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Research Article

Smart Socio-economic Development of

Socio - Cultural Institution to Remove
Disparity among Different Sectors of Society:
The First Entrant to a Smart City
Prakriti Mehta1

The domestic help (bai), carpenter, painter, cobbler (mochi), gardener (maali), tailor (darzi), potter
(kumhaar), construction labour, barber (naayi), security guard, factory workers etc, are all on whom we
are dependent for running a daily life. The city gives them a “chance”. The city is willing “to pay”. The city
gives them an “opportunity” to enhance their skills, earn more than what they would in their self sustaining
village and moreover a stable life for them. The city is dependent on them, and they are dependent on
the city. Here we are talking about a person who moves from one place to another in order to find work
and better living conditions, a poor, skilled or unskilled, under or uneducated from a rural area, the first
entrant to the city - The migrant. They stay at villages surrounded by the planned urban areas, spread over
the acquired land, once belonging to the native residents whose traditional occupation was agriculture.
None of the master plans have a development policy for making these enclaved villages compatible
with the surrounding urban areas. The “first entrant” looks for cheap rental accommodation, near their
work place. The native villagers unwilling to sell their land, builds sharing a tenement which helps them
generate a regular rental income. As there are no development control norms, the construction is devoid
of professional inputs. The physical outcome is inappropriate utilization of land resource, a haphazard
urban form and unhealthy living conditions. In this process, the socio cultural needs of the migrant are
completely missed out. The objective of the article is to identify the importance of a migrant in a city and
his/her role in the transformation of these peri urban areas in Indian Context, secondly, to understand
their economic and socio-cultural aspirations, thirdly to focus on the opportunity an Indian city has with
the announcement of the Smart Cities. An important guideline to work on would be to plan urban areas
that reflect on the provision for this section of the society, particularly when they enter the city for the
first time.

Keywords: Migrant, Smart city, Urban villages, Urban area

International Organization for Migration defines a migrant as any person who is moving or has moved across an
international border or within a State away from his/her habitual place of residence, regardless of (1) the person’s
legal status; (2) whether the movement is voluntary or involuntary; (3) what the causes for the movement are; or (4)
what the length of the stay is.8

Urban Designer, M/s. Design Action Group, New Delhi; Assistant Professor, Balwant Sheth School Of Architecture, Narsee Monjee
Institute of Management Studies University, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

E-mail Id: prakritimehta@gmail.com

Orcid Id: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8698-0131

How to cite this article: Mehta P. Smart Socio-economic Development of Socio - Cultural Institution to Remove Disparity among
Different Sectors of Society: The First Entrant to a Smart City. J Adv Res Const Urban Arch 2017; 2(3&4): 56-70.

ISSN: 2456-9925

© ADR Journals 2017. All Rights Reserved.

J. Adv. Res. Const. Urban Arch. 2017; 2(3&4) Mehta P

The analysis of migration is fundamental to the primary activity to secondary and tertiary. Now a day’s
understanding of many aspects of man and society. migrants have started encroaching upon or interfering
The movement of people across the earth’s surface has in economic, social and political activities of the place of
been a major force in creating and perpetuating diversity destination. Migrants not only change the concerned places
particularly in spatial manifestations .on the other hand, but they also become the subject to change.
migration is also an outcome of the diversity itself. Thus
the migration systems often tend to operate as self fuelling The personal characteristic of a migrant is that they are
processes whereby once migration has started further younger than the people of their native village. They mostly
population movement becomes almost inevitable for a are unmarried or newly married when they arrive to the city.
variety of structural reasons relating to socio economic They are generally risk taking, may or may not be educated
aspects. Migration as a structure is both an “effect” of and seek to be in the city to augment their family’s income.
patterns of human diversity and as a “Cause” of further
diversity of the future. The migrant first enters the city based on his connections in
the city that may be his relatives or friends or acquaintance
During early days people were simply wandering from at the native village. They rely on them for housing or
one region to another in search of livelihood and their life an accommodation and finding a job immediately when
was very simple. The impact of migration was confined to they enter the city. As a chain reaction, friends and family
primary activities. The growth of civilization has broadened members of a migrant join the migrant, once he is settled
the dimensions of the impact of human migrations from at his new destination.

Figure 1.Migration process

In the Indian context, there are several factors because act as a barrier and act as channels of movement. The
of which a person moves from his native village to an existing transportation routes such as roads, rail network
urban area: serve as the channel of movement into definite direction.
The migrants do not mind travelling long distances at a
Geographical and Vocational characteristics of sending cheaper cost as most big cities offer bigger employment
and receiving areas: opportunities.
The topography of the place defines the features which

Figure 2.Stages of migration

Migrants come from most densely populated areas where opportunities in Construction, Manual Labour, Informal
land pressures are greatest. Technological advancements sector, etc. are similar in all cities.
and progress in both urban and rural areas stimulates
migrant by changing employment patterns and living Economic Motivations
conditions. A city offers more opportunities to the skilled
migrant but for an unskilled rural migrant, the urban city The prime motive for migrating from rural to urban areas
size and economic development may not be as critical since is economic, taking the form of an expectation of greater

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real income because of better employment opportunities. low agricultural wages, and at times unemployment .The
Migration is a function of the obsolete real per capita dynamics of urban employment involve two sectors, the
income differentials for each skill level or occupation. small formal sector which includes large sale industries,
The Dynamics of rural employment include widespread trade and finance and administrations, or the traditional
landlessness, unequal access to agricultural employment, or informal sector which requires low or no skills.

Figure 3.Sectors of occupation

The cost of migration is the migrants Urban Income. In the development of the place of destination.
order to compare rural and urban income, these must be
adjusted by the difference in cost of living. A mathematical Temporary Migrants maintain contact with their place
expression of the cost of Migration is travel costs + foregone of origin and contribute towards its development by
rural income for transition period of unemployment + initial remittance and experience gained outside. They invest
living costs + job searches migration to the city would lead their earning at the place of origin. Seasonal workers
to an increased income. The city offers better educational move out from the place of origin mostly at slack season
and health facility and an opportunity to improve one’s and they do not disturb the work at the place of origin
occupational status. Unfortunately, the Indian city today rather they earn money outside to support their families
lacks providing them with good urban amenities such as at home. They also solve the problem of labour shortage
housing, public services, recreation, etc. at the place of destination.

Various types of migrations exert their influence distinctly Migration has impacts on economic activity, social
in rural as well as urban areas in India: conditions, demographic structure, political activity,
ecology, physical environment, and in urbanization process.
Outmigration from any region releases pressure of
population on land and influences the demographic, Impact on Economic Activity
economic and social characteristics of the area of
emigration. The very origin of migration concerns economic
considerations. The differential economy and lust for
Immigration leads to change of land use and environment. economic betterment motivate people to migrate from one
The congregation of working forces brings efficiency in place to another. The land on which the migrant settles is
work, increases production leading to regional progress. initially a farming land which gets converted into land owner
Migrants coming from different cultural regions with diverse developed residential housing. It provides the owner with
way of living transform the existing social ecology of the an opportunity to earn more income on the same piece of
region. Different political ideologies inherent in these land than farming, with lesser amenities to be provided and
migrants change the ideas of the original inhabitants. lesser development controls applicable on him. At the same
Migration increases the pressure of population, working time, since the income is low, the rent payable is also low
force, sex ratio, literacy, etc. It also influences the age around such villages/slums which are closer to the places
structure and racial composition. of work. Thus the migrant saves money on transportation.
Lower costs of housing and transportation makes the
Permanent Migration influences the places of origin and migrant save a substantial amount of his income to be
destination distinctly. The donor society loses skilled sent back home to his place of origin for their economic
persons permanently. Migrants carry wealth with them development.
which they invest in the place of destination leading to

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Figure 4.Employment opportunities in a city

Impact on Social Conditions Impact on Political Activities
All migrants who go to cities do not bring their families Infrequent participation in the urban life by the rural
with them due to their economic conditions or due to newcomer limits their opportunity of learning the ways
their compulsive factors of village life like maintenance of of urban living. Several factors like illiteracy, community
traditional property in the village, emotional attachment isolation and the problems of adjustment of the migrants
to the family and the place, dislike of parents to move with the new environment seem to be responsible for
to the city, etc. Though in the beginning the migrants go the lack of political participation by the migrants. The
alone to the urban areas, later most of them call a part of migrants are so engrossed in their personal problems and
their families to their new place in the city. Such families psychological state that they lag behind the other city
now have very little connection with their native families. dwellers particularly the urbanites. Migrants coming from
Migration has its strong impact on various aspects of different areas transmit their political ideologies among
marriage, rituals of marriage, age at marriage, selection themselves. This leads to active participation in politics
of pair, caste considerations and organization of marriage. and formation of groups by the migrants. In this way they
dominate in the political activities of the city, sometimes
Migration influences social integration. Migrants have to succeed in overthrowing the local administration.
face the problem of integration when they enter the new Membership of professional and occupational associations
society. In most migrant settlements where the social paves the way of migrants’ political activities and political
structure of origin and destination is similar, there would participation. The duration of the stay of migrants in the
be a greater bonding within the community. These form city also effects their attitude to and outlook on political
their community based on the common language, customs matters. The new entrants to the city are less inclined to
and practices. These migrants frequently organize cultural get themselves registered as voters than those who stay
events under the auspicious of their associations. Thus in the city comparatively longer.
these migrant get a sort of relief and begin to realize that
even in their new environments they can retain something Impact on Ecology
of their own culture. This develops a society within a society.
Migration affects important elements of ecology, i.e. man,
The migrant is freed from a lot of traditional social control animal, plants and water. Migrants bring modification to
norms once he enters a city. Activities that would be the existing environmental conditions by deforestation,
considered anti social in a rural setting may be a part of exploitation of resources, development of settlements
the social habit of the city. and industries. In the process the land, air and water are
adversely affected. Poor design of sewerage and drainage
Impact on Demographic Structure lead to contaminated water being dumped into the natural
water systems without treatment.
Migration leads to a disproportionate mix of different ages,
sex, occupational class, literates, birth rates, mortality rate, Impact on Discovery and Exploration
increase in the number of adults, religious composition.
Due to better job opportunities and urban amenities, Human migration and exploration are interdependent. In
rural people are attracted towards urban centers. This early days all migrations were undertaken for explorations.
has resulted in the rapid growth of the urban population. At a later stage, exploration of land and natural resources

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motivated people to move from one place to another. Thus of industrialization and subsequent expansion as well as
migration leads to exploring new places - unheard of and proliferation of the cities.
ready to be exploited for human consumption.
Urbanization involves six groups of phenomenon
Impact on Physical Environment
• The physical structure of human agglomeration
From the very beginning of human life mobility has been • Technology and human ecology, economic structure
exerting its influences on physical landscape. The intensity in function of spatial relations, manpower, occupation
of impact has changed temporally. In the wandering stage and industry
people were not altering the landscape rather they were • The structure of social organization , social institution
confined to gathering eatables from forests. Alteration in and mechanism and modes of urban association and
landscape due to human migration started when people participation
realized the importance of domestication of animals and of • The underlying system of values and social forces
agriculture. They began deforesting the land for agriculture, operating on the life of the community at large.
pasture and habitation. Growing wants of people coupled • The elements of social psychology such as ideas
with development of science and technology enabled attitudes, constellation of personalities and
people to inhabit otherwise unsuitable lands. Intensity consciousness towards urban collectivity.
and diversity of wants led to the diversity in use of the • Prevalence of the middle class values and the rise of
land. Besides agriculture, land was devoted to construction nationalism as dominating and unifying force.
of works, roads, railways, factories and commercial
establishments. Migration has not only increased the size of the population
of urban centers, it has also led to the vertical and horizontal
In urban and industrial areas migrants transform the expansion. Vertical expansion takes place where there is a
physical landscape. Major changes occur due to the growth lack of land for horizontal expansion. Wherever open land
of secondary and tertiary sectors. The development of an is available in the fringes of the city horizontal expansion
urban centre attracts large numbers of professionals and takes place. These Urban fringes become urban villages
laborers who contribute to the expansion of the residential experience high density in terms of population and built
areas. Migrants engaged in different urban activities come up area.
from different socio economic strata and change the
urban landscape accordingly. People from middle and Rural – Urban migration changes the hierarchical order of
low income group cannot afford to have costly residential urban centers. All urban villages do not grow uniformly
plot in planned colonies like the higher income groups and because of unequal growth of industry, construction
purchase small piece of land in slum area near place of work work and other activities which generate employment
to minimize transport cost or prefer to purchase cheaper opportunities and attract migrants.
land in fringe and construct their houses in unplanned
manner or rely on rental accommodation in places close Public utilities and amenities are worst affected by
to places of work. This leads to congestion of such places migration. Large scale arrival in urban centers lead to
sometime referred to as slum, squatter settlements or over the increased need of transport and communication and
a period of time an urban villages. health care, educational facilities, institutions, recreational
centers, water supply, sanitation and power supply. If these
Impact on Urbanization urban villages are well planned and due attention is paid
to estimate migration, a lot of problems of habitable living
Migration as a physical mobility from one place to another, within a city can be resolved. Where the Indian city fails to
which is propelled by the changes in the system of new address this issue, it leads to poor living standards, health
needs, ideas and expectations is the precondition of the hazards, no light, ventilation and over all these places is
process of urbanization. It is this process of migration not sustainable for living.
which sustains the process of urban growth way of
diversified economic activities in terms of the probability Rapid urbanization and migration are two processes
of the needs of man’s power. Urbanization is an ongoing on the basis of which land gets transformed. The key
process of social changes which involves transformation stakeholders in this process of transformation are native
of social life in terms of not only economic imperatives of villagers (Farmers) whose interest is to earn more than
social life but also certain psychological attributes which what he did as a farmer. Secondly, the migrant who has no
make the process of change meaningful and far reaching choice but to make do with what the city offers him at the
in its implication. Migration is a not only a prerequisite lowest possible budget. Thirdly, private developers, who
condition of urbanization but also a concomitant process cash upon the land sold to them by the farmers.

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Figure 5.Transformation of land

The Indian context of an urban village is very different from the west may not give us a correct picture of what a village
a western idea of an urban village. Thus blindly following in a city could be like.
Table 1.Indian and western concept of urban villages
Parameters Western Concept Indian concept (Lal Dora Areas)
Built Density Medium density Extremely high density
Population density Medium Density Extremely high density
Public Infrastructure Designed Insufficient , left to evolve
Public spaces Designed using concepts of pedestrianisation Forced pedestrian movement , no
and public space design keeping in mind social public spaces , haphazard design
Live work play High level of self containment (people work, live Mostly migrants who stay in rented
and recreate in the same area) accommodation closer to work
Standard of living Designed to achieve minimum standards of living Poor, Unhygienic conditions of living

In order to understand, contemporary cities in the same capital for the eastern half of the Punjab province provided
light, two case examples have been discussed. Chandigarh, an opportunity for Nehru to realize and demonstrated
being the capital of Punjab envisioned as a role model of this ideology. Nehru’s imperative meshed perfectly with
a modern city that had to undergo a lot of development Corbusier’s normative vision for a modern city .5 Chandigarh
pressures in the urban village “Burail”. Noida planned as an as well as other state sponsored mega projects like dams,
industrial town but had a mismatch in its estimate of the steel plants and their townships were developed. The
quantum of people who would reside here. The latter is a rationist planning of the first phase of Chandigarh embodied
descriptive primary study of the urban village “Salarpur” imperatives of Nehru and Corbusier in the form of state
and “Bhangel” undergone in order to understand the paternalism discusses the extent of development and
current complexities of a village surrounded by urban areas, regulatory frameworks proposed by Corbusier’s team for
keeping in mind a vision for an industrial town which was a total control of the state in matters of administration.6
bound to attract a lot of migrants. According to Corbusier, “all land within the plan area should
be acquired, developed and sold by the government. The
A new city unfettered by the past, a symbol of the nation objective was to prevent land speculation and accumulation
faith in the future, was a part of Jawahar Lal Nehru’s Speech of wealth of private landowners and restrict unregulated
for a new Capital city.4 The need for a new administrative urban growth.

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Figure 6.Le Corbusiers vision of Chandigarh

The power granted to the elite and experts led to the with economy driving the form and organization of the
evolution of “Urban villages” in Chandigarh. There were new village.
massive protests by the Pind Bachao Committee in 1969,
against land acquisition and demanding rights of natives There were interrelated causes and impact of the traditional
to retain their home and community which was a symbol village that existed in the urban area. In Chandigarh Master
of their shared identity. The government had to make Plan, the state government owned housing and privately
a choice between pursuing its modernization project developed housing was thought of. Unpredicted migrant
and communities which were excluded from the same. influx resulted in acute housing shortage (Quantity as well
The confrontation between modernization projects with as diversity). The planned housing stock was overburdened,
traditional forms of settlement got manifested in the urban privately developed property prices increased beyond the
village typology of settlement. It was a byproduct of rational reach of the middle and lower income groups. The latter
planning between extremes of formality and informality had no choice but to reside in squatter settlements or
which exists in the society. labour colonies. Burail - a traditional agrarian village in
Chandigarh was one such refuge to absorb development
The design solution to the segregation of new typology pressures Chandigarh was undergoing. It was preferred over
from the new modern city was first by demarcating the slum settlements due to the access to goods and services,
periphery with the construction on a road. Even though basic utilities, and a close knit community environment.
it became a part of the urban fabric, the Capital of Punjab Tenement housing and dormitories constructed by village
Act which regulated growth in the city was not extended natives offer low cost rental accommodation in proximity
to encompass areas within the revised boundary. It led to to their place of employment.
unregulated and accelerated village urbanization process

Figure 7.Organic development of urban village Burail in the grid pattern of Chandigarh
Prior to urban development in the urban region the villages’ actions, constantly regenerated itself and together with
primary occupation was agriculture - a demographic mix of other villages acted as a network of specialized commercial
landowner and agricultural labors. With the acquisition of hubs. Micro industries, warehouses, workshop, repair
land and the loss of regular source of income, individual set centers, motor garages, pushed into the densely populated
up trades and services to profit from the urban needs of its and unplanned village led to air and noise pollution.
surroundings (dairy farms, material warehouses, carpentry The migrant or the urban poor sought refuge in such
workshops, etc). An increase of the unregulated domestic areas. Commercial activities agglomerated in ribbons
cattle led to traffic accidents and designed recreational along the fringes of Burail interfacing the surrounding
green spaces were used to graze cattle. An enforced ban neighborhoods. Haphazard developments, incremental
on rearing cattle in urban villages took away the livelihood additions, modifications to built fabric led to fire and
of the inhabitants once again. Burail propelled individual structural hazards.

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The fragile community fabric of the village organized around The Interim General Plan for Greater Delhi was prepared
the Chaupal, public spaces for socio- cultural gathering and in 1956 and then the first Master Plan of Delhi prepared
celebrations constructed and maintained by the community in 1962 suggested that serious considerations should
themselves were destructed. Natives moved out of the be given for the planned decentralization of large scale
village as Burail became associated with chaos, unsanitary economic activities from Delhi and the development of
environment. towns around Delhi. This paved ways for the development
of Industrial units and warehousing at various locations
Villages were said to be an urban backyard. The village is around Delhi, resulting in speculative land dealings and
now contested with multiple stakeholders far removed potentials for unplanned and unauthorized development
from the close knit agricultural community. Thus building activities. Therefore, a need for establishing planned urban
development norms and regulating growth is impossible. centres in the close proximity of Delhi was felt to provide
Vested interest of business communities and location as an alternative site for the planned development of small
prime real estate resist changes while the migrant workers and medium size industrial units functioning in unplanned
resisting changes fearing a gentrification process which and haphazard way in and around Delhi and to stop the
will drive them out. They participate in the development speculative land dealings in this area.
process and directly benefit from the urbanization process.

Figure 8.Rapid urbanization

Accordingly, the New Okhla Industrial Authority (NOIDA) • Provide employment to about 41,000 industrial
prepared a master plan for the area for the year 1991. The workers.
Plan had the following objectives: • Achieve a conducive living and work environment
for the workers engaged in manufacturing and allied
• Provide developed sites for about 10,000 small-scale activities, and develop an integrated township for an
industrial units. ultimate population of 3,75,000 workers.9

Figure 9.Industrial Areas adjoining urban villages highlighted on the Master Plan Noida 2031

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Migration has been a phenomenon of most Urban Villages There are many existing villages within the Notified Area
across India. It is more pronounced in urban areas having limits of Noida. These villages have also extended beyond
multiple and faster economic activities. Delhi and NCR their original boundaries. These villages and extensions
(National Capital Region) is one such place. Urban Villages thereof had a completely different life-style for long time
in Delhi (quite often called the Lal Dora area), of Faridabad/ and are now getting merged into the urban environment
Ballabhgarh, then of Gurgaon, then of Noida and now and need a sensitive treatment in the planning and
villages up to 60 km from Delhi have experienced and are development process. While they require modern services
experiencing this phenomenon, a reality of life, without and amenities, the villagers also aspire to practice their
exception. As per the 1981 Census, when Noida was in traditional and cultural living.
its infancy the population of Noida was 36,972. This was
basically the aggregate of population of villages in Noida. In Salarpur and Bhangel is one such urban village on Noida-
the year 1991, Noida was categorized as a Census Town (CT) Dadri Road, Bordering NEPZ (Noida Export Promotion
and by this time 29 villages were urbanized and constituted Zone), the Largest Industrial pocket of Noida, the Phase
the developed urban area of Noida, which had a population II. It is home for over 15000 First Entrants to the City,
of 1,46,514 persons. The 1991 Census also revealed that in the backbone of Industrial activity in Noida Phase II. The
addition to the population in the developed urban limits village is interfaced by High Rise residential Apartments
of Noida, 34,489 persons lived in the peripheral villages. separated by the Noida Dadri Road, New Export Promotion
Thus the total population residing within the Notified Area Zone (NEPZ) separated by a Nallah, and Hoisery Complex
of Noida was 1,81,003 in 1991. The population increased separated by the main road towards Dadri. Since the village
up to 3,05,058 in 2001 and about 10 lakhs in 2010.A study has its boundary set on two sides (Nallah and the road)
suggests that as much as 20 per cent of the population the village is developing in a linear manner. The Salarpur-
lived in jhuggi clusters, another 48 per cent in the urban Bhangel Village is spread over approximately 135 hectares
villages and only 32 per cent resided in the developed and has a population of nearly approx. 20000.
residential sectors.

Figure 10.Location of the Urban Village - Bhangel Begumpur and Salarpur Khadar

Figure 11.Urban form of Bhangel Village

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Figure 12.Physical growth of Bhangel and Salarpur over the years

Form and Function for the purpose. It is a row of rooms, built in phases and
now raised up to 2 to 3 floors at the main streets. Invariably
The plots are divided and further divided between land these are single room tenements having common toilets.
owner family members. This has resulted in thinner plots Foot prints of all the building emerging now are identical
having width to depth ratio exceeding 1:4. Almost every like a wall to wall box with a slit in the middle. Raising a
house hold offers rented accommodation, specially built floor can be seen as a demand based continuous process.

Figure 13.Physical Model of the Village

Apart from being home for a large number of Industrial within and outside the village to serve the residents of
workers at NEPZ, Hosiery Complex and other Industries, the village and the surrounding neighborhood. Daily need
Bhangel is also a big building material market serving the stores are present at almost all road junctions within the
construction activities in the up to 10 - 15 km radius. The village. Vending streets with built structure on either side
shops and go downs related to these are situated on the defines the movement within the village. There are no
Noida - Dadri Road. Trade and commerce is flourishing house hold industries in the village.

Figure 14.Built use of the Village Bhangel

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Figure 15.Built use

Figure 16.Built Heights

Privately owned vacant lands offer relief to otherwise of land can be seen comparing with planned development
densely built plotted development. Organic development at Kendriya Vihar.

Figure 17.Site photograph

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Physical Infrastructure Open drain system is followed in the villages which are
mostly over flowing onto the streets. Outfall of drains is
There is no piped water supply and people have to carry directly into the Nallah without treatment. Solid wastes/
and store the water in Cans. Sewer lines are open and Garbage is dumped on the privately owned vacant lands
over flowing. Garbage is dumped at all community open at junction on Dadri road, and along the Nallah.
spaces, where children play.

Figure 18.The nallah

Social Infrastructure work force, there is no Crèche for children. Several Hindu
temples and one mosque exist within the village.
A poorly maintained Chowpaal was once a place for
congregation where Ram Leela was performed. Currently The village is under the second phase of migration where
all large scale congregations take place across the nallah single migrants have now got their families. Community
on the vacant land. Baraat ghar is proposed towards the structure is such that most of the populations including
nallah side. Schools and a Girls college exist within the migrants are Gujjars (Tyagi Bhati from Western UP). A
village, several private training/coaching centres on main minor population here is of Muslims situated closely to
Dadri road. Though migrant women form a large part of the mosque.

Figure 19.Existing chowpaal condition

Figure 20.Context of the chowpal through a physical model

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Movement Quite a few use bicycles and Motorcycles to drive to other

destinations of work (NEPZ, Hosiery complex, Sector 62
Most people walk up to their work place. The stream of industrial area, Dadri). Few rich landowners within the
pedestrian which emerges out of the village and moves village own four wheelers for private use.
along the nallah between 7.30 to 8.30 in the morning
and 4 to 6 pm is to be seen to be believed. The master A linear North-South village sandwiched between North-
plan proposes the new metro line along the nallah. Public South roads on the East-West (Dadri Road and Road along
transport such as buses, big autos and company buses Nallah) has led to an east-west movement within the village.
are extensively used by the residents on the Dadri Road.

Figure 21.Dadri Main road

Figure 22.Movement

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Figure 23.Movement patterns

Typology which are used for washing for clothes and utensils and
play area by toddlers. It has no access to natural sunlight,
Approx of 100-150 people reside on a plot with no open ventilation and sanitation.
space except a sleek central courtyard along linear plots

Figure 24.Typology of one of residential use

The aspirations, needs, fear and outlook of the villagers is a sign of positivity and good quality development
and the migrant were identified on the basis of observation 3. Need to be skilled for certain jobs
and interviewing stakeholders such as native residents, 4. Better physical infrastructure
migrants, and administrative heads of the village. 5. Community Spaces are absent here

1. What if the industries shut down? Conclusion

2. Metro will connect the village to entire NCR. It shall also
increase the accessibility of this village causing increase The Smart city vision mission guideline states “To provide
in activities and its intensities. Metro raises hope and for the aspirations and needs of the citizens, urban planners

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Mehta P J. Adv. Res. Const. Urban Arch. 2017; 2(3&4)

ideally aim at developing the entire urban eco-system, Michel Foucault asserted that nothing happens as laid
which is represented by the four pillars of comprehensive down in programmers’ schemes yet , he insisted that they
development - institutional, physical, social and economic are not simply utopias “in the heads of a few projectors”,
infrastructure. This can be a long term goal and cities can they are not “abortive schemas for the creation of a reality”
work towards developing such comprehensive infrastructure but “fragments of reality” itself and they “induce a whole
incrementally, adding on layers of ‘smartness’. The smart series of effects in the real” (Foucault, 1991: 81). The
city at the maximum touches on the subject: “New areas utopia conjures images and circulates imaginaries about
(Greenfield) will be developed around cities in order to the future. What must be paid attention to is how the plan
accommodate the expanding population in urban areas”.10 as an idea and the plan in action interact with one another
to produce a living and breathing city.
The smart city would offer the first entrant employment
opportunities, better standards of living, opportunity to In a smart city, a migrant would know what a city /urban
grow and create his/her identity in the new city and be a area offers him as soon as he/she enter the city. While
part of the smartness of the city. It is close to impossible the challenges emerging in process need to be addressed,
for a country to control migration. Today this migrant is the the planning authorities need to develop strategies
backbone of the city. A city becomes dynamic because of for incorporating the potentials offered for the future
their existence in an informal setup. The dynamism in the urbanization. It requires an inclusive and participatory
city derives the image of the city today. The processions, planning which is incremental in nature. A planned
festivals, street vendors and dwellers, transform the development control norms would lead to a designed
streetscape - a city in constant action where its physical urban form keeping in mind the importance of dynamism
fabric is understood by this dynamism. Dynamism refers and informality in spaces as a key aspiration of the first
to being temporary in nature or the ability to change or entrant to the city.
modify and reinvent itself. In their absence the city is
an architectural spectacle. A dynamic city is understood References
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The following guidelines could be developed: to Jakarta, Indonesia, Bachelors of Science in Urban
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• Develop models of housing which are incremental MIT. 1976.
in nature 8. International Organization for migration. Available
• Identify in advance potential areas where a migrant form: www.iom.int.
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relationship for e.g. a good public transportation MASTERPLAN2031-Detail.pdf.
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by planning for adequate physical infrastructure like 12. Mehta P. Available form: www.prakritimehta.com.
sewage, drainage, drinking water, sanitation etc.

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