following bending moment diagrams:

51481 ft lb

1 1


955 lb / ft x (6.5 ft )
M1 = = = 20,174 ft lb
2 2

955 lb / ft x (24.5 ft )
M2 = = = 71,655 ft lb
8 8
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.206 (6)

For an HP12x53, S = 66.8 in.3 (from AISC Manual).

Use moments from summarized diagram at right above.

20,174 ft lb (12 in./1 ft )

At location Î, f1 = = 3624 lb/in.2
66.8 in.3

51,481 ft lb (12 in./1 ft )

At location Ï, f2 = = 9248 lb/in.2
66.8 in.3

Assuming that the steel pile material would likely be ASTM A 36 grade, the allowable temporary bending stress is
25,000 psi. Therefore, this member qualified in bending.
955 lb/ft
b. Shear Stress in HP12x53 v =
Load Diagram at location Î
V1 = 6.5 ft x 955 lb/ft = 6208 lb
6'-6" 24'-6" 6'-6"
Shear Diagram at location Ï
v2 = 955 lb/ft x = 11700 lb 1 2

From AISC Manual, for HP12x53, web thickness =0.435 in.

height = 11.78 in.

11700 lb 1
At the point of maximum shear, v = = 2283 lb/in.2 2
0.435 in. x 11.78 in.

This is less than the allowable temporary shear stress of 15000 psi.

c. Deflection of HP12x53

The loading diagram will be as shown above for shear except that live load will not be included for deflection
computations. Therefore, w = (955 lb/ft) - (71 lb/ft live load) = 884 lb/ft.

Deflections must be determined at points Î and Ï. Since there are no readily available formulas for determining these
deflections directly, this loading situation may be duplicated by combining two of the available loading diagrams in the
AISC Steel Construction Manual as follows:

1 w = 884 lb/ft

1 1 1

2 2 2
5-393.206 (7) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Deflection at point Ï (midspan) is determined by the following formulas from the AISC manual for the loading diagrams
shown above.

⎡ wx ⎤ ⎡ wa x ⎤

∆2 = ⎢
⎣ 24EIL
( L4 − 2 L2 x 2 + Lx 3 − 2a 2 L2 + 2a 2 x 2 )⎥ - ⎢
⎦ ⎣ 12EIL
(L2 − x 2 )⎥

w = 884 lb/ft

L = 24.5 ft

x = ½ x 24.5 ft = 12.25 ft

a = 6.5 ft

E = 29,000,000 psi

I = 393 in.4 (from AISC manual)

⎡ 884 lb / ft x 12.25 ft x (24.54 - (2 x 24.52 x 12.252 ) + (24.5 x 12.253 ) − (2 x 6.52 x 24.52 ) + (2 x 6.52 x 12.253 ))
∆2 = ⎢
⎣ 24 x 29,000,000 psi x 393 in.4 x 24.5 ft

⎛ 12 in.⎞ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 12 in.⎞ ⎤
3 3
884 lb / ft x (6.5) ft) 2 x 12.25 ft
x⎜ ⎟ ⎥ - ⎢⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ ⎝ 12 x 29,000,000 psi x 393 in.4 x 24.5 ft ⎠
x ( 24.5 2
- 12.25 2
) ft 2
) x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠ ⎥⎦

)2 = 0.523 in. - 0.106 in. = 0.416 in.

The maximum allowable deflection in this member will be 1/4 inch. See Section 5-393.203 for further details. Since the
allowable deflection at this point is exceeded, the member must either be increased in size or wedges must be placed to
compensate for this deflection. (For example, at midspan 0.416 of wedging is necessary)

The deflection at point â may be determined with sufficient accuracy by use of the following loading condition from the
AISC Manual:

w = 884 lb/ft

24'-6" 6'-6"

⎡ 884 lb / ft x 6.5 ft x (4 x 6.52 x 24.5 - 24.53 + 6 x 6.52 x 6.5 - 4 x 6.5 x 6.52 + 6.53 ) ft 3 ⎛ 12 in.⎞ 3 ⎤
∆1 = ⎢ x⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠ ⎥⎦
= - 0.354
⎣ 24 x 29,000,000 psi x 393 in.4

Since this exceeds the allowable deflection of 1/4", compensation (by wedging or other) must be made in the falsework
construction, in order to obtain true lines.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393-207 (1)

HP 12x53 in deflected position

(without deflection compensation)
NOTE: The minus sign indicates an upward


deflection of the ends of the HP 12x53

as indicated in the diagram.

6'-6" 24'-6" 6'-6"

CL Columns
and friction collars

4. Friction Collar

The reaction on each side of the friction collar may be determined from the shear diagram in part b.

F = 6208 lb + 11700 lb = 17908 lb

Total load on each friction collar = 17908 lb x 2 beams = 35816 lb

NOTE: The collar bolts shall be torqued adequately to develop friction collar load. This load should be checked against the
allowable load listed in the manufacturer’s literature for the proposed friction collars.


Assume the Contractor has proposed the slab falsework details shown in Figure A 5-393.207. Assume also that rails for the
strike off machine will be placed on the fascia beams. The following investigations will then be necessary to determine the
acceptability of the proposed method:

Interior Bays Slab Overhang Falsework

1. Plywood Sheathing 1. Plywood sheathing
a. Bending stress a. Bending stress
b. Rolling shear stress b. Rolling shear stress
c. Deflection c. Deflection
2. Stringers 2. Stringers
a. Bending stress a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing stress c. Bearing stress
d. Deflection d. Deflection
3. Joists (double 2" x 12" member) 3. Steel overhang bracket
a. Bending stress a. Safe load
b. Horizontal shear stress b. Deflection
c. Bearing stress on washer 4. Hanger
d. Deflection a. Direct tension on bolt
4. Hanger b. Capacity of hanger
a. Direct tension on bolt
b. Capacity of hanger
Figure A 5-393.207 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005


2" x 4" @ 1'-0" O.C.
Hangers @ 5'-0" O.C. 8" Min. conc. slab 3/4" Plyform, Class I

Double 2" x 10" @ 5'-0" O.C.

2" x 4" @
1/2" Dia. coil bolt (typ.) 12" O.C.
Superior overhang
bracket @ 5'-0" O.C.

3'-10" 8'-2" (typical)


8" Min. conc. slab 3/4" Plyform, Class I

2" x 10"
1/2" Dia. coil bolt 2" x 4" @ 12" O.C.
with 3" x 4" washer
5'-0" 5'-0"
All lumber to be Douglas Fir, No. 1.

Figure A 5-393.207

1. Plywood Sheathing

Determine applied load w. 3/4" Plyform

Concrete 0.67 ft x 1 ft x 150 lb/ft3 = 100.0 lb/ft 2" x 4"
Plywood 0.06 ft x 1 ft x 40 lb/ft3 = 2.5 lb/ft 12" Stringers
Live Load = 50.0 lb/ft @ 12" O.C.
w= 152.5 lb/ft

a., b., and c. - Bending, Rolling Shear and Deflection are all automatically checked when using Figure B 5-393.202.
Assume face grains will be placed the weak way, (face grain parallel to supports). According to this Figure, 12 inch spacing
on ¾ inch plyform Class I will safely support about 550 psf; therefore, the sheathing is acceptable.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.207 (2)

2. Stringers
12" w = 152.5 lb/ft
Determine applied load w per foot of stringer.

Concrete, plywood and live load = 152.5 lb/ft

Weight of member (2 x 4) = 1.5 lb/ft
w = 154.0 lb/ft
2" x 4" Stringers

a. Bending Stress

A 2 or 3 span continuous situation will very likely apply for the spans given (5'-0"). Assume 2 span continuous for the
design check.

w = 155 lb/ft

2" x 4" Stringer

5'-0" 5'-0" Waler spacing

154 lb / ft x (5 ft )
M = = = 481.2 ft lb
8 8

S = 3.06 in.3

M 481.2 ft lb ⎛ 12 in.⎞
F = = x⎜ ⎟ = 1887 psi
S 3.06 in.3 ⎝ 1 ft ⎠

Since the allowable bending stress in Douglas Fir is 1875 psi, this member is acceptable in bending with slight

⎛ V1 ⎞
b. Horizontal Shear Stress H = 1.5 ⎜ ⎟
⎝ bh ⎠

Assuming the stringers are continuous over two spans, the maximum shear occurs at the center support and is equal to V
= 5/8 wR. To convert this to the applicable horizontal shear, use L = (L-2h) as follows:

⎛ ⎛ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎞ ⎞
V 1 = 5 / 8 w (L - 2h) = 5 / 8 x 154 lb / ft ⎜ 5 ft - ⎜ 2 x 3.5 in. x ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ = 425 lb
⎝ ⎝ ⎝ 12 in.⎠ ⎠ ⎠
b = 1 ½ in.

⎛ 426 lb ⎞
h = 3 1/ 2 in. H = 1.5 x ⎜ ⎟ = 121 psi
⎝ 1.5 in. x 3.5 in.⎠

The allowable horizontal shear for Douglas Fir is 120 psi; therefore, the member is acceptable with regard to horizontal
shear with a slight overstress.
5-393.207 (3) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

c. Bearing Stress - f = P/A

For a two span continuous stringer, the maximum P will be at the center reaction point.

P = R2 =

5 x 154 lb / ft x 5 ft 2" x 4" Stringer

= 962.5 lb

A = 2 (1 ½ in.) (1 ½ in.) = 4.5 in.2

1 5/8"
962.5 lb
f= = 214 psi
4.5 in.2 Bearing 2 - 2" x 12"
1 1/2"
1 1/2"

The temporary allowable side bearing stress for Douglas Fir is 480 psi; therefore, member is acceptable.

d. Deflection of Stringers )=
185 EI

Since deflection is to be based on dead load only, the value for w will be:

w = 154 lb/ft - 50 lb/ft = 104 lb/ft

L = 5 ft

E = 1,760,000 lb/in.2

I = 5.36 in.4

4 ⎛ 12 in.⎞
104 lb / ft x 5 ft x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠
∆= = 0.063 in.
185 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 5.36 in. 4

The surface being formed is not exposed to view and is, therefore, not subject to the normal deflection limitation.
However, this value will be used later to determine the cumulative deflection of the falsework.

3. Joists (double 2 x 10 member)

Dead load is applied to this member through eight 2 x 4 stringers. As a general rule, when the concentrated loads are applied
through 3 or more crossing members, the assumption of uniform loading may be used.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.207 (4)

7'-4" (Concrete carried by joist)

Double 2" x 10" (joist)

8'-2" O.C.

Determine uniform load on the joist:

⎛ 1 ft ⎞ 3
Concrete 8 in. x ⎜ ⎟ x 1 ft x 150 lb / ft x 5 ft = 500.0 lb
⎝ 12 in.⎠

Plywood 0.06 ft x 1 ft x 40 lb/ft3 x 5 ft = 12.5 lb

⎛ 1 ⎞
Stringers 8 x 1.5 lb / 1f x 5 ft x ⎜ ⎟ = 8.2 lb
⎝ 7.33⎠

Double 2 x 10 2 x 3.9 lb/lf = 7.8 lb

Live Load 50 lb/ft2 x 5 ft x 1 ft = 250.0 lb

Total w = 778.5 lb/lf

w = 778.5 lb/ft

2 - 2" x 10"

Assumed design condition

a. Bending Stress - f =

778.5 lb / ft x (7.333 ft.)

M= = = 5233 ft lb
8 8

for two (2) 2 x 10's, S4S, S = 2 x 21.39 in.3 = 42.78 in.3

⎛ 12 in.⎞
5233 ft lb x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠
f = = 1468 psi
4278 in.3
5-393.207 (5) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

The allowable bending stress for Douglas Fir is 1875 psi; therefore, the member is acceptable in bending.

b. Horizontal Shear Stress H = 1.5

w (L - 2h) ⎛ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎞
V1 = = 778.5 lb / ft x ⎜ 7.333 ft - 2 x 9.5 in. x ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ / 2 = 2238 lb
2 ⎝ ⎝ 12 in.⎠ ⎠

Half of this amount is carried on each 2 x 10 or V1 = 1119 lb per 2 x 10.

b = 1 ½ in.

h = 9 ½ in.

1.5 x 1119 lb
H= = 118 psi
1.5 in. x 9.5 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is acceptable.

c. Bearing Stress on Washer f = P/A

778.5 lb / ft x 7.33 ft
P= = 2853 lb
2 4"

With a 3" x 4" washer placed as shown,

and assuming a 3/4 inch space is used
between the 2" x 10" members,

A = 3 in. x 3 in. = 9.0 in.2

1 1/2"
2853 lb 1 1/2"
f= = 317 psi
9 in.2 3/4"

The allowable side bearing stress for Douglas Fir is 480 psi. A stress increase factor of 1.13 is permitted in accordance
with Figure A 5-393.204 resulting in a total allowable stress of 480 x 1.13 - 542 psi which is considerably more than the
actual stress.

d. Deflection )= w = 778.5 lb/ft - 250 lb/ft = 528.5 lb/ft
384 EI

= 7' - 4"

E = 1,760,000 psi

For 2-2 x 10's I = 2 x 98.93 in4 = 197.86 in.4

⎛ 12 in.⎞
5 x 528.5 lb / ft x (7.333 ft) 4 x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠
∆ = = 0.097
384 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 197.86 in.4
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.207 (6)

The cumulative deflection of the falsework in the interior bays is limited to about 1/2 inch (see Section 5-393.203). It
can be seen that the cumulative deflection of stringers (0.063 in.) plus joists (0.097 in.) will be only 0.160 inches
(approximately 3/16 inch) and is, therefore, acceptable.

4. Hanger Rods

The load on each hanger rod will be equal to the bearing load on the plate washers, or 2853 pounds.

The ½ inch diameter coil bolts for the hangers are manufactured in various strengths such as 6000 pound capacity, 9000
pound capacity, etc.. When required, the Contractor should furnish evidence of the safe capacity of the proposed coil bolts.

In addition to checking the coil bolt, the hanger must be checked for rated capacity. Most hangers are rated for the load
carrying capacity of the entire hanger. The load on either side should not exceed one-half of this value.


1. Plywood Sheathing

Maximum stress in the sheathing will occur adjacent to the beam, at the point where concrete depth is a maximum.

8" 3'-10"

8 3/4"

10 1/4"
9 1/2"


2" 1'-0" 1'-0" 1'-0" 1'-0"

54" (Top mem 4"
ber of superior

* Stool height is an estimated value

for computation purposes only.

Assume the concrete stool plus flange thickness at the maximum depth will be 3 inches. Where this value is known to be
greater, use the known maximum value.

Determine uniform dead load on the sheathing based on this maximum thickness:

⎛ 1 ft ⎞ 3
Concrete 11 in x ⎜ ⎟ x 1 ft x 150 lb / ft = 137.5 lb / ft
⎝ 12 in.⎠

Plywood 0.06 ft x 1 ft x 40 lb/ft3 = 2.5 lb/ft

Live Load = 50 lb/ft

Total w = 190.0 lb/ft

5-393.207 (7) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

From Figure B 5-393.202, the safe carrying load for Class I plywood placed weak way with supports at 12 inches is 550 psf.
Therefore, the sheathing is acceptable.

2. Stringers

The second stringer from the right will be the controlling stringer for design. (The stringer on the right carries only about
one-half as much load.) The average slab thickness at this controlling stringer can be determined by calculation or by scaling
the drawing. In this case, an average thickness of 10 ¼ inches was scaled. The uniform load on this stringer will be:

⎛ 1 ft ⎞ 3
Concrete 10.25 in. x ⎜ ⎟ x 1 ft x 150 lb / ft = 128.1 lb / ft
⎝ 12 in.⎠

10 1/4"
Plywood .06 ft x 1 ft x 40 lb/ft3 = 2.5 lb/ft

Stringer = 1.5 lb/ft

Live Load = 50 lb/ft

2" x 4" Stringer
Total w = 182.1 lb/ft

The uniform load on interior stringers was 154 lb/ft. Since stringers on the overhang have the same span length as the stringers
on the interior bays, their stresses may quickly be checked by ratios as follows:

182.1 lb / ft
a. Bending Stress F= x 1887 psi = 2231 psi
154 lb / ft

This is 19% over the allowable bending stress of 1875 psi for Douglas Fir. Therefore, this member should have its
spacings reduced 20% or down to 10 inch spacing.

⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞
Concrete 10.40 in. x ⎜ ⎟ x 10 in. x ⎜ ⎟ x 150 lb / ft
= 108.3 lb / ft
⎝ 12 in.⎠ ⎝ 12 in.⎠

Plywood 0.06 ft x 0.833 ft x 40 lb/ft3 = 2.1 lb/ft

Stringer = 1.5 lb/ft

Live Load 50 lb/ft2 x (0.833 ft) = 41.7 lb/ft

10" Total w = 153.6 lb/ft

10 1/4"

2" x 4" Stringer

Repeat a. and b. steps as follows:

The uniform load on interior stringers was 154 lb/lf. Since stringers on the overhang have the same span length as the
stringers on the interior bays, their stresses may quickly be check by ratios as follows:
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.207 (8)

153.6 lb / ft
a. Bearing Stress f= x 1887 psi = 1882 psi
154 lb / ft

This is about the allowable bending stress of 1875 psi for Douglas Fir; therefore, this member is acceptable in bending.

153.6 lb / ft
b. Horizontal Shear Stress H= x 121 psi = 120.7 psi
154 lb / ft

This is about the same as the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

c. Bearing Stress f= P

Using the Superior bracket as recommended by the manufacturer with a slotted 2" x 6" top bearing surface, the bearing
area is:

2" x 4" Stringer

2" x 6" with

2 center slot
A = 4 in. x 1 1/2 in. = 6.0 in.
153.6 lb / ft 1-1/2" Wide slot
P= x 962.5 lb = 960 lb

154 lb / ft

960 lb
f= = 160 psi
6.0 in.2
Contact surfaces
5 1/2"

The allowable stress increase factor need not be figured since this stress is much less than the allowable stress of 490 psi.

d. Deflection of Stringers =

The uniform load is the only factor which differs from the calculation for deflection of the interior stringers. For this
member, w = 153.6 lb/ft - 41.7 lb/ft (live load) = 111.9 lb/ft. Deflection of the overhang stringers can be determined by
using a ratio of the uniform loads.

111.9 lb / ft
)= x 0.063 in. = 0.068 in.
104 lb / ft

Since this surface is considered to be exposed to view and the span length is less than 67 inches, the maximum allowable
deflection will be:

⎛ 12 in.⎞
5 ft x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠
L / 270 = = 0.222 in.

The actual deflection is less than this; therefore, the member is acceptable.
5-393.207 (9) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

3. Steel Overhang Brackets

Superior brackets may be checked using the influence lines in Figure F 5-393.202. To use this chart, the load on individual
stringers must be determined and the distance from the outboard end of the bracket to each stringer must be determined. A
calculation summary of the loads and distances are on the next page.



Spacing of brackets = 5'-0"

* Use 8.30' because most of concrete section

is to the right of "B".

** Stool height is an estimated 3"

for computation purposes only.






November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.207 (10)

⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞
Plywood load = ⎜ ⎟ x⎜ ⎟ x (10 in.) x ⎜ ⎟ x (40) = 2.1 lbs / linear ft
⎝ 4 in.⎠ ⎝ 12 in.⎠ ⎝ 12 in.⎠

Stringer load = 1.2 lbs/linear ft

⎛ 10 in.⎞
Live load = (50 lbs / ft 2 ) x ⎜ ⎟ = 1.2 lbs / linear ft
⎝ 12 in.⎠

Concrete loads:

⎡ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎛ 1 ft. ⎞ ⎛ 1 in. ⎞ ⎤ 3
PA = ⎢8.075 in. x ⎜ ⎟ x (2 in.) x ⎜ ⎟ x⎜ ⎟ x 150 lbs / ft
⎝ 12 in.⎠ ⎝ 10 in.⎠ ⎥⎦
= 1.7 lbs / linear ft
⎣ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠

⎡ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎛ 9 in. ⎞ ⎤ 3
PB = ⎢ 8.30 in. x ⎜ ⎟ x (5 in.) x ⎜ ⎟ + 8.075 in. x ⎜ ⎟ x (2 in.) x ⎜ ⎟ x⎜ ⎟ x (150 lbs / ft )
⎝ 12 in. ⎠ ⎝ 10 in. ⎠ ⎥⎦
= 58.4 lbs / linear ft
⎣ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠

⎡ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎤ 3
PC = ⎢8.90 in. x ⎜ ⎟ x (10 in. ) x ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ x 150 lbs / ft = 92.7 lbs / linear ft
⎣ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠ ⎦

⎡ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎤ 3
PD = ⎢9.65 in. x ⎜ ⎟ x (10 in. ) x ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ x 150 lbs / ft = 100.5 lbs / linear ft
⎣ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠ ⎦

⎡ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎤ 3
PE = ⎢10.4 in. x ⎜ ⎟ x (9 in. ) x ⎜ ⎟ x 150 lbs / ft
⎝ 12 in.⎠ ⎥⎦
= 97.5 lbs / linear ft
⎣ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠

⎡ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎛ 8 in.⎞ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎤ 3
PF = ⎢10.7 in. x ⎜ ⎟ x⎜ ⎟ x⎜ ⎟ ⎥ x 150 lbs / ft = 44.6 lbs / linear ft
⎣ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠ ⎦

TOTAL =395.4 lbs/linear ft


w = dead load plus live load
PA = 25 lbs/linear ft PA = 188 lbs
PB = 41.7 lbs/linear ft PB = 646 lbs
PC = 41.7 lbs/linear ft PC = 861 lbs
PD = 41.7 lbs/linear ft PD = 909 lbs
PE = 37.5 lbs/linear ft PE = 865 lbs
PF = 16.7 lbs/linear ft PF = 403 lbs

Examples: Bracket load PA = 5/4 x (1.7 + 2.1 + 1.2 + 25) x (5.0') = 188 lbs
PB = 5/4 x (58.4 + 2.1 + 1.2 + 41.7) x (5.0') = 646 lbs
5-393.207 (11) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Stringer No. Load On 45ECoil Rod Load on Diagonal Member

A 188 lb x 2.7 = 508 lb 188 lb x 2.7 = 508 lb

B 646 lb x 1.3 = 840 lb 646 lb x 1.9 = 1227 lb
C 861 lb x 1.95 = 1679 lb 861 lb x 1.3 -= 1119 lb
D 909 lb x 1.7 = 1545 lb 909 lb x 0.80 = 727 lb
E 865 lb x 1.58 = 1367 lb 865 lb x 0.40 = 346 lb
F 403 lb x 1.45 = 584 lb 403 lb x 0.10 = 40 lb
Total Load = 6523 lb Total Load = 3967 lb

Manufacturer’s Manufacturer’s
Allowable Load = 9000 lb Allowable Load = 4733 lb*

* This load is only for overhang brackets on steel beams.

Since the applied loads are less than the allowable load, the coil rod and diagonal are acceptable with regard to strength.
However, other bracket components such as the hanger assembly must also be checked for strength requirements as per
manufacturer’s allowable loads.

b. Deflection of Overhang Bracket

The manufacturer’s literature indicates that the deflection is determined by summarizing the total vertical weight on the
bracket. Only the weight of concrete need be applied since deflection due to dead weight of the falsework may be
allowed for prior to concrete placement.

⎛ 8 in. + 11 in.⎞ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞
Total weight of concrete = ⎜ ⎟ x 3.33 ft x 5 ft x 150 lb / ft x ⎜ ⎟ = 1977 lb
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 12 in.⎠

Using Figure F 5-393.202 as a guide, the deflection resulting from a load of 1977 lb would be about 3/16 inch. The
cumulative deflection of the overhang falsework may now be summarized.

Deflection of sheathing negligible

Deflection of stringers 0.068 in.
Deflection of brackets 0.190 in.
Seating of wood members (2 x 1/16")* 0.120 in.

Total Deflection at center of stringer span = 0.378 in.

*Abutting faces of wood members are assumed to crush about 1/16 inch when heavy load is applied. This value will be
less for tightly constructed falsework. In addition, wood fillers against the web as used on prestressed concrete girders
must be uniformly fitted and seated to prevent uneven overhang deflections.

The falsework along the edge of coping should, therefore, be set about 3/8 in. above final grade to compensate for the
anticipated deflection.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (1)

4. Hanger

a. The bolt on this hanger is actually the 45E coil rod which was checked in Item 3. above. Note that the manufacturer
specifies a 9000 lb capacity coil bolt.

b. Hangers are normally rated for vertical load carrying capacity. The vertical component on this hanger can be determined
as follows:

P = 0.707 x 6523 lb = 4612 lb



This value should not exceed 1/2 of the safe working load for the total hanger. Preferably, the manufacturer should
furnish information as to the safe load along the 45E angle for the overhang hangers. Note: The safe working loads
ascribed to these hangers only applies when the device has full bearing contact on the top flange of the beam and when
the hanger bolts are flush with the edge of the beam flange.


Assume the Contractor has proposed the falsework scheme shown in Figure A 5-393.208. In addition, assume they have stated
that a strike-off machine weighing 8000 pounds will be used and strike-off rails will be located as shown in the figure (outside

The following stress investigation would be necessary.

1. Sheathing 4. Pile Cap

a. Bending stress a. Bending stress
b. Rolling shear stress b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Deflection c. Bearing stress
d. Deflection
2. Joist (2 x 6)
a. Bending stress 5. Pile - total reaction
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing stress 6. Strike-off machine support system
d. Deflection a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress
3. Beams (6 x 14) c. Bearing stress
a. Bending stress d. Deflection
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing stress
d. Deflection
Figure A 5-393.208 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005


strike-off machine
Concrete slab 3/4" Plyform sheathing

2" x 6" @ 1'-0" O.C.


6" x 14" Beams Drift pins

@ 5'-0" O.C.
2" x 12" Bracing
12" x 12" Pile cap

A Timber piles
butt dia. 12"
10'-0" 10'-0" 10'-0"
Concrete slab

2" x 6" @ 1'-0" O.C.

12" x 12" cap 6" x 14" @ 5'-0" O.C.

2" x 12" Bracing

Timber piles

10'-0" 10'-0" 10'-0"

All lumber to be Douglas Fir, Construction Grade
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (2)

Calculations are as follows:

1. 3/4 inch Sheathing

Determine applied uniform load

Concrete 1.75 ft x 1 ft x 150 = 262.5 lb/ft
ft 3

Plywood 0 .06 ft x 1 ft x 40 = 2.5 lb/ft
ft 3

Live Load = 50.0 lb/ft

Total w = 315.0 lb/ft

Figure B 5-393.202 indicates that even the lowest grade plyform (Class II) placed in the weak direction will safely support
about 500 psf; therefore, the sheathing is acceptable.

2. Joist (2 x 6)

Since these members are spaced at 1'-0", the applied uniform load = 315 lb/ft + 2.3 lb/ft (weight of joist) = 317.3 lb/ft.
Assume two span continuous design with L = 5 feet.

a. Bending Stress

317.3 lb / ft x (5 ft )
M wL2
f= M= = = 991.5 ft/lb
S 8 8

S = 7.56 in.3

⎛ 12 in.⎞
991.5 ft / lb ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠
f = = 1574 psi

Since this is less than the 1875 psi allowable stress, it is acceptable.

b. Horizontal Shear Stress H = 1.5

⎛ ⎛ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎞ ⎞
At the center support, V1 = 5 / 8 w (L - 2h) = 5 / 8 x 317.3 lb / ft x ⎜ 5 ft - ⎜ 2 x 5.5 in. x ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ = 809.8 lbs
⎝ ⎝ ⎝ 12 in.⎠ ⎠ ⎠
b = 1 1/2 in. h = 5 1/2 in

809.8 lb
H = 1.5 = 147.2 psi
1.5 in. x 5.5 in.

Allowable horizontal shear is 120 psi; therefore, this is not acceptable, so reduce joist spacing to 10 inch.

⎛ ⎛ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎞ ⎞
w = 264.8 V 1 = 5 / 8 (264.8) x ⎜ 5 ft - ⎜ 2 x 5.5 in. x ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ = 675.8 lbs
⎝ ⎝ ⎝ 12 in.⎠ ⎠ ⎠
1.5 (675.8)
H = = 122.9 psi ≈ 120 psi allowable.
1.5 in. x 5.5 in.

Also, bending is OK with the reduced spacing.

5-393.208 (3) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

c. Bearing Stress f =
A Bearing
For two span continuous, maximum P is at the surface 6" x 14" Beam
center support.

5wL 5 x 264.8 lb / ft x 5 ft
P = R2 = = = 1655 lbs
4 4
2" x 6" Joist
A = 1 1/2 in. x 5.5 in. = 8.25 in.2

NOTE: The 6 x 14 beams will normally be rough PLAN VIEW

cut and, therefore, will have the full 6 x 14
dimensions and the area will be 1 1/2 in x 6.0 in. = 9.0 in.2.

1655 lb
f= = 201 psi
8.25 in.2

This is much less than the 480 psi allowable and is, therefore, acceptable.

d. Deflection of 2 x 6 joist ) =

w = 264.8 lb/ft - 41.7 lb/ft (live load) = 223.1 lb/ft

L = 5 feet
⎛ 12 in.⎞
223.1 lb / ft x (5 ft) 4 x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠
E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2 ∆ = = 0.035 in.
185 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 20.80 in.4

I = 20.80 in.4

L ⎛ 12 in.⎞
The limiting deflection is = 5 ft x ⎜ ⎟ = 0.22 in. (as specified in Section 5- 393.202).
270 ⎝ 1 ft ⎠

Since .035 inches is less than the allowable, the member is acceptable)

3. Beams (6 x 14)

Assume the Contractor has stated that these beams will be furnished in 22 foot lengths. Two span continuous design will
then apply. Determine applied, uniform load:

Live load, concrete, sheathing and joists = 264.8 lb/ft2 x 5 ft = 1324.0 lb/ft
⎛ 1 ft ⎞
Weight of 6 x 14 member (rough cut) = 6 in. x 14 in. x ⎜ ⎟ x 40 lb / ft 3 = 23.3 lb / ft
⎝ 144 in. 2 ⎠
w = 1347.3 lb/ft

NOTE: It can be assumed that the ends of joists will be staggered so that the critical load determined in 2c. above will not
occur on any one beam.

a. Bending stress f=
1347.3 lb / ft x (10 ft )
M= = = 16841.3 ft lb
8 8

S = 196.0 in.3 (for rough cut 6 x 14)

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (4)

⎛ 12 in.⎞
16841.3 x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠
f = = 1031 psi
196.0 in. 3

The allowable bending stress is 1875 psi; therefore, this is acceptable.

1.5 V1
b. Horizontal shear stress H=
⎛ ⎛ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎞ ⎞
5 x 1347.3 lb / ft x ⎜⎜ 10 ft - ⎜ 2 x (14 in.) x ⎜ ⎟⎟⎟
1 5w (L - 2h) ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠ ⎠ ⎟⎠
For 2 span continuous, V = = = 6456 lb
8 8

1.5 x 6456 lb
b = 6 in. h = 14 in. H = = 115 psi
6 in. x 14 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

c. Side bearing stress f =
For 2 span continuous, the maximum P will be over the center support.

5wL 5 x 1347.3 lb / ft x 10 ft
P = R2 = = = 16841 lb
4 4

16841 lb
A = 6 in. x 14 in. = 84 in.2 f = = 200 psi
84 in.2

Allowable side bearing stress is 480 psi; therefore, this is acceptable.

d. Deflection ) =
185 EI

w = 1347.3 lb/ft - 41.67 lb/ft2 x 5 ft (live load) = 1139.0 lb ft

L = 120 in.

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

I = 1372 in.4 (rough cut)

⎛ 12 in.⎞
1139.0 lb / ft x (10 ft) 4 x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠
∆ = = 0.043 in.
185 x 1,800,000 lb / in. 2 x 1372 in. 4

This is less than the allowable deflection of 1/4 inch for the member but must also be checked later as part of the
cumulative deflection.

4. Pile cap (12 x 12)

The reaction of the 6 x 14 beams on the pile cap will be as follows:

NOTE: A simple span reaction will be used since the higher reaction R2 determined in Step 3 c) above will occur at random
locations rather than all on one pier cap. This simplification is also in agreement with ACI recommendations.

Live load, concrete, sheathing, joist and beam = 1347.3 lb/lf of beam
Load on pile cap = 1374.3 lb/ft x 10 ft = 1347.3 lb per beam
5-393.208 (5) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Assume the Contractor has stated that pile caps will be furnished in 20 foot lengths. Two span continuous design will apply.
The following loading diagram will be typical of each two span segment:

13473 lb 13473 lb 13473 lb 13473 lb 13473 lb

w = 40 lb/ft (due to
weight of pile cap)
1 2 12" x 12" Pile cap
10'-0" 10'-0" Pile spacing

a. Bending Stress in Pile Cap

Maximum bending stresses should be checked at points â and ã.

To determine the bending moments in the cap, use the applicable load diagrams from the AISC Manual. For this
example, there is no identical loading diagram in the manual, but it is possible to obtain the moments by summarizing
diagrams for each of the individual loads as follows:

13473 lb 13473 lb
2 w = 40 lb/ft
2 2

1 1 1

Note: The load from the 6” x 14” beams directly over the piles are not shown since they do not cause bending in the pile

40 lb / ft x (10 ft )
13 3 wL2 13 3
Mâ = PL - 1 / 2 PL + = x 13473 lb x 10 ft - x 13473 lb x 10 ft + = 21333 ft lb
64 32 14.2 64 64 14.2

40 lb / ft x (10 ft )
3 wL2 3
Mã = 2x PL + = 2x x 13473 lb x 10 ft + = 25762 ft lb
32 8 32 8

f = for 12" x 12" rough cut, S = 288 in.3

12 in.
25762 ft lb x
f = 1 ft. = 1073 psi
288 in.3

This is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi and is therefore acceptable.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (6)

1.5 V1
b. Horizontal shear stress in pile cap H =

This stress will be maximum over the center support. Summarize the shear formulas for the three diagrams used to
determine bending moments.

⎛ ⎛ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎞ ⎞
⎜⎜ 5 x 40 lb / ft ⎜ 10 ft - 2 x 12 in. x ⎜ ⎟⎟⎟
1 ⎛ ⎞
19 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
1 3 5w (L - 2h) 20.5 ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠ ⎠ ⎟⎠
V = ⎜ ⎟ P + ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ P + = x 13473 lb + = 8831 lb
⎝ 32 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 32 ⎠ 8 32 8

1.5 x 8831 lb
H= = 92 psi
144 in.2

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

c. Bearing stress of pile cap on pile. f =

The maximum P will be over the center support. Use the applicable formulas for reactions for the load diagrams used to
determine bending moments.

11 5wL
P = R2 = 2 x P + (Reaction from beam directly over the pile) +
16 4

11 5 x 40 lb / ft x 10 ft
=2x x 13473 lb + 13473 lb + = 32498 lb
16 4

Assuming 12 inch diameter piles under the 12 x 12 cap, the contact area would be:

A = Br2 = 3.14 x 62 = 113.1 in.2 [This value may also be determined by Figure A 5-393.204]

f= = 287 psi
113.1 in.2

This is less than the allowable side bearing stress of 480 psi on the 12 x 12; therefore, it is acceptable.

d. Deflection of pile cap

The exact deflection of the pile cap cannot be readily determined since a formula to cover this load situation is not
available in the AISC Manual. However, formulas are available to determine an approximate value of the deflection,
assuming a simple span loading condition as shown below: (NOTE: This deflection will be slightly greater than the
actual deflection of the two span continuous pier cap.)

13473 lb minus live load

40 lb/ft

5-393.208 (7) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

PL 3 5wL4
At â, ) = +
48EI 384EI

P = Total reaction minus live load

= 13473 lb - (50 lb/ft2 x 5 ft x 10 ft) = 10973 lb

L = 10 ft

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

I = 1728 in.4 (full sawn)

w = 40 lb/ft

3 3
⎛ 12 in. ⎞ ⎛ 12 in. ⎞
10973 lb x (10 ft)3 x ⎜ ⎟ 5 x 40 lb / ft x (10 ft) 4 x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠ ⎝ 1 ft ⎠
)Î = + = 0.130 in.
48 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 1728 in.4 384 x 1,800,000 lb / in2 x 1728 in.4

The maximum cumulative deflection of the joists, beams and pile caps will be as follows:
Joists 0.035 in.

Beams 0.043 in.

Pile Cap 0.130 in. (conservative value)

Total 0.208 in.

It can be concluded that deflections will approach a value of 1/4 inch at points of maximum deflection. Each of the
individual members (joists, beam and pile cap) are within the limiting deflection value of 1/4 inch and the cumulative
deflection is also close enough to this value to be acceptable.

5. Pile Load

The maximum pile load will be as shown in 4c above. P = 32498 lb = 16.25 tons. This pile load is not an average pile load
but rather is based on the assumption of two span continuous action of the pile caps.

The average load per pile is as follows (assume each pile supports a 10 foot square area above it since piles are spaced at 10
feet in both directions):

Sheathing, concrete and live load 315.0 lb/ft2 x 10 ft x 10 ft = 31500 lb

Joists 12 x 10 ft x 2.3 lb/ft = 276 lb

Beams 2 x 10 ft x 23.3 lb/ft = 467 lb

Pile cap 1 x 10 ft x 40 lb/ft = 400 lb

Total = 32643 lb = 16.32 tons

The chart of page 5-393.202 indicates that piles having 12 inch butts may be used for loads of up to 18 tons and that piles
having 14 inch butts may be used for loads of up to 21 tons. In consideration of the relative values of the maximum pile load
and the average pile load shown above, it would be reasonable to permit the use of piles having 12 inch butts for the
falsework in this example. Had the maximum pile load been significantly larger, some falsework revision would have been
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (8)

6. Strike-off Machine Support

Assume the Contractor (for this example) has provided information regarding the strike-off machine which indicates a total
weight of 8000 pounds. Assume also that the machine wheel base is 5' 0" and that posts for the strike-off rail are spaced at
5'0". The maximum loads on the 6 x 14 beams supporting the strike-off machine can then be determined.

Load on beam 1 Load on beam 2 Load on beam 3

= 1618 lb/ft = 1415 lb/ft = 202 lb/ft

Wt. of strike-
Conc. slab off machine 8000 lb

2 x 6 Joist
6 x 14 Beams
@ 5'-0" O.C.
Pile cap 1 2 3

Falsework piles


Beam Î will support the full design loads determined in part 2. of this section. With the edge of slab ending midway
between beams Ï and Ð and, assuming the joists are simple spans, it can be shown that beam Ï will carry about 7/8 of the
load carried by beam Î, and beam Ð will carry about 1/8 of the load carried by beam Î (plus the weight of the strike-off
machine). This will result in the following loading diagram for beam Ð:

Strike-off machine Rail for strike-

off machine
Rail support posts

6" x 14" Beam

12" x 12" Cap

2'-6" 5'-0" 2'-6" Falsework pile


2000 lb 2000 lb
w = 202 lb/ft

10'-0" 10'-0"


5-393.208 (9) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

The position of the strike-off machine shown in the load diagram will result in the maximum bending stress and maximum
deflection of the 6 x 14 beam. Note that the rail support posts are placed in locations which will have approximately equal
deflections. This is preferable to placing one post over the non-deflecting pier cap and having the remaining posts fall at
mid-span where deflection is greatest.

The strike-off machine will not appreciably affect the falsework joists since the rail supports fall directly over the 6 x 14
beams. In addition, the strike-off machine will not cause bending, deflection or horizontal shear in the pile cap, since the
supporting beams fall directly over the outside row of piles. Therefore, only the 6 x 14 beam (beam Ð) will be investigated.
To simplify calculations, this will be assumed to be a simple span rather than two span continuous. (Use the left half of the
load diagram shown above.)

a. Bending stress in 6 x 14 beam f=

M= + Pa (formulas from AISC Manual)

202 lb / ft x (10 ft )
+ 2000 lb x 2.5 ft = 7525 ft/lb

for rough cut 6 x 14, S = 196.0 in.3

⎛ 12 in. ⎞
7525 ft / lb x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠
f = = 461 psi
196.0 in.3

This is less than the allowable bending stress of 1875 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

1.5 V1
b. Horizontal shear stress in 6 x 14 beam H=

⎛ ⎛ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎞ ⎞ ⎞
⎜ 202 lb / ft x ⎜⎜ 10 ft - ⎜ 2 x 14 in. x ⎛⎜ ⎟⎟⎟⎟

⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠ ⎠ ⎟⎠ ⎟⎠
V = 2000 lb + = 2774 lbs

H = 1.5 x 2774 lb = 49.5 psi

6 in. x 14 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

c. Bearing stress on 6 x 14 beam f=

This critical bearing load would occur with the strike-off machine centered over a pile cap. The following load diagram
would apply:
2000 lb 2000 lb
202 lb/ft

2'-6" 2'-6"
10'-0" 10'-0" CL pile bents
R1 R2
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (10)

Assume two simple spans:

⎛ Pa ⎞ ⎛ wL ⎞
P = R2 = 2 x ⎜ ⎟ + 2 x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ L⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

a = 10 ft less 2' 6" = 7' 6"

(First portion of formula from AISC Manual)

⎛ 2000 lb x 7.5 ft ⎞
= 2x⎜ ⎟ + 201 lb / ft x 10 ft
⎝ 10 ft ⎠
= 5010 lb

(Area of 6 x 14 beam on pile cap = 6 in. x 12 in. = 72 in.2)

5010 lb
f= = 69.6 psi
72 in.2

This is less than the allowable side bearing stress of 480 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

d. Deflection of 6 x 14 beam under strike-off machine

Assume simple span with loading as for maximum bending stress.

5wL4 Pa
)= + (3L2 - 4a2) (formulas from AISC Manual)
384 EI 24 EI

w = 202 lb/ft

L = 10 ft

E = 1,800,000 psi

I = 1372 in.4

a = 2.5 ft

P = 2000 lb

3 3
⎛ 12 in. ⎞ ⎛ 12 in. ⎞
5 x 202 lb / ft x (10 ft) 4 x ⎜ ⎟ 2000 lb x 2.5 ft x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠ ⎝ 1 ft ⎠
= =
384 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 1372 in.4 24 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 1372 in.4

x [3 x (10 ft)2 - 4 (2.5 ft)2 ]

) = 0.58 in.

This represents a deflection of approximately 1/16 inch and could be ignored. However a provision should be made for
seating of wood members (about 1/16 inch per wood interface) when setting strike-off rail to grade.
5-393.209 (1) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005


Assume that a Contractor is submitting slab falsework plans for a bridge which has shallow steel beams. Due to the difficulty of
preventing rotation of the fascia beam which would occur with a cantilevered overhang bracket, they have proposed a scheme
which includes the needle beam falsework shown in Figure A 5-393.209. Assume the strike-off machine will be run on the
fascia beams. The following stressed items must be investigated:

1. Sheathing
a. Bending stress
b. Rolling shear stress
c. Deflection

2. Joist (2 x 4)
a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing stress on runner
d. Deflection

3. Runner (4 x 4)
a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing stress on post
d. Deflection

4. Post (2 x 4) end bearing stress-column stress

5. Needle beams
a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing stress on plate washer
d. Deflection

6. Supporting bolt
a. Tension

Calculations will be based on the assumed loading condition shown below:

Conc. supported on Conc. supported on

6" inside runner = 1'-4" outside runner = 2'-0"

1'-7" 1'-7"

3" 3'-2" 5" CL of 4 x 4 runners

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.209


8'-0" 3'-10"

2" x 4" Joist @ 16" O.C.

3/4" Plyform
Class II

4x4 Runner 2" x 4" Post @

First. Interior W 24x104 4x4 Runner
2" x 4" Post @ 5'-0" O.C.
3/4" Dia. bolt 5'-0" O.C. 1" x 4" Braces
4" x 5" Washer 2" x 6" Plate
Fascia beam Wedges
Filler plate

Needle beam Supporting bolt

2 - 2" x 10" @ 5'-0" O.C. 3" 3'-2"

6" 5'-3" 9"

2" x 4" Joists @ 16" O.C. Sheathing Conc. slab

4" x 4" Runner

2" x 4" Posts
Bracing W24x104
(as necessary)

5'-0" 5'-0"


All material to be Douglas Fir, Construction Grade

5-393.209 (2) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

1. Sheathing

Sheathing is supported on joists spaced at 16 inches. The maximum load on the sheathing will be near the beam flange with
an estimated concrete depth of 11 inches.

Determine the uniform applied load:

⎛ 1 ft ⎞
Concrete 150 lb / ft 3 x 1 ft x 11 in. x ⎜ ⎟ = 137.5 lb / ft
⎝ 12 in. ⎠
Sheathing 40 lb/ft3 x 1 ft x 0.06 ft = 2.5 lb/ft

Live Load = 50 lb/ft

w = 190 lb/ft

Refer to Figure B 5-393.152:

For 3/4 inch thick Class II Plyform placed the strong way (which is most likely here) the safe load for 16 inch spacing is
about 240 psf. The sheathing is therefore acceptable.

2. Joists (2 x 4)

Check the joists using the average slab thickness of 9.8 inches. Determine uniform applied load:

⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ 3
Concrete 9.8 in. x ⎜ ⎟ x 16 in. x ⎜ ⎟ x 150 lb / ft = 163.3 lb / ft
⎝ 12 in. ⎠ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠

Live Load 1.33 ft x 50 lb/ft2 = 66.7 lb/ft

Sheathing 40 lb/ft3 x 1.33 ft x .06 ft = 3.3 lb/ft

Joist = 1.5 lb/ft

w = 234.8 lb/ft

a. Bending stress f =

Check joists as a simple span.

M = L = 3' 2"

234.8 lb / ft x (3.167 ft )
M = = 294.4 ft/lb

S = 3.06 in.3

⎛ 12 in. ⎞
294.4 ft / lb x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠
f = = 1155 psi
3.06 in.3

This is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.209 (3)

b. Horizontal shear stress

1.5 V1
H =
⎛ ⎛ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎞ ⎞
234.8 lb / ft x ⎜⎜ 3.167 ft - ⎜ 2 x 3.5 in. x ⎜ ⎟⎟⎟
w (L - 2h) ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠ ⎠ ⎟⎠
V1 = = = 303.3 lbs
2 2

b = 1.50 in.

h = 3.50 in.

1.5 x (303.3 lbs)

H = = 86.7 psi
1.5 in. x 3.5 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

c. Bearing stress on runner f =
Determine the reaction on the outer runner by assuming that the outer 2' 0" of slab concrete is supported on this runner as
indicated on the previous sketch.

⎛ 9.9 in. + 8 in. ⎞ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ 3

Concrete = ⎜ ⎟ x⎜ ⎟ x 2 ft x 150 lb / ft = 222.5 lb / f
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠

Sheathing = 5 ft x .06 ft x 40 lb/ft3 = 12.5 lb/ft

(for falsework and for edge of slab form)

2x4 = 7 lf/ft x 1.5 lb/ft = 10.5 lb/ft

(for falsework joist and edge of slab form)

Runner (4 x 4) = 3.4 lb/ft

Live Load = 50 lb/ft2 x 2 ft = 100 lb/ft

w = 348.9 lb/ft

Since joists are spaced at 16 inches or 1.333 ft, the reaction per joist is:

P = 1.333 ft x 348.9 lb/ft = 465.2 lb

A = 1.5 in. x 3.5 in. = 5.25 in.2

464.4 lbs
f = = 88.6 psi
5.25 in.2

This is much less than the allowable stress of 480 psi and is, therefore acceptable.

d. Deflection of joist ∆ =
384 EI

Use the same loading criteria for deflection as was used for determining bending stress except that live load is deleted
from the uniform load.

w = 234.8 - 66.7 = 168.1 lb/ft

L = 3' 2"
5-393.209 (4) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

I = 5.36 in.4

( )
⎛ 12 in. ⎞
5 x 168.1 lb / ft 3.167 ft) 4 x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠
∆ = = 0.039 in.
384 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 5.36 in.4

Since this is a surface that is exposed to view, the allowable deflection is:

⎛ 12 in. ⎞
3,167 ft x ⎜ ⎟
L ⎝ 1 ft ⎠
= = 0.141 in.
270 270

3. Runners (4 x 4)

Approximately 3 joists will bear on each runner span; therefore, assume the joists produce a uniform load on the runners.
This uniform load has been determined in part c) above.

w = 348.9 lb/ft

a. Bending stress in runners f =

Assume the runners will be furnished in lengths of two spans or more. In following the recommended ACI design
simplifications, simple span design will be used.

L = 5 ft

348.9 lb / ft x (5 ft )
M = = = 1090.3 ft lb
8 8

S = 7.15 in.3

⎛ 12 in. ⎞
1090.3 ft lb x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠
f = = 1830 psi
7.15 in.3

Since this is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi, the member is acceptable in bending.

1.5 V1
b. Horizontal shear stress in runners H =

⎛ ⎛ ⎛ 1 ft ⎞ ⎞ ⎞
348.9 lb / ft x ⎜⎜ 5 ft - ⎜ 2 x 3.5 in. x ⎜ ⎟⎟⎟
w ( L - 2h) ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ 12 in. ⎠ ⎠ ⎟⎠
V1 = = = 770.5 lbs
2 2

b = 3.5 in.

h = 3.5 in.

1.5 x 770.5 lbs

H = = 94.3 psi
3.5 in. x 3.5 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.209 (5)

c. Bearing stress on 2 x 4 post f =

P = 348.9 lb/ft x 5 ft = 1744 lbs

1744 lb
f = = 332 psi
3.5 in. x 1.5 in.

This is less than the allowable side bearing stress of 480 psi and is, therefore, acceptable

d. Deflection of runner

∆ =
384 EI

w = 348.9 lb/ft - 100 lb/ft (live load) = 248.9 lb/ft

L = 5 ft

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

I = 12.51 in.4

⎛ 12 in. ⎞
5 x 248.4 lb / ft x (5 ft ) x ⎜

⎝ 1 ft ⎠
∆ = = 0.155 in.
384 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 12.51 in.4

Since this concrete surface will be exposed to view, the allowable deflection is:

⎛ 12 in. ⎞
5 ft x ⎜ ⎟
L ⎝ 1 ft ⎠
= = 0.222 in.
270 270

The actual deflection is less than the allowable deflection; therefore, the member is acceptable.

4. 2x4 Post

The total load and the resulting bearing stress on this post was determined in part c. above (f = 332 psi). By measurement on
the falsework plan, the post height is determined to be about 15 inches. The L/d ratio can then be determined:

L 15 in.
= = 10.0
d 1.5 in.

The allowable column stress will be 1562 psi as determined by the graph in Section 5-393.202. Actual stress (332 psi) less
than allowable stress; therefore, the column is acceptable.

5. Needle Beam

Assume each needle beam supports 5 feet of falsework. (Although the runners are continuous members, they are quite
flexible; therefore, simple span reactions can be safely used to determine the applied load on the needle beam.)
5-393.209 (6) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

The loading diagram for the needle beam is as follows:

First interior Fascia beam

beam Supporting bolt
Runner Walkway

Needle beam

Weight of member
8'-6" 2.92'

Determine loads on needle beam:

Concrete, live load, sheathing, joists, runner = 348.9 lbs/ft x 5 ft = 1744.5 lb

Post = 1.5 lb/ft x 1.3 ft = 2.0 lb

2 x 6 plate = 2.3 lb/ft x 5 ft = 11.5 lb

Total reaction at runner = 1758.0 lb

2 x 8 walk plank = 3.0 lb/ft x 5 ft = 15.0 lb

Live load on walkway = 5 ft. x 50 lb/ft = 250.0 lb

Total reaction at walkway = 265.0 lb

Weight of cantilevered needle beam = 3.9 lb/ft x 2 x 6 ft = 46.8 lb

a. Bending stress in needle beam f =

Maximum bending moment will be at the supporting bolt. The bending moment is determined as follows:

Reaction x distance = Moment

1758 lb x 2.92 ft = 5133.4 ft lb
265 lb x 5.25 ft = 1391.3 ft lb
46.8 lb x 3.00 ft = 140.4 ft lb
2069.8 lb Total = 6665.1 ft lb

for two 2 x 10's S = 21.39 in.3 x 2 = 42.78 in.3

⎛ 12 in. ⎞
6665.1 ft lb x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠
f = = 1869.6 psi

This is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi; therefore, the member is acceptable in bending.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.209 (7)

1.5 V1
b. Horizontal shear stress in needle beam H =

The shear in this member can most easily be visualized by drawing a shear diagram. To do this, the reaction (P) at the
first interior beam must be determined.

M 6665.1 ft / lb
P = = = 784.1 lb
L 8.50 ft

CLFirst interior beam CL Supporting bolt

on fascia beam

265 lb
784.1 lb
784.1 lb

Zero shear

1758 lb
2069.8 lb



The maximum shear (V1) will be about 2069.8 pounds. (Since there is no significantly large uniform load, the shear is not
noticeably reduced by using the shear at a distance h from the support.)

b = 2 x 1.50 in. = 3.00 in.

h = 9.25 in.

1.5 x 2069.8 lb
H = = 111.9 psi
3.00 in. x 9.25 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.
5-393.209 (8) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

c. Bearing stress on plate washer f =

The bearing reaction, as determined from the shear diagram above, will be:

P = 7841 lb + 2069.8 lb = 2853.9 lb

The area of contact for a 4 x 5 washer, as determined from Figure A 5-393.204 is:

A = 15.0 in.

2853.9 lb.
f = = 190.3 psi
15.0 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 480 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

d. Deflection of needle beam

The needle beam can be set to plan elevation after the deflection due to weight of the members has occurred. Therefore,
the calculations for deflection must only determine the additional amount of deflection due to the weight of concrete
applied through the runner.

The uniform weight of concrete on the outside runner has already been determined to be 222.5 pounds per foot. The
concrete load on each needle beam will be:

P = 222.5 lb/ft x 5 ft = 1112.5 lb

1112.5 lb

Needle beam

Supporting bolt

8.50' 2.92'
R1 x 8.50 ft = 1112.5 lb x 2.9167 ft

R1 = 381.7 lb R1 1112.5 lb
R2 = 1112.5 l + 381.7 lb R2
Beam in
= 1494.2 lb position

The formula for determining this deflection, which can be found in the AISC Manual, is as follows:

Pa 2
∆ = (L + a)

P = 1112.5 lb

L = 8.5 ft

a = 2.9167 ft

for two 2 x 10s, I = 2 x 98.93 in.2 = 197.86 in.4

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.210

⎛ 12 in. ⎞ ⎛ 12 in. ⎞
⎟ x (2.9167 ft ) x ⎜
112.5 lb x (8.5 ft + 2.9167 ft) x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 1 ft ⎠ ⎝ 1 ft ⎠
∆ = = 0.175 in.
3 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 197.86 in.4

The falsework should be set 0.175 inches high at the outer runner to compensate for deflection of the needle beam. In
addition, five or more wood to wood surfaces should exist in the support falsework, all of which will tend to seat (deflection
downward), when the concrete load is applied. A commonly used practice is to set the falsework “high” by 1/16 inch per
interface or 5/16 inch in this example. The net height adjustment to the outer runner would then be:

0.175 in. + 0.31 in. = 0.485 in. (above plan elevation)


1. Wood column

2. Steel column

1. Wood Column

A Douglas Fir 6 x 8 S4S member will be used as a falsework column to support a load of 16,000 pounds. The unsupported
length of the column is 14 feet. To determine if this member is acceptable with regard to calculated stresses, the following
computations are necessary:

P 16000 lb
The actual stress in the member = f = = = 401.3 psi
A 5.5 in. x 7.25 in.

Allowable stress is dependent on the L/d ratio.

14 ft 12 in.
L/d = x = 30.55
5.5 in. 1 ft

From the graph in Section 5-393.202, the allowable stress for a Douglas Fir column with L/d ration of 30.55 is 578 psi.
Since the actual stress (401.3 psi) is less than the allowable stress, the column is acceptable.

2. Steel Column

A length of new HP10x42 piling will be used as a falsework column to support a load of 40,000 pounds. The unsupported
length of the column is 16 feet. The following calculations are necessary to determine acceptability of this column.

The actual stress in the member will be f = = Area of HP 10 x 42 = 12.4 in.2

40,000 lb
= = 3226 psi
12.4 in.2

(NOTE: Areas of steel members are found in the AISC Manual.)

The allowable stress is determined by the appropriate formula from Section 5-393.202.

⎛ kL ⎞
allowable f = 16980 - 0.53 x ⎜ ⎟
⎝ r ⎠

⎛ 12 in. ⎞
L = 16 ft x ⎜ ⎟ = 192 in.
⎝ 1 ft ⎠
5-393.211 (1) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

from the AISC Manual, r = 2.41 (use the smallest r value)

⎛ 192 in. ⎞
allowable f = 16,980 - 0.53 x ⎜ ⎟ = 13616 psi
⎝ 2.41 in. ⎠

The member will obviously qualify for use with regard to stress.


The following bridge deck falsework Joist and Stringer Tables can be used as an aid to checking slab falsework. These tables
show the maximum allowable spans and dead load deflections for joists and stringers for commonly used allowable bending and
shear stresses. The applied dead load and live load per square foot and allowable lumber stresses must be known to obtain the
allowable span lengths from the tables. See the following example illustrating the use of the tables.

9" 4 sps. @ 2'-0" (2" x 6" stringers) 9"

8 1/4"

Double 2" x 10" joists @ 4'-0" O.C.

5" 8'-8" 5"


1. Stringers

Determine applied load per square foot:

⎛ 1 ft ⎞ 3
Concrete 8.25 in. x ⎜ ⎟ x 150 lb / ft = 103.1 lb / sf
⎝ 12 in. ⎠

⎛ 1 ft ⎞ 3
Plywood 0.75 in. x ⎜ ⎟ x 40 lb / ft = 2.5 lb / sf
⎝ 12 in. ⎠

2" x 6" Stringer 2.3 lb / ft x = 1.2 lb / sf
2 ft (Spacing)

Live Load = 50.0 lb/sf

Dead Load + Live Load = 156.8 lb/sf

Read the allowable span from the stringer table using the 160 psf load. The maximum allowable span in the column for
lumber having an allowable bending stress of 1875 psi and an allowable shear of 120 psi, 4.22 feet which is greater than the
4' 0" joist spacing and, therefore, the stringer design meets shear and bending requirements. The deflection may be estimated
from the table value as 0.017 inches. The stringer bearing stress should be checked as indicated in previous examples in the
Bridge Construction Manual.

2. Joists

Determine applied load per square foot:

Stringer - Dead Load + Live Load = 156.9 lb/square foot

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.211 (2)

Double 2 x 10 - 2 x 4.3 lb / ft x = 2.2 lb / square foot
4 ft (spacing)

Total = 159.1 lb/square foot

Read the allowable span from joist table using 160 psf load. The maximum allowable span in the column for lumber, having an
allowable bending stress of 1875 psi and an allowable shear of 120 psi, is 8.48 feet which is approximately the 8'8" joist span and
therefore the stringer design meets shear and bending requirements. The deflections will be slightly greater than the 0.144 in.
shown in the table.

The bearing stress in the lumber and the stress in the hanger hardware should be checked as indicated elsewhere in the Bridge
Construction Manual.

If lumber is used which has allowable stresses differing from those used in the tables, and the tables indicate that the design is
questionable, exact formulas which are shown in the Bridge Construction Manual should be used to check the falsework design.

STRINGER TABLE (for two continuous spans)

wL2 1.5 V1 5 w (L - 2h) wL4

M = H = V, = ∆ =
8 bh 8 185 EI

Nominal Ctr. to Ctr. DL+LL Allowable Stress Allowable Stress

Stringer Size Spacing of lb/ft2 1875 psi -bending 1312 psi -bending
(actual size) Stringers 120 psi- shear 94 psi - shear
inches E = 1,800,000 E = 1,400,000
Allowable DL ) Allowable DL )
Span in ft in inches Span in ft In inches
2x4 12" 150 5.05 0.063 4.09 0.035
(1 ½ x 3 ½ ) 12" 160 4.78 0.056 3.87 0.031
12" 170 4.54 0.049 3.68 0.027
12" 180 4.32 0.044 3.51 0.025
2x6 12" 150 7.94 0.099 6.43 0.055
(1 ½ x 5 ½ ) 12" 160 7.52 0.088 6.09 0.048
12" 170 7.13 0.077 5.78 0.043
12" 180 6.78 0.068 5.51 0.039
2x4 16" 150 3.94 0.031 3.22 0.018
(1 ½ x 3 ½ ) 16" 160 3.73 0.028 3.05 0.016
16" 170 3.55 0.025 2.91 0.014
16" 180 3.38 0.022 2.78 0.013
2x6 16" 150 6.20 0.049 5.05 0.028
(1 ½ x 5 ½ ) 16" 160 5.87 0.043 4.79 0.025
16" 170 5.58 0.039 4.57 0.022
16" 180 5.32 0.035 4.36 0.020
2x4 24" 150 2.82 0.012 2.34 0.007
(1 ½ x 3 ½ ) 24" 160 2.68 0.011 2.23 0.007
24" 170 2.56 0.010 2.13 0.006
24" 180 2.45 0.009 2.05 0.006
2x6 24" 150 4.44 0.019 3.67 0.012
(1 ½ x 5 ½ ) 24" 160 4.22 0.017 3.50 0.011
24" 170 4.02 0.016 3.35 0.010
24" 180 3.85 0.014 3.21 0.009
5-393.211 (3) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

JOIST TABLE (for a simple span)

5 w DL L4 w L2 1.5 V1 w (L - 2h)
∆ = M = H = V, =
384 EI 8 bh 2

Nominal Ctr. to Ctr. DL+LL Allowable Stress Allowable Stress

Stringer Size Spacing of lb/ft2 1875 psi -bending 1312 psi -bending
(actual size) Stringers 120 psi- shear 94 psi - shear
inches E = 1,800,000 E = 1,400,000
Allowable DL ) Allowable DL )
Span in ft in inches Span in ft In inches
2x8 2'-0" 150 7.01 0.127 5.75 0.074
(1 ½ x 7 ¼ ) 2'-0" 160 6.65 0.113 5.47 0.066
2'-0" 170 6.33 0.101 5.22 0.060
2'-0" 180 6.04 0.091 4.99 0.055
2 x 10 2'-0" 150 8.94 0.162 7.34 0.094
(1 ½ x 9 ¼ ) 2'-0" 160 8.48 0.144 6.98 0.085
2'-0" 170 8.07 0.129 6.66 0.077
2'-0" 180 7.71 0.116 6.37 0.070
Double 2'-0" 150 10.46 0.315 8.75 0.200
2x8 2'-0" 160 10.13 0.304 8.48 0.192
(1 ½ x 7 ¼ ) 2'-0" 170 9.83 0.294 8.22 0.185
2'-0" 180 9.55 0.284 7.99 0.179
Double 2'-0" 150 13.35 0.402 11.17 0.253
2 x 10 2'-0" 160 12.93 0.388 10.81 0.244
(1 ½ x 9 ¼ ) 2'-0" 170 12.54 0.375 10.49 0.236
2'-0" 180 12.19 0.362 10.20 0.229
2x8 3'-0" 150 5.08 0.052 4.24 0.033
(1 ½ x 7 ¼ ) 3'-0" 160 4.83 0.047 4.05 0.030
3'-0" 170 4.62 0.043 3.88 0.028
3'-0" 180 4.43 0.039 3.73 0.026
2 x 10 3'-0" 150 6.48 0.067 5.41 0.042
(1 ½ x 9 ¼ ) 3'-0" 160 6.17 0.060 5.16 0.038
3'-0" 170 5.89 0.055 4.95 0.035
3'-0" 180 5.65 0.050 4.76 0.033
Double 3'-0" 150 8.54 0.210 7.15 0.132
2x8 3'-0" 160 8.27 0.203 6.89 0.125
(1 ½ x 7 ¼ ) 3'-0" 170 8.03 0.197 6.55 0.112
3'-0" 180 7.65 0.176 6.26 0.101
Double 3'-0" 150 10.90 0.268 9.12 0.169
2 x 10 3'-0" 160 10.56 0.259 8.79 0.160
(1 ½ x 9 ¼ ) 3'-0" 170 10.24 0.251 8.36 0.143
3'-0" 180 9.76 0.224 7.98 0.128
2x8 4'-0" 150 4.11 0.030 3.48 0.020
(1 ½ x 7 ¼ ) 4'-0" 160 3.93 0.028 3.34 0.018
4'-0" 170 3.77 0.025 3.21 0.017
4'-0" 180 3.63 0.024 3.10 0.01
2x8 4'-0" 150 5.24 0.038 4.44 0.025
(1 ½ x 9 ¼ ) 4'-0" 160 5.01 0.035 4.26 0.024
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.211 (4)

Nominal Ctr. to Ctr. DL+LL Allowable Stress Allowable Stress

Stringer Size Spacing of lb/ft2 1875 psi -bending 1312 psi -bending
(actual size) Stringers 120 psi- shear 94 psi - shear
inches E = 1,800,000 E = 1,400,000
Allowable DL ) Allowable DL )
Span in ft in inches Span in ft In inches
2 x 10 4'-0" 170 4.81 0.032 4.10 0.022
(1 ½ x 9 ¼ ) 4'-0" 180 4.63 0.030 3.96 0.021
Double 4'-0" 150 7.01 0.127 5.75 0.074
2x8 4'-0" 160 6.65 0.113 5.47 0.066
(1 ½ x 7 ¼ ) 4'-0" 170 6.33 0.101 5.22 0.060
4'-0" 180 6.04 0.091 4.99 0.055
Double 4'-0" 150 8.94 0.162 7.34 0.094
2 x 10 4'-0" 160 8.48 0.144 6.98 0.085
(1 ½ x 9 ¼ ) 4'-0" 170 8.07 0.129 6.66 0.077
4'-0" 180 7.71 0.116 6.37 0.070
2x8 5'-0" 150 3.53 0.020 3.03 0.014
(1 ½ x 7 ¼ ) 5'-0" 160 3.38 0.019 2.91 0.013
5'-0" 170 3.26 0.018 2.81 0.013
5'-0" 180 3.14 0.017 2.72 0.012
2 x 10 5'-0" 150 4.50 0.026 3.86 0.018
(1 ½ x 9 ¼ ) 5'-0" 160 4.32 0.024 3.72 0.017
5'-0" 170 4.15 0.023 3.59 0.016
5'-0" 180 4.01 0.021 3.47 0.015
Double 5'-0" 150 5.85 0.077 4.84 0.046
2x8 5'-0" 160 5.56 0.069 4.62 0.042
(1 ½ x 7 ¼ ) 5'-0" 170 5.30 0.062 4.42 0.039
5'-0" 180 5.08 0.057 4.24 0.035
Double 5'-0" 150 7.46 0.098 6.18 0.059
2 x 10 5'-0" 160 7.09 0.088 5.89 0.054
(1 ½ x 9 ¼ ) 5'-0" 170 6.77 0.079 5.63 0.049
5'-0" 180 6.48 0.072 5.41 0.045
2x8 6'-0" 150 3.14 0.015 2.72 0.011
(1 ½ x 7 ¼ ) 6'-0" 160 3.02 0.014 2.63 0.011
6'-0" 170 2.91 0.014 2.54 0.010
6'-0" 180 2.82 0.013 2.47 0.010
2 x 10 6'-0" 150 4.01 0.020 3.47 0.014
(1 ½ x 9 ¼ ) 6'-0" 160 3.85 0.018 3.35 0.014
6'-0" 170 3.72 0.017 3.25 0.013
6'-0" 180 3.60 0.017 3.15 0.013
Double 6'-0" 150 5.08 0.052 4.24 0.033
2x8 6'-0" 160 4.83 0.047 4.05 0.030
(1 ½ x 7 ¼) 6'-0" 170 4.62 0.043 3.88 0.028
6'-0" 180 4.43 0.039 3.73 0.026
Double 6'-0" 150 6.48 0.067 5.41 0.042
2 x 10 6'-0" 160 6.17 0.060 5.16 0.038
(1 ½ x 9 ¼) 6'-0" 170 5.89 0.055 4.95 0.035
6'-0" 180 5.65 0.050 4.76 0.033
5-393.212 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

5-393.212 FORM DETAILS

All of the comments in Section 5-393.205 regarding Falsework Details and Analysis apply equally to this Section on Form
Details and Analysis. In addition to the formulas used in the falsework examples, the formula for lateral concrete pressure (see
Section 5-393.204) will be used here for the examples concerning form plans. The pressure determined by these formulas is
based on anticipated concrete temperatures and an anticipated rate of concrete placement. The actual value of these two items
must be determined during the operation of concrete placement. Any deviation from the anticipated values used for checking
stresses must be evaluated to assure that unsafe (over stressed) conditions will not result.


Assume the Contractor has proposed that pier cap form plans shown in Figure A 5-393.206. Assume all lumber will be Douglas
Fir, No. 1. The members which require stress investigation are as follows: (NOTE: Items defined as falsework are checked in
Section 5-393.205.)

1. Sheathing
a. Bending stress
b. Rolling Shear Stress
c. Deflection

2. Studs
a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing stress on walers
d. Deflection

3. Walers
a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing on tie plates
d. Deflection

4. Tie Rods
a. Tension stress or manufacturers safe load

Calculations would be as follows:

The lateral concrete pressure is the only load applied on the forms. About 17 cubic yards of concrete are required for the pier cap.
Assume the Contractor anticipates placing this concrete in a thirty minute period.

The rate of placement would then be:

3.67 feet or 7.33 feet

30 minutes 1 hour

The formula for rate of pour exceeding 7 feet/hour would then apply. The three conditions for determining this pressure are as

(Assume T = 70ºF) T = 70º and R1 = 7.33 feet/hour

1. P = 150 + 43400 + 2800R1


= 150 + 43400 + 2800 x 7.33

70 70

= 1063.2 psf (maximum pressure at any depth)

2. P = 150h = 150 x 3.667 feet = 550 psf (at bottom of cap forms)
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.213 (1)

3. Neither of the above can exceed 2000 psf.

The following sketch illustrates the concrete pressure as determined above.

(Top of concrete) p=0

h = 3.67 ft p = 550 psf

(Bottom of pier cap)

p = 1060

Only the cross-hatched portion of the pressure diagram applies in this example.

1. Sheathing

When a triangular shaped pressure diagram is involved, check sheathing for the maximum pressure. In this case, check
the sheathing for a pressure of 550 psf on a stud spacing of 16 inches. The sheathing material is 7/8 inch plyform, Class
I. The chart for face grain across (see Figure B 5-393.202) indicates that 7/8 inch plyform with 16 inch stud spacing can
safely carry just 550 psf. It must be verified later that the Contractor actually places the plyform the “strong way.”

2. Studs

The studs in this example should be checked as a simple span. In the following sketches, the stud will be shown
horizontal to more clearly illustrate its beam action.

550 psf
450 psf

287.5 psf @ mid span

125 psf
1'-1" 1'-1" 2 x 4 stud

8" 2'-2" 10"

CL Walers

a. Bending stress

The pressure at mid span (287.5 psf) may be used as a uniform load for computing bending moments. The results will
be slightly more conservative than would result from use of the actual loading.

The pressure of 287.5 psf must be converted to a load per linear foot on the studs with a 16 inch spacing.

w = 287.5 lb/ft2 x 16 in. x 1 ft = 383.3 lb/ft

12 in.
5-393.213 (2) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

M = wl2 = 383.3 lb/ft x (2.167 ft)2 = 225 ft lb

8 8

S = 3.06 in.3

225 ft/lb 12 in.

f = M = 1 ft = 882.3 psi
S 3.06 in.3

This is less than the allowable bending stress of 1875 psi for Douglas Fir and is, therefore, acceptable.

b. Horizontal shear stress

This should be checked by assuming that the load at the left support (450 psf) extends uniformly across the
simple span. Results will be slightly more conservative than would result from the use of the actual loading.

First convert the load to a uniform load for studs at 16 inch spacing.

w = 450 lb/ft2 x (16 in.) x 1 ft = 600 lb/ft

12 in.

600 lb/ft x 2.167 ft - 2 x 3.5 in. x 1 ft

V1 = w (L-2h) = 12 in. = 475 lb
2 2

H = 1.5 V1 = 1.5 x 475 lb = 135.7 psi

bh 1.5 in. x 3.5 in.

This is more than the allowable stress of 120 psi

and is not acceptable. Therefore, reduce the
stud spacing to 12", then H = 101.8 psi, which is
less than the allowable value of 120 psi.
14.5" 29.5"
c. Bearing stress of studs on walers
The maximum reaction will be at the lower waler.
Actual reactions at each waler can be determined
as follows:

The total weight of the pressure block on each stud is:

8" 26" 10"
= (550 lb/ft x 3.67 ft x 1/2) x 12 in. x 1 ft = 1009.3 lb 3.67' = 44"
12 in.
1009.3 lb x 19.3 in. = R1 x 26 in. 6.7" 19.3"
R1 = 749.2 lb
R2 = 1009.3 - 749.2 = 260.1 lb
R1 26" R2
Bearing Stress f = P

P = 749.2 lb
A = 4.50 in.2 [from Figure A 5-393.204]

f = 749.2 lb = 166.5 psi

4.50 in.2

This is less than the allowable stress of 480 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.213 (3)

d. Deflection of studs - The load condition used for determining maximum bending stress will be used for
determining deflection.

∆ = 5wL4

w = 287.5 lb/ft

L = 2.167 ft

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

I = 5.36 in.4

5 x 287.5 lb/ft x (2.167 ft)4 x 12 in. 3

∆= ft = 0.015 in.
384 x 1,800,000 lb/in.2 x 5.36 in.4

2.167 ft x 12 in.
Allowable deflection = 1 ft = 0.096 in.

The studs are, therefore, acceptable with regard to deflection.

3. Walers

The bottom waler will be checked since the higher stud reaction was found to exist at this location. A condition of
uniform loading may be assumed to exist since three studs bear on each waler span (between tie rods).

w = 749.2 lb/ft

a. Bending stress in waler f = M


The waler span length is equal to the tie rod spacing (4 feet).

This member will be continuous over two or more spans. In keeping with the recommended simplifications, the
assumption of simple spans may be used here.

M = wL2 749.2 lb/ft x (4 ft)2 = 1498.4 ft/lb

8 8

For two 2 x 6s S = 2 x 7.56 in.3 = 15.12 in.3

1498.4 ft/lb x 12 in.

f = 1 ft = 1189.2 psi
15.12 in.3

This is less than the allowable bending stress of 1875 psi and, therefore, is acceptable.

b. Horizontal shear stress in walers H = 1.5V1


749.2 lb/ft x 4 ft - 2 x 5 1/2 in. x 1 ft

V1 = w(L - 2h) = 12 in. = 1155 lb
2 2
5-393.213 (4) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

H = 1.5 x 1155 lb = 105.0 psi

2 x 1.5 in. x 5.5 in.

This is less than the allowable horizontal shear stress of 120 psi and, therefore, is acceptable.

c. Bearing stress of waler on plate washer f = P


P = 749.2 lb/ft x 4 ft = 2996.8 lb

From Figure A 5-393.204, for a 4" x 5" plate washer:

A = 15.0 in.2

f = 2996.8 lb = 199.8 psi

15 in.2

This is less than the allowable side bearing stress of 480 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

d. Deflection of waler

Using the assumption of simple span:

∆= 5wL4

w = 749.2 lb/ft

L = 4 ft

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

For two 2 x 6's I = 20.80 in.4 x 2 = 41.60 in.4

5 x 749.2 lb/ft x (4 ft)4 x 12 in. 3

∆= 1 ft = 0.058 in.
384 x 1,800,000 lb/in.2 x 41.60 in.4

This surface is exposed to view. The allowable deflection of the span will be 1/8 inch since the L/270 value for
this span is greater than 1/8 inch.

4 ft x 12 in.
(NOTE: L = 1 ft = 0.178 in.)
270 270

Actual deflection is less than allowable deflection; therefore, the member is acceptable.

4. Tie Rods f = P

As determined in part 3 c. above, P = 2996.8 pounds

The form plan indicates that 1/2 inch diameter coil bolts (and coil ties) will be used as form ties. The manufacturer’s
literature must indicate a load capacity of at least 2996.8 pounds for both the coil bolt and the coil tie.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.214 (1)


A check for the abutment forms shown in Figure A 5-393.214 would require the following investigations. The anticipated rates
of concrete placement are indicated on the figure.

1. Sheathing
a. Bending stress
b. Rolling shear stress
c. Deflection

2. Studs
a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing stress on walers
d. Deflection

3. Walers
a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing on tie plate
d. Deflection

4. Tie Rods
a. Tension stress or manufacturer’s safe loading

The stress investigation listed above will be necessary for both the main wall forms and the parapet forms.

Calculations for the main wall forms are as follows:

First determine the amount of pressure on the forms. The Contractor has indicated a proposed rate of pour of 3 feet per hour in
this example. Assuming this concrete will be placed in mid-July, an anticipated temperature of 75º may be used. The three
pressure criteria for rates of pour less than 7 feet per hour are as follows:

a. p = 150 + 9000R1

R1 = 3 ft per hour

T = 75º

= 150 + 9000 x 3

= 510 psf (maximum pressure at any depth)

b. p = 150h - (150 x 18 feet) = 2700 psf (this will not govern)

This formula will only apply to the upper portion of the pressure diagram on a high pour such
as this: 150 h = 510 psf.

h = 510 psf = 3.4 feet

150 psf

c. Neither of the above can exceed 3000 psf.

The resulting pressure diagram is shown on Figure A 5-393.214.

Figure A 5-393.214 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Strongbacks 2 x 4 Studs
150h as necessary @ 1'-0" O.C.

3'-4" 3/4" Plyform

Class I

7 Spaces @ 2'-6"
2 x 6 Studs

@ 1'-0" O.C.

510 psf
Double 2 x 6 waler

1/2" Dia. coil bolt,

coil ties, and
3 x 4 flat washers
spaced @ 3'-0"

Concrete Pressure Diagram


Estimated conc. temp. = 75

Rate of pour = 3 ft/hr


Example Abutment Forms 3/4" Plyform

Class I 2 x 4 Studs
@ 1'-0" O.C.

4 Spaces @ 1'-10"

150h 1/2" Coil ties

with 3 x 4
washers spaced
@ 2'-6"

Double 2 x 6
664 psf walers

Concrete Pressure Diagram

Estimated conc. temp. = 70
Rate of pour = 4 ft/hr


All lumber to be Douglas Fir, Construction grade.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.214 (2)

1. Sheathing

The sheathing must support a pressures of 510 psf over a stud spacing of one foot. Assume the Class I Plyform will be
placed the "strong" way (face grain across supports). From Figure B 5-393.202 for 3/4" Plyform, it can be seen that the
safe load is about 760 psf. The sheathing is, therefore, acceptable.

2. Studs

The 2 x 6 studs are spaced at one foot with a uniform load of 510 psf. Span length is 2' 6". Assume these are continuous
for more than three spans.

a. Bending stress in studs f = M w = 510 psf


For 3 span continuous, M = 0.1wL2 = 0.1 x 510 lb/ft (2.5 ft)2 = 318.8 ft lb

For one 2 x 6, S = 7.56 in.3

318.8 ft/lb x 12 in.

f = 1 ft = 506 psi
7.56 in.3

This is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi and, therefore is acceptable.

b. Horizontal shear stress in studs H = 1.5V1


For 3 span continuous, V1 = 0.6 w (L-2h) = 0.6 x 510 lb/ft x 2.5 ft - 2 x 5.5 in. x 1 ft = 484.5 lb
12 in.

H = 1.5 x (484.5 lb) = 88.1 psi

1.5 in. x (5.5 in.)

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore is acceptable.

c. Bearing stress of stud on waler f = P


For 3 span continuous, P = 1.1wL = 1.1 x 510 lb/ft x (2.5 ft) = 1402.5 lb

A = 1.50 in. x 1.50 in. x 2 = 4.5 in.2

f = 1402.5 = 311.7 psi


This is less than the allowable stress of 480 psi and, therefore is acceptable.

d. Deflection of studs

For 3 span continuous, ∆= 0.0069 wL4


w = 510 lb/ft

L = 2.5 ft

E = 1,800,000 lb/in2

I = 20.80 in.4
5-393.214 (3) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

0.0069 x 510 lb/ft x (2.5 ft)4 x 12 in. 3

∆= 1 ft = 0.006 in.
1,800,000 lb/in.2 x 20.80 in.4

2.5 ft x 12 in.
The allowable deflection is L = 1 ft = 0.111 in.
270 270

Since actual deflection is less than allowable, the studs are acceptable. However, cumulative deflection of sheathing plus
studs plus walers must not exceed 1/8 inch to meet the alignment and stiffness criteria of Section 5-393.203.

3. Walers (double 2 x 8 member)

Tie rods are spaced 3' 0". Assume walers will be continuous for three spans or more and use the three span continuous
formulas. Since studs are spaced at 12 inches, there are at least 3 studs in each waler span and a condition of uniform
load may be assumed on the walers.

Uniform load w = 510 lb/ft2 x 2.5 ft = 1275 lb/ft of waler

a. Bending stress of waler f = M


M = 0.10 wL2 = 0.1 x 1275 lb/ft x (3.0 ft)2 = 1147.5 ft/lb

For two 2 x 8's S = 13.14 in.3 x 2 = 26.28 in.3

1147.5 ft/lb x 12 in.

f = 1 ft = 524 psi
26.28 in.3

This is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

b. Horizontal shear stress in waler H = 1.5 V1


V1 = 0.6 w (L-2h) = 0.6 x 1275 lb/ft x 3.0 ft - 2 x 7.25 in. 1 ft = 1370.6 lb

12 in.

H = 1.5 (1370.6 lb) = 94.5 psi

2 (1.5 in.) (7.25 in.)

This is less than the allowable horizontal shear stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

c. Bearing on tie plate f = P


P = R2 = 1.1 wL

= 1.1 x 1275 lb/ft x (3.0 ft) = 4207.5 lb

From Figure A 5-393.204, for a 3 x 4 flat washer with a 3/4 in. Spacer between the waler members, A = 9.0 in.2.

f = 4207.5 lb = 467.5 psi

9 in.2

Allowable stress = 480 psi x 1.13 (stress increase factor) = 542.4 psi

Since actual stress is less than allowable stress, the member is acceptable.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.214 (4)

4. Tie Rods - Tension Stress

The tension load as shown in part 3 c. above is 4207.5 pounds. The form details indicate that 1/2 inch diameter coil bolt
and coil tie will be used. The manufacturer’s literature must be checked to determine that these bolts and ties will safely
carry the 4207.5 pound load.

Calculations for checking the parapet forms (see Figure A 5-393.214) are as follows:

First determine the amount of pressure on the forms. The form plan indicates a proposed rate of concrete placement of 4
feet per hour. Assuming concrete placement will be late in August, a concrete temperature of 70º may reasonably be
used. The three criteria for determining form pressure with rates of pour less than 7 feet per hour are as follows:

a. p = 150 + 9000R1 R1 = 4 ft per hour T = 70º


= 150 + 9000 x 4

= 664 psf (maximum pressure at any depth)

b. p = 150 h = 150 x 8.5 ft = 1275 psf (this will not govern)

Form pressure will be determined by this formula above the point where pressure is 664 psf.

150 h = 664 psf

h = 664 = 4.43 ft

c. Neither of the above can exceed 3000 psf.

The resulting concrete pressure diagram is shown on Figure A 5-393.214. The actual stress calculations for the
parapet forms will be similar to those for the main wall forms and, therefore, will not be repeated in this
example. However, it would be necessary to perform these calculations since the concrete pressure and member
spacings differ from those of the main wall forms.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.250


5-393.251 GENERAL Occasionally, the plans will provide for some bars to be cut or
bent in the field. Such field work will be permitted but
Specification 2472 describes the requirements for furnishing bending must be done without heating if possible. Uncoated
and placing metal reinforcing bars in concrete structures other hot bent bars shall not be heated above the dull cherry-red
than pavements. range (a maximum of 650E C) and shall not be quenched.
Bars bent in the field should be checked to see that the bends
Until recently, reinforcing bars were specified and marked and dimensions are correct. Epoxy coated reinforcement bars
with a number that denoted the bar diameter in eights of an shall not be heated or flame cut. After the epoxy bars are cut
inch, i.e., a 1/2" diameter bar was denoted as a #4 bar (1/2" = or bent, a field application or touch up of the coating should be
4/8"). In the late 1990's the industry converted to metric made.
designations so now the first two digits of each bar mark
indicate the bar number which approximates the nominal 5-393.253 EPOXY COATED BARS
diameter of the bar in millimeters (mm).
Specifications for coated bars generally require padding to
Specification 3301 requires that, if not otherwise specified, protect the coating. Bar coating should be inspected for
reinforcement bars for use in any part of a concrete bridge, scratches, holidays and chips or other damage. Any damage
box culvert, or retaining wall shall be deformed billet steel should be repaired prior to long term storage. Repairs are
bars with a minimum yield strength of 420 MPa (60,000 psi). required if damage exceeds an area 6 mm by 6 mm (1/4" x
This strength is designated as Grade 420. Grade 420 1/4"). All bars with total damage greater than 2 percent of bar
reinforcement corresponds to Grade 60 in the inch-pound surface area shall be rejected and removed.
reinforcement specifications. The inspector should make
certain that the proper grade of steel has been supplied as soon Field cutting of epoxy-coated reinforcing bars should be
as it is received and before placement has started. See Figure avoided and only if permitted by the engineer. If cutting is
A 5-393.261 for identification markings. allowed it should only be done by the use of hydraulically
powered cutters, friction cutting tools (chop saw) or hack
Reinforcement bars, steel fabric, and other such materials are saws. Never should the use of a cutting torch be allowed.
usually sampled and tagged by the Mn/DOT Materials Office When patching cut ends the coating materials shall be
prior to shipment to the project. The inspector should look for handled, stored and applied in accordance with the
these tags when the material arrives at the job site and record manufacturer's recommendations, or as directed by an
the information in his or her diary. Reinforcement bars also authorized representative of the coating manufacturer. The
carry tags indicating the bar numbers and the unit for which patch compounds usually consist of a two part epoxy material
they are intended. When bars arrive at the site without that can be applied only after the surface is moisture free and
sampling tags, it will be necessary to check with the Materials cleaned of any oil, grease, dust, scale and rust.
Section to verify inspection and, if not previously sampled,
samples must be submitted as specified in the Materials All visible damage must be repaired before concrete is poured.
Manual. If you are in doubt, repair it. Use epoxy repair material
recommended by the coating manufacturer. Remove all rust
5-393.252 CUTTING AND BENDING and contaminants from the damaged area with a wire brush.
Mix the epoxy prior to use according to the manufacturer’s
Bar bending dimensions are not generally checked prior to recommended mixing procedures. Check the pot life.
shipment and should, therefore, be verified upon arrival. See
Figure B and C 5-393.261 for bends, dimensions, etc. It is the The instructions furnished by the patching material
Contractor’s responsibility to furnish bars with properly made manufacturer on how patching or touch-up material is applied
bends and of specified lengths, but an alert inspector can should be strictly followed. Be sure to allow the patch
sometimes save time and money for both the Contractor and sufficient curing time as specified by the material’s
the State by detecting bending errors in time so that a instructions before pouring concrete, (Some patch materials
correction can be made without delaying the progress of the require a minimum of 8 hours to cure).

Bars should also be inspected at bend points, particularly the

larger bars, to determine whether or not cracks or fractures
have occurred at these points due to the bending operations.
Galvanized or epoxy coated bars should be carefully checked
at bends for damage to coating.
5-393.254 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

5-393.254 STORAGE AND PROTECTION The positioning of the bars should be in accordance with the
plans. It is generally good practice on the part of the
Reasonable care should be exercised by the Contractor’s Contractor to mark off the bar spacing on the forms with chalk
workers when unloading or handling reinforcement bars to prior to starting placement. The inspector should be alert to
avoid kinking or otherwise damaging them. Long bars should such activity and check the spacing before placement is
be supported at several points when being handled and should started, so errors can be detected. Alertness of this type
not be dragged on the ground. Epoxy coated bars should be promotes better relations with the Contractor, provided it is
unloaded with padded slings to prevent damage to the coating. carried on in the proper spirit.
When the bars are unloaded, they should be placed on suitable
blockings, well off the ground, in an area that has been cleared Attention must be given to the positioning of the various
of brush, tall grass, and other growth, and which will be kept layers of bars in bridge slabs and similar sections, since a
drained. deviation of a few millimeters reduces the strength of the
section. Also, adequate concrete cover must be maintained to
It is good practice on the part of the Contractor to separate the protect the bars from exposure to air, moisture, and salt action.
different bar types so that they can be readily checked for Check the plans for the amount of cover specified. Detailing
bending and quantity, and so that they are readily available by Bridge Designers does not always make allowances for
when needed. fabrication tolerances. Therefore, in some cases, it may not be
possible to obtain minimum cover even if bars meet
Non coated bars which are to be stored for a long period of dimensional requirements. When this occurs, placement
time should be protected to minimize rusting. Rust, itself, should be accepted as “substantial compliance” and actual
should not be cause for rejection; but rusting to the extent that minimum cover noted on the “as built” plans. The strike-off
the bar becomes pitted reduces its strength and is definitely should be moved over a slab section before concrete
cause for rejection. Normal handling of the bars will usually placement is started and the depth of cover carefully checked,
remove rust which is loose enough to cause loss of bond. as required in the Specifications. Figures D and E 5-393.261
show typical support systems for deck slab reinforcement.
Reinforcement bars which have become irreparably damaged Unless otherwise specified in the plans or special provisions,
due to improper handling, storage, bending, or for any other reinforcing bars should be placed within the following
reason, or which have become excessively rusted or pitted, tolerances:
should be rejected and removed from the site. Bars may be
checked for loss of section by weighing. 1. Tolerance for minimum clear concrete cover in flexural
members (bridge decks), walls and columns should be as
Store epoxy-coated reinforcing bars as close as possible to the follows:
area where they will be placed in the structure to keep
handling operations to a minimum. This is most easily d=slab depth, wall Tolerance on
accomplished by planning for: location, accessibility, stacking thickness or column minimum concrete
methods and duration of storage. diameter cover
d ≤ 200 mm (8 in.) - 10 mm (3/8 in.)
Schedule delivery to minimize long-term storage of epoxy-
d › 200 mm (8 in.) - 12 mm (½ in.)
coated reinforcing bars at the job site. Coating color may fade
slightly from bright sun. This does not change the corrosion
protection properties of the epoxy coating. If storage in direct Except that the tolerance for the clear distance to edge of
sunlight is expected to exceed two months, the bars should be slab should be -6 mm (1/4 in.), and the tolerance for cover
protected. If protective sheeting is used, allow for adequate should not exceed minus one-third of the minimum cover
air circulation around the bars to minimize condensation under required on the plans.
the sheeting.
2. Tolerance for the longitudinal location of bends and ends
5-393.255 PLACING, SUPPORTING AND of bars should be ± 50 mm (2 in.) except at discontinuous
TYING REINFORCEMENT BARS ends of members where the tolerance should be ± 12 mm
(½ in.).
The condition of the reinforcement bars should be rechecked
immediately prior to placement to make certain that they are 3. As long as the total number of bars specified is
free of dirt, grease, oil, paint, heavy rust, or any other foreign maintained, a reasonable tolerance in spacing individual
matter which would tend to destroy the bond between the bars is ± 50 mm (2 in.), except where openings, inserts,
concrete and the reinforcement. If the forms have not already embedded items, etc., might require some additional
been treated with form oil (in the case of wood forms), this shifting of bars.
should be done before the reinforcement bars are placed. The
bars should not be dragged across or laid directly on forms 4. Tolerance for length of laps in lap splices should be ±
which have recently been treated with form oil. 25 mm (1 in.).
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.256

The bars should be securely tied so that their position will not Considerable care should be exercised in the placement,
be changed by workers walking or climbing on them, or by alignment, projection, supporting, and fastening of dowel bars.
placement of concrete against them. The Specifications are Dowel alignment should be determined from a line of known
quite explicit in their requirements for supporting and tying accuracy, such as the centerline of bearing, coping line, etc.,
reinforcement bars. A table in Specification 2472.3C shows and should be maintained in proper position by substantial
the maximum spacing for slab bolsters and continuous type frame work. These bars should not be disturbed once they are
high chairs for bridge slabs, as well as maximum tie spacing. in their correct position, especially after the concrete has been
Note that additional ties are required for coated bars. For all placed and vibrated around them. Any disturbance will tend
interior bays on beam span bridges, slab bolsters and upper to destroy their bond with the concrete and consequently the
continuous high chairs shall be placed within 150 mm value of the bar itself. Inserting dowel bars after the concrete
(6 inches) of the edge of beam flanges. The maximum has been placed is not good practice and should be permitted
spacing of all slab bolsters and upper continuous high chairs only in special cases. Bars with hooked ends should never be
shall be 915 mm (3 feet) for #10 and #13 bars, and 1220 mm inserted into concrete that has been placed. Dried mortar
(4 feet) for #16 - #22 bars. Also, additional bar chairs or exact should be removed from the exposed portion of the bars
location may be required if a finishing screed that rides on the before the next section of concrete is placed.
rebar is used. The inspector should keep in mind, however,
that these spacings are the maximum permitted, and that closer Workers often walk on reinforcement bars which have been
spacing may be necessary in order to achieve stability in the placed for sidewalks, curbs, and medians in order to perform
bar mats, as well as in the individual bars. Enforcement of their work. Because these bars are relatively small, they tend
these Specifications will eliminate sloppily placed, to bend rather easily and are sometimes found to have shifted
inadequately supported, or poorly tied reinforcement. Coated from their correct position. The Contractor should be required
bars must be tied with coated ties to provide protection against to provide plank walkways outside of or over such
corrosion. Coated bar supports are also required. reinforcement, both for the protection of the work and for the
safety of the workers. Walking on reinforcement bars which
The bottom layer of longitudinal reinforcement bars for slab are partly embedded in concrete that has started to set should
span bridges, cast-in-place concrete girders, beams, struts, and not be permitted. To avoid this situation, walkways should be
similar sections shall be supported on beam bolsters or heavy provided which are supported directly on the forms or on the
beam bolsters commensurate with the mass to be supported. structural members.
Precast concrete block or brick supports will not be permitted
on formed surfaces. Subsequent layers of longitudinal bottom
reinforcement, except for those bars which can be tied to 5-393.256 SPLICING REINFORCEMENT BARS
vertical bars, shall be supported by upper beam bolsters or
upper heavy beam bolsters. Except when otherwise noted or shown in the plans, the bars
should be lapped 36 bar diameters for bars up to #22 (#7) and
Epoxy coated reinforcing bars require a compatible support 40 bar diameters for bars #25 (#8) and over. In other words,
system coated entirely with a dielectric material such as epoxy the length of lap for joining two #22 (#7) bars would be 800
or plastic or made completely from a dielectric material such mm (32 in.) and for two #25 (#8) bars would be 1020 mm (40
as plastic. Uncoated "black" steel reinforcing bars or other in.). In general, splices should not be made in reinforcement
uncoated steel products or materials shall not be used to bars except as shown in the plans or as approved by the Bridge
support epoxy coated reinforcing. Contractors commonly use Design Engineer. (See Figure F 5-393.261 for bar lap table.)
plastic slab bolsters to support the bottom transverse bars of
slabs supported on beams. Such bolsters are permissible as There are times when splicing of rebar in a manner other than
long as they meet the general requirements described in the lapping is necessary. Examples include:
Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI) Manual of
Standard Practice. 1. Complicated placement where the cage could be tied off
site, in sections, and set in place
Cases have been encountered in the past where the Contractor
has been in the process of placing concrete for a bridge deck, 2. Reinforcement cages for drilled shafts
or preparing to do so, with inadequate supporting and tying
systems. This will not happen if the inspection is performed 3. Situations where an existing rebar is not long enough to
correctly and on time. Considerable emphasis has been placed develop strength by lapping
on this phase of the work during Department Bridge Seminars,
but enforcement can only be done on the job.
5-393.257 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

An example might be during the removal of an existing curb The inspector must verify the accuracy of tension forces at
on a bridge deck widening project, existing rebar is either cut time of prestress transfer since the strength of the finished
with the saw or broken during concrete demolition. In this structure is dependent on these forces.
case additional demolition would be needed to provide a lap
development length. Precast prestressed concrete items are susceptible to damage
during transportation and handling and should be carefully
Currently, several couplers are manufactured which can be inspected at the project site.
used to mechanically splice rebar. Mechanical splicing for the
above conditions may be approved. Mechanical splices shall 5.393-260 PAY QUANTITIES
develop 125% of the reinforcing bar’s yield strength.
Consideration for splice usage must be initiated by the Reinforcing steel is generally a “plan quantity” item (see
Contractor. The project engineer should review that request Specification 1901). The plan quantity is the final quantity for
with the Bridge Construction Engineer. which payment will be made unless there is a plan revision or
corrections are made due to plan errors.
Many mechanical coupling devices are available for use with
epoxy-coated reinforcing bar. Couplers should be precoated Information relative to bending details and dimensions, for use
with fusion-bonded epoxy coating. Repair any coating in computing the total length of bent bars, is included in this
damage on the couplers as necessary after installation. section and may be used if the plans do not provide the
necessary details. (See Figure B and C 5-393.261.) Also
5-393.257 WELDING included are tables showing mass of spiral reinforcement
based on diameter of the steel rod, diameter of the spiral, and
Welding reinforcement bars should not be permitted except the pitch. (See Figure H 5-393.261.)
when required by the plans or specifically approved by the
engineer. Bar steel should be of a type suitable for welding 5-393.261 REFERENCES AND MATERIALS
and low hydrogen weld rods such as E7016 must be used. All INFORMATION
welds having structural significance shall be performed by a
Department Certified Welder. See section 5-393.415 for The Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI) handbook
information regarding welding and welder certification. entitled “Placing Reinforcement Bars” contains an abundance
of information concerning terminology, fabrication, uses,
5-393.258 WELDED WIRE FABRIC types, and methods of placing reinforcement bars. A copy of
this book may be purchased for a nominal fee from the
Welded wire fabric is not normally used as reinforcement for Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute, 933 North Plum Grove
cast-in-place structures, but it is often used in precast box Road, Schaumburg, Illinois 60173-4758.
culverts. The special provisions and the plans will define the
requirements in detail. The CRSI “Design Handbook” is also available through the
sources indicated above. This handbook deals with the
5-393.259 PRESTRESSING STEEL technical design features, but also contains numerous charts,
tables and other useful construction information.
Prestressing steel is seven wire, uncoated, stress-relieved or www.crsi.org.
low relaxation strand which is used in both pretensioned and
post-tensioned construction. The majority of this material is The Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute also publishes a
used for precast prestressed concrete beams which are “Manual of Standard Practice” from which some of the
inspected by the Materials Office. Placement and tensioning information contained in this manual was obtained.
requirements for strands in prestressed concrete beams are
given in Specification 2405. Placement and tensioning The American Concrete Institute, PO Box 9094, Farmington
requirements for all other pretensioned and post-tensioned Hills, Michigan 48333, publishes codes for concrete
concrete are given in the plans and specifications. structures. Their “Manual of Concrete Practice” for detailing
reinforced concrete structures is referenced in Specification
At the time of transfer of the prestressing force from the jacks 2472 as ACI 315.
to the permanent anchors, large compressive forces must be
resisted by the concrete. Concrete members will shorten due
to these forces and this shortening must be taken into account
in placement of the bearing plates. Final prestress forces will
be less than jacking forces, due to shortening of members,
slippage of anchors and friction. Temperature differences at
time of tensioning and at time of concrete placement must also
be considered for pretensioned concrete.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.261


Type steel
Symbols include the following:
S - Billet (A615),(A615M)
- Rail (A616),(A616M)
A - Axle (A617),(A617M)
W - Low Alloy (A706),(A706M)
R - For rail meeting supplementary requirements S1
Grade mark lines are smaller and between the two main
ribs which are on opposite sides of all American Bars


Inch-Pound Bars Metric Bars

Main ribs

Letter or
symbol of
H H producing mill H H
Bar size
11 11 36 36
Type steel


Grade line
(one line only)
Grade 40, 50 Grade 60 Grade 420 Grade 300
Inch-Pound Bars Metric Bars

Main ribs
Letter of
producing mill
Bar size
11 36
Type steel


60 4
Grade mark
Grade 60 Grade 420
Figure B 5-393.261 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

STANDARD HOOKS - All Dimensions For Metric Bar Sizes Are Shown in Millimeters
Metric Inch-pound
180 Hooks 90 Hooks D
Bar Size Bar D db
Size A or G
* A or G J A or G 12d b
#10 #3 60 (2 1/4") 125 (5") 80 (3") 150 (6")
90 Hook
#13 #4 80 (3") 150 (6") 105 (4") 200 (8")
A or G
#16 #5 95 (3 3/4") 175 (7") 130 (5") 250 (10") Detailing
#19 #6 115 (4 1/2") 200 (8") 155 (6") 300 (1'-0") dimension
#22 #7 135 (5 1/4") 250 (10") 180 (7") 375 (1'-2")
#25 #8 155 (6") 275 (11") 205 (8") 425 (1'-4")
#29 #9 240 (9 1/2") 375 (1'-3") 300 (11 3/4") 475 (1'-7") db J
#32 #10 275 (10 3/4") 425 (1'-5") 335 (1'-1 1/4") 550 (1'-10")
#36 #11 305 (12") 475 (1'-7") 375 (1'-2 3/4") 600 (2'-0")
4d b or
#43 #14 465 (18 1/4") 675 (2'-3") 550 (1'-9 3/4") 775 (2'-7") 64 mm min.
#57 #18 610 (24") 925 (3'-0") 725 (2'-4 1/2") 1050 (3'-5") 180


Stirrup Hooks
(Tie Bends Similar)
Metric Inch-pound
90 135
Bar Size Bar D
* A or G A or G H
#10 #3 40 (1 1/2") 105 (4") 105 (4") 65 (2 1/2")
#13 #4 50 (2") 115 (4 1/2") 115 (4 1/2") 80 (3")
#16 #5 65 (2 1/2") 140 (6") 155 (5 1/2") 95 (3 3/4")
#19 #6 115 (4 1/2") 205 (1'-0") 305 (8") 115 (4 1/2")
#22 #7 135 (5 1/4") 230 (1'-2") 355 (9") 135 (5 1/4")
#25 #8 155 (6") 270 (1'-4") 410 (10 1/2") 155 (6")

6d b for #10, #13, #16

or Hook
12d b for #19, #22, #25 A or G
A or G




db db

90 135
(Tie Bends Similar)

* Metric information based on ASTM A615M.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure C 5-393.261


Bar sizes #10 through #36
(Metric Units)

+- 13 mm
Length (plus or minus 25 mm)

Spiral or Tie or Dimension (plus or minus 25 mm)

+- 13 mm
circular tie stirrup 90
6d hooks
plus zero or minus 13 mm

Dimension (plus or minus 25 mm)
Plus or Plus or # 16 bar or smaller
minus 13 mm minus 13 mm
Plus or # 19 bar or larger
minus 25 mm All sizes if gross
length >
_ 300 mm


Bar sizes #10 through #36
(English Units)
+- 1/2"

Length (plus or minus 1")

Spiral or Tie or Dimension (plus or minus 1")

circular tie stirrup 90
+- 1/2"

6d hooks
plus zero or minus 1/2"

Dimension (plus or minus 1")

Plus or Plus or # 16 bar or smaller
minus 1/2" minus 1/2"
Plus or # 19 bar or larger
minus 1" All sizes if gross
length >
_ 12"
Figure D 5-393.261 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005



19 (3/4"), 25 (1"), 38 (1-1/2"), and

SB Metal Slab Bolster 51 (2") heights in 1.5 m (5 ft) and
127 (5") 127 (5") (coated) 3 m (10 ft) lengths

Slab Bolster Heights, 3/4 to 3

SB (plastic) Lengths up to 32

SBU * Slab Bolster Upper Same as SB

127 (5") 127 (5")

25 (1"), 38 (1-1/2"), 51 (2") and over 51

BB Beam Bolster (2") to 127 (5") heights in increments
64 (2 1/2") of 6 (1/4") in lengths of 1.5 m (5 ft)

BBU * Beam Bolster Upper Same as BB

64 (2 1/2")
19 (3/4"), 25 (1"), 38 (1-1/2") and
BC Individual Bar Chair
44 (1-3/4") heights

51 (2") to 381 (15") heights in

HC Individual High Chair increments of 6 (1/4")

51 (2") to 381 (15") heights in

HCM * High Chair for Metal Deck
increments of 6 (1/4")

Same as HC in 1.5 m (5 ft) and

CHC Continuous High Chair
3 m (10 ft) lengths
203 (8")

Continuous High
CHCU * Chair Upper Same as CHC
203 (8")

Continuous High Chair Up to 127 (5") heights in increments

CHCM* of 6 (1/4")
for Metal Deck

Cover No. 13 (4)

356 (14") Span Heights -
20 (3/4")

JCU** Joist Chair Upper 25 (1") thru +89 (3-1/2") vary in


356 (14") 6 (1/4") increments

Class 1 are plastic protected; Class 2 are stainless steel; Class 3 are unprotected cold drawn steel wire.
* Available in Class 3 only, except on special order.
Available in Class 3 only, with upturned or end bearing legs.
** All dimensions shown in mm unless otherwise stated.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure E 5-393.261
Figure E 5-393.261 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005


Diameters of deformed bars are nominal, with the actual overall diameters being somewhat greater than the nominal diameter.
The overall diameter may be important when selecting the size of members of the bar support system, or when allowing for the
minimum cover requirements. Approximately 2 mm for #10, #13 & #16 bars (1/16" for #3, #4 & #5 bars); 3 mm for #19, #22,
#25 & #29 bars (1/8" for #6, #7, #8 & #9 bars); 5 mm for #32, #36 & #43 bars (3/16" for #10, #11 & #14 bars) and 6 mm for
#57 bars (1/4" for #18 bars) should be added to the nominal bar diameter for the height of the deformations.

Approx. Dia.
Metric Inch-pound Nom.
Bar Dia. of Outside
Bar Size
Size (mm) Deformations (mm)
#10 #3 10 11
#13 #4 13 14
#16 #5 16 17
#19 #6 19 22
#22 #7 22 25
#25 #8 25 29
#29 #9 29 32
#32 #10 32 37
#36 #11 35 41
#43 #14 44 48
#57 #18 57 64
Section A-A
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure F 5-393.261


Nominal Mass, Nominal Dimensions - Round Sections
Metric Inch-pound kg/m Cross Sectional
Bar Size Bar Size Nominal Weight, Diameter Perimeter
(lbs/ft) mm (in.) 2 2 mm (in.)
mm (in. )
#10 #3 0.560 (0.376) 9.5 (0.375) 71 (0.11) 29.8 (1.178)
#13 #4 0.994 (0.668) 12.7 (0.500) 129 (0.20) 39.9 (1.571)
#16 #5 1.552 (1.043) 15.9 (0.625) 199 (0.31) 50.0 (1.963)
#19 #6 2.235 (1.502) 19.1 (0.750) 284 (0.44) 60.0 (2.356)
#22 #7 3.042 (2.044) 22.2 (0.875) 387 (0.60) 69.7 (2.749)
#25 #8 3.973 (2.670) 25.4 (1.000) 510 (0.79) 79.8 (3.142)
#29 #9 5.060 (3.400) 28.7 (1.128) 645 (1.00) 90.2 (3.544)
#32 #10 6.404 (4.303) 32.3 (1.270) 819 (1.27) 101.5 (3.990)
#36 #11 7.907 (5.313) 35.8 (1.410) 1006 (1.56) 112.5 (4.430)
#43 #14 11.38 (7.650) 43.0 (1.693) 1452 (2.25) 135.1 (5.320)
#57 #18 20.24 (13.60) 57.3 (2.257) 2581 (4.00) 180.0 (7.090)


Number English Units Number Metric Units
of of
Diameters #10 #12 #16 #19 #22 #25 #29 #32 #36 Diameters #10 #13 #16 #19 #22 #25 #29 #32 #36
20 ---- ---- 13 15 18 20 23 26 29 20 ---- ---- 320 390 450 510 580 650 720
21 ---- ---- 14 16 19 21 24 27 30 21 ---- ---- 340 400 470 540 610 680 760
22 ---- ---- 14 17 20 22 25 28 31 22 ---- ---- 350 420 490 560 640 710 790
23 ---- 12 15 18 21 23 26 30 33 23 ---- 310 370 440 510 590 660 750 830
24 ---- 12 15 18 21 24 27 31 34 24 ---- 310 390 460 540 610 690 780 860
25 ---- 13 16 19 22 25 29 32 36 25 ---- 320 400 480 560 640 720 810 900
26 ---- 13 17 20 23 26 30 33 37 26 ---- 330 420 500 580 660 750 840 930
27 ---- 14 17 21 24 27 31 35 38 27 ---- 350 430 520 600 690 780 880 970
28 ---- 14 18 21 25 28 32 36 40 28 ---- 360 450 540 630 720 810 910 1010
29 ---- 15 19 22 26 29 33 37 41 29 ---- 370 470 560 650 740 840 940 1040
30 12 15 19 23 27 30 34 38 43 30 310 390 480 580 670 770 870 970 1080
32 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 41 46 32 310 410 510 620 710 820 920 1040 1150
34 13 17 22 26 30 34 39 44 48 34 330 440 540 650 760 870 980 1100 1220
36 14 18 23 27 32 36 41 46 51 36 350 460 580 690 800 920 1040 1170 1290
38 15 19 24 29 34 38 43 49 54 38 360 490 610 730 850 970 1090 1230 1360
40 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 51 57 40 380 510 640 770 890 1020 1150 1300 1440

NOTES: Minimum lap equals 12 in. NOTES: Minimum lap equals 310 mm
* Figured to next larger whole inch.
Lap splices not permitted for bars larger than #36.
* Figured to next larger ten millimeters.
Lap splices not permitted for bars larger than #36.
Figure G 5-393.261 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005


Diameter AS&W Diameter Area Mass (weight)

(inches) (gauge) mm (inches) mm2 (in.2) kg/m (lbs/ft)
(1/2) ---- 12.7 (.5000) 126.7 (.19635) .9943 (.6668)
---- 7/0 12.4 (.4900) 121.7 (.18857) .9549 (.6404)
(15/32) ---- 11.9 (.46875) 111.3 (.17257) .8739 (.5861)
---- 6/0 11.7 (.4615) 107.9 (.16728) .8471 (.5681)
(7/16) ---- 11.1 (.4375) 97.0 (.15033) .7613 (.5105)
---- 5/0 10.9 (.4305) 93.9 (.14556) .7371 (.4943)
(13/32) ---- 10.3 (.40625) 83.6 (.12962) .6564 (.4402)
---- 4/0 10.0 (.3938) 78.6 (.12180) .6168 (.4136)
(3/8) ---- 9.5 (.3750) 71.3 (.11045) .5593 (.3751)
---- 3/0 9.2 (.3625) 66.6 (.10321) .5226 (.3505)
(11/32) ---- 8.7 (.34375) 59.9 (.092806) .4700 (.3152)
---- 2/0 8.4 (.3310) 55.5 (.086049) .4357 (.2922)
(5/16) ---- 7.9 (.3125) 49.5 (.076699) .3884 (.2605)
---- 0 7.8 (.3065) 47.6 (.073782) .3736 (.2506)
---- 1 7.2 (.2830) 40.6 (.062902) .3185 (.2136)
(9/32) ---- 7.1 (.28125) 40.1 (.062126) .3146 (.2110)
---- 2 6.7 (.2625) 34.9 (.054119) .2741 (.1823)
(1/4) ---- 6.4 (.2500) 31.7 (.049087) .2486 (.1667)
---- 3 6.2 (.2437) 30.1 (.046645) .2362 (.1584)
---- 4 5.7 (.2253) 25.7 (.039867) .2019 (.1354)
(7/32) ---- 5.6 (.21875) 24.2 (.037583) .1903 (.1276)
---- 5 5.3 (.2070) 21.7 (.033654) .1704 (.1143)
---- 6 4.9 (.1920) 18.7 (.028953) .1466 (.09832)
(3/16) ---- 4.8 (.1875) 17.8 (.027612) .1398 (.09377)
---- 7 4.5 (.1770) 15.9 (.024606) .1246 (.08356)
---- 8 4.1 (.1620) 13.3 (.020612) .1044 (.07000)
(5/32) ---- 4.0 (.15625) 12.4 (.019175) .0971 (.06512)
---- 9 3.8 (.1483) 11.1 (.017273) .0875 (.05866)
---- 10 3.4 (.1350) 9.2 (.014314) .0725 (.04861)
(1/8) ---- 3.2 (.125) 7.9 (.012272) .0621 (.04168)
---- 11 3.1 (.1205) 7.4 (.011404) .0577 (.03873)
---- 12 2.7 (.1055) 5.6 (.0087147) .0443 (.02969)
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure H 5-393.261

Weight of Spiral Reinforcement

O.D. 3 1
/8" DIA. ROD /2" DIA. ROD
(in) 6" PITCH F 3" PITCH F
(lb/ft) (lb) (lb/ft) (lb)

24 4.72 7.1 16.79 12.60

26 5.12 7.7 18.19 13.65

28 5.51 8.3 19.59 14.70

30 5.91 8.9 20.99 15.75

32 6.30 9.5 22.38 16.80

34 6.69 10.1 23.78 17.85

36 7.09 10.7 25.18 18.90

38 7.48 11.2 26.58 20.00

40 7.87 11.8 27.98 21.00

42 8.27 12.4 29.38 22.00

44 8.66 13.0 30.78 23.10

46 9.06 13.6 32.18 24.10

48 9.45 14.2 33.58 25.20

50 9.84 14.8 34.98 26.20

52 10.24 15.4 36.38 27.30

54 10.63 15.9 37.77 28.30

56 11.02 16.5 39.17 29.40

58 11.42 17.1 40.57 30.40

60 11.81 17.7 41.97 31.50

62 12.21 18.3 43.37 32.50

64 12.60 18.9 44.77 33.60

66 12.99 19.5 46.17 34.60

68 13.39 20.1 47.57 35.70

For more complete coverage, see CRSI Design Handbook.

Total weight = (wt. per ft x height) + F

F = weight to add for finishing

(this includes 11/2 turns at the top and 11/2 turns at the bottom of spiral)

For additional information see Mn/DOT 2472 and AASHTO LRFD
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.300



The discussion in this section applies to the proper control of All concrete and concrete materials are subject to testing and
procedures and operations used to produce concrete in its inspection and come under the general requirements of
plastic state. Specifications 1603 and 1604, “Materials: Specifications,
Samples, Tests and Acceptance” and “Plant
Placing, consolidating, finishing, curing and protecting the Inspection-Commercial Facility” respectively. The detailed
mixed concrete are discussed in 5-393.350 Concrete Bridge specification requirements for concrete are contained in
Construction under the specific work items such as Specification 2461, “Structural Concrete,” with current
substructures, girders, slabs, railings and wearing courses. modifications shown in the Special Provisions for the
particular bridge under contract.
Procedures for sampling, testing and inspecting the cement,
aggregate, admixtures and concrete are included in the Each bridge contract proposal includes a copy of the
Concrete Manual and specific references to that manual are “Schedule for Materials Control” mentioned in Specification
made in the following text. 1603. The extent of sampling will vary depending on Contract
requirements which may specify a “certification” process with
5-393.302 CONCRETE MIX quality control sampling by the concrete supplier.

All concrete used for bridges is given a mix designation Detailed certification,inspection, sampling and field testing
commonly referred to as a concrete mix number (See procedures for concrete and concrete materials are contained
Specification 2461 and Concrete Manual 5-694.200). in the Concrete Manual prepared by the Materials Section.
Concrete Manual Table A 5-694.312 tabulates the various
mixes in general use for specific parts of a bridge. The Project Engineer should decide as early as practicable
whether materials will be inspected and tested at the source or
The bridge plans will list the different mixes required for that at the bridge site and arrange for all testing equipment and
particular bridge in the summary of estimated quantities, and supplies to be on hand at the proper location. Regardless of
the various detailed bridge plan sheets usually show the mix to where the materials are inspected and tested, the inspector
be used for the various parts of the structure. The use of these should bear in mind the following sentence of Specification
mixes is required except that higher strength mixes may 1603 - “Final inspection and acceptance of materials will be
sometimes be substituted. In the case of slope paving, the made only at the site of the work, after all required tests have
concrete type and minimum strength grade will be shown in been met.”
the construction notes on the standard slope paving plan sheet.
The concrete mix for cast-in-place steel shell piles is given in Specification 1601 states that all materials required for the
Specification 2452.2D2. work shall be furnished from reliable sources capable of
producing and delivering uniformly acceptable products. An
Estimated mix proportions for each concrete mix are furnished example of a non-uniform product is concrete produced by a
to the field engineer by the Concrete Engineer, Office of ready-mix plant using two different brands of cement having
Materials (see Concrete Manual 5-694.300). Soon after a different colors. It sometimes happens, where concrete
bridge contract has been awarded, Materials Engineering will production for other jobs may be in progress, that the brand of
forward a blank 2416, “Concrete Information,” to the Project cement used for a particular bridge may be exhausted and
Engineer for completion (see Concrete Manual 5-694.300). permission to substitute another brand is requested. For
concrete not exposed to view a change in color is not
The Project Engineer or inspector will then request objectionable. When non-uniform colors are used on exposed
proportions for the concrete mix number shown in the bridge surfaces, a special surface finish may be required to hide the
plans, and complete Form 2416 based on information supplied variation. For additional information see Concrete Manual 5-
by the Contractor and his or her supplier of concrete materials. 694.100.

In some cases, the project plans or special provisions will 5-393.304 CONCRETE QUANTITIES
require the Contractor to develop their own mix design for a
particular concrete element or component. In this case you Specification 2401 under “Method of Measurement” provides
should refer to the project special provisions and consult with as follows:
the Concrete Engineer if you have questions.
1. Concrete will be measured, as indicated in the Proposal,
by volume or by area, based on the dimensions shown in
the Plans.
5-393.304 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Project Engineer can request a copy of the plan estimated

2. Each mix of concrete will be measured separately. It is quantity computation from the Bridge Designer for
general practice to disregard keyways between pours comparison.
using different mixes, in the computation of the
quantities. Specification 1901 states that the plan quantity will be
accepted for payment except for the following conditions: (a)
3. No deductions will be made in concrete quantities for the incorrect plan quantities, (b) plan alterations, or (c) other
volume displaced by metal reinforcement, structural steel, method of measurement provisions of the contract. Field
floor drains, conduits, pile heads, chamfer strips with side quantity computations should be submitted with the final even
dimensions of 50 mm (2 inches) or less or for variations if the plan quantity is the basis for payment.
in camber and deflections from that which is indicated in
the plans. Examples of conditions when the proposal quantity will be
revised are as follows:
4. No increase will be allowed for any concrete used to
secure true conformity to the plan requirements for the 1. A discrepancy between the field computed quantity and
elevation profile and cross section in the finished roadway the estimated plan quantity indicates a mathematical error
slab. made during the computation of the estimated plan
The pay quantity of concrete for a bridge may be computed in
advance of placement and differs from some other items of 2. A plan alteration was made during construction such as
highway work where the quantity must be measured and lowering a footing one-half meter (1.5 feet) below the
computed after the item of work is in place. plan elevation because bed rock conditions were not as
It is important that the concrete quantity required for each
concrete pour in a bridge be computed well in advance of 3. The provision in Specification 2451 requiring rock
concrete placement. Computations of concrete quantities by excavation to be paid for as the actual measured quantity
pours in advance serve several useful purposes which are as is used.

1. Quantity computations familiarize the inspector with the

detail plans. The plans will show the total estimated
quantity of each concrete mix required for each unit (pier,
abutment, superstructure, etc.). If the summation of the
inspector’s quantities for each placement totals the
estimated plan quantity for the unit, it is reasonably
certain that he has interpreted the plans correctly.

2. The quantity required for each placement is useful in

coordinating the concrete delivery and production rate,
with the rate of rise within the forms, finishing operations,
and available time for the placement.

3. The quantities may be used for computation of yields and

progress estimates besides being used as pay quantities in
the final estimate.

4. Differences in computed and “as delivered” quantities

which arise from shortages or overruns are easier to
resolve at the time of placement.

In the computation of the estimated concrete quantities shown

on plans, concrete volumes are shown to the nearest cubic
meter (cubic yard) so as to avoid errors in bidding. Field
computations are to be made to the accuracy and on the form
described in the Documentation Manual issued by the Office
of Construction.

When there are unexplained discrepancies between field

quantity computations and the plan estimated quantity, the
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.350



5-393.351 PREPARATIONS FOR CONCRETE PLACE- cubic yards required up to the cut-off point when a delay
MENT is required in concrete placement. An example might be
the top of pier columns when the pier cap is to be placed
Well in advance of each concrete placement, the inspector monolithically with the columns. The extent of the delay
should review the operations and be assured that nothing has period will depend on the setting time of the concrete and
been overlooked that may influence the success of the the rate of pour. The minimum delay period of one hour,
proposed pour. In general, this review should be made with required by Specifications should be scheduled for hot
the Contractor. The Contractor is the responsible party and weather and a slow to medium (up to 1.5 m per hour) rate
should give the orders for any corrections or preparations of pour. A maximum delay period of 1 1/2 hours should
necessary. The review should include items contained in the be used for higher rates of pour and/or lower
following list, some of which may have been made before the temperatures. The purpose of this delay is to permit
initial placement. maximum water release and consolidation of the concrete
in the columns or walls prior to placement of concrete in
1. The time of day that the placement is to be started should the cap.
be determined and the completion time estimated.
8. The use of concrete additives such as retarders for deck
2. Approved concrete materials in quantities adequate to placements and Type III cement for cold weather
complete the placement must be available. The placements should be discussed with the Concrete
aggregates must be approved, cement must be the proper Engineer. All admixtures including air entraining must be
brand and either approved or sampled according to the approved.
Concrete Manual. A small quantity of the air entraining
agent, retarder or other admixture used should be 9. Placing equipment should be reviewed to ensure that
available at the bridge site when Type 3 (air-entrained) proper methods of placing are used. The possibility of a
concrete is mixed away from the site. break-down in placement equipment should be discussed,
as well as the availability of replacement equipment. If
3. Time-settlement delays after embankment construction at concrete is being placed for a critical falsework design
abutments or piers may be required by the Special (slab span, box girder, rigid frame or concrete arch) by
Provisions. A check should be made to ensure that any means of a pump, the contractor may be required by the
such requirements are fulfilled prior to footing engineer to have a standby pump at the site.
placements. In addition, the soil must be compacted as
required in Specification 2451.3 B, C and D for all spread 10. Approved finishing tools and equipment must be
footings placed on soil; this includes footings on natural provided. Strike-offs must have the proper crown or
soil as well as footings on embankments. straightness. Longitudinal floats and straightedges must
be true. The necessity for small tools such as darbies,
4. Pumps, with sumps outside the formed area, should be hand floats, trowels, edgers and brooms, together with
provided when necessary to keep footing areas dewatered. bridges to work from, must not be overlooked. Lack of
The water level must be kept below the bottom of the an edger or specified radius for curbs and sidewalks can
proposed pour for succeeding casts. All concrete, except be very troublesome, and edgers are almost impossible to
concrete seals, should be placed “in the dry” except as improvise on short notice. Edgers should be long enough
permitted by Plan or Special Provision. and wide enough to permit slight variations in pressure
without causing dips and gouges.
5. Concrete mixing equipment should be checked as
required in 5-694.400 of the Concrete Manual. 11. The number of concrete finishers necessary should be
discussed, since this directly affects the rate of finishing.
6. The concrete delivery or production rate should be
coordinated with the rate of placement permitted by the 12. When finishing must be done in poorly windowed
form plans or coordinated with a rate of placement that housing, or it is anticipated that finishing may be required
will permit proper finishing with available personnel and at night, adequate artificial lighting should be provided.
equipment. The Special Provisions may require a
minimum rate of placement for placements of large seals, 13. Procedures to follow in case of rainfall before the
decks or piers. In this case, equipment and personnel concrete has set up should be discussed with the
must be available and the forms must be designed so that Contractor. Deck slabs should be given careful
the minimum rate of placement can be maintained. consideration due to the large area that may be exposed
and the extensive damage that may result from running
7. The rate of delivery should be fairly uniform. Ready-mix water. Plastic sheeting or other protective covering
trucks should be scheduled to leave the plant at spaced should be on hand at the bridge site.
intervals, not in groups. A check should be made on the
5-393.351 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

14. Curing materials (burlap, plastic curing blankets, etc.) 2. Panel forms for substructure units should be treated with
should be at the site in sufficient quantity to cover the an approved form release agent before erection. Forms
placement. It is very difficult to adequately seal concrete for deck slabs should be treated in advance of placing
with curing blankets when dowels or other reinforcement reinforcement bars. The removable portion of form bolts
bars project from the surface. It may be necessary to should be coated before placing to facilitate removal. A
arrange to cure such areas with wet burlap. resin-coated form-grade plywood is available, which is
said to be non-staining.
15. When temperatures below 4EC (40EF) are anticipated or
can be expected before completion of curing, cold 3. The face of the forms that will be in contact with concrete
weather protection materials should be at the jobsite prior should be clean and all debris removed from within the
to placement. Requirements for cold weather protection forms. This may require that openings be cut through the
are given in Specification 2401.3C2. Arrangements form near the bottom, the debris removed, and the
should be made to preheat the forms, reinforcement bars opening closed. On deck slabs, flushing the forms with
and abutting concrete surfaces when they have been water to move the debris to several central locations for
subjected to freezing temperatures. Required curing and removal is an excellent method of cleaning within the
the need for form insulation or housing and heating forms. The inspector should pay particular attention to
should be discussed. Unformed upper surfaces must be see that paper, chips, sawdust, etc., are removed from
protected during finishing operations until the concrete is “hard to get” locations. Industrial type vacuum cleaners
set up enough to bear the upper insulating material. Heat or compressed air blowers are useful at such locations. A
applied directly to fresh concrete must be provided by magnet tied to the end of a rod can be used for picking up
vented heaters. Combustion products from unvented metal objects such as nails and wires.
heaters cause a weak layer of calcium carbonate on the
surface of the concrete that interferes with cement 4. Deck slab forms usually take some time to construct.
hydration. The result is a soft, chalky surface that dusts Wood forms that were constructed tightly may shrink,
off under traffic. especially during hot weather, and develop openings
through which mortar may leak. Thoroughly flushing the
16. The need for taking control test cylinders should be forms a day in advance of pouring will usually tighten up
considered and discussed with the Contractor. These the forms. (Note: Flushing with water for cleaning or
cylinders would be in addition to cylinders required for tightening the forms is, in addition to the Specification
acceptance of materials. Control cylinders are normally requirement for flushing immediately in advance of
used when cold weather curing is anticipated. See concrete placement). A close inspection should be made
Specification 2401.3G for further details. for holes or cracks through which mortar may leak. On
steel beam spans with stools (haunches), the wedges
17. A water supply for wetting forms and providing a fog holding the sheathing tightly against the underside of the
spray should be discussed with the Contractor. The need beam flange should be checked and snugged up. Holes in
for fog spray nozzles at the jobsite should be pointed out vertical forms may be plugged with a piece of cork cut
at that discussion. flush with the face of the form in contact with concrete.
Holes or cracks in the forms for the underside of deck
Specification 2461.4A states that concrete production shall not slabs may be covered with tin nailed in place. Covering
be started until the Engineer has approved all preparations for holes with tin on vertical forms, where the concrete will
concrete placement. The following items should be carefully be exposed to view, is not advisable as the slight
checked during the pre-placement inspection. depression will show up and a concrete patch will not
adhere in such a shallow depression. Adjacent sheets of
1. The forms should be checked for conformance with the plyform sheathing or other form lining on vertical forms
Plan dimensions, elevations and alignment. Surveying must be close fitting with smooth joints. If the joints are
instruments are often necessary for checking the not close fitting, the crack should be filled with a non-
alignment or elevations of forms. Form lines should staining putty or other suitable material to reduce the
always be checked visually, but a blind dependence amount of ordinary surface finish work.
should not be placed on them. Chamfer or cove strips
should be checked for location, size, warping and 5. All reinforcement, inserts, anchorages and sleeves which
adequate nailing every 150 mm to 200 mm (6-8 inches). are to be cast in should be checked for proper positioning,
Forms and falsework plans should also be checked to see projection and minimum concrete cover.
that the construction conforms to the approved Plans. It is
assumed that the size, spacing and materials used have 6. Expansion devices should be carefully adjusted as
been checked for compliance with the approved form discussed under Section 5-393.370 of this manual.
plans, and that any changes necessary have been made
during construction. See Section 5-393.250 of this 7. When temporary wood spreaders are used within vertical
manual for inspection of reinforcement bars, mesh, etc. forms, a wire tied around the spreader and extending to
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.352 (1)

the top of the form may prevent them from being or onto a conveyor belt. See the following sketch from an
inadvertently cast into the concrete. American Concrete Institute publication.

8. Slipforming equipment should be given a “dry run” to Chutes normally carried with ready mix trucks to discharge
ensure clearance and minimum concrete cover over concrete are classified as short chutes. There is some
reinforcement. segregation associated with their use and the segregation
increases as the chute angle increases. When the concrete is
5-393.352 CONCRETE PLACEMENT EQUIPMENT chuted directly into forms, baffles or hoppers may be
necessary to change the direction of the flow to prevent
Chutes segregation. When ready-mix trucks are used to discharge
Chutes are constructed of metal in a semicircular shape or of concrete into deck slab or sidewalk forms, the chute should be
wood in a rectangular shape. They should be mortar tight. moved in as large an arc as possible when discharging to
Aluminum chutes should never be permitted since the coarse minimize segregation. See Concrete Manual 5-694.622.
aggregate will wear off particles of aluminum and cause
gassing in the concrete mix. Downspouts
Downspouts are sometimes referred to as “drop chutes” when
The amount of segregation in concrete discharged from a made of metal or as “elephant trunks” when made of rubber.
chute will increase as the length and slope of the chute
increases. No definite rule can be laid down as to the length Nominal diameters vary from 200 mm to 400 mm (8 to 16
and slope of a straight chute that may be used without inches). Commonly used downspouts are made of sheet metal
segregation. The slope is usually 1 vertical to 2 or 2 1/2 and are constructed in sections. Each section usually makes a
horizontal. The important thing for the inspector to remember downspout 1.3 m (4 feet) long. The sections are made in the
is that, if segregation is apparent in chutes, baffles must be shape of a truncated cone and are placed with the smaller end
installed or shorter chutes that reverse the direction of the flow down. Hooks and chains are provided to hold the sections
of concrete must be used. These corrections will slow down together. Each lower section overlaps the upper section and is
the coarse aggregate and permit the mortar to “catch up.”