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Journal of Advanced Research in Image Processing and Applications

Volume 5, Issue 1&2 - 2018, Pg. No. 10-17

Peer Reviewed Journal
Research Article

Improved Approaches and Various study on

image Steganography
Swati Bhargava1, Prachi Goyal2
Assistant Professor, CSE Dept., NIET, Alwar, Rajasthan

Steganography is the sciences that include impart secretive information in an appropriate interactive media
bearer, for eg, picture, sound, and video records. It comes beneath the assumption so as to if feature is
visible, point of assault is obvious, thus aim here is for all time to hide the extremely existence of embedded
data. Steganography has a variety of use applications. Though, like any other science it is able to use for
the ill intentions. It has been impelled to front of present security strategies by momentous improvement
in computational power, increment in wellbeing mindfulness by, e.g., individuals, groups, agency, and
government and all the way through intellectual detection. A wide range of transporter record organizations
can be utilized, yet advanced pictures are the most famous in view of their recurrence on the web. This
paper presents two new procedures where in cryptography and steganography are united to scramble the
data and notwithstanding cover the data in another medium through IP. This Report securing the picture
by encryption is finished by DES calculation utilizing the key picture. The scrambled picture can be covering
up in another picture by utilizing RSA procedures, with the goal that the mystery’s exceptionally presence
is hidden. The decoding should be possible by a similar key picture utilizing DES calculation.

Keywords: Image steganography, DES, RSA, Techniques, Modal, Application

Introduction used to decode the message that was known only by the
authorized persons. The constraint of cryptography was
In this modern era, where technology is developing at that other individual came to realize that the message had
fast pace and each day new developments are made, a concealed content in it thus the likelihood of message
security is of utmost priority. The data needs to be kept being decoded by other individual expanded. To defeat this
secure and safe so that it could be accessed only by the confinement the method of steganography was presented.
authorized personnel and any unauthorized user cannot The word steganography has a place with Greek dialect. In
have any access of that data. Data sharing is increasing Greek the steganography remains for “secured composing”.
as thousands of messages and data is being transmitted This as a matter of first importance steganography was
on internet every day from one place to another. The utilized as a part of Greece. They use to enter the message
protection of data is prime concern of the sender. The on a wooden tablet and then apply wax on it to hide the
need is that correct data should be sent but in a secret way written data. The approach of steganography was obviously
that only the receiver should be able to understand the better than cryptography as in it the information was
message. At first method of cryptography was concocted covered up in picture. The picture was then sent over web.
to send mystery messages over spots. In cryptography the It had advantage over cryptography as now the center
message was encoded in another message covered with individual does not come to know whether information is
the end goal that lone the sender and recipient knew the covered up in the picture or not. The information must be
best approach to decode it [1]. A cryptographic key was unscrambled from picture by the approved individual as he

Corresponding Author: Swati Bhargava, NIET, Alwar, Rajasthan.

E-mail Id: swati.rule@gmail.com
Orcid Id: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4077-1139
How to cite this article: Bhargava S, Goyal P. Improved Approaches and various study on image Steganography. J Adv Res Image
Proc Appl 2018; 5(1&2): 10-17.

Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Advanced Research in Image Processing and Applications
Bhargava S et al.
11 J. Adv. Res. Image Proc. Appl. 2018; 5(1&2)

most likely is aware the marvel to unravel it and had the

approved key with him that was required to decipher the
information. The security and the unwavering quality of
information transmission likewise enhanced with creation
of steganography as now no other individual could change
the sent information.

This word is taken from Greek words Steganós (enclosed),
and Graptos (script) which exactly signifies “enclosed script”
[2]. Normally it is recognized as “invisible” communication. Figure1.Basic Steganography Model
It denotes hide messages present in a different medium
Steganography System
(video, picture, sound files communication). Today’s these
schemes utilize multimedia (image, sound file, video etc.) Steganography is the specialty of concealing the data in
as enclose media because people over and over again some other host question. It has been utilized since old
broadcast digital pictures over message or distribute them time by the general population. In old time, mystery data is
through other communication application. It is different covered up in the back of the wax, the scalp of the slaves,
from protecting the real substance of a message. In in rabbits, and so on. With section of time, the use of
simple words it would be like that, conceal data into other steganography and its zone has moved toward becoming
information. broadened. With the presentation digitization period,
computerized steganography has developed as the new
Means of Steganography is not to modify the arrangement
device to conceal the data subtly. Content, computerized
of covert message, but conceal it within a cover-object.
picture, advanced sound and advanced video have turned
Later then hiding procedure stego-object (moving
into the host question for information covering up. The
concealed information) and cover object are comparable.
following is a portion of the normal term which is important
So, cryptography (shielding information) and steganography
to see any steganography framework [4].
(concealing information) are completely different to each
other. Because of concealed factor it is hard to improve Cover Media: It is the medium in which secret information
information with no identified process in steganography. is embedded in such a way that it is difficult to detect the
Detecting procedure of steganography known as presence of data
Stego- Media: It is medium acquired in the wake of inserting
It is the method of thrashing covert information in any the mystery data.
media. It is often baffled with cryptography for the reason
that two are comparable in the manner that they together Secret data: The information or data to be covered up in
are utilized to defend secret information. The dissimilarity cover media.
between the two is in the form in the executed output;
the outcome of steganography procedure is not actually Steganalysis: The process of detecting, presence of secret
visible other than in cryptography the outcome is scrambled data in cover media.
in order that it may represent attention. Steganlysis is
procedure to detect of presence of steganography. Many
steganography schemes use pictures a stego-medium.

Steganography Model
By and large a steganographic framework has a scope
document that is utilized to cover the first message and
the steganography calculation to complete the required
protest as appeared in Fig. 1. The outcome is a document
called stego-record which has the message inside it, covered
up. This stego record is then sent to the recipient where Figure 2.Steganography Process
the collector recovers the message by applying the de- Steganography in Digital Mediums
steganography. The objective of present day steganography
is to keep the message imperceptible [3]. Based on the sort of cover object there are numerous
appropriate steganographic schemes that are pursued so
as to achieve protection.
Bhargava S et al.
J. Adv. Res. Image Proc. Appl. 2018; 5(1&2) 12

Image Steganography • Stego-Key: key is utilized for extracting or embedding

the message from cover and stego image.
In steganography taking the cover protest as picture is
perceived as picture steganography. Generally, in this
system pixel intensity is utilized to conceal the information.

Network Steganography

Once getting cover object like network protocol, for instance

IP, ICMP, UDP, TCP, etc., where protocols are utilized as
transporter, is recognized as network steganography. In the
OSI model secret channels are present where steganography
may be obtained in idle header bits of TCP/IP model [5].
Figure 4.Image Steganography
Video Steganography
Usually image steganography is technique of concealing
It is a process to cover up any type of information into digital information into cover-image and produces a stego-
video form. Video is utilized as transporter for concealed image. This stego-image forwarded to the other party by
information. Traditionally DCT regulate values (8.667 to well-known medium, where the intermediary does not
9) that are utilized to conceal the information in every know that stego-image has concealed message. Hidden
image within video that is not visible through eye. This message can basically take out with or without stego-key
steganography uses AVI, MPEG, Mp4, H.264, or other (based on embedding algorithm) through the receivers.
video formats. Essential chart of picture steganography is represented
in Figure without stego-key, where inserting calculation
Audio Steganography required cover picture with message for installing process.
Stego-picture is the result of inserting calculation which
Once getting audio as a transporter for concealing fundamentally sends to removing calculation, where this
information it is named audio steganography. It has turn calculation unhidden messages from stego-pictures.
into extremely essential medium owing to voice over IP
(VOIP). It uses audio formats for example MPEG, WAVE, Image Steganography Classifications
AVI or MIDI etc.
Usually this steganography is classified in following [7].
Text Steganography
• High Capacity: Maximum size of information can be
Universal scheme in this steganography, for instance capital inserted into image.
letters, numeral tabs, white spaces, as Morse code [6] etc. • Perceptual Transparency: Later than concealing
are utilized to get concealed information. procedure into cover image, this feature will be tainted
into stego-image as contrast to cover-image.
• Robustness: Once embedding, data must reside
unharmed if stego-image departs into an amount of
transformations for example filtering, scaling, cropping
and accumulation of noise.
• Tamper Resistance: It must be hard to change the
message formerly it has been embedded into stego-
• Computation Complexity: How much exclusive it is
Figure 3.Digital Medium to achieve Steganography calculation for extracting and embedding a concealed
Image Steganography Terminologies message?

These are as follows: Cryptography

• Cover-Image: Actual picture which is utilized as Cryptography comes as of a Greek word which means
transporter for concealed information. concealed or secret script for secure communication in
• Message: real information that is utilized to conceal attendance of 3rd parties or the Un-authorized persons.
into pictures. Message can be a simple text or some Cryptography actually hides the information from
other image. illegal sources. Earlier forms of secret writing are classic
• Stego-Image: later than embedding messages into cryptography, cipher texts. Cipher machine was also
cover images is identified as stego-image. introduced by French but with the development of latest
Bhargava S et al.
13 J. Adv. Res. Image Proc. Appl. 2018; 5(1&2)

computers much more complex ciphers were developed and pixels. It suggests some pixel estimations of the photo
they encrypt data of any kind, whether it’s binary format, are changed direct in the midst of hiding data. SD
plaintext or the hexadecimal data. Modern cryptography is frameworks are requested into following groupings:
mixture of arithmetical theory and CS. In the present period,
innovation has gone into new universe of progressions • Least significant bit (LSB)
and with this change current uses of cryptography were • Pixel value differencing (PVD)
additionally presented; these are ATM cards, PC passwords, • Edges based data embedding method (EBE)
and the electronic trade. • Random pixel embedding method (RPE)
• Mapping pixel to have hidden data method
Cryptography is the craft of accomplishing security by • Labeling or connectivity method
encoding messages to make them non-discernable. • VII. Pixel intensity based
Cryptography is a craft of transmitting the information
securely finished the Internet by applying some I. LSB: this methodology is most typically used for hiding
cryptographic calculations with the goal that it will be data. The image received after embedding is almost
troublesome for an aggressor to assault or take some the same as the original image because the change
classified or private data. in the LSB of image pixel does not bring too many
differences in the image.
Two fundamental terms used as a piece of cryptography II. BPCP: In this part of the image are used by measuring
are encryption and unscrambling; encryption is the route its complex difficulty. Complex difficulty is used to
toward changing over plain substance into figure content decide the noisy block.
and decoding is the invert procedure of encryption. III. PVD: In this method, two consecutive pixels are selected
Plain content is the content having the real message or for embedding the data. The payload is chosen by
information which isn’t scrambled and figure content is checking distinction between two pixels and it fills
the content after encryption of message or information in as a reason for recognizing whether the two pixels
which is prepared to be shared [8]. A key is required for have a place with an edge zone or smooth zone.
both encryption and unscrambling of the message.
2. Spread Spectrum Technique: Spread spectrum idea is
utilized as a part of this strategy. In this procedure the
private information is spread over a wide recurrence
data transmission. The ratio of signal to noise in every
frequency band must be so small that it’s become
difficult to find out the present of data. Regardless of
whether parts of the information are separate from
a few groups, there would be sufficiently still data is
accessible in different groups to recuperate the data.
Consequently, it is difficult to clear the data absolutely
without obliterating the cover. It is a to a great degree
effective strategy generally used as a piece of military
Figure 5.Basic Model of Cryptography 3. Statistical Technique: In this approach information
Applications is embedded through changing various cover image
properties. It finishes up the cover picture part into
Few applications of the steganography are [9]: squares and after that inserting one message bit in
each piece. The cover block is modified only when the
• Defense Organizations: Security from enemies
size of message bit is one, otherwise no modification
• Intelligence Agencies: Security of person’s private data.
is required.
• Government Agencies: Store basic information like
4. Transform Domain Technique: Different algorithms
criminal record
and transformations are used on image to secrete
• Smart Identity Cards: Individual data is implanted
information in it.
into photograph
5. Distortion approach: In this approach secret information
• Medical: Patient’s points of interest are installed inside
is stored through signal distorting. A modification
sequence is using to cover through encoder. The
Steganography Technique decoder ascertains changes between the first cover
and mutilated cover to distinguish the succession of the
1. Spatial Domain (SD) Methods In this approach the alterations and thus recuperate the mystery message.
puzzle data are embedded clearly in the energy of 6. Masking and Filtering: These systems shroud the
Bhargava S et al.
J. Adv. Res. Image Proc. Appl. 2018; 5(1&2) 14

message by denoting a picture. Steganography just proposed. Basically, movement based MOT calculation be
conceals the message whereas watermarks turn executed lying on have recordings to separate the districts
into an elixir of the picture. These techniques fix the of consideration in moving articles. After that, the process
information in the more significant areas rather than of data hiding is being performed by concealing top secret
hiding it into the noise level. Watermarking method message into DWT and DCT coefficients of each and every
can use without the image destruction fear because motion regions in video depending on center masks. Our
of lossy compression as they are additional integrate experimental outcome exemplify that suggested algo not
into image. This approach is fundamentally utilized only improves capacity of embedding and imperceptibility
for 24-bit and dim scale pictures [10]. although it also enhances its safety and robustness by
encoding the secret message and withstanding against
literature survey various attacks.
Rupesh Gupta and Tanu Preet Singh [11] So influencing this Alavi Kunhu et.al [14] In this paper, we recommend a new
thing to clear at the top of the priority list designers are blind color video watermarking way for copyright safety of
persistently attempting to make web a sheltered domain multimedia color films through the use of index mapping
for every one of the clients. Various calculation or methods concept. The inventiveness in obtainable approach consists
are proposed and they work however as interlopers are the in crafty a hybrid DWT and DCT also recognized as DCT
stage cleverly to hack the data designers are excessively based distortion caused all the way through watermarking
assumed, making it impossible to find new techniques to be assess by way of PSNR along with SSIM what’s more,
stop hacker’s intentions. As per basic knowledge extra is power inside enmity to various sorts of assaults have
PSNR value and smaller is MSE results are improved so, been evaluated utilizing Stir Mark. The proposed video
here in this thesis we are proposing a new technique by watermarking algo provide improved imperceptibility
combing 3 major safety techniques so as to is cryptography, within harmony by way of human visual system and offers
steganography and watermarking so as to will not only advanced toughness in opposition to signal processing
conceal the information but create better outcome for MSE. attacks.
PSNR and the Embedding ability still following sound attack.
The purpose this paper is to provide a new technique that Ch.Sathi Raju et.al [15] Compression is serious trouble in
will provide better security for hiding data in an image and applications of capsule endoscopy. In this paper hybrid
watermarked video. DCT compression method and DWT compression method
is being employed to capitalize advantages of together
Souvik Roy and P.Venkateswaran [12] presents about a rapid techniques. The approach entails in generating shade
increase in E-Commerce marketplace is seen in new time statistics of the white band and slender band pictures in an
all the way through world. With everlastingly expanding intermediate layout and then generating the decompressed
ubiquity of the web based shopping, Debit or the Credit image.
card extortion and the individual data wellbeing are primary
worries for clients, and banks particularly if there should N.V.Lalitha et.al [16] steganography is method of embedding
be an occurrence of CNP known to be (Card Not Present). information into signal in a technique that is complex to
This presents a novel approach for provided that limited remove. Here, a dynamic capacity of audio watermarking
information merely that is necessary for fund remove system is used to establish data and take away them via
throughout online shopping in that way safeguarding singular value decomposition also known as (SVD). With
client information and the expanding client certainty help of SVD based algor and by income of lifting wavelet
and counteract singularity burglary. The way uses joint transform recognized as (LWT), DCT and DWT. It is observed
application of steganography and the visual cryptography so as to by growing the quantization levels SNR value
for this reason. decreases exponentially which leads to deformation in
the original signal. It is moreover observed with the aim
Ramadhan J. Mstafa et. al [13] In the course of recent of robustness is also greater than before by applying
decades, the workmanship of subtly inserting and conveying dissimilar malicious attacks like resampling, echo addition,
computerized information has increased huge consideration cropping, additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), and signal
as a result of the mechanical improvement in both digital subtraction to enclosed signal with the aim of doesn’t
contents and communication. The imperceptibility, perturb novel signal and mine image.
hiding capacity, and toughness next to attacks are 3 main
necessities that some video steganography way should Ammad Ul Isla et al. [17] in this paper the fast improvement
get into thought. In this, a tough and protected video of information correspondence in present day period
steganographic algo inside the DWT and DCT domain names requests secure trade of data. Steganography is recognized
is to be based on Multiple Object Tracking known as MOT way intended for hiding information as of unauthorized
algo and Error Correcting Codes this is called (ECC) is being access. Invisibility, capacity of payload, and PSNR security
Bhargava S et al.
15 J. Adv. Res. Image Proc. Appl. 2018; 5(1&2)

and toughness are key challenges to steganography. In this, In Ifra Bilal, et.al [24] a review on most recent sound
an original image stegnography way based on majority steganographic method is completed alongside their quality
significant bits (MSB) of pixels is proposed. Bit No. 5 is and shortcoming. Additionally, correlation between various
used to store the secret bits based on the difference of steganographic methods in view of heartiness is completed.
bit No. 5 and 6 of cover image. If the difference of bit No. Another commitment of this paper is assessment of
Five and 6 is dissimilar from mystery facts bit then the fee execution of different evaluated steganography procedures.
of bit no. Five is modified. The consequences state that
the proposed technique ensures sizable enhancements in Propose Methodology
sign to noise ratio. Usually, hackers focus on the LSB bits
for top secret data mining but proposed method utilizes DES-RSA hybrid cryptography is used alongside LSB
MSB bits that create it more protected from illegal access. photograph steganography. The proposed scheme is
Furthermore, the offered approach is not simplest relaxed, implemented in MATLAB platform the use of preferred
however computationally green as properly. cryptography and steganography set of regulations. Select
a genuine photograph. Apply canny aspect detection on
Vidhya P.M, et.al [18] encoded in Malayalam content with unique photo. Encrypt and cover textual content rub down
custom UNICODE esteems created for the Malayalam using RSA and DES. Open encrypted massage. Decrypt
content. The near proposed system thinks about against a textual content using RSA & DES. Calculate PSNR and
current approach uncovered that, proposed steganography MSE. Figure 6 Show the working of proposed statistics
strategies are more exact in the encoding procedure and protection scheme.
in the decoding process. The method achieved a precision
rate of .95 and the decoding rate of .81.

Milia Habib et.al [19] DCT steganography technique is

proposed. It is allowing concealing a mystery picture in
another picture arbitrarily utilizing Chaos. The riotous
generator Peace Wise Linear Chaotic Map PWLCM with
bother was chosen; it has great tumultuous properties
and essentially execution. It improves the LSB-DCT strategy
with edge.

Yugeshwari Kakde et.al [20] Working on audio video

steganography, which is combination of Image and Audio
steganography, in this the author is applying computer
Figure 6.Flowchart on Propose Methodology
forensics approach for authentication reason. In this
paper fundamental concentration is to shroud mystery Table 1.Comparison of steganography technique [25]
information behind sound and picture of a video document.
As we know that video is the combination of many still Image Description Advantage
frames of images and audio. Steganography
Kamaldeep Joshi, et.al [21] Steganography and cryptography Extension Compression Robust and
are utilized to the shroud messages and its importance of LSB(Least algorithm is used efficient for
separately. Message (encoded) is inserted inside a picture significant bit) to maximize hiding text and
applying new picture steganography approach i.e. LSB with storage capacity works efficiently
Shifting (LSB-S). for .bmp images.
Sayantari Ghosh, et.al [22] a Hilbert curve based technique Hash-LSB Uses a hash Hash-LSB with
to embed information in an image using the neuro function to RSA increases
psychological behavior of the human vision system which generate a the security of
is robust to different attacks like cropping, scratching, pattern for hiding secret message
additive noise etc. data bits in LSB.
LSB and Comparative Peak signal to
Avinash Tyagi et.al [23] The proposed calculation conceals DCT(Discrete Analysis of two noise ratio is
mystery data in cover picture by controlling the distinction Cosine techniques based improved using
or entirety of the non-covering squares of two back to Transform) on security, PSNR LSB but security
back pixels. This approach is an enhancement over Wu wise DCT is best
and Tsai’s PVD technique that is totally based on pixel
value differencing
Bhargava S et al.
J. Adv. Res. Image Proc. Appl. 2018; 5(1&2) 16

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