You are on page 1of 23

Introdução

 à  Gravitação  
 
Francisco  A.  Brito  
UFCG  
 
II  Escola  de  Teoria  Quân>ca  de  Campos  e  
 
Gravitação  do  Nordeste  
Fortaleza,  20  a  23  de  agosto  de  2013  
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Teoria  de  campos  em  3+1  dimensões  no  espaço-­‐tempo  plano  
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Rela<vidade  especial  em  3+1  dimensões  

Transformação  geral  de  coordenadas  e  transformação  de  Lorentz  local  

Modificação  no  elemento  de  volume  !  


right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Teoria  de  campos  em  3+1  dimensões  no  espaço-­‐tempo  curvo  
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Lagrangeana  “efe<va”  

Novo  campo  (tensorial  de  ordem  2)    


right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Lagrangeana  efe<va  e  Equações  de  Movimento    
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
i)  Equação  de  movimento  para  o  campo  escalar  
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

ii)  Equações  de  movimento  para  o  campo  tensorial    


right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Lagrangeana  efe<va  e  Equações  de  Movimento    
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
i)  Equação  de  movimento  para  o  campo  escalar  
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

i)  Equação  de  movimento  para  o  campo  escalar    

D’Alember<ano  (em  espaço-­‐tempo  curvo)  ou  Laplace-­‐


Beltrami  no  caso  está<co  (sem  dependência  temporal)  
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Lagrangeana  efe<va  e  Equações  de  Movimento    
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
ii)  Equações  de  movimento  para  o  campo  tensorial  
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

ii)  Equações  de  movimento  para  o  campo  tensorial  


right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Lagrangeana  efe<va  e  Equações  de  Movimento    
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T

ii)  Equações  de  movimento  para  o  campo  tensorial  


might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

ii)  Equações  de  movimento  para  o  campo  tensorial  

Use  esta  propriedade  de  diferencial  de  matrizes  


right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Lagrangeana  efe<va  e  Equações  de  Movimento    
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

ii)  Equações  de  movimento  para  butoThe


 ofccourse
ampo   tensorial  
we want it to be completely tensorial.
left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
 (detalhada)   µ
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇ ∇ on the metric g , but this is
µ
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh
µν
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Lagrangeana  efe<va  e  Equações  de  Movimento    
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Isto  implica  em  forte  vínculo  sobre  o  tensor  de  energia-­‐momento  !  

Ou  seja,  isto  implica  na  necessidade  de  “nova  Vsica”  similar  ao  caso  
da  lei  de  Ampère-­‐Maxwell  !  
(Gauss)  

(Ampère-­‐Maxwell)  
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Lagrangeana  efe<va  e  Equações  de  Movimento    
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Isto  implica  em  forte  vínculo  sobre  o  tensor  de  energia-­‐momento  !  

Isto  implica  na  necessidade  de  “nova  Vsica”  similar  ao  caso  da  lei    
de  Ampère-­‐Maxwell  !  
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
Gravitação  como  “nova  Vsica”:  dinâmica  do  tensor  métrico  
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Isto  coincide  com  a  gravidade  de  Einstein  numa  aproximação  linear  !  


Isto  também  lembra  o  caso  do  campo  escalar:  
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
Gravitação  como  “nova  Vsica”:  dinâmica  do  tensor  métrico  
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Para  soluções  está<cas  no  espaço  de  Minkowski  (+  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐)  obtemos  a  
lei  de  Newton!  

Equação  de  Poisson  (equação  diferencial  linear  !)    


right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
Gravitação  como  “nova  Vsica”:  dinâmica  do  tensor  métrico  
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Vamos  considerar  a  densidade  de  energia  de  uma  distribuição  esférica  


de  matéria,  por  exemplo  !  

Mínima  escolha  não  trivial  (Minkowski)  


right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent

Gravitação  como  “nova  Vsica”:  dinâmica  do  tensor  métrico  


should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Portanto  uma  métrica  adequada  para  descrever  uma  densidade  de  


energia  de  uma  distribuição  esférica  de  matéria  é  dada  por  

Como   mínima   escolha   não   trivial,   este   elemento   de   linha   descreve  


uma   deformação   do   espaço   de   Minkowski,   ou   seja,   leva   ao   um  
espaço-­‐tempo  curvo  de  fato  
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Gravitação  como  “nova  Vsica”:  dinâmica  do  tensor  métrico  
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Vamos  comparar  a  equação  de  Poisson  linear  com  a  nossa  


EDP  linear  !  

EDP  não-­‐linear  !  
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
Gravitação  como  “nova  Vsica”:  dinâmica  do  tensor  métrico  
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Notamos  que  é  preciso  tomar  o  limite  linear  !  

Limite  linear  
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
Vamos  considerar  a  densidade  de  energia  de  uma  distribuição  
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

esférica  de  matéria  


right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
Potencial  newtoniano                        !   zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
Vamos  considerar  a  densidade  de  energia  de  uma  distribuição  
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

esférica  de  matéria,  através  do  novo  Ansatz  abaixo:  

Limite  linear  
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
Potencial  newtoniano                        !   zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

Métrica  de  buracos  negros  !  


right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

∇2 h00 = −8πGT00 ,

but of course we want it to be completely tensorial.


The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
Como  veremos,  buracos  negros  neste  regime  linear  são  idên<cos  a  
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

aqueles  em  Rela<vidade  Geral  de  Einstein    para  

Regime  linear  também  é  o  regime  que  jus<fica  a  


existências  de  buracos  negros  acús-cos  
right-hand side a measure of the mass distribution. A relativistic generalizat
the form of an equation between tensors. We know what the tensor generalizat
density is; it’s the energy-momentum tensor Tµν . The gravitational potent
should get replaced by the metric tensor. We might therefore guess that ou
will have Tµν set proportional to some tensor which is second-order in der
metric. In fact, using (4.21) for the metric in the Newtonian limit and T00 =
in this limit we are looking for an equation that predicts

Como  veremos,  esta  lagrangeana  que  descreve  linearmente   ∇ h =a−8πGT


  2
,00 00

gravitação  está  incompleta,  pois  faltam  


buttofermos   de  itatouto-­‐interação.  
course we want be completely tensorial.    
The left-hand side of (4.36) does not obviously generalize to a tensor. T
might be to act the D’Alembertian ! = ∇µ ∇µ on the metric gµν , but this is
Pelo   principio   da   equivalência   (equivalência   entre   massa   inercial   e  
zero by metric compatibility. Fortunately, there is an obvious quantity wh

gravitacional)   a   força   gravitacional,   diferentemente   da   força  


eletromagné<ca,  interage  com  ela  mesma  !  
Do   ponto   de   vista   de   teoria   quân<ca   de   campos   isto   significa   que  
teremos   os   seguintes   gráficos   de   Feynman   (apesar   da   gravitação  
quân<ca  ainda  não  ser  completamente  estabelecida):  

Auto-­‐interação  
Fim  da  Parte  I  
•  Referências  principais:    
•  Sean  M.  Carroll,  arXiv:gr-­‐qc  971201  
•  F.A.  Brito,  “Notas  de  aula”,  UFCG/2012