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à
Gravitação

Francisco
A.
Brito

UFCG

II
Escola
de
Teoria
Quân>ca
de
Campos
e

Gravitação
do
Nordeste

Fortaleza,
20
a
23
de
agosto
de
2013

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

Teoria
de
campos
em
3+1
dimensões
no
espaço-‐tempo
plano

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

Teoria de campos em 3+1 dimensões no espaço-‐tempo curvo

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Lagrangeana “efe<va”

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

Lagrangeana efe<va e Equações de Movimento

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

i) Equação de movimento para o campo escalar

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

Lagrangeana efe<va e Equações de Movimento

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

i) Equação de movimento para o campo escalar

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Beltrami no caso está<co (sem dependência temporal)

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

Lagrangeana efe<va e Equações de Movimento

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

ii) Equações de movimento para o campo tensorial

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

Lagrangeana efe<va e Equações de Movimento

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

Lagrangeana efe<va e Equações de Movimento

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

ofccourse

ampo tensorial

we want it to be completely tensorial.

left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

(detalhada) µ

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇ ∇ on the metric g , but this is

µ

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

µν

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

Lagrangeana efe<va e Equações de Movimento

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Ou
seja,
isto
implica
na
necessidade
de
“nova
Vsica”
similar
ao
caso

da
lei
de
Ampère-‐Maxwell
!

(Gauss)

(Ampère-‐Maxwell)

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

Lagrangeana
efe<va
e
Equações
de
Movimento

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Isto
implica
na
necessidade
de
“nova
Vsica”
similar
ao
caso
da
lei

de
Ampère-‐Maxwell
!

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

Gravitação
como
“nova
Vsica”:
dinâmica
do
tensor
métrico

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Isto também lembra o caso do campo escalar:

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

Gravitação como “nova Vsica”: dinâmica do tensor métrico

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Para
soluções
está<cas
no
espaço
de
Minkowski
(+
-‐
-‐
-‐)
obtemos
a

lei
de
Newton!

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

Gravitação como “nova Vsica”: dinâmica do tensor métrico

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

de matéria, por exemplo !

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

energia de uma distribuição esférica de matéria é dada por

uma deformação do espaço de Minkowski, ou seja, leva ao um

espaço-‐tempo curvo de fato

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

Gravitação como “nova Vsica”: dinâmica do tensor métrico

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

EDP linear !

EDP
não-‐linear
!

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

Gravitação
como
“nova
Vsica”:
dinâmica
do
tensor
métrico

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Limite
linear

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

Vamos considerar a densidade de energia de uma distribuição

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

Potencial newtoniano ! zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

Vamos considerar a densidade de energia de uma distribuição

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Limite
linear

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

Potencial newtoniano ! zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

Como veremos, buracos negros neste regime linear são idên<cos a

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

existências de buracos negros acús-cos

right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat

the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat

density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou

will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der

metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =

in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

2

,00 00

buttofermos de itatouto-‐interação.

course we want be completely tensorial.

The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is

Pelo principio da equivalência (equivalência entre massa inercial e

zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

eletromagné<ca, interage com ela mesma !

Do ponto de vista de teoria quân<ca de campos isto signiﬁca que

teremos os seguintes gráﬁcos de Feynman (apesar da gravitação

quân<ca ainda não ser completamente estabelecida):

Auto-‐interação

Fim
da
Parte
I

• Referências
principais:

• Sean
M.
Carroll,
arXiv:gr-‐qc
971201

• F.A.
Brito,
“Notas
de
aula”,
UFCG/2012

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