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# Introdução

à  Gravitação

Francisco  A.  Brito
UFCG

II  Escola  de  Teoria  Quân>ca  de  Campos  e

Gravitação  do  Nordeste
Fortaleza,  20  a  23  de  agosto  de  2013
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Teoria  de  campos  em  3+1  dimensões  no  espaço-­‐tempo  plano
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

## Modiﬁcação  no  elemento  de  volume  !

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Teoria  de  campos  em  3+1  dimensões  no  espaço-­‐tempo  curvo
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Lagrangeana  “efe<va”

## Novo  campo  (tensorial  de  ordem  2)

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Lagrangeana  efe<va  e  Equações  de  Movimento
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
i)  Equação  de  movimento  para  o  campo  escalar
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

## ii)  Equações  de  movimento  para  o  campo  tensorial

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Lagrangeana  efe<va  e  Equações  de  Movimento
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
i)  Equação  de  movimento  para  o  campo  escalar
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

## D’Alember<ano  (em  espaço-­‐tempo  curvo)  ou  Laplace-­‐

Beltrami  no  caso  está<co  (sem  dependência  temporal)
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Lagrangeana  efe<va  e  Equações  de  Movimento
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
ii)  Equações  de  movimento  para  o  campo  tensorial
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

## ii)  Equações  de  movimento  para  o  campo  tensorial

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Lagrangeana  efe<va  e  Equações  de  Movimento
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

## ii)  Equações  de  movimento  para  o  campo  tensorial

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

## Use  esta  propriedade  de  diferencial  de  matrizes

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Lagrangeana  efe<va  e  Equações  de  Movimento
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## ii)  Equações  de  movimento  para  butoThe

ofccourse
ampo   tensorial
we want it to be completely tensorial.
left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇ ∇ on the metric g , but this is
µ
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh
µν
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Lagrangeana  efe<va  e  Equações  de  Movimento
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

## Isto  implica  em  forte  vínculo  sobre  o  tensor  de  energia-­‐momento  !

Ou  seja,  isto  implica  na  necessidade  de  “nova  Vsica”  similar  ao  caso
da  lei  de  Ampère-­‐Maxwell  !
(Gauss)

(Ampère-­‐Maxwell)
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Lagrangeana  efe<va  e  Equações  de  Movimento
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

## Isto  implica  em  forte  vínculo  sobre  o  tensor  de  energia-­‐momento  !

Isto  implica  na  necessidade  de  “nova  Vsica”  similar  ao  caso  da  lei
de  Ampère-­‐Maxwell  !
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
Gravitação  como  “nova  Vsica”:  dinâmica  do  tensor  métrico
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

## Isto  coincide  com  a  gravidade  de  Einstein  numa  aproximação  linear  !

Isto  também  lembra  o  caso  do  campo  escalar:
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
Gravitação  como  “nova  Vsica”:  dinâmica  do  tensor  métrico
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Para  soluções  está<cas  no  espaço  de  Minkowski  (+  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐)  obtemos  a
lei  de  Newton!

## Equação  de  Poisson  (equação  diferencial  linear  !)

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
Gravitação  como  “nova  Vsica”:  dinâmica  do  tensor  métrico
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

## Vamos  considerar  a  densidade  de  energia  de  uma  distribuição  esférica

de  matéria,  por  exemplo  !

## Mínima  escolha  não  trivial  (Minkowski)

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

## Gravitação  como  “nova  Vsica”:  dinâmica  do  tensor  métrico

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

energia  de  uma  distribuição  esférica  de  matéria  é  dada  por

## Como   mínima   escolha   não   trivial,   este   elemento   de   linha   descreve

uma   deformação   do   espaço   de   Minkowski,   ou   seja,   leva   ao   um
espaço-­‐tempo  curvo  de  fato
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Gravitação  como  “nova  Vsica”:  dinâmica  do  tensor  métrico
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

## Vamos  comparar  a  equação  de  Poisson  linear  com  a  nossa

EDP  linear  !

EDP  não-­‐linear  !
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Gravitação  como  “nova  Vsica”:  dinâmica  do  tensor  métrico
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

## Notamos  que  é  preciso  tomar  o  limite  linear  !

Limite  linear
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
Vamos  considerar  a  densidade  de  energia  de  uma  distribuição
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

## esférica  de  matéria

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
Potencial  newtoniano                        !   zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
Vamos  considerar  a  densidade  de  energia  de  uma  distribuição
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

## esférica  de  matéria,  através  do  novo  Ansatz  abaixo:

Limite  linear
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
Potencial  newtoniano                        !   zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

## Métrica  de  buracos  negros  !

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

## but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
Como  veremos,  buracos  negros  neste  regime  linear  são  idên<cos  a
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

## Regime  linear  também  é  o  regime  que  jus<ﬁca  a

existências  de  buracos  negros  acús-cos
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

2
,00 00

## gravitação  está  incompleta,  pois  faltam

buttofermos   de  itatouto-­‐interação.
course we want be completely tensorial.
The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
Pelo   principio   da   equivalência   (equivalência   entre   massa   inercial   e
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

## gravitacional)   a   força   gravitacional,   diferentemente   da   força

eletromagné<ca,  interage  com  ela  mesma  !
Do   ponto   de   vista   de   teoria   quân<ca   de   campos   isto   signiﬁca   que
teremos   os   seguintes   gráﬁcos   de   Feynman   (apesar   da   gravitação
quân<ca  ainda  não  ser  completamente  estabelecida):

Auto-­‐interação
Fim  da  Parte  I
•  Referências  principais:
•  Sean  M.  Carroll,  arXiv:gr-­‐qc  971201
•  F.A.  Brito,  “Notas  de  aula”,  UFCG/2012