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Consultancy for developing TVETA accreditation procedures and

manuals, and conduct training of TVETA staff, monitors and evaluators


under the Project

Support to Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for


Relevant Skills Development Phase II Project

Tender No. MOE-VTT/TVET PHASE II/6/2016-2017

Towards a Trainers Qualifications Framework for


Kenya

Report and Proposal, Final Draft

Prepared by Kees Hammink February 2018

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Abbreviations
AfDB African Development Bank
CBET Competency Based Education and Training
CDACC Curriculum Development, Assessment and Certification Council
GOK Government of Kenya
KMTC The Kenya Medical Training College
KNEC Kenya National Examination Council
KNQA Kenya National Qualifications Authority
KSG Kenya School of Government
KTSC/ TSC Kenya Teacher Services Commission
KTQF Kenya Trainers’ Qualifications Framework
KTTC Kenya Technical Trainers College
MoE Ministry of Education
MoE DTVET Ministry of Education Directorate Technical and Vocational Education
NITA National Industrial Training Authority
PSC Public Service Commission
QF Qualification Framework
TVETA Technical and Vocational Education and Training Authority
TVET Technical and Vocational Education

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Table of Content
Abbreviations ...................................................................................................................................... 2
1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 4
2. Context ................................................................................................................................................ 6
3. General criteria for “Good Trainers”................................................................................................... 9
4. Trainers Qualifications in Kenya ....................................................................................................... 11
4.1 The current situation. ................................................................................................................. 11
4.2 Work experience ......................................................................................................................... 11
4.3 Trainer of Trainers practices in Kenya ........................................................................................ 12
5. Proposal for Trainers Qualifications Framework in Kenya................................................................ 14
5.1 Legal arrangements..................................................................................................................... 14
5.2 Levels........................................................................................................................................... 14
5.3 Functions and competencies ...................................................................................................... 15
5.4 Updating of qualifications ........................................................................................................... 16
5.5 Validity ........................................................................................................................................ 16
6. Trainers Qualification Framework (proposal) ................................................................................... 17
7 . Competency Statements for Trainers .............................................................................................. 20
7.1 Technical Instructor .................................................................................................................... 21
7.2 Trainer ......................................................................................................................................... 23
7.3 Principal Trainer/Developer ........................................................................................................ 28
7.4 Principal Trainer/Manager .......................................................................................................... 31
8. Notes on implementation ................................................................................................................. 36
Annexes:................................................................................................................................................ 37

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1. Introduction
The TVET field in Kenya is undergoing fundamental changes. It is moving from a roughly offer based
system to a more demand-based provision in which TVET institutes provide well qualified personnel
in those qualifications that are needed for the development of the economy and the country.

Key challenges are;

• the introduction and implementation of a National Qualifications Framework (NQF),


• the development and implementation of competency based education and training (CBET)
curricula in the TVET institutions
• and, the establishment of a systematic Quality Assurance

To implement the above policy the Government of Kenya (GOK) will implement the following
strategies to ensure achieving trainer competency:

i. Review and enforce minimum TVET trainers’ qualifications including compulsory industrial
attachment for TVET trainers at least every three years of service;
ii. Develop standards to guarantee a minimum quality for TVET and develop policies, plans and
guidelines for the rebranded TVET;
iii. License, register and accredit all TVET institutions according to established quality standards;
iv. Develop trainer-industry links to enhance quality of contracts being key performance
indicators for industrial training; and
v. Establish an industrial attachment standard for all TVET trainees and trainers, for enhancing
their hands-on-skills;
The qualification of trainers is an essential element in this development. The implementation of CBET
in Kenyan TVET creates the need for the (re)training of trainers hence a development of the trainer’s
qualification and the competency standards which form this qualification is deemed necessary.

In this report the issue of the Trainers Qualification in Kenya is discussed. Proposal for a Qualification
Framework for trainers are made. The baseline for the work presented here is in the proposal for a
Qualifications Framework for TVET trainers, which was drafted by TVETA staff in April 2017. This
document is seen as “version 1”. The proposals in this report are “version 2”

The report is a discussion document. It is the final draft for a policy paper stating the necessary
qualifications, competencies and standards trainers should have or must acquire in a TVET system
build on Competency Based Education.

The proposed elements of the Qualification Framework (QF) for TVET trainers are based on a short
analysis of the actual situation in the field of TVET in Kenya. Furthermore, a base lies in the draft TVET
Trainers Qualification Framework (April 2017) drafted by TVETA staff and a comparison with TVET
Trainer’s Qualifications Frameworks or competency statement as in use in 7 other countries.

In developing a Trainer’s Qualification Framework there are many issues to deal with such as:

a. How is the work of trainers described and how are tasks and the knowledge and skills needed
to perform these tasks presented?
b. How can this be related to the National Qualifications Framework?

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c. Does a variety of functions/tasks in an institution imply different qualifications?
d. What are the requirements in terms of knowledge and experience in the specific field for a
trainer, and how can these be linked with the knowledge and skills needed as a
trainer/educator?
e. What are the requirements to keep the trainer’s qualification up to date?
f. Which are the entry requirements/ qualification to be able to enter TVET trainers training?

In most Qualification Frameworks the description of a trainer’s work is based on a list of tasks the
trainer performs in his/her teaching practice. This is also the basis for the draft TVET Trainers
Qualification Framework, TVETA made in April 2017.

Based on this list of tasks then a description can be made of the knowledge and skills needed to
perform these tasks. In some cases a further specification is made in terms of subtasks and results or
outcomes of performing these subtasks (see annex 5 for a provisional translation of the qualification
file in use in the Netherlands). The models discussed and recommended in this paper are based on
the task model.

Terminology
TVET trainers are, in different settings referred to differently. On the higher levels of TVET they
are often referred to as lecturers, in other places they are called teachers. The Technical and
Vocational Training Act of 2013 uses the word Trainer. In this report we follow the wording of
the Act in using Trainers for all staff that contribute in (T)VET institutes and centres to the
learning of their students.

The abbreviation TVET includes in this report all levels and forms of technical and vocational
education and training that are intended for learners to qualify for skilled labour.

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2. Context
The TVET sector in Kenya is guided by the National TVET Policy (March 2012) and by the key issues
raised in Vision 2030. To develop in Kenya a TVET system that matches international standards one
of the issues is that; attention needs to be given to the large number of individuals graduating from
the secondary school system, the levels of poverty that prevent participation in the TVET system, and
the need to make a practical link between training and the skilled labour demands of industry.

The Policy defines the overall goal of TVET is to produce a critical mass of well-trained persons to
implement the programmes and projects identified in Vision 2030.

The Policy spells out two broad strategic objectives that focus on the provision of demand driven
training and the promotion of flexible and competency based curricula. The implementation of such
an approach is based on:

✓ The establishment of TVET Curriculum Development, Assessment and Certification Council


(CDACC) that has a mandate to develop curricula and administer assessment
✓ The compulsory introduction of attachment for trainees and trainers
✓ Upgrading of training facilities
✓ Supporting work and study arrangements for TVET graduates through a reformed
apprenticeship programme
✓ Supporting programmes that encourage entrepreneurship and self-reliance

Key objectives are to increase enrolment, introduce and maintain standards by establishing a National
Qualifications Framework, and introduce governance and management structures in all TVET
institutions that will encourage cooperation and ensure accountability in governance and
management.

TVET training is provided through approximately 80 MoE managed institutions, including 14


Universities/Polytechnics, 1 Technical Teacher Training College, 40 Technical Training Institutes, 17
Technology Institutes and 11 Centres of Excellence. In addition, the Ministry of Labour and Human
Resource Development manages 5 Training Institutes, the Ministry of Youth Affairs 607
Institutes/Training Centres, and there are approximately 1,000 privately and/or faith based Training
Centres. According to the TVETA website 845 are accredited institutions by September 2017.1

The TVETA Act of 2013 Act prescribes the functions of TVETA as those described in “Box 1: TVETA
Mandate” and provides for the appointment of a governing Board for a minimum period of four and
three years, with members being appointed at different time. The TVETA Act also provides for the
formation of the Curriculum Development, Assessment and Certification Council, the Technical and
Vocational Training Funding Board and for the harmonisation and adoption of national and
international standards in training (Part VII, Clause 38). However, the Act is silent on the relationship
between these bodies. In that respect a TVET mapping exercise is required to clarify the relationships
between the key stakeholders.

The Ministry of Education’s Directorate of TVET (MoE- DTVET) is mandated to formulate, review and
oversee the implementation of national TVET policies and strategies.2 MoE- DTVET is divided into two

1 Source: TVET Policy [March 2012], pp11 – 12 and TVETA website [www.tvetauthority.go.ke]
2 TVET Reform Strategy. TVET strategic for the Period 2016 -2020, MoHEST, February 2016, Chapter Two, Section 2.2, pp7

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departments. One department focusses on technical training and oversees national institutions, such
as for example the Polytechnics. The other department is concerned with vocational training and
therefore, deals with training centres that fall under the management of the county governance
authorities.

The TVET Act No.29 of 2013 gives the Technical and Vocational Education and Training Authority
(TVETA) the mandate ‘to regulate and coordinate TVET training activities in Kenya3. The Act (Part II
Regulation 7) lists 18 specific functional areas of activity activities related to accreditation and
standards. The functions specifically related to the Qualification of Trainers are:

✓ Accredit and inspect programmes and courses


✓ Advise on the development of the schemes of service for trainers
✓ Assure quality and relevance in programmes of training
✓ Liaise with the national and- county governments and with the public and the private sector
on matters relating to training.

As mentioned, TVETA operates in a complex environment. It has inherited an aspect of education that
has been in place for many years but despite the number of training providers – both formal and
informal has until recently only been nominally recognised. That ‘old’ arrangement has also spawned
various certification bodies and various levels and types of qualification and recognition institutions
and processes. National Industrial Training Authority (NITA) and the Kenya National Examination
Council (KNEC) are but two examples. These are augmented by trade and international bodies, such
as City and Guilds. Regarding the qualifications of trainers in TVET there are “old” arrangements, like
the fact that all trainers in public TVET (under the MoHEST) are recruited and employed by the Teacher
Services Commission, who has its own criteria for appointment.

Since the launch of the TVET policy in 2012 and the passing of the TVETA Act in 2013 the situation has
become more complex. New institutions have been created, old roles have changed, and new
strategies are emerging.

TVETA was established in 2014, and is, therefore, a young organization and is still in the process of
developing it’s organizationally and human resource capacity. It currently has (as of September 2017)
a staff compliment of approximately thirty (30), including administrative and support personnel. The
technical staff, i.e. those who are in specialist TVET positions, number fourteen (14), including the
Chief Executive Officer.

TVETA’s Strategic Plan (undated) outlines the organisational structure that is currently being revised
with the support from the African Development Bank (AfDB). The Strategic plan needs to be converted
into a business plan, TVET institutions need to be proactive as innovative and demand driven
institutions and need to develop a business model that reflects this kind of approach. TVETA could be
a role model for this approach, moving away from the conventional style administratively driven style
of operation.

3 TVETA Mission statement

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Currently TVETA has four directorates; these are the Directorates of Corporate Services, Accreditation,
Standards Development & Compliance and Policy, and Research & Development. The number of
management and technical personnel in each of these Directorates are: Corporate Services – three,
Accreditation – four, Standards & Compliance – four, and Policy, Research and Development – two.
In addition, TVETA has a compliment of fifteen administrative and support staff. They include
procurement and accounting personnel as well as those working in secretarial, driver and security
positions.

The composition of TVETA’s technical personnel is compliant with Kenya’s national gender guideline
of a 30% female to male ratio. The ratio for all TVETA personnel is also compliant with this national
guideline. However, during the institutional baseline assessment (under the Dutch NUFFIC/ NICHE
Project) there was a feeling amongst those present that a female perspective on issues is sometimes
missing. It was noted that the TVETA Board is aware of the need for an increase in the presence of
females, but there is not an active gender element in the Authority’s recruitment strategy.

The functions and operations of TVETA are guided by the TVETA Act (2013) and by the personnel
regulations of the Public Service Commission (PSC) and the guidelines of the Directorate of National
Cohesion and Values. On the other hand, TVETA developed many guidelines and regulations. These
include:
Table 1: TVETA HR Guidelines and regulations

Title Publisher Date Status


Scheme of Service. Career Progression Guideline for TVETA May 2015 In use
TVETA Staff
Operations Manual TVET CDACC April 2015

Human Resource Manual TVETA November Approved; in


2016 use
CBETA Guidelines (Draft) TVETA March 2017 Draft

Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) TVETA April 2017 Draft

TVET Trainers Qualifications Framework (Draft) TVETA April 2017 Draft

The Technical and Vocational Education and Training TVETA November Approved
Regulations, 2015 2015

Other documents that have been developed by the Directorate of TVET, MoE are:
✓ Handbook for Accreditation of Technical, Industrial, Vocational and Entrepreneurship
Training (TIVET) Institutions, February 2011,
✓ Competency Based Education and Training (CBET) Framework, February 2015,

The TVET Trainers Qualifications Framework (April 2017) is a draft that outlines the key tasks of
trainers and links these to qualification levels. It is the starting point for the (further) development of
qualifications and competency standards of “good” TVET trainers.

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3. General criteria for “Good Trainers”
In a recent article Axmann, Rhodeas and Norstum gave an overview of the criteria for a good trainer,
based on an analysis of a multitude of sources:

“Bearing in mind that such criteria cannot be overly prescriptive nor considered exclusive in view of
the great diversity of country systems and the complexity of needs, “good teachers” and trainers may
be understood as those who meet a certain number of professional criteria (ILO, 2000: 34-35; Nielsen,
2007: 58), tangible and intangible, including:

✓ extensive knowledge in one or more subjects or fields of learning;


✓ a high degree of functionality in information and communication technology (ICT) and
technological processes;
✓ general understanding and ability to share larger economic and social realities with students;
✓ capacity to impart generic learning skills to students through their instruction and
organization of learning processes;
✓ ability to function collaboratively in a team;
✓ research, reflection and change as necessary in teaching practice (teacher as learner);
✓ ability to communicate and empathize with students;
✓ capacity to innovate and impart innovation in learning. 4”

Next to these two other competencies make a “good trainer” in TVET:


✓ The ability to act entrepreneurial and to transfer this skill and the spirit to learner and
✓ The ability to reflect on gender issues (and own attitudes) and take gender differences into
consideration in developing and administering learning programmes.(see annex: for a Gender
in Education assessment tool).

As part of the assignment a workshop was organized. In the feed-back workshop with stakeholders a
brainstorm on the question “what a good trainer is” was held. The following statements were noted:
Knows Can Does

Content of the subject(s) Digital Literate Assessment

Expert in the subject matter Calculations Listen

How to communicate Environmental conscious Practicals

The audience properly Safety and Health conscious Trains

Assessment requirements Designs


To identify and knows how or Maintain the learners in the learning
Construct
assess learning materials process
How to explain (subject
Use counselling skills Innovate
contents)

4Axmann M, Rhoades A and Nordstrum L; Vocational teachers and trainers in a changing world: the imperative of high
quality teacher training systems. ILO2015

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Skills area Assess, examine and evaluate Manages training

Trainer behaviour Judge Councils students

How to train Demonstrate, impart knowledge

Select training equipment

Develop curricula

Determine Training Quality

All these elements form part of the description of tasks and competencies necessary to full-fill these
tasks in the chapters 6 and 7.

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4. Trainers Qualifications in Kenya
4.1 The current situation.
Although both the KTSC and TVETA keep records of TVET Trainers and Managers qualifications, these
data are not yet systematically brought together and thus it is difficult to give a generalised overview
of what the current qualifications of all the TVET trainers are.

The table below is based on an analysis of data, provided by the TSC, of 12 polytechnics (of which one
is also a trainers training college).

Qualifications of Trainers in 11 Polytechnics


Institute PHD Masters Bachelors HND Diploma Cert. Total
North Eastern Nat. Polytechnic 3 21 4 28
Nyere National Polytechnic 34 55 17 2 108
Sigalagala National Polytechnic 1 22 46 11 80
Kitale National Polytechnic 23 65 7 21 116
Kisii National Polytechnic 38 70 4 14 126
Kabete National Polytechnic 59 57 23 13 152
Kisumu National Polytechnic 4 44 72 13 9 142
Meru National Polytechnic 43 65 8 23 2 141
Kenia Technical Trainers College 6 53 30 12 101
Kenya Coast Nat. Polytechnic 15 46 15 1 77
Eldoret National Polytechnic 1 55 76 1 2 135
Total 12 389 603 104 94 4 1206
% of Total 1,0 32,3 50,0 8,6 7,8 0,3 100,0
*Note: it is not recorded whether the degree is in the field in which the trainer is teaching.

It demonstrates that most of the trainers have a qualification either on Bachelor’s or on Masters level
and that the qualifications on lower level are rather limited. This may be caused by the nature of the
institutes. Polytechnics train on average at a higher level (their students will reach up to Diploma level)
where as other technical training institutes provide also for courses on lower levels (crafts, artisan and
certificates) and thus one may assume they will employ more trainers with a qualification on Higher
Diploma or Diploma level than the Polytechnics.

From these data and the assumptions made above we can formulate the following 2 hypothetical
statements:
i. The current technical qualifications of trainers are on a level that provides a base to perform
as a trainer in TVET.
ii. However, it is not known whether the necessary pedagogical knowledge and skills to perform
successfully as a trainer in TVET are present.

4.2 Work experience


It is not clear how many of the trainers do have actual work experience in the professional field they
are training in. The fact that they hold a degree in that field does not necessarily imply that they also
worked in that field and gathered experience in the industry.

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In some countries (Australia, Netherlands, U.K.) this experience is seen as an essential element of the
trainers’ qualification. A good trainer must know, from inside, the work-field the students are going
to work in. This aptitude can only be developed through working in that field.

In the development of the qualifications framework for trainers in Kenya this issue was discussed with
different stakeholders. The general conclusion was that work-experience was important, but that it
is not realistic, given the actual situation in TVET, to demand that now as part of the entry
qualifications. The solution for this is that, as part of the continuous training of trainers, periods of
industrial attachment need to be created. In fact, many the Kenyan TVET Institutes have these periods
of industrial attachment.

4.3 Trainer of Trainers practices in Kenya


At the moment there are at least 4 different forms of Training of trainers practiced in Kenya.

(i) The Kenya Technical Trainers College (KTTC) provides, either in combination with technical or
vocational training in various trades, or as a separate course for those (new) trainers who already
master their trade, a set of modules to prepare Trainers for their pedagogical tasks. The course takes
a full year (4 terms) 396 hours of study and a full term of teaching practice

Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 Term 4


Code Course Hrs Code Course Name Hrs Code Course Name Hrs
Name
ED2110 History of 22 ED2142 Research 11 ED2220 Guidance & 22
Education Methods 2 Counselling
ED2120 Philosophy 22 ED2310 General 44 ED2420 Education 33
of Education Methods Administration
ED2141 Research 22 ED2230 Tests & 33 ED2240 Comparative 11 Teaching
Methods 1 Measurements Education Practice
ED2130 Sociology of 33 ED2210 Educational 44 Special 24
Education Psychology Methods
ED2410 Curriculum 22 ED2320 Educational 44
Development Technology

The programme looks as a rather “traditional” programme with much attention for basic knowledge,
certainly in the first term. Furthermore, it is noted that all teaching practice is not embedded in the
curriculum but separate from course work. The assessment of course work is done before the start
of teaching practice, which is assessed separately. Both assessment will lead to the qualification of
TVET trainer.

(ii) The Kenya Technical Trainers College (KTTC) also offers a basic training for (workplace) instructors
in organisations/industry. The following specific areas are described to provide the required
pedagogical skills for instructors.

✓ Communication
✓ Program development
✓ Instructional psychology

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✓ Instructional technology (media)
✓ Information Communication Technology (ICT)
✓ Methods of instruction
✓ Tests and measurements
✓ Practice teaching

The courses are on 3 levels: Instructor, Senior Instructor and Diploma in Instructor training. On the
first two levels courses take each 3 months, the latter is a Diploma course which takes a full year and
3 months of study.

(iii) Kenya School of Government (KSG) provides a Trainers of Trainers (ToT) programme of 2 weeks
for (new) trainers in many sectors, not related to the MoHEST. Each new trainer is obliged to take this
ToT programme. The programme is presented below:

Session One Session 2 Session 3


Day 1 Climate setting and Role of training in Nomination and selection
levelling expectations development of trainees
Day 2 Systematic Training Adult Learning Principles Training Needs
Assessment
Day 3 Overview of Training methods Training methods: Transfer of training
Practicum
Day 4 Designing Training Programs Managing the training
Function
Day 5 Demonstrations, Role Simulation briefing and OPEN
Play and Group Exercises preparation

Session One Session 2 Session 3


Day 6 Using cases in Training Team Teaching

Day 7 Effective presentation Use of Multimedia Aids in Use of ICT in Training


skills for trainers Training
Day 8 Budgeting for training Administration of training Evaluation of training
programs programs
Day 9 Simulation preparation, presentation and critique

Day 10 Action Planning Course Closure and OPEN


Evaluation

Though it is an intensive programme of 2 weeks (estimated at + 80 hours it is a basic practical


introduction. methods. Interesting is the focus on practical subjects and on designing programmes
and simulations. However, 2 weeks will hardly be enough to prepare somebody with no experience
as a trainer for the function of trainer.

(iv) The Kenya Medical Training College (KMTC) that trains for the medical and para-medical
professions has developed its own “Teaching Methodology, Introduction” for (new) trainers. In this
programme new trainers (lecturers) encounter and learn to use a big variety of methods and
approaches in a blended programme. Most of the course offered by KMTC are competency based. The
programme seems to be more extensive than the ToT programme referred to above and what is more
it is followed in a system on ongoing in-service training of trainers.

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5. Proposal for Trainers Qualifications Framework in Kenya

5.1 Legal arrangements


The Kenyan TVET Act, 2013 and its regulations 2015 state in paragraph 16 the minimum competencies
a TVET trainer5 should have to be licensed by TVETA.

“16. (1) Any person who intends to become, a trainer in a TVET institution shall apply to the Authority
for a trainers' licence where the trainer has the training qualifications required for competency-based
education and training in various trainer’s levels, with the following minimum competencies–

(a) planning of training session;

(b) deliver competency-based training (CBT);

(c) conduct competency assessment; and

(d) maintain training facilities and ensure internal quality assurance.

(2) Trainers shall be required to renew their training licence periodically with evidence of continuous
professional development as required by the Authority.” (The Technical and Vocational Education and
Training Regulations, 2015, Legal Notice No. 242) These regulations form the basis for the proposed
Qualification Framework for TVET trainers.

5.2 Levels
Models from other countries demonstrate differences in the levels assigned to trainer’s qualifications.

For example, the Dutch model is made assuming that every trainer needs the same competencies and
the qualification of trainer is based on bachelor’s level (level 5 in a 7-level framework). The Australian
model has also only one level for TVET trainers. Whereas the Philippine model describes 4 levels. The
draft QF for Kenya follows this latter approach.

Another assumption under most of the models is that trainers have a professional qualification that is
at least one level higher than the level they train for. This “least” option is debatable. In several of the
models the choice is made for a much higher level of (technical/vocational) skill and knowledge for
trainers. In many cases “the least required” is a level like Bachelors or Higher Diploma in a certain area
of professionalism.

It is required that the (potential) Trainer:


✓ can oversee the field of work
✓ holds a degree or a (higher) diploma in the field of work
✓ has considerable experience in the work place
✓ can link practice with theoretical knowledge and thus can analyse relevant work-tasks
✓ can handle complex (work) challenges, reflect on these and explore creative solutions and

That implies that he/she has usually broader competencies in the field than a Craftsman or an Artisan.

5In this paper the word Trainer is used, following the wordings in the TVET Act. It includes all functions that are directly
related to the training of students. In the scheme of service document, the function is named “lecturer”

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5.3 Functions and competencies
In TVET training institutes in Kenya several functions, directly related to training and /or the
development and implementation of training programmes and student support are performed. The
draft scheme of service for TVET Institutions (October 2017)6 gives an overview of these functions.

A detailed analysis of the job-descriptions and requirements was made. The question to answer is
what the qualification needs for these functions are and whether they differ from each other in terms
of complexity and responsibility enough to locate the required qualifications on different levels.

Based on that analysis 3 (groups) of functions that are directly related to training can be distinguished.
According to the scheme of service document each function has 3 or 4 grades of career progression.
The grades of career progression are mainly based on progress in work-experience and merit, integrity
and ability as reflected in work performance. The minimum qualifications are the same.

The 3 functions are:


1) Lecturer/ Trainer 7 (4 grades of career progression)
2) Principal Lecturer/Trainer (3 grades of career progression)
3) Technical Instructor (4 grades of career progression)

The three trainer functions differ in complexity;


✓ The Trainer follows a pre-scribed programme/curriculum. The trainer can oversee the whole
set of competencies and can organise learning processes, both theory-based and practice-
based. Which demands besides a good knowledge and skill in the field of learning flexibility
and the competence (and the creativity) to look beyond the pre-scribed.
✓ The Principal Trainer has either a role in development and adaptations of programmes in
his/her professional field or in the management of (parts of) the department or of a team.
He/she oversees the work of trainers and technical Instructors. The qualification needs for a
developer and a manager differ but can be placed on the same level of complexity
✓ The Technical Instructor works under the supervision of a trainer (or a principal trainer) and
has a role in a part (workshop work) of a by others pre-scribed programme/curriculum. His/
her main competencies are in assisting and supporting the practical learning of students on a
given level of work.

Next to these functions there are many functions in a TVET institute, which are necessary to facilitate
training, but which are not directly related to class-room or workshop work, such as Directorate
functions, Counselling, Administration, Human Resource Management, Research and Development,
Dean, Examinations, Library, Nursing, Technicians, Cooks, Sports etc. The qualification framework for
trainers, as proposed in this paper does not consider these latter functions.

To include in this Qualification Framework the Directorate functions (Directors and Deputy
Directors) is done for 2 reasons:
1. Managing a TVET Institution or a Department is different from managing a factory or a shop.
It demands “educational leadership” which only can be provided by staff with experience as
trainers and a broad understanding of the trainer’s profession.

6 Scheme of Service for Technical and Vocational Education and Training Institutions; Draft by a taskforce on drafting
schemes of service for TVET institutions; October 2017
7 in this proposal following the terminology of the TVET Act of 2013 referred to as” trainers”

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2. Principal Trainers may progress to Directorate functions.
For these 2 reasons the directorate functions are represented in the QF, although only on the level
of tasks and level descriptions. Competency statements are not given for these functions.

5.4 Updating of qualifications


Qualifications need to be updated regularly. This implies the development of a (re)training structures
and arrangements for Trainers. This updating must be part of the Institutions HR policy. It may consist
of the following elements:

1. Regular updating of technical skills through various possibilities such as:


• periods of industry attachment
• intensive supervision of students on workplace learning
• exchange with or training from specialists from industry
• keeping up to date the relevant literature in the specific trade

2. Further development of teaching and training skills through:


• in-service training seminars on CBET related themes
• inter-vision with colleagues
• exchange with colleagues from other TVET institutes
• Keeping up to date with relevant literature on TVET training

Trainers can be stimulated to update their skills and knowledge by setting a fixed duration of the
validity of the Trainers Licence plus by obliging the trainer, for renewal of this licence, to follow a
certain number of hours of training and industrial attachment, both in technical competencies and in
educational competencies, in a given period.

5.5 Validity
A legal issue to deal with here is the duration of the validity of the qualification. According to the TVET
Act a trainer must have a licence to train. This is given based on the qualification demands for the
function.

The TVET Act of 2013 formulates the following: “17.(1) No person or institution shall offer training in
Kenya unless the person or institution has been accredited, licensed and registered under this Act to
offer such training” and “23.(1) Any person who intends to become a trainer in an institution shall
apply for licensing and registration by the Board in accordance with the provisions of this Act”. The
Act does not state whether this licence is valid for ever.

In many occupations now-a-days the validity of a licence is usually made dependent on the updating
of it. Registered doctors, nurses and, in many countries, also teachers have the obligation to
participate in (re)training during a certain period (often 3 to 5 years) to keep their licence. If this
training obligation is not met in the prescribed period, the licence/registration is no longer valid.

In the implementation of the proposed TQF for Kenya it is recommended to state the duration of the
validity of the licence and what needs to be done to renew the licence.

16
6. Trainers Qualification Framework (proposal)

For each Trainer function the tasks are described, following that the minimal requirements to be
able to work in this function are formulated and in the last column referral is made to the level of
the Kenya National Qualification Framework on which the competencies necessary to perform the
function adequately can be placed8

Function Tasks Requirements Level of


KNQF
Technical 1. Supervises Work-Based Learning KNQF level 5 in Level 5
Instructor 2. Conducts pre-scribed Competency the and 6
Assessment technical/vocatio
3. Maintains Training Facilities nal domain (Craft)
4. Utilizes readily prepared professional notes + certificate of an
in facilitating training approved ToT9 for
5. Ensures gender sensitivity and equality in Technical
workshop participation Instructors
Trainer 1. is a professional and keeps his KNQF level 7 in Level 7
professionalism up to date the
2. organises a good mix of class-room learning technical/vocatio
and practicals nal domain
3. administers/ conducts a training (Bachelor)
programme +certificate of an
4. Utilises electronic media in facilitating approved ToT10
learning. for Trainers
5. provides advice and support learners in
their learning career
6. The trainer is actively involved in training
on the job/ in the actual practice of the
workplace
7. Assesses student’s competencies.
8. Ensures internal quality control
9. Can act as an entrepreneur and transfer
these skills to his/her students.
10. Ensures gender sensitivity and equality in
classroom participation
Principal Those of the trainer plus: KNQF level 9 in the Level 9
Trainer/Developer 1. Facilitates development of competency technical/
standards vocational domain
2. Conducts Training Needs Analysis and/or experience
3. Designs and conducts research in education as trainer
and training in her/his domain (minimum 4 years)
4. Develops/adapts a training curriculum + certificate of an
5. Develops/ adapts learning materials approved TVET
5. Develops/ adapts assessment tools (curriculum)

8 For this an analysis of the descriptors for the Kenya National Qualifications Framework are analysed.
9 Training of Trainers for professionals in a trade that want to become Trainers. The offer of these specific training courses
will have to be developed
10 See note 9

17
6. Develops/ adapts Learning Materials for e- development
learning training
7. Uses and evaluates assessment instrument
8. Analyses difference in tasks, roles and
positions of female and male participants in
school and their working situation and takes
this into consideration when developing the
curriculum material and in his/her training
Principal Those of the trainer plus: KNQF level 9 in the Level 9
Trainer/Manager 1. Prepare and manage training budgets technical/
2. Leads a team in a TVET centre vocational domain
3. Coordinates research projects in education and/or experience
and training in the domain of the team as trainer
4. Manages attachments contracts for (minimum 4 years)
students + certificate of an
5. Provides training for workplace instructors approved TVET
and trainers management
6. Manages HR of the team training
7. Promotes, advocates and strengthens programme
industry and TVET linkages
8. Designs and Develops maintenance system
of training facilities
9. Ensures gender sensitivity and equality in
the team and stimulates active participation
of all team members.
Deputy Directors Those of the principal Trainer/Manager plus Experience as a Level 9
1. Leads an Academic Department Principal Trainer/
2. plans, implements and coordinates training Developer or
programmes; trainer/ manager
3. coordinates the development and (minimum 4 years)
implementation of curricula, training
programmes and/or courses;
4. develops and maintains academic quality
standards and policies;
5. coordinates academic programs and support
operations;
6. coordinates the allocation of instructional
and research funds and other resources;
7. establishes policy on faculty appointment,
evaluation, promotion and tenure; and
8. Assures Overall training and development of
staff in the Division.
9. Coordinates internal quality assurance in the
department
10. Can act as an entrepreneur and transfer
these skills to his/her colleagues in the
department
11. Ensures gender sensitivity and equality in the
department and stimulates active
participation of all team members.
Director 1. Coordinates the planning and Experience as a Level 9
implementation of training programmes for senior Principal
national needs in line with the Constitution, Trainer/ Manager
MDGs, Vision 2030 and other relevant (minimum 4 years)

18
provisions;
2. Initiates, coordinates and implements TVET
training policy;
3. Coordinates the Institute’s overall
development projects;
4. Ensures effective mobilization and utilization
of human, financial and physical resources in
the Institute;
5. Plans, coordinates and reviews staff
development and training programmes;
6. Establishes collaborations and linkages with
other Institutions, enterprises and
stakeholders;
7. Oversees overall student welfare
8. Oversees overall staff welfare in the
Institute; and
9. Ensures effective interpretation and
implementation of relevant government
policies
10. Implements and coordinates the institutions
quality assurance policy
11. Acts as an entrepreneur and transfer these
skills to his/her staff
12. Ensures gender sensitivity and equality in the
Institution and stimulates active
participation of all team members.

For each task of the functions Technical Instructor, Trainer, Principal Trainer/ Developer and Principal
Trainer/manager the competencies are described in the following chapter.

19
7. Competency Statements for Trainers
In this chapter competency statements for the training functions in the Kenya Trainers Qualification
Framework are presented.

The focus of these statements is on the performance of tasks as instructor or trainer. It is assumed
that every trainer is a master in his or her trade. For example, the Trainer in electricals has a diploma
on at least level 7 of the KNQF in his own field and preferably working experience in the work-field.
The Technical Instructor for mechanics has at least de craft certificate (level 5) in mechanics and
preferably working experience in the work-field. The Principal Trainer/Manager has at least a Masters
(level 9) in his/her professional field, and preferably working experience etc.

In the TQF for each function, tasks, which are the core of a function, have been defined on various
qualification levels. A competency statement is a statement about the competencies needed to
perform a specific task.

The educational requirement as entry requirement (as formulated in the 3rd column) for certification
may be, after formal recognition of prior learning and/or a form of adequate assessment, waived
through demonstration of equivalent competencies. If a professional in a certain field who wants to
become a trainer does not have the required level of skill in his trade but can prove (through a port-
folio or other forms of assessment) that he/she masters the skill on that level, he/she matches the
minimal entry requirements for training as a TVET trainer.

20
In this section competencies are defined as sets of knowledge and skills on the task-level.

✓ Competency is a complex combination of integrated skills, knowledge, attitudes and values


displayed in the context of task performance.
✓ Knowledge is the acquaintance with facts, theories or principles, as from study or
investigation. Familiarity with a subject or branch of learning.
✓ Skills are the ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort
to carry out activities and functions in training, education research and education
management involving cognitive, technical, and interpersonal skills.

7.1 Technical Instructor


Function Tasks Entry Level
Requirements of
KNQF
Technical Instructor 1. Supervises Work-Based Learning Craft 5
2. Conducts pre-scribed Competency certificate
Assessment (level 5) in the
3. Maintains Training Facilities technical/
4. Utilizes readily prepared professional vocational
media/notes in facilitating training domain or
5. Ensures gender sensitivity and equivalent
equality in workshop participation competencies

Below the different “tasks” are outlined in more detail, adding knowledge and skills to the above-
mentioned task.

1 Supervises Work-Based Learning


➢ Knowledge:
• Knows the functions and use of specific tools and machinery present in the workshop
• Knows the rules and regulations to create a safe working environment for students and
trainers
• Knows First Aid procedures in case of accidents and other emergencies
➢ Skills:
• Can use, explain and demonstrate the use of tools and machinery in the workshop to the
learners
• Can support learners in acquiring practical “hands-on” skills
• Can create and maintain a safe working environment for students and trainers
• Can apply first aid procedures in case of accidents or other emergencies
2. Conducts pre-scribed Competency Assessment
➢ Knowledge:
• Knows the standard assessment procedures for practical work used in the institute
• Knows the usual specifications for assessing practical work outcomes in the specific
technical field
➢ Skills:
• Can, under supervision of the trainer, create good conditions for assessment of practical
work (safe, motivating)
• Can assess the quality of student’s practical work and report on that to the trainers

3. Maintains Training Facilities

21
➢ Knowledge:
• Knows how to maintain the tools and machinery present in the workshop
➢ Skills:
• Keeps the workshop and its tools and machinery in good order and tidy
• Reports regularly to management on the state of tools and machinery and advises on
necessary repairs and/or purchases

4. Utilizes electronic media in facilitating training


➢ Knowledge:
• Knows the most common electronic media and their role in facilitating training
• Is acquainted with the use of electronic/digital tools and machinery in his/ her
professional field
➢ Skills:
• Uses, where applicable, electronic media to facilitate training (computers, white-boards,
demonstration/simulation tools etc.)
• Uses, explains and demonstrates electronic/ digital tools and machinery in the workshop
to students

5. Ensures gender sensitivity and equality in workshop participation11

➢ Knowledge:
• Knows basic theories on gender issues in training and in workplace settings and can
apply these in the training practice
➢ Skills:
• Creates a climate in the workshop that provides women sufficient space to contribute.
• Uses gender neutral spoken language (he/she) and opposes actively sexist allusions made
by the learners or colleagues
• Monitors the use of gender-neutral language by the participants

11 For a detailed description of Gender-issues in Education see annex 2.

22
7.2 Trainer
Function Tasks Entry Level
Requirements of
KNQF
Trainer 1. is a professional and keeps his KNQF level 7 7
professionalism up to date (bachelors)in
2. organises a good mix of class-room the technical/
learning and practicals vocational
3. administers/ conducts a training domain or
programme equivalent
4. Utilises electronic media in facilitating competencies
learning.
5. provides advice and support learners
in their learning career
6. The trainer is actively involved in
training on the job/ in the actual
practice of the workplace
7. Assesses student’s competencies.
8. Ensures internal quality control
9. Can act as an entrepreneur and
transfer these skills to his/her
students.
10. Ensures gender sensitivity and
equality in classroom participation
Below the different “tasks” are outlined in more detail, adding knowledge and skills to the above
mentioned task.

1. Is a professional and keeps his professionalism up to date


➢ Knowledge:
• Knows the relevant laws and rules regarding his work as TVET trainer (the qualification
dossiers, the TVET laws, the professional status of trainers)
• Is aware of actual developments in society related to technical and vocational education
and training
• Knows the professional identity of TVET trainers, knows how to professionalise further, can
formulate his/her own learning needs and demonstrate learning outcomes
• Keeps track of relevant developments and innovations in the field of students and uses this
also for his own professional development
• Knows about various forms of formal and non-formal learning, theory learning and learning
in practice
• Knows methods to learn with and from colleagues inside and outside the school
• Knows methods to advice and support new colleagues and new colleagues in training.

➢ Skills:
• Use various forms of coaching, supervision
• Conduct appraisal interviews to assess the own performance and professional
development
• Give and receive feedback about own professional development and those of others

23
• Use methods to reflect on and learn from own experience based on an investigative
attitude
• Build and maintain a relevant network in his professional field to keep his professional
knowledge up to date
• Build and maintain a relevant network in the institution with a focus on collaboration,
coordination and mutual learning
• Contribute to team development and effective consultation
• Demonstrate the links between the field of learning and entrepreneurship
• Contribute, within his assignments, to quality awareness and quality improvement in the
team.

2. Organises a good mix of class-room learning and practicals


➢ Knowledge:
• Is acquainted with relevant (educational) theories on different ways of learning
• Knows the basic principles of Competency Based Education and Training
➢ Skills:
• Applies various forms of learning, (class-room instruction, demonstration, guided practical
learning, experiential and discovery learning etc. etc.) as part of a TVET programme
• Creates different types of learning, both in a school as in a non-school setting (workplace
learning);

3. Administers/ conducts a training programme


➢ Knowledge:
• Knows how to present a coherent whole of the various parts of the education program
(theory classes, trainings, workshops and integral assignments), considering differences
between students and with language and numeracy aspects in the context of the
profession;
• Knows that students can interpret the learning material in different ways and is able to
adapt his education accordingly;
• Knows the relevant literature about the didactics of the vocational education and uses this
systematically in line with the institutional vision;
• Is aware of (learning) disorders (dyslexia, ADHD) and of physical handicaps in learning, and
knows the school policy in this regard;
• Knows the theory of supervision and counselling (modelling, guiding, scaffolding,
• coaching, monitoring).
➢ Skills:
• Coordinates the learning goals with the programme(s) of his team colleagues to create a
coherent whole for the students
• Manages the content (knowledge and skills) and knows the theoretical and practical
backgrounds thereof, in line with the (current) targets;
• Makes the students aware of the relevance of the subject matter for professional practice;
• Shapes learning in and of the real-world professional practice taking into account
questions and innovations in country and region;
• Supports students in integrating knowledge, skills and attitudes in professional activity;

24
• Encourage entrepreneurial action in students, both in the meaning of intrapreneurship as
entrepreneurship;
• Contribute to language and numeracy development and the acquisition of language and
computational skills in vocational contexts.
• Contribute to the establishment of a competency-oriented learning environment;
• Work with heterogeneous groups considering differences in level, self-image, culture,
interest, learning style and prior knowledge;
• Implementing process and task-oriented guidance in different learning contexts;
• Use a variety of questioning, coaching and conversation techniques (responsive comment,
assisting though questioning);
• Collaborate with colleagues and collaborators (internally and externally);
• Can plan work (product and process oriented);
• Can analyse and ask for support or referring in case of (a presumption of) learning
disorders;
• Perform administrative tasks (study progress, absentee records etc.) in accordance with
institutional regulations.
• Contribute to quality assurance and innovation;

4. Utilises electronic media in facilitating learning.


➢ Knowledge:
The trainer:
• Knows various electronic media (white-boards, simulations, gaming, etc.) that can be used
in class-room work
• Is aware of educational theory regarding the use of electronic media as learning/ training
tools

5. Provides advice and support learners in their learning career


➢ Knowledge:
• is familiar with current literature on career guidance and applies methodologies
systematically, following the institutional vision;
• knows the structure of the education program and allows students to clarify the
coherence of the program;
• has current knowledge of the professions being trained;
• know that students learn in different ways and can adjust their education accordingly;
• Knows current theories about developing self-learning learning.
➢ Skills:
• challenge students through asking the right questions to reflect critically on experience
gained, thereby stimulating and guiding the quest for discovering talents and ambitions;
• Implementing process and task-oriented guidance in different learning contexts;
• Use different coaching and conversation techniques and listen actively:
o summarize / paraphrase;
o ask open and closed questions;
o Give feedback and receive feedback;
o confront and apply other simple conversational interventions;

25
o explain, advise, inform
• give his opinion, judge, impose;
• collaborate and align in a heterogeneous team;
• Purposely fulfil different roles in a team;
• Learn students to understand the relevance of the subject matter for professional practice
and the coherence of the subject matter with the professional practice.

6. The trainer is actively involved in training on the job/ in the actual practice of the workplace
➢ Knowledge:
• has current knowledge of the (developments in) occupations being trained;
• knows the relevant literature about workplace learning and applies these methodologies
systematically, in line with the vision of his school;
• knows the theory of the various forms of guidance and counselling.
➢ Skills:
• Matches demands from the regional labour market and innovations to students' learning
needs;
• Helps students to understand the relevance of the subject matter for professional practice
and the coherence of the subject matter with professional practice.
• Implements process- and task-oriented guidance in different learning contexts;
• Uses different coaching and discussion techniques and listen actively (summarize /
paraphrase, ask open and closed questions, give feedback and receive, confront, through
inter alia, simple interview interventions, explanations, advise, inform);
• Contributes to a workable balance between the interests of the student, the school and
the company;
• Cooperates in a heterogeneous team, inside and outside the school;

7. Assesses student’s competencies.


➢ Knowledge:
• Has current basic knowledge of the law and regulations regarding examinations;
• Has basic knowledge of examinations;
• has knowledge of qualifying assessment;
• Has basic knowledge of developmental tests;
• knows the relevant literature about examining and assessing and knows which methods
are applied in his school;
• can differentiate between development-oriented assessment and examination.
➢ Skills:
• Motivates students reflect on building self-regulation skills for further learning in
education or occupation;
• Constructs, administer and evaluate competency-based development-oriented tests;
• Constructs, administer and evaluate assessment of learning outcomes;
• Come to an overall assessment in consultation with colleagues and field of work.

8. Ensures internal quality control


➢ Knowledge:
• Knows the quality assurance policy of the institution

26
• Is aware of National Quality Assurance regulations
➢ Skills:
• Uses the QA instruments (forms, record keeping etc.) that are in use in the Institution
• Reflects with colleagues and superiors critically on own performance and performance of
the team/department
• Plans his/her own professional development plan

9. Can act as an entrepreneur and transfer these skills to his/her students.


➢ Knowledge:
• Is acquainted with current concepts and theories of entrepreneurship
• Knows basic theories on starting and running enterprises
• Knows rules and regulations for starting entrepreneurs
➢ Skills:
• Can advise students on entrepreneurial questions
• Can link entrepreneurial training elements with the technical programme
• Coaches his students in the development of an entrepreneurial attitude and/or their
own enterprises

10. Ensures gender sensitivity and equality in classroom participation


➢ Knowledge:
• Knows relevant theories on gender issues in education and can apply these in the
training practice
• Knows how to create a suitable mix of forms (lecturing, group work, role-plays, self-
scoring tests, etc.) leading to both: an effective way of achieving training goals as well as
active involvement of all (male, female, shy and assertive etc.), within the given time.
➢ Skills:
• Create a climate in class that provides women sufficient space to contribute.
• Use a participatory teaching / training style creating a gender friendly learning
environment
• Deal properly with role and behavioural concepts of women and men, while avoiding
stereotyping.
• Discuss gender related and diversity issues related to the learning objectives with
students.
• Ensure gender sensitivity and equality in classroom participation
• Use gender neutral spoken language (he/she) and opposes actively sexist allusions made
by the learners or colleagues
• Monitors the use of gender-neutral language by the participants
• Create equal space for women to contribute and take up leadership roles and vice versa.
• Problematizes and discusses the participation of female trainees in the classroom and in
practicals.

27
7.3 Principal Trainer/Developer
Function Tasks Entry Requirements Level of
KNQF
Principal Those of the trainer plus: Level 9 in the Level 9
Trainer/Developer 1. Facilitates development of competency technical/ vocational
standards domain and
2. Conducts Training Needs Analysis Experience as trainer
3. Designs and conducts research in (minimum 4 years)
education and training in her/his domain or equivalent
4. Develops/adapts a training curriculum competencies
5. Develops/ adapts learning materials
5. Develops/ adapts assessment tools
6. Develops/ adapts Learning Materials for
e-learning
7. Uses and evaluates assessment
instrument
8. Analyses difference in tasks, roles and
positions of female and male
participants in school and their working
situation and takes this into
consideration when developing the
curriculum material and in his/her
training
Below the different “tasks” are outlined in more detail, adding knowledge and skills to the above
mentioned task.

Those of the trainer plus:

1.Facilitates development of competency standards


➢ Knowledge:
• Knows relevant theories on competency-based education and training
• Understands the logic of occupational standards- training standards- curriculum
➢ Skills:
• Instructs and supports trainers, stakeholders from industry and other in defining
competency standards
• Assesses and comments on standards and curricula developed by others
• Prepares with trainers new CBET programmes based on these curricula

2. Conducts Training Needs Analysis


➢ Knowledge:
• Knows relevant theories regarding labour-market and training needs analysis
➢ Skills:
• Organises training needs analysis with the involvement of experts from labour-market
and industry sectors.
• Assesses analysis and draws conclusions for the institute about the need for
development of new standards and programmes

3Designs and conducts research in education and training in her/his domain

➢ Knowledge:
o Knows relevant theories and practice regarding conducting (applied) research
projects

28
o Knows a variety of methodologies and can select the most adequate given the
specific research questions.
➢ Skills
o Can design a research project
o Conduct a research project
o Can draw conclusions for research data and report on these
o Can make recommendations to management based on research findings

3. Develops/ adapts a training curriculum

✓ Knowledge:
• Knows the legal framework for his activities, the institutions policy and the team
policy/commitments
• Masters the learning content (knowledge and skills), knows the relevant practical and
theoretical background thereof and the context
• Has actual knowledge of the professions for which he trains and connects the learning
material with the relevant qualification documents
• Oversees the structure of the curriculum, the links with other programmes and with
what colleagues in the same professional field are teaching.
• Identifies specific linguistical and mathematical aspects related to the own professional
field
• Knows that students can understand the learning materials in different ways and can
adapt to that
• Knows the essence of other units in the programme (if he is not teaching them)
• Clarifies for students what the relevance of the learning material is for the vocational
practice
• Knows how the learning material (can) connect to further education on other levels
• Knows various education- and learning theories and cam translate these to practice
• Is aware of key literature on career guidance and can use this systematically.
• Is aware of the most important theories regarding supervision (modelling, guiding,
scaffolding, coaching, monitoring)
• Knows the possibilities and limitations of digital learning materials.
➢ Skills:
• Creates a varied education program tailored to the target group, consisting of individual
education and group activities, classes inside and outside the school, theory and
workplace learning;
• Translates with the colleagues the legal frameworks (the qualification file) into an
education program, considering the institutional policy and team appointments;
• Translates issues and innovations from the region into executable projects for individual
or groups of students;
• Collaborates with colleagues in the team to create a coherent curriculum for students;
• In agreement with colleagues, tailor the didactics for vocational language and account
aspects to the target group
• Provides customization at student level for content and forms of supervision/support

29
• Refers to specialists in specific situations (e.g. language and mathematics, special needs
education);
• mobilise a network of colleagues from industry in the profession and in the vocational
colleges in the (re-) development of the education program;
• updates the education program based on innovations in the profession field;
• Use digital learning resources to improve the quality of the education program, in line
with students’ learning styles.

4. Develops/ adapts learning materials


➢ Knowledge:
• Has a general overview of relevant and adequate learning materials in his/her field of
training;
• Knows when en how to use this material;
• Knows the relevant educational theories on learning material and its development;
➢ Skills:
• Can adapt existing learning materials for specific (course) purposes
• Can make new supportive learning materials for (new) training programmes
• Can coach (teams of) trainers to make learning materials

5. Develops/ adapts assessment tools


➢ Knowledge:
• Knows the law and regulations regarding examinations;
• Has knowledge of examinations;
• Has knowledge of qualifying assessment;
• Has profound knowledge of developmental tests and their application;
• Knows the relevant literature about examining and assessing and knows which methods
are applied in CBET;
➢ Skills:
• Can adapt/ develop adequate testing methods and procedures in a CBET environment
• Can coach (teams of) trainers to develop or adapt assessment instruments and
procedures
• Can advise the regulatory authorities on examinations in his/her field.

6. Develops/ adapts Learning Materials for e-learning


➢ Knowledge;
• Knows how and when to use e-learning as part of a training programme in his/her
professional field.
➢ Skills:
• Use digital learning resources to improve the quality of the education program, in line
with students’ learning styles.
• Defines criteria for the development of e-learning materials suitable in CBET programmes
• Coaches (teams of) trainers in the development of adequate e-learning materials

7. Uses and evaluates assessment instruments


➢ Knowledge:

30
• Knows which assessment instruments to use for a given purpose in CBET assessment
• Has thorough knowledge on the rules and regulations for assessment and for
examinations
➢ Skills:
• Can develop with colleagues (new) assessment instruments
• Can evaluate the quality and validity of the assessment instruments in use
• Can coach (teams of) trainers in the evaluation of and (re)development of assessment
instruments and procedures
• Can advise examinations authorities on examinations in his/her professional field

8. Analyses difference in tasks, roles and positions of female and male participants in school and
their working situation and takes this into consideration when developing the curriculum material
and in his/her training

➢ Knowledge:
• Knows relevant theories on gender issues in education and can apply these in the
training practice
• Knows how to create a suitable mix of forms (lecturing, group work, role-plays, self-
scoring tests, etc.) leading to both: an effective way of achieving training goals as well as
active involvement of all (male, female, shy and assertive etc.), within the given time.
➢ Skills:
• Create a climate in class that provides women sufficient space to contribute.
• Use a participatory teaching / training style creating a gender friendly learning
environment
• Deal properly with role and behavioural concepts of women and men, while avoiding
stereotyping.
• Discuss gender related and diversity issues related to the learning objectives with
students and trainers
• Ensure gender sensitivity and equality in classroom participation
• Ensure gender sensitivity and equality in team participation of trainers
• Uses and motivates trainers to use gender neutral spoken language (he/she) and
opposes actively sexist allusions made by the learners or colleagues
• Create equal space for women to contribute and take up leadership roles and vice versa
in class-room and in the teams of trainers
• Problematises and discusses the participation of female trainees and trainers.
• Can mediate in gender related problems in teams, class-rooms and workshops
• Reports gender relate problems to the department directorate.

7.4 Principal Trainer/Manager


Function Tasks Entry Level of
Requirements KNQF
Principal Those of the trainer plus: Level 9 in the Level 9
Trainer/Manager 1. Prepare and manage training budgets technical/
2. Leads a team in a TVET centre vocational
domain and

31
3. Coordinates research projects in experience as
education and training in the domain of trainer
the team (minimum 4
4. Manages attachments contracts for years) or
students equivalent
5. Provides training for workplace competencies
instructors and trainers
6. Manages HR of the team
7. Promotes, advocates and strengthens
industry and TVET linkages
8. Designs and Develops maintenance
system of training facilities
9. Ensures gender sensitivity and equality
in the team and stimulates active
participation of all team members.

1. Prepare and manage training budgets


➢ Knowledge:
• Knows how to draw up a training budget for a team or a department
• Knows relevant theories and rules regarding budgeting
➢ Skills:
• Can formulate an advice on the necessary budgets to his/her superiors
• Can work with the necessary book-keeping software and Excel
• Can coach a (team of) trainers in preparing budgets

2. Leads a team in a TVET centre


➢ Knowledge:
• Is aware of relevant theories and practice in leading teams of professionals
• Is aware of theories on motivating staff
➢ Skills:
• Can create a productive atmosphere in a team
• Motivates team members
• Can assess the performance of the members of the team
• Can conduct both individual and group discussions on the quality of performance
• Can coach (junior) trainers in a team to optimize their performance

3. Coordinates research projects in education and training in the domain of the team
➢ Knowledge:
• Knows relevant theories and practice regarding conducting (applied) research projects
• Knows a variety of methodologies and can advise on the most adequate given the specific
research questions.
➢ Skills
• Can assist a research team in designing a research project
• Can draw up and control a research budget
• Can coordinate the work of a research team
• Can assist a research team in drawing conclusion and formulation recommendations based
on research findings

32
4.
5. Manages attachments contracts for students
➢ Knowledge:
• Is aware of different forms of attachment contracts
• Is aware of the legal status of a contract
➢ Skills:
• Can draw up an attachment contract
• Cab draw up an annual attachment plan for the team or department
• Can discuss this with the industry and the students
• Keeps and maintains his network of attachment places providing industry
• Promotes attachment placing with stakeholders (industry and students)

6. Provides training for workplace instructors and trainers


➢ Knowledge:
• Knows relevant theories and practice of training of trainers
• Know various forms of training of trainers
➢ Skills:
• Can do a needs assessment in dialogue with trainers
• Can make an annual plan for the training of trainers
• Can (in his own professional field) conduct a training of trainers programme

7. Manages HR of the team


➢ Knowledge:
• Knows relevant theories and practice regarding HRM policy
• Knows the institutions rules and regulations regarding HRM
➢ Skills:
• Can assess the needs of the team or the department and report on these to the HR
department
• Can make an annual plan for HR (promotion, training of trainers, competency assessment
of trainers etc. etc.) of the team or department
• Can handle personnel problems strategically and with seniority

8. Promotes, advocates and strengthens industry and TVET linkages


➢ Knowledge:
• Is aware about practices in Kenya and other countries regarding ways to link TVET to the
industry
• Knows about the importance of this for CBET
• Knows the main industries/ employers of importance for his/her team or department
➢ Skills:
• Can keep up a functional network of persons and institutions that may be supportive for
the success of TVET
• Can mobilise members of this network to contribute to programme renewal or
development of new programmes
• Can promote the involvement of employers and industry sectors in the development of
CBET

33
• Keeps track of new developments in the professional sectors his/her department or team
works for
• Can oversee the consequences of these developments for the renewal or adaption of the
TVET programme

9. Designs and Develops maintenance system of training facilities


➢ Knowledge:
➢ Has knowledge on the systematic maintenance of tools and machinery in his professional
field
➢ Has basic knowledge about criteria for the maintenance of workshops and class-rooms
➢ Knows which materials and supplies are needed for practical work
➢ Skills:
➢ Can assess the needs for maintenance, repair or purchase of tools, machinery, materials
and workshops/class-rooms
➢ Coaches Trainers and Technical Instructors in maintenance of training facilities
➢ Develops an annual planning for regular maintenance and for the purchase of materials to
be used

10. Ensures gender sensitivity and equality in the team and stimulates active participation of
all team members.
➢ Knowledge:
• Knows relevant theories on gender issues in education and can apply these in the training
practice
• Knows relevant theories on gender issues in running teams of professionals
• Knows how to create a suitable mix of forms (lecturing, group work, role-plays, self-
scoring tests, etc.) leading to both: an effective way of achieving training goals as well as
active involvement of all (male, female, shy and assertive etc.), within the given time.
➢ Skills:
• Create a climate in class that provides women sufficient space to contribute.
• Use a participatory teaching / training style creating a gender friendly learning
environment
• Deal properly with role and behavioural concepts of women and men, while avoiding
stereotyping.
• Discuss gender related and diversity issues related to the learning objectives with
students and trainers
• Ensure gender sensitivity and equality in classroom participation
• Ensure gender sensitivity and equality in team participation of trainers
• Uses and motivates trainers to use gender neutral spoken language (he/she) and
opposes actively sexist allusions made by the learners or colleagues
• Create equal space for women to contribute and take up leadership roles and vice versa
in class-room and in the teams of trainers
• Problematises and discusses the participation of female trainees and trainers.
• Can mediate in gender related problems in teams, class-rooms and workshops
• Reports gender relate problems to the department directorate.

34
35
8. Notes on implementation
The implementation of the proposed TQF will have consequences in several areas;

1. The legal framework

The TVET act 2013 and other related acts regarding the licencing and registration of trainers and
teacher will need to be updated. Especially concerning the issues on the duration of the validity of the
licence and the functional profiles and the minimal qualification levels for that.

Another issue there will be the formalisation of the obligation for upgrading the qualifications through
industrial attachment and following (re)training courses.

2. Accreditation

The proposed TQF will have consequence for the accreditation and licencing of Institutes and their
Trainers.

The quality of trainers is an important issue in the Quality Assurance Framework. Before the proposed
model can be applied in that matter some issues should be resolved.

✓ Can TVETA summarise the TQF proposal in a practical list of criteria for quality
assurance?
✓ Can TVETA assure the quality of training of trainers which is offered?
▪ Can the current providers (such as KTTC, KSG and KMTC) provide for all
required forms of (re)training?
▪ Is there a need to develop new structures for initial training, for updating and
for in-service training?
✓ How much time the institutions will have to (re)train their trainers to become
qualified in terms of the TQF (assuming that not all current trainers are fully qualified
in terms of this TQF) before losing their licence?
✓ Can TVETA, with the assistance of providers for Training of Trainers assist TVET
Institutions to develop an internal policy and implement that for (re)training and
updating of qualifications for their trainers?

3. Curriculum Development
The proposed TQF and its competency statements form the standards for the development of
curricula for the Training of Trainers. Other authorities, likes CDACC and providers of training (KSG,
KTTC) must start (re)developing their programmes (both those for initial training and for in-service
training). Based on the standards training then can be offered and “models” of retraining policy and
programmes can be provided to assist the TVET institutes in improving their systems of in-service
training.

4.Updating and (re)training


On the level of the TVET Institutes policy needs to be developed and implemented regarding the
(re)training of trainers and the updating of qualifications. TVETA and the providers of Training for
Trainers can assist this process by providing “model” programmes based on the standards set by the
TQF.

36
Annexes:
1. List of participants feed-back workshop 14 February 2018
2. Summarized Presentation of TQF
3. Philippine model
4. Units of the Diploma in Vocational Education, Australia
5. Dutch Model (translation)
6. Gender in Education (self-assessment tool)

37
Annex 1: List of participants of the Feed-back workshop 14 February 2018
The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the proposals for the TQF made by the experts (Mr.
Edward Mburu from TVETA and Mr. Kees Hammink, international expert for Cadena).

Besides from the workshop about 25 stakeholders were send the drat TQF and a specific form on
which the can note their comments. At the time of writing no other comments then those attending
the workshop have been received.

Name Institution Email


1.Fred Oanda TVET Authority oanda2003@gmail,com
2.Charles Kimuomi KTSC c.kimuomi@gmail.com
3. George Odero TVET Authority oderogom@gmail,com
4.James Onyongo MoE-DVET ojonyongo@hotmail.com
5.Fredrick M, Mahut Nairobi TTI nairobitechnical@gmail.com
6.Rosalund N. Githingi TVET CDACC rosagithingi@gmail.com
7.Edward Mburu TVET Authority emburu166@gmail.com
8.Mwaa A. Mutinda KNQA mwaa.mutinda@gmail.com
9.Fredrick Etemesi IMTR etemesi_fred@yahoo.com
10.Dr. Michael Kyalo AHITI-Kabete mmkyalo@yahoo.com
11 Dr. Kipkirui Langat TVET AUthority Langat.langat@gmail.com
12. Andreas Reinsch Cadena reinsch.andreas@gmx.de
13.Kees Hammink Cadena keeshammink@gmail.com

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Annex 2. Summarized Presentation of TQF

39
40
41
42
43
Annex: 3 Philippine Model
Taken from: Leonardo Rey S. Cariño, Rigel John H. Rabago TRAINER QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK
Deutsches Institut für Erwachsenenbildung, German Institute for Adult Education, 2009

44
45
Annex 4 Units for the Diploma Vocational Education trainer, Australia

Core Units

TAEASS401 Plan assessment activities and processes

TAEASS402 Assess competence

TAEASS403 Participate in assessment validation

TAEASS502 Design and develop assessment tools

TAEDEL401 Plan, organise and deliver group-based learning

TAEDEL402 Plan, organise and facilitate learning in the workplace

TAEDES401 Design and develop learning programs

TAEDES402 Use training packages and accredited courses to meet client needs

TAELLN411 Address adult language, literacy and numeracy skills

Elective Units

TAEASS301 Contribute to assessment

TAEDEL301 Provide work skill instruction

TAEDEL403 Coordinate and facilitate distance-based learning

TAEDEL404 Mentor in the workplace

TAEDEL501 Facilitate e-learning

TAELLN412 Access resources and support to address foundation skills

TAELLN413 Integrate foundation skills into vocational training delivery

TAETAS401 Maintain training and assessment information

BSBAUD402 Participate in a quality audit

BSBCMM401 Make a presentation

BSBLED401 Develop teams and individuals

BSBMKG413 Promote products and services

BSBREL402 Build client relationships and business networks

BSBRES401 Analyse and present research information

46
TAE40110 Certificate IV in Training and Assessment,

Australia, Industry skills councils, march 2014

Modification History

Comments
Version
Released with TAE10 Training and Education Training Package version 3.4
TAE40110 Release 4
Elective bank updated for clarity.
Released with TAE10 Training and Education Training Package version 3.3
TAE40110 Release 3
TAELLN411 Address adult language, literacy and numeracy skills added to
elective bank.
Released with TAE10 Training and Education Training Package version 2.0
TAE40110 Release 2
New release created to update unit identifiers and correct typographical
errors.
First released with TAE10 Training and Education Training Package version
TAE40110 Release 1
1.0

Descriptor
This qualification reflects the roles of individuals delivering training and assessment services in the
vocational education and training (VET) sector.
Achievement of this qualification or an equivalent by trainers and assessors is a requirement of the
Australian Quality Training Framework Essential Standards for Registration (Standard 1 as outlined in
Appendix 2 of the Users' Guide to the Essential Standards for Registration).
This qualification, or the skill sets derived from units of competency within it, is also suitable
preparation for those engaged in the delivery of training and assessment of competence in a
workplace context, as a component of a structured VET program.

Job roles
Job roles associated with this qualification relate to the delivery of training and assessment of
competence within the VET sector. Possible job titles and roles relevant to this qualification include:
• enterprise trainer
• enterprise assessor
• registered training organisation (RTO) trainer
• RTO assessor
• training adviser or training needs analyst
• vocational education teacher.

Qualification pathways
Prerequisite requirements
There are no prerequisite requirements for individual units of competency.

Pathways from the qualification


After achieving TAE40110 Certificate IV in Training and Assessment, candidates may undertake
TAA50104 Diploma of Training and Assessment or may choose to undertake TAE70110 Vocational
Graduate Certificate in Adult Language, Literacy and Numeracy Practice.

Licensing/Regulatory Information

47
Licensing, legislative, regulatory or certification considerations
There is no direct link between this qualification and licensing, legislative and/or regulatory
requirements. However, where required, a unit of competency will specify relevant licensing,
legislative and/or regulatory requirements that impact on the unit.

EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS QUALIFICATION SUMMARY


TAE40110 Certificate IV in Training and Assessment
The following table contains a summary of the employability skills required by industry for this qualification.
The employability skills facets described here are broad industry requirements that may vary depending on
qualification packaging options.
Industry/enterprise requirements for this qualification include:
Employability skill
• interpreting client needs and writing to these
Communication
• using a range of communication skills, such as listening,
questioning, reading, interpreting and writing documents
• writing hazard and incident reports
• using effective facilitation and interpersonal skills, including verbal
and non-verbal language that is sensitive to the needs and
differences of others
• mentoring, coaching and tutoring techniques
• working with colleagues to compare, review, and evaluate
Teamwork
assessment processes and outcomes
• actively participating in assessment validation sessions
• managing work relationships and seeking feedback from colleagues
and clients on professional performance
• developing and evaluating with others learning programs
customised for individual or group needs
• identifying hazards and assessing risks in the learning environment
Problem-solving
• using time-management skills in designing learning programs
• calculating costs of programs and logistics of delivery, and accessing
appropriate resources
• generating a range of options to meet client needs
• interpreting the learning environment and selecting delivery
Initiative and enterprise
approaches which motivate and engage learners
• monitoring and improving work practices to enhance inclusivity and
learning
• being creative to meet clients' training needs
• applying design skills to develop innovative and flexible cost-
effective programs
• researching, reading, analysing and interpreting workplace
Planning and organising
specifications
• planning, prioritising and organising workflow
• interpreting collected evidence and making judgements of
competency
• documenting action plans and hazard reports
• working with clients in developing personal or group learning
programs
• organising the human, physical and material resources required for
learning and assessment
Self-management • working within policy and organisational frameworks
• managing work and work relationships

48
• adhering to ethical and legal responsibilities
• taking personal responsibility in the planning, delivery and
review of training
• being a role model for inclusiveness and demonstrating
professionalism
• examining personal perceptions and attitudes
Learning • undertaking self-evaluation and reflection practices
• researching information and accessing policies and frameworks
to maintain currency of skills and knowledge
• promoting a culture of learning in the workplace
• seeking feedback from colleagues
• facilitating individual, group-based and work-based learning
Technology • using technology to enhance outcomes, including online delivery
and research using the internet
• using student information management systems to record
assessments
• identifying and organising technology and equipment needs
prior to training
• using a range of software, including presentation packages
Total number of units = 10

7 core units plus

3 elective units

At least 2 elective units must be selected from the elective units listed below. One elective
unit may be selected from any currently endorsed Training Package or accredited course.
Elective units must be relevant to the work outcome, local industry requirements and the
qualification level. Where a unit is chosen from another currently endorsed Training Package
or accredited course, it must be from a qualification or course at Certificate III level or above,
and must contribute towards the vocational outcome of the program.

Core units

TAEASS401B Plan assessment activities and processes


TAEASS402B Assess competence
TAEASS403B Participate in assessment validation
TAEDEL401A Plan, organise and deliver group-based learning
TAEDEL402A Plan, organise and facilitate learning in the workplace
TAEDES401A Design and develop learning programs
TAEDES402A Use training packages and accredited courses to meet client needs

Elective units

Assessment
TAEASS301B Contribute to assessment
TAEASS502B Design and develop assessment tools

Delivery and facilitation


TAEDEL301A Provide work skill instruction
TAEDEL403A Coordinate and facilitate distance-based learning

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TAEDEL404A Mentor in the workplace
TAEDEL501A Facilitate e-learning

Language, literacy and numeracy


TAELLN401A Address adult language, literacy and numeracy skills OR TAELLN411 Address
adult language, literacy and numeracy skills

Training advisory services


TAETAS401A Maintain training and assessment information

Imported units
BSBAUD402B Participate in a quality audit
BSBCMM401A Make a presentation
BSBLED401A Develop teams and individuals
BSBMKG413A Promote products and services
BSBREL402A Build client relationships and business networks
BSBRES401A Analyse and present research information

50
Annex 5. Qualification File TVET Teacher, the Netherlands
Note: This is a summary and a translation of a file in Dutch

The Technical Trainer/ Teacher Vocational Education in the Netherlands is qualified on 1 level, referred
to as Higher Vocational Education (comparable to bachelor’s level). Entry level is + diploma 4 years
upper-secondary. The trainer can train on all 4 levels of vocational education. In this qualification file
six tasks are described. A further detailing of this is on the original document done in terms of subtasks
and results. The latter are not presented in this summary.

1. The trainer is a professional and keeps his professionalism up-to date.


2. The trainer develops a training programme.
3. The trainer administers/conducts a training programme.
4. The trainer provides advice and support learners in their learning career
5. The trainer is actively involved in training on the job/ in the actual practice of the
workplace
6. The trainer develops, uses and evaluates assessment instruments

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Task 1 1. The trainer is a professional and keeps his professionalism up-to
date.

Knowledge Skills
The trainer/teacher The Trainer can:
• Knows the relevant laws and rules • Use various forms of coaching, super- and
regarding his work as TVET trainer (the intervision
qualification dossiers, the VET law, the • Conduct appraisal interviews to assess the
professional status of teachers) own performance and professional
• Is aware of actual developments in society development
related to vocational education and training • Give and receive feedback about own
• Knows the professional identity of VET professional development and those of
trainers, knows how to professionalise others
further, can formulate his/her own learning • Use digital portfolio development, including
needs and demonstrate learning outcomes assessment criteria
• Keeps track of relevant developments and • Use methods to learn from own experience
innovations in the field of students and based on an investigative attitude
uses this also for his own professional • Build and maintain a relevant network in
development his professional field to keep his
• Knows about various forms of formal and professional knowledge up to date
non-formal learning, theory learning and • Build and maintain a relevant network in
learning in practice; is aware of his the institution with a focus on
preferences. collaboration, coordination and mutual
• Has acquired methods to learn with and learning
from colleagues inside and outside the • Contribute to team development and
school effective consultation
• Has acquired methods to advice and • Initiate renewal of his education
support new colleagues and new colleagues programmes and demonstrate
in training. entrepreneurship
• Contribute, within his assignments, to
quality awareness and quality improvement
in the team.

52
Task 2 The trainer develops a training programme.

Skills
Knowledge
The trainer: The trainer can:
• Knows the legal framework for his activities, • Create a varied education program tailored
the institutions policy and the team to the target group, consisting of individual
policy/commitments education and group activities, classes
• Masters the learning content (knowledge inside and outside the school, theory and
and skills), knows the relevant practical and
workplace learning;
theoretical background thereof and the
• translate with the colleagues the legal
context
frameworks (the qualification file) into an
• Has actual knowledge of the professions for
which he trains and connects the learning education program, taking into account the
material with the relevant qualification institutional policy and team appointments;
documents • translate issues and innovations from the
• Oversees the structure of the curriculum, region into executable projects for
the links with other programmes and with individual or groups of students;
what colleagues in the same professional • collaborate with colleagues in the team to
field are teaching. create a coherent curriculum for students;
• Identifies specific linguistical and • In agreement with colleagues, tailor the
mathematical aspects related to the own
didactics for vocational language and
professional field
account aspects to the target group
• Knows that students can interprete/
• Provide customization at student level for
understand the learning materials in
different ways and can adapt to that content and forms of supervision/support
• Knows the essence of other units in the • Refer to specialists in specific situations
programme (if he is not teaching them) (e.g. language and mathematics, special
• Clarifies for students what the relevance of needs education);
the learning material is for the vocational • mobilise a network of colleagues from the
practice profession and in the vocational colleges in
• Knows how the learning material (can) the (re-) development of the education
connect to further education on other program;
levels
• update the education program based on
• Knows various education- and learning
innovations in the profession field;
theories and cam translate these to practice
• Use digital learning resources to improve
• Is aware of key literature on career
guidance and can use this systematically. the quality of the education program, in line
• Is aware of the most important theories with students’ learning styles .;
regarding supervision (modelling, guiding,
scaffolding, coaching, monitoring)

53
• Knows the possibilities and limitations of
digital learning materials.

54
Task 3 The trainer administers a training programme

Knowledge Skills

• Knows how to present a coherent whole of • Shape learning in and of the real-world
the various parts of the education program professional practice considering questions
(theory classes, trainings, workshops and and innovations in country and region;
integral assignments), taking into account • support students in integrating knowledge,
differences between students and with skills and attitudes in professional activity;
language and numeracy aspects in the • Encourage entrepreneurial action in students,
context of the profession; both in the meaning of intrapreneurship as
• Coordinates the learning goals with the entrepreneurship;
programme(s) of his team colleagues to • In functional (professional) situations,
create a coherent whole for the students functional use of and promotion of language
• Manages the content (knowledge and skills) and numeracy;
and knows the theoretical and practical • Create different types of learning, both in a
backgrounds thereof, in line with the (current) school as in a non-school setting (workplace
targets; learning);
• Can make the students aware of the •identify and apply relevant aspects of
relevance of the subject matter for professional language and numeracy education, related to
practice; the profession
• Knows that students can interprete the Encourage entrepreneurial action in students,
learning material in different ways and is able both in the meaning of intrapreneurship as
to adapt his education accordingly; entrepreneurship;
• work from a holistic approach, of the
• Knows the relevant literature about the professional practice;
didactics of the • Build a network focused on adequate and
vocational education and uses these actual/current education practice related to the
systematically professional context
in line with the institutional vision; • Promote in (professional) situations,
• Is aware of (learning) disorders (dyslexia, functional use of language and numeracy;
ADHD) • Create different types of learning, both in a
and of physical handicaps in learning, and school as in a non-school setting (workplace
knows the learning);
school policy in this regard; •identify and apply relevant aspects of
• knows the theory of supervision and language and numeracy education, related to
counselling (modeling, guiding, scaffolding, the profession
coaching, monitoring). • Contribute to language and numeracy
development and the acquisition of language
and computational skills in vocational contexts.
* Contribute to the establishment of a
competency-oriented learning environment;
• work with heterogeneous groups taking into
account differences in level, self-image, culture,
interest, learning style and prior knowledge of
his/her students;
• Implement process and task-oriented
guidance in different learning contexts;
•Use a variety of questioning, coaching and
conversation techniques (responsive comment,
assisting though questioning);

55
• Collaborate with colleagues and collaborators
(internally and externally);
• planning work (product and process
oriented);
• Contribute to quality care and innovation;
• In coordination with the team, set goals in a
quality cycle;
• fulfil different roles in a team;
• Ask for support or referring in case of (a
presumption of) learning disorders;
• Performs Administrative tasks (record
keeping, attendance registers etc. etc.)

56
Task 4 The trainer supervises and guides the student in his learning carreer

Skills
Knowledge
The Trainer : The Trainer can :

• is familiar with current literature on career guidance • challenge students through asking the right
and applies methodologies systematically, following questions to reflect critically on experience gained,
the institutional vision; thereby stimulating and guiding the quest for
• knows the structure of the education program and discovering talents and ambitions;
allows students to clarify the coherence of the • Implementing process and task-oriented
program; guidance in different learning contexts;
• has current knowledge of the professions being • Use different coaching and conversation
trained; techniques and listen actively:
• know that students learn in different ways and can - summarize / paraphrase;
adjust their education accordingly; - ask open and closed questions;
• Has current theories about developing self-learning - Give feedback and receive feedback;
learning. - confront and apply other simple
conversational interventions;
- explain, advise, inform
• give his opinion, judge, impose;
• work with portfolio development including
assessment criteria;
• collaborate and align in a heterogeneous team;
• Purposely fulfil different roles in a team;
• Learn students to understand the relevance of
the subject matter for professional practice and
the coherence of the subject matter with the
professional practice.

57
Task 5 The trainer is actively involved in workplace learning

Knowledge Skills
The trainer: The trainer can:

• has current knowledge of the (developments in) • match demands from the regional labour
occupations being trained; market and innovations to students' learning
• knows the relevant literature about workplace needs;
learning and applies these methodologies • Learn students to reflect on regulatory
systematically, in line with the vision of his school; skills for further learning in education or
• knows the theory of the various forms of guidance occupation;
and counselling. • Implement process- and task-oriented
guidance in different learning contexts;
• Use different coaching and discussion
techniques and listen actively (summarize /
paraphrase, ask open and closed questions, give
feedback and receive, confront, through inter
alia, simple interview interventions,
explanations, advise, inform);
• contribute to a workable balance between
the interests of the student, the school and the
company;
• cooperate in a heterogeneous team, inside
and outside the school;
• fulfil different roles in the team;
• Students learn to understand the
relevance of the subject matter for professional
practice and the coherence of the subject matter
with professional practice.

Task 6 The trainers develops, uses and evaluates assessment tools

Knowledge Skills

58
The teacher: The teacher can:
• Has current basic knowledge of the law and • make students reflect on building self-regulation
regulations regarding examinations;• Has basic skills for further learning in education or occupation;
knowledge of examinations; • work with portfolio development;
• has knowledge of qualifying assessment;• Has basic • construct, administer and evaluate development-
knowledge of developmental tests; oriented tests;
• knows the relevant literature about examining and • construct, administer and evaluate exams;
assessing and knows which methods are applied in his • Come to an overall assessment in consultation with
school; colleagues and field of work.
• can differentiate between development-oriented
assessment and examination.

59
Annex 6: Gender in Education.
The assessment tool gives an impression of how the staff perceives the gender mainstreaming in
their training.

Box: self-assessment tool.

1 = very weak …. 5 = very strong Score 1-5

Content Average score

1. Scope

Experiences, development and learning needs of both sexes and people with other
diversities are collected, monitored and evaluated in a segregated way.

The difference in tasks, roles and positions of female and male participants in their
working situation is analysed and taken into consideration when developing the
curriculum material.

The reasons (why and) how male and females participate in the training
programmes are analyzed and used when developing and adapting material.

The course objectives take into consideration the different interests and needs
male and female beneficiaries / citizens to be served.

Average scope

2. Concepts

The educational concept include gender themes and verifiable gender targets

Explicit discussions of gender roles related to the study theme are planned for
(e.g. in connection with conflicts of interest in development needs)

The study / training programme includes gender differentiation and social


analyses

Teaching materials describe or depict women and men in varied roles

Portrayals and pictures of women and men are equally represented in terms of
number

Average concepts

3. Material

The course material is properly oriented towards professional interests and


experiences of both men and women

The course materials makes explicit reference to the different ways participants
(both male and female) can apply the learning in their working and living
situations
The course materials avoids stereotypes of male and female roles, values and
behaviour
The course materials avoid stereotypes of different ethnic groups, religions and
other groups
Language used in the course material (he/she) is gender neutral.

Average material

4. Work forms

The training and teaching methods ensure gender sensitivity and equality in
classroom participation

Teaching and training methods are of a suitable mix of forms (lecturing, group
work, role-plays, self-scoring tests, etc.) leading to both: an effective way of
achieving training goals as well as active involvement of all (male, female, shy and
assertive etc.), within the given time.

Average work forms

5. Spoken language

Trainers / faculties use gender neutral spoken language (he/she)

To what extend do trainers / faculties monitor the use of gender-neutral language


by the participants?

Both men and women are addressed fairly by the trainers/teachers / faculties

Men (trainers and trainees) give women equal space to contribute and take up
leadership roles and vice versa.

Trainers and trainees do not make sexist allusions, neither do women

Trainers and trainees support ideas during discussions on competence only, and
are not biased by the gender of the person who mentions the idea.

At certain times the participation of female trainees is discussed in the classroom

Average spoken language

6. Enabling environment (framework conditions)

A selection process which ensures sufficient intake by women in the courses

Information channels, language and form of advertising for the course are
differentiated and appropriate to attract female participants.

Place and time of courses are appropriate to attract both male and female
participants, and people with other diversities

Security and safety of participants is addressed properly based on gender


differences like sex, age, health and other diversities (routes, access, public
transport, etc.)
Course is compatibility with career development and family duties of both sexes
and people with other diversities

Spatial organisation (seating plan, lighting, sanitary facilities, etc.) is appropriate


for both men and women

Costs (course fees, teaching materials, transport, suitable clothing, etc.) are kept
at a level that enables all envisaged target groups to attend the course

Research and study grants include gender specific principles and criteria to assure
equity in availability and use

Absence and drop outs are assessed on gender grounds and decisions for future
improvement are taken

Data of results of course assessments and evaluations are differentiated per sex

Average enabling environment

7. Trainers

Trainers and trainees give women sufficient space to contribute.

Trainers use a participatory teaching / training style creating a gender friendly


learning environment

Trainers and teachers have gender analytical skills on theoretical level and use
these in their teaching

Trainers and teachers deal properly with role and behavioural concepts of women
and men, while avoiding stereotyping.

Trainers and teachers discuss gender related and diversity issues related to the
learning objectives with students.