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CIVMATL Quiz 2 Reviewer 7.

Admixture that will enhance the property

CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY 8. Proper mixing, batching, and transport of
Concrete Composition of Concrete - Typical Proportions:
 Conglomerate material  W (6%) + C (14%) = (20%)
 Sand, gravel, or other aggregates  FA (30%) + CA (50%) = (80%)
 Held together by a hardened paste of Traditional Mix Proportioning
cement and water
 When properly proportioned and mixed,
makes a plastic mass that can be pre-cast
 Stone-like upon complete hydration
Reinforced Concrete Structures
 Buildings
o Special Moment Resisting Frames
o Dual Systems
 Mechanical Buildings
o Semi pre-cast
Advantages of Concrete (HHPECH)
 High durability Trend of Water-Cement Ratio
 High compressive strength
 Protection of reinforcements from corrosion
 Easy manufacturing, fabrication, and
 Cheaper compared to other construction
 High fire rating
Disadvantages of Concrete (LSTHii)
 Low tensile strength
 Susceptible to cracking after seismic
occurrences or overloading
 Tendency to have bigger element sizes
 Heavy weight
o Increases gravity loads
o Increases seismic demands
Effective Concrete (SEWDD)
1. Strength CONCRETE MIX DESIGN (ACI 211.1)
2. Economy
3. Workability Concrete Mix Design
4. Durability  Intelligent guess of optimum combination
5. Density based on experience or relationships
Good Quality Concrete (AhAwMAHCAP) previously derived
1. Aggregates with high strength and  Requires knowledge of material properties,
soundness empirical relationships, and experience
2. Aggregates that are well-graded  Process to obtain satisfactory mix:
3. Maximum size of coarse aggregates
consistent with job requirements
4. Aggregates whose particle are well-shaped
5. High quality cement
6. Clean water
 Depends on strength requirement,
durability, workability, and quality of
5. Required cement content
6. Quality of coarse aggregates
 Percent of CA inside well
compacted concrete mix
7. Computation of required fine aggregate
8. Adjustments according to the moisture
content of aggregates

Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for

Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete (ACI

Background Data 9. For laboratory trial mix, the volumes are

 Sieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregates scaled down to 20 L or 0.02 m3
 Unit weight of coarse aggregates 10. Carry out a Trial Batch Test
 Specific gravity and absorption of  Check the water required – add
aggregates necessary water to obtain slump
 Specific gravity of cement and air content
 Water requirements for a given type of  Slump of the trial batch was
aggregates incorrect, increase or decrease the
 Relationship between strength and water- re-estimated water content by 2 kg
cement ratio per m3 of concrete for each
 Optimum combination of coarse aggregates increase or decrease of 10 mm in
Selection of Mix Proportion (Absolute Volume slump desired
Method) 11. * Re-estimate the amount of water for one
1. Choice of slump cu.m. of concrete to correct the yield
 Depends on structural specs
Alternative Procedure (Weight Basis Method) –
2. Choice of maximum size of aggregates
reference of approximation is the weight
 Depends on reqs to structural and
construction limitations, and market
3. Estimate of mixing water and air content
 Quantity of water per unit volume of
 Formed when crude petroleum oil rose to the
concrete depends on the ff:
Earth’s surface and formed pools
o Max size, particle shape
o Heat from the sun and wind
and grading of aggregates
vaporize lighter oils and gases
o Concrete temperature
leaving heavy residue
o Amount of entrained air
 Largest existing natural asphalt pools:
o Chemical admixtures
o Bermudez Deposits, Venezuela
4. Selection of water-cement ratio
o Lake Trinidad, Venezuela
o La Brea Pits, Los Angeles
Lake Asphalts  Constituents are bitumen which occur in
 Lake deposits resulting from surface nature as such or as residue in refining
seepage in the bed of lake petroleum
 Excavated from lake bed Tar
 Refinement by heating it to 160˚C and  Brown or black cementitious material
vaporizing water then sieved to remove large  Liquid or semi-solid consistency
particles and organic matter  Constituents are bitumen obtained as a
Rock Asphalt condensate of coal or other organic material
 Impregnated in porous rock such as which yields substantial quantities of pitch
limestone or sandstone when distilled
 Limited commercial value due to its low Asphalt Tar
asphalt content (7-13%) Refining petroleum Refine coal
Gilsonite Readily soluble in most Resistant to petroleum-
 Hard, brittle, and relatively pure rock asphalt petroleum products based solvents
found in vertical rock seams Composed almost Has low bitumen
Since natural asphalt does not usually occur in vast entirely of bitumens content
quantities, majority of asphalt used is from petroleum
BITUMINOUS MATERIALS  Aka Fractional Distillation
Bitumen  Process of manufacturing of asphalt
 Class of dark or dark-colored (solid, semi-  Separates different hydrocarbons, with
solid, gaseous or viscous) cementitious different boiling points, that make up crude
substances, natural or manufactured, oil
obtained as residue after heat-refining
 Soluble in Carbon Disulfide
 Composed primarily of hydrocarbons
o Asphaltenes and petrolenes
 Asphaltenes
o Constitute the body of bitumen
 Petrolenes
o Resins
 Affect adhesiveness and
ductility properties
o Oils Fraction of petroleum
 Influence viscosity and  Light distillate
flow o Gasoline – 100 to 400 ˚F
Adhesiveness and Ductility -> ideal material  Medium distillate
for highways o Kerosene – 375 to 575 ˚F
Oxidation  Heavy distillate
 Causes loss of adhesiveness and ductility of o Diesel Oil – 425 to 700 ˚F
asphalts  Very Heavy distillate
 Results to asphalts that are harder, less o Lubricating Oil – over 650 ˚F
ductile, and less adhesive  Residue: Asphalt Cement
 Results to creation of more asphaltenes at
Asphalt Asphalt
 Dark brown to black cementitious material  Generally solid and hard at normal
 Solid or semi-solid in consistency temperatures which needs heating in order
to be placed, handled, and distributed for o Viscosity – resistance to flow
use.  Decreases as temperature
 Can be turned into liquid at lower increase
temperature by:  Viscosity of asphalt during mixing and
o Mixing it with volatile oils spraying are of prime importance
o Emulsifying it in water Adhesion
 Modified Asphalt Cements:  Ability to stick to aggregate particles
o Cutbacks or Liquid Asphalt o Cohesion – ability to hold the
o Blown Asphalt particles firmly in place
o Emulsified Asphalt  It is important that the materials to be bound
Liquid Asphalt or Cutbacks together by these binders are clean, dry, and
 Mixed with the volatile oils or solvents free from dust
o Volatile oils or solvents will Ductility
evaporate after the completion of  Ability to stretch without breaking
construction o Measure of both adhesion and
 Purpose: to allow easy placement of the cohesion
asphalt product without the use of high  Poor ductility due to:
temperatures o Water or dust films preventing bond
 Due to inflated cost of petroleum and between binder and aggregate
environmental hazards, its use is now limited o Water penetration or other
Slow Curing (SC) contaminant liquids
 Diluted with non volatile oils or oils with very Rate of Setting
low volatility (diesel oil and lubricating oil)  Rate of hardening or curing
Medium Curing (MC)  Faster setting creates harder asphalt and
 Diluted with kerosene at boiling point range slower setting creates softer results
Rapid Curing (RC) Durability
 Diluted with gasoline or naphtha at boiling  Resistance to weathering or aging
point range  Ability to withstand detrimental effects of
Blown Asphalt moisture, air, and temperature
 Manufactured by blowing air through an Thixotropy
asphalt stock  Ability of stiff materials to be more fluid when
o Less ductile agitated or vibrated
o Less prone to temperature change
 For roofing materials, automobile USES OF ASPHALT
undercoatings, pipe coatings, crack and joint  Relatively cheap and available in large
sealers, and as undersealing asphalts to fill quantities
cavities  Durable and adhesive
Emulsified Asphalt  Highly workable at elevated temperature but
 Produced by dispersing asphalt in water resistant to deformation at normal
treated with an emulsifying agent or soap temperature
o Separating asphalt cement into  Prevents water penetration
minute globules  Prevents erosion by water and wave action
 Commonly used as patching material and on Paving Material
less-trafficked service roads  Supply the desired riding and nonskid
 Less viscous, more workable, easier to work properties to the road
with  Protect the less durable base materials from
PROPERTIES OF ASPHALT  Prevents water penetration
Consistency Waterproofing Coating
 Degree of fluidity or plasticity  Paint treatment of materials
 Seals capillaries so water and water vapor  Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete (HMAC or HMA)
are prevented from moving through the  Warm Mix Asphalt Concrete (WMA)
material  Cold Mix Asphalt Concrete
 Painted on to parts susceptible to corrode o Emulsifying in water with soap
from weather and other sources  Cut-back Asphalt Concrete
Tanking o Dissolving in lighter oils or solvents
 Describes the provision of an impervious  Mastic Asphalt Concrete
layer in the floors and walls of basements o Heating hard grade blown asphalt
 Generally consists of 3 layers up to 30 mm
for floors and 20 mm for walls PAVEMENT STRUCTURE
Flat Roof Lining
 Waterproofing and erosion-resisting
 Has to be durable, tough, capable of
following of any movements in the
supporting soil without tearing
Upstream Carpet on Rockfill Dams
 For watertight embankments
Expansion and Contraction Joints
 Adhesive and flexibility properties allows for
expansion and contraction without moisture
Roof shingles Sub-grade
 To increase weathering resistance  Foundation soil or a layer of stabilized soil
on which the road is supported
LABORATORY TESTS ON BITUMEN  Prepared or natural state
1. Bitumen Content (ASTM D2172) Sub-base
- Centrifuge Extractor  Layer of granular material
2. Ductility of Bitumen (ASTM D113)
 Purpose:
- Bitumen Ductility Apparatus
o To insulate the pavement from sub-
3. Penetration of Bitumen (ASTM D5)
grade likely to contaminate it
- Standard Penetrometer
o To provide a good clean surface for
4. Specific Gravity of Bitumen (ASTM D70)
- Pycnometer
o To increase total depth of pavement
5. Softening Point of Bitumen (ASTM D36)
- Softening Point Apparatus
 Main structural element in the pavement
6. Flash and Fire Point of Bitumen (ASTM D92)
- Flash Point and Fire Point Apparatus  To spread the concentrated loads from traffic
7. Marshall Stability of Bituminous Mixture (ASTM onto an area of the sub-grade large enough
D1559) to sustain the loads
- Marshall Stability Apparatus  Usually consists of graded aggregates
ASPHALT CONCRETE  Made out of lower quality aggregates of
 Composite material of asphalt binder and larger size with low viscosity asphalt
mineral aggregate mixed together then laid  About twice as thick as wearing course
down in layers and compacted Wearing course
 Used mostly in road construction  Most expensive and highest quality of
 Mixed in a Batch plant or Drum plant materials contained in pavement
 Also referred to as Blacktop or Tarmac  Should ideally be stiff, stable, very durable,
with good skid resistance
METHOD OF MIXING Hot-rolled asphalt concrete
 Heavy-duty dense road surfacing Chip Seal
 For city streets and heavily trafficked roads  Light spray of asphalt with rock chips or
 Machine-laid, very durable, almost screenings
completely impermeable, with few voids
 Requires good non-flexible support ASPHALT CONCRETE PLACEMENT
 May contain coarse aggregates or just Asphalt Paver
asphaltic mortar  Spreads mixture in a uniform layer of desired
thickness and shape
PAVEMENT STRUCTURE  Finishes the layer to the desired elevation and
cross section, ready for compaction

Placement by Hand
ASPHALT IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION  Must be done very carefully and distributed
Asphalt Concrete uniformly to prevent segregation
 Highways, streets, parking lots, driveways  Deposited using shovels or wheelbarrows
Penetration Treatment into small piles and spread with asphalt rakes
 Spray application of liquid asphalt on or wide-blade lutes
untreated granular roadway to form light duty
Dust Palliative Three phases:
 Light application of asphalt to bind fine Breakdown rolling
surface particles together to minimize their  Compacts the material beyond that imparted
displacement by wind or traffic by the paver to obtain practical density
Prime Coat Intermediate rolling
 Spray of low viscosity asphalt on an  Densifies and seals the surface
untreated base before pavement Finish rolling
construction  Removes roller marks and other blemishes
 Provides as transition from granular base to left from previous rolling
asphalt pavement
Tack Coat
 Light spray of asphalt on an existing paved
surface for bond between two pavement
Fog Seal
 Light spray of emulsified asphalt
 Enrich the surface of a dried-out pavement
 Seal small cracks of old pavements
Slurry Seal
 Mixture of emulsified asphalt, fine aggregate,
and mineral filler to produce slurry
 Used to fill in bigger cracks of old pavements
Sand Seal
 Light spray of asphalt with a cover of sand
 Affected by the grading and interlocking of
 Affected by the shape and texture of
aggregates (angular, round, soft)
 Depends on the amount of asphalt
Skid Resistance
 Depends on the amount of surface area or
roughness that aggregates provide
 Depends on the aggregate polishing
 Asphalt bleeding reduces skid resistance
 Asphalt must coat aggregates and fill all voids
within to avoid stripping and oxidation
 Maximizing durability compromises stability
and skid resistance
ASPHALT REPAR o Thick coating reduces aggregate
Pothole Permanent Repair: interlock
1. Untreated pothole o Thick coating results to bleeding of
2. Surface and base removed for firm support asphalt
3. Tack coat applied Flexibility
4. Full-depth asphalt mixture placed and  Depends on viscosity and temperature
compacted susceptibility of asphalt
5. Finish patch compacted to level of  Increasing amount of binder increases
surrounding pavement flexibility
ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES  Depends on aggregate grading
 Resistance to distortion or displacement UNDESIRABLE PROPERTIES
under sustained or repeated loading Stripping
especially at high temperatures  Separation of asphalt cement from aggregate
Workability due to water permeating in between
 Ability to be placed and compacted with constituents
reasonable effort and without segregation of Bleeding
coarse aggregates  Migration of asphalt cement to the surface
Skid Resistance from placing and application of wheel loads
 Resistance to skidding of vehicle tire, proper Fatigue Cracking
traction in wet or dry conditions  Cracking resulting from repeated flexure of
Durability the asphalt due to traffic loads and loss of
 Resistance to disintegration due to the ductility
detrimental effects of traffic, water, air and Thermal Cracking
temperature changes  Cracking resulting from inability of asphalt to
Flexibility acclimate to sudden drops in temperature
 Ability to bend without cracking and to
conform to variations of the underlying base MIX DESIGN OF ASPHALT
Permeability Mix Design Basics
 Porosity or perviousness of the element  Right grade of asphalt cement
 Right type of aggregate
Marshall Mix Design (Bruce Marshall)
1. Aggregate selection
2. Asphalt binder selection
3. Sample preparation (5 diff. asphalt contents)
4. Stability, density, and void analysis
5. Optimum asphalt binder content selection
(max density, max stability, % air voids)


Advantages of recycling RAP:
1. Economic savings of about 25% in materials
2. Energy saving in manufacturing and
3. Environmental savings
4. Eliminate reconstruction of utility structures
5. Reducing dead load on bridges
6. Maintaining tunnel clearance
Surface recycling, central plant recycling, in-place