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International Journal of Trend in Scientific

Research and Development (IJTSRD)

International Open Access Journal
ISSN No: 2456 - 6470 | | Volume - 1 | Issue – 6

Modeling of Biodiesel Fuelled Direct

Injection CI Engine using CFD

Maulesh H Parikh Mori Nirav B

Dept. of Mechanical Engg., Parul Institute of Engg. Dept. of Mechanical Engg., Parul Institute of Engg.
and Tech., Vadodara, Gujarat, India and Tech., Vadodara, Gujarat, India


In present years, biodiesel is used as a fuel in internal replace petroleum diesel and be easily used in diesel
combustion engine. This study deals with the engine without the requirement of any major
combustion modeling of CI engine fuelled with modifications, reducing the country’s dependence on
Karanja oil as biodiesel. Combustion characteristics imported oil.
like heat release rate, cylinder pressure and rate of
Biodiesel produced from either vegetable oil or
pressure rise have been analyzed. CFD code Fluent is
animal fats consists of long chain mono-alkyl
mono esters
used to model complex combustion phenomenon in
derived through transesterification process.
compression ignition engine. The sub-model
model like kk-e
model, Taylor Analogy breakup model and droplet The theoretical models are used in the case of internal
collision model
del are used. For modeling of in
in-cylinder combustion engines can be classified into
i two main
combustion, finite rate chemistry and species groups: fluid dynamic models and thermodynamic
transport models are used with simplified chemistry models. These models are again classified into two
reactions. The modeling results were compared with group’s namely multi-zone
zone models and single-zone
the experimental results. The simulated combustion models. Multi-zone
zone models are also called
results are found
und satisfactory with the experimental computational fluid dynamics models.
results. The major objective of this paper is to study
how combustion phenomenon occurred in engine Interdisciplinary and diverse due to powerful
cylinder with the help of CFD and also to understand modeling tool like CFD. Computational fluid
the effect of biodiesel on CI engine combustion. dynamics (CFD) is the analysis of systems involving
heat transfer, fluid flow and associated phenomena
Keywords: Combustion
stion characteristics, Biodiesel, like chemical reactions with the help of computer
CFD modelling, simulation based simulation. It constitutes
constitut a new approach in
research study and development of whole discipline
I. INTRODUCTION of fluid dynamics. Computational Fluid dynamics
Due to rising petroleum prices, exhaust emission and plays a strong role as a design as well as research tool.
global warming have generated an intense interest in The Computational Fluid dynamics code FLUENT is
developing alternative fuel for petroleum oil. In used to model complex combustion
combusti phenomenon in
present years, biodiesel is used as a promising compression ignition engine. The sub models such as
alternative to conventional diesel due to its desira
desirable Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model and droplet
attributes such as renewable, biodegradable, , collision model are used for spray modeling. The
sustainable and carbon neutral. Biodiesel can directly wall-film
film model is used to analysis of spray wall
interaction. Modeling in-cylinder
cylinder combustion,
combust finite

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 1 | Issue – 6 | Sep - Oct 2017 Page: 391
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
rate chemistry and species transport model is used exhaust valve positions.
ons. Hence a 3D model of the
with simplified chemistry reactions. combustion chamber he has been developed for the
Kirloskar TV1 engine.
H. Sushma (2013) studied about the effect of different
There is various types of raw material like pongamia piston configurations on in-cylinder
cylinder flow. Four stroke
pinnata (karanja), jatropha curcus L, moha, undi, single cylinder direct injection diesel engine is used
castor, cotton seed, saemuruba etc. c. Non edible oil for study. For obtaining swirl intensity helical-spiral
seeds as well as various vegetable oils including palm combination inlet manifold is used. Increase in swirl
oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil and canola intensity results in better mixing of fuel and air. Swirl
oil have been used to produce biodiesel fuel and velocities in the charge can be substantially increased
lubricants. In this investigation, karanja oil is used as during compression by suitable
uitable design of the piston.
raw material for producing
oducing a biodiesel. Many She studied about the effect of different piston
researchers studied about the biodiesel and its blends. configuration on air motion and turbulence inside the
cylinder of a direct injection diesel engine. It is
Anand Kumar Pandey et al (2011) investigated the
carried out using Computational Fluid Dynamics code
effect of karanja oil biodiesel on performance, engine
Fluent 13. Three dimensional
mensional models of the pistons,
wear and emission of a military 160hp turbocharged
cylinder, and the manifolds is created in CATIA V5
CIDI engine. Avinashh Kumar Agarwal et al (2013)
and meshed using the pre-processor
processor Hypermesh 10.0.
studied about the performance and emissions of
karanja oil and its blends in four stroke single cylinder
agricultural diesel engine. The physical properties of
fuel found are as follows.


Fig. 2: CFD
FD Model of IC Engine Piston at
Experiment is carried out on direct injection CI engine
Fig. 1: Meshed Combustion Chamber
by using biodiesel as a fuel. Biodiesel and its blends
Computational fluid dynamics becomes the powerful are considered most promising and suitable fuel for
tool for analyzing the fluid flow, heat transfer, etc of diesel engine. The properties of biodiesel are found
the system. We can easily create the model of any nearly similar to that of diesel. Many researchers
r have
system and can analyze it using different function of experimentally evaluated the performance
CFD. We can visualize many things wi with the help of characteristics of conventional diesel engines fuelled
computer based simulation CFD. by biodiesel and its blends. The engine is coupled to a
DC dynamometer and all the experiments were
Jacob George et al (2013) studied about STARCD carried out at a constant speed of 1400 rpm. Crank-
software to simulate diesel combustion. The geometry angle-resolved in-cylinder
cylinder pressure and the diesel
has been modelled led and meshed in pre pre-processor injection pressure were measured. A computer
GAMBIT. The combustion chamber is a bowl in interfaced piezoelectric sensor, of range 145 bar was
piston type, which iss having a hemispherical groove at used to note the in cylinder pressure. Using a digital
the piston top surface. The geometry has been data acquisition system, pressure signals were we
modelled at 180° crank position (BDC position). In obtained at one-degree
degree crank angle intervals. The
order to obtain realistic simulations, computation average pressure data from 100 consecutive cycles are
must include true combustion geometry with inlet and used for calculating combustion parameters.

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 1 | Issue – 6 | Sep - Oct 2017 Page: 392
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
Combustion parameters are obtained by using special Fig. 3: Cumulative heat release vs. crank angle
software. The special software stores the data of diagram for 0% rated load
umes and pressures corresponding to a particular
crank angle location for plotting the P P-θ and P-V
curves. The Software also provides the facility of
analyzing the combustion data such as the peak
pressures, Rate of Heat-Release Release and stores it
separately forr analysis in the computer system.

A. Combustion Analysis:

Jacob George et al (2012) carried out performance,

combustion and emission tests on a four stroke, single
cylinder, naturally aspirated, water cooled Kirloskar
diesel engine having a power capacity of 3.5 kW at
different injection timing. It is connected to an eddy Fig. 4: Cumulative heat release vs. crank angle
current dynamometer for loading. Temperature and diagram for 100% rated load
pressure sensors are installed at the necessary
locations in the test setup. The temperature sensors Venkata Ramesh Mamilla et al (2012) carried out the
measure temperatures at inlet & outlet of water jacket; experimental investigation on direct injection
calorimeter water and calorimeter exhaust gas. It is compression ignition engine fuelled with blends of
also provided with pressure sensors to measure karanja methyl esters with diesel. They observed the
combustion pressure inside cylinder and also to following combustion characteristics at various load
measure the fuel line pressure during injection. condition shown in fig.
Mohamed F. Al-DawodyDawody and S. K. Bhatti (2013)
carried out theoretical analysis on a naturally
aspirated, water-cooled, four stroke, single cylinder,
direct injection diesel engine fuelled with Soybean
methyl ester at different compression ratio. They
observed different combustion and performance
characteristics at different compression ratio. Avinash
Kumar Agarwal et al carried
arried out the experiment on
performance, emission and combustion characteristics
of biodiesel fuelled diesel engine. Karanja oil and
mineral diesel blends were evaluated in a four stroke,
single cylinder compression ignition engine operated
at constant speed
eed of 1500 rpm. Heat release rates for Fig. 5: pressure rise at no load
different blends of karanja oil with mineral diesel at
different load are shown in Fig
The overall analysis has shown that biodiesel has
potential as an alternative fuel and can be used in
conventional internal combustion
combusti engines. The
properties of biodiesel are found similar to that of
diesel. It can be seen that computational fluid
dynamics plays a strong role as a design as well as
research tool in combustion analysis of internal
combustion engine. The CFD code FLUENT has been
used to simulate the combustion characteristics of
direct injection diesel engine. CFD fluent is the
powerful software for analyzing fluid flow, heat
transfer and combustion phenomenon of the system.
The model consisting of sub models includes droplet

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 1 | Issue – 6 | Sep - Oct 2017 Page: 393
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
collision, spray, wall film and combustion model with
species transport and finite rate chemistry. It becomes
easy to model and analyze combustion phenomenon
of CI engine with the help of CFD. The CFD
modeling can be the reliable tool for modeling
combustion of internal combustion engine.

[1] Anand Kumar Pandey and M R Nandgaonkar,
“Experimental Investigation of the Effect of
Esterified Karanja Oil Biodiesel on Performance,
Emission and Engine Wear of a Military 160hp
Turbocharged CIDI Engine”, Proceedings of
the World Congress on Engineering 2011 Volume
III, WCE 2011, July 6 - 8, 2011, London, U.K.
[2] Avinash Kumar Agarwal, “Experimental
investigations of performance, emission and
combustion characteristics of Karanja oil blends
fuelled DICI engine”, Elsevier, Renewable Energy
52 (2013) pp.283-291.
[3] B. Rajendra Prasath, P. Tamil Porai, Mohd. F.
Shabir, “Two-zone modeling of diesel / biodiesel
blended fuel operated ceramic coated direct
injection diesel engine”, International Journal Of
Energy And Environment, Volume 1, Issue 6,
2010 ppe1039-1056.
[4] H.Sushma, “CFD modelling of the in-cylinder
flow in direct injection CI engine”, International
Journal of Scientific and Research Publications,
ISSN 2250-3153, Volume 3, Issue 12, December
[5] Jacob George et , “Experimental Investigation
And Modelling Of A Four Stroke Single Cylinder
Di Diesel Engine Under Various Injection
Timings”, International Journal Of Engineering
Science And Technology (IJEST), Vol. 4 No.08
August 2012.
[6] Laukik P. Raut, “ Computer Simulation of CI
Engine for Diesel and Biodiesel Blends”,
International Journal of Innovative Technology
and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) ISSN: 2278-
3075, Volume-3, Issue-2, July 2013.
[7] Mohamed F. Al-Dawody and S. K. Bhatti,
“Theoretical modeling of combustion
characteristics and performance parameters of
biodiesel in DI diesel engine with variable
compression ratio” International Journal Of
Energy And Environment, Volume 4, Issue 2, 201

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