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Current Applied Physics 9 (2009) 59–66


Effect of coating thickness on modifying the texture

and corrosion performance of hot-dip galvanized coatings
H. Asgari a,b,*, M.R. Toroghinejad a, M.A. Golozar a
Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran
Young Researchers Club, Arak, Iran

Received 9 March 2007; received in revised form 31 August 2007; accepted 17 October 2007
Available online 8 December 2007


Hot-dip galvanized zinc coating is the most frequently used among coatings to protect steel against corrosion. When coated steel
sheets are subjected to a corrosive environment, its corrosion behaviour is affected by texture and microstructure variations. The aim
of this research work was to study the texture and corrosion resistance of hot-dip galvanized zinc coatings affected by the coating thick-
ness and chemical composition of the zinc bath. Texture of the coatings was evaluated employing X-ray diffraction whilst its corrosion
behaviour was analyzed using Tafel polarization test. Experimental results showed that (00.2) basal texture component would be weak-
ened by increasing the lead content of the zinc bath and coatings with strong (00.2) texture component have lower corrosion current
density than the coatings with weak (00.2) texture component. Furthermore, it was inferred that by increasing the thickness of the coat-
ings with the same content of lead in the zinc bath, the relative intensity of (00.2) texture component and corrosion resistance of the
coatings would be decreased and conversely, relative intensity of (20.1) high angle pyramidal planes and (10.0) prism planes would
be increased due to establish a balance between surface and strain energies. Besides, five types of morphology were observed on the sur-
face of hot-dip galvanized coatings in dull and bright spangles. Finally, it was recognized that the main corrosion product of the salt
spray test is Simonkolleite.
Ó 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PACS: 68.55.jm; 68.55.jd; 81.40.wx

Keywords: Texture; Corrosion resistance; Coating thickness; Surface/strain energy; Hot-dip galvanizing; Tafel polarization test

1. Introduction number of continuous hot-dip galvanizing lines, lead is usu-

ally incorporated into the zinc bath [1,4]. This addition not
Hot-dip galvanized coatings have been used in industrial only causes an increase in the bath fluidity and a decrease in
fields such as automobile, electrical home applications or its surface tension, but also in small concentrations (0.04–
construction due to their excellent corrosion performance 0.2 wt%) improves the zinc coating uniformity and its adhe-
[1,2]. The corrosion protection of galvanized coatings arises sion to steel sheet [4,5].
from the barrier action of a zinc layer, the secondary barrier Texture is an important factor which affects the coating
action of the zinc corrosion products and the cathodic pro- properties and depends strongly on external factors such as
tection of zinc on unintentionally exposed part of the steel, cooling rate gradient, surface condition of steel substrate
with the coating acting as a sacrificial anode [1–3]. In a large during the coating solidification process and bath chemical
composition [5,6]. Concerning the coating corrosion resis-
tance, this depends in particular on the zinc layer chemical
Corresponding author. Address: Department of Materials Engineer-
ing, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran. Tel.:
composition and also affected by the crystallographic ori-
+98 861 2776316; fax: +98 311 3912752. entation [1,4–6]. It should be noted that in hot-dip galva-
E-mail address: asgari.ha@gmail.com (H. Asgari). nized coatings, it is the texture of eta layer which is

1567-1739/$ - see front matter Ó 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
60 H. Asgari et al. / Current Applied Physics 9 (2009) 59–66

considered as the coating texture because this layer consists 2. Experimental procedure
of about 98 wt% of zinc and only about 2 wt% of iron and
has an important role in determining the texture and corro- 2.1. Materials
sion resistance of the coating [5]. Generally, there are many
models and theories about the texture development in coat- Studies were carried out three times on commercially
ings which every one has its advantages and disadvantages. available steel sheets hot-dip coated with Zinc in Moba-
Among these models, two models are more useful and rakeh Steel Company and the average of the results consid-
applicable, namely surface energy minimization and strain ered as the final report. Also, production conditions such
energy minimization models. It has been shown that tex- as rolling finishing temperature, coiling temperature, cold
ture is determined by a competition between two thermo- work percentage and annealing conditions are the same
dynamical parameters, i.e. surface and strain energies for all of the steel sheets used in this study. Table 1 gives
[7,8]. During the formation and development of a texture the chemical composition of the substrate, whilst the galva-
component, there should be a balance between these ener- nizing production parameters of the samples are summa-
gies [7,8]; for example, when the coating is thick and con- rized in Tables 2 and 3. All of the samples were
sequently, its strain energy is much higher than its degreased with alkaline detergent and toluene; they were
surface energy, texture develops in the way in which the kept in a dessicator up to starting the tests.
intensity of high surface energy planes would be increased
(strain energy minimization model) [7,8]. Therefore, coat- 2.2. Texture determination
ing thickness influences on the texture of the coatings and
since the corrosion resistance is affected by its texture, the The crystallographic orientation of the coatings was
thickness plays an important role in determining the corro- determined using X-ray diffraction (Philips XL Model 30,
sion resistance of the coatings [5,7–9]. Cu Ka radiation, step size of 0.03°, counting time of 1 s).
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of coating A 2-theta scan was performed between 20° and 140° and
thickness and zinc bath chemical composition variations on the integrated intensities of several reflections were deter-
some properties of hot-dip galvanized coatings such as tex- mined, these are termed Ihkil. It should be noted that inte-
ture and corrosion resistance. It should be noticed that grated intensities require background subtraction. Each
here, only (00.2), (20.1) and (10.0) texture components were Ihkil is normalized by dividing it by its structure factor or
considered because theses components are more effective random intensity, I 0hkil , giving I nhkil . The values of I 0hkil were
than other components in changing the corrosion perfor- obtained from powder zinc pattern. It should be noted that
mance of hot-dip galvanized coatings; i.e, corrosion resis- in this study, only I n00:2 , I n20:1 and I n10:0 were considered.
tance decreases as the intensity of (20.1) and (10.0)
components increases, respectively. Due to this fact, these 2.3. Corrosion behaviour analysis
components were selected for comparison.
Tafel polarization tests were conducted in a 5% NaCl
Table 1
solution at room temperature using an EG&G Princton
Chemical composition of steel substrate
Applied Research Model 263A potentiostat, a standard
Grade %C %Ti %S %Mo %P %V %Si %Al
corrosion cell kit with the working electrode, two graphite
JIS G3302 0.038 0.001 0.005 0.002 0.007 0.001 0.009 0.048 counter electrodes and a saturated calomel reference elec-

Table 2
Production parameters of samples A, B and C
Sample Chemical composition of the Jet wiper distance Sheet thickness Bath temperature Strip entry Galvanizing Coating Eta layer
zinc bath from sheet surface (mm) (°C) temperature line speed thickness thickness
(mm) (°C) (m/min) (lm) (lm)
%Pb %Fe %Al
A 0.010 0.023 0.195 100 0.5 462 ± 1 466 ± 1 100 46 13
B 0.045 0.027 0.191 100 0.5 462 ± 1 466 ± 1 100 46 13
C 0.065 0.021 0.188 100 0.5 462 ± 1 466 ± 1 100 46 13

Table 3
Production parameters of samples B1, B2, C1 and C2
Sample Chemical composition of Jet wiper distance Sheet thickness Bath temperature Strip entry Galvanizing Coating Eta layer
zinc bath from sheet surface (mm) (°C) temperature line speed thickness thickness
(mm) (°C) (m/min) (lm) (lm)
%Pb %Fe %Al
B1 0.045 0.027 0.191 105 0.5 462 ± 1 466 ± 1 55 60 18
B2 0.045 0.027 0.191 125 0.5 462 ± 1 466 ± 1 35 74 24
C1 0.065 0.021 0.188 105 0.5 462 ± 1 466 ± 1 55 60 18
C2 0.065 0.021 0.188 125 0.5 462 ± 1 466 ± 1 35 74 24
H. Asgari et al. / Current Applied Physics 9 (2009) 59–66 61

trode (SCE). The volume of the electrolyte for each test of samples A–C is indicated in Fig. 2. It is clear that by
was 500 ml potentiodynamic scanning was performed by increasing the lead content of the zinc bath, the relative
stepping the potential at a scan rate of 1 mV/s from intensity of (00.2) basal texture component is decreased
250 mV (SCE) to 500 mV (SCE). The edges of samples and conversely, the relative intensities of (20.1) high angle
were covered by a plastic lacquer to prevent the corrosion pyramidal and (10.0) prismatic texture components are
of steel. Salt spray tests were performed under the criteria increased. It means that as the lead content of the zinc bath
established by ASTM B117 to study the corrosion products increases, the (00.2) basal texture component of the coating
of galvanized samples after exposure in salt spray. is weakened and transforms to the (20.1) and (10.0) texture
components. (Fig. 3) illustrates the corrosion current den-
2.4. Microstructure study sities (icorr) of the samples. It is discerned that corrosion
current density increases as the lead content of the zinc
Cross sections of the coatings were studied using con- bath increases and difference between the corrosion current
ventional metallography method, scanning electron density of sample A and C is about 14 lA cm 2. Increasing
microscopy and optical microscopy. Because of high sensi- in the corrosion current density of the samples indicates the
tivity of zinc to water, absolute alcohol was used for grind- decreased corrosion resistance of the coatings due to the
ing and polishing of samples. Composition of the coating addition of lead to the zinc bath.
layers was determined using EDS analysis. After 24 h of exposing two samples in the salt spray
(samples A and C), some pseudo-hexagonal plane crystals
called platelets having a preferential facing (approximately
2.5. Morphological study
normal to the substrate plane) could be observed on the
galvanized steel samples (Fig. 4a). These crystals grow
The morphological study of corrosion products was
forming islands which spread over the entire surface as
performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
the exposure time increases (Fig. 4b); many of them nucle-
and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM studies were car-
ate heterogeneously on the surface defects but the majority
ried out using a Philips XL Model 30 and XRD studies
were done employing a Philips Xpert-MPD Model 3040.
Composition of the corrosion products was detected by A B C
means of EDS analysis. The surface morphology was stud-
ied using Nomalski differential interference method and
employing an optical microscopy equipped with polarized
I (hkil)/I 0(hkil)

3. Results 15
Fig. 1 shows a typical cross section of zinc coated sam- 5
ple B; four distinct coating layers of hot-dip galvanized 0
steel can be identified in this micrograph. EDS analysis (00.2) (20.1) (10.0)
of coating layers indicated that coatings consisted of four Texture components
layers; gamma, delta, zeta and eta. Also, EDS analysis
detected no aluminum within the layers. Comparison Fig. 2. Relative intensities of (00.2), (20.1) and (10.0) components of the
between the relative intensities of some texture components

Gamma Delt Zeta Eta 45

40 C
i corr (micro A/cm2)

30 B
0.01 0.045 0.065

10 m Wt.% of Pb in zinc bath

Fig. 3. Relationship between lead content of the zinc bath and icorr of the
Fig. 1. Optical micrograph of cross section of sample B. samples.
62 H. Asgari et al. / Current Applied Physics 9 (2009) 59–66

Fig. 4. (a) Pseudo-hexagonal plane crystals of Simonkolleite on the surface of samples. (b) Islands of Simonkolleite on the surface after 24 h exposure in
salt spray.

does it on NaCl crystals that, in turn, precipitate on the C C1 C2

metallic surface. XRD analysis indicated that Simonkolle-
ite (Zn6(OH)8Cl2  H2O) was the major component of the
corrosion products, whilst EDS results confirmed that
I(hkil) /I 0(hkil)

chlorine, zinc and oxygen were the main elements present 20
in the pseudo-hexagonal crystals. Some amounts of Zincite 15
(ZnO) and Hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6) were also 10
detected. In addition, after 72 h of exposure in salt spray, 5
the surface of sample C was covered with a relatively thick 0
layer of corrosion products whereas the surface of sample (00.2) (20.1) (10.0)
A presented not only less voluminous corrosion products Texture components
but also a partially attacked area as a result of better cor-
Fig. 6. Relative intensities of (00.2), (20.1) and (10.0) components of
rosion resistance. the samples with different thicknesses and equal zinc bath chemical
Figs. 5 and 6 show the influence of coating thickness on composition.
the relative intensity of texture components. It should be
noticed that although the production parameters of these
samples are the same (Tables 2 and 3), only by increasing
the coating thickness and consequently, increasing the eta
icorr (micro A/cm2 )

layer thickness due to decreasing the galvanizing line speed, 35 B2

(00.2) basal texture component is weakened and other com- B
ponents such as (20.1) and (10.0) are strengthened. In
(Figs. 7 and 8), effect of coating thickness on the corrosion
B B1 B2 0
46 60 74
30 Coating thickness (micrometer)
I (hkil) /I0(hkil)

25 Fig. 7. Relationship between coating thickness and icorr of the samples

20 with different thicknesses and equal zinc bath chemical composition.
5 current density of the samples is exhibited. As can be rec-
0 ognized, increasing the coating thickness gives rise to
(00.2) (20.1) (10.0)
increase the corrosion current density of the coatings so
Texture components that this increasing is completely vivid for thicknesses
Fig. 5. Relative intensities of (00.2), (20.1) and (10.0) components of the about 74 lm.
sample with different thicknesses and equal zinc bath chemical It should be mentioned that the surface of hot-dip galva-
composition. nized coating contains dull and bright spangles and these
H. Asgari et al. / Current Applied Physics 9 (2009) 59–66 63

C2 found whereas the bright area showed almost uniform sur-

45 C1 face morphology. In addition, a feathery type of morphol-
40 C
ogy was observed in the area where the dull and bright
icorr (micro A/cm2 )

spangles were present alternatively. Hence, the five types
of spangle patterns were observed in hot-dip galvanized
coatings at high magnifications. Macroscopically, dull-
appearing areas are subdivided into three microscopic dif-
ferent forms. The dull spangles areas are:
Dimpled: The dimpled structure is characterized by
globular lead particles, which were segregated across the
zinc surface. Fig. 9a shows the dimpled area. The lead ele-
46 60 74
ment does not form the solute solution with zinc but exists
Coating thickness (micrometer)
in pure form at the surface and it is dense in the dull span-
Fig. 8. Relationship between coating thickness and icorr of the samples gle areas.
with different thicknesses and equal zinc bath chemical composition. Ridged: Small hills and valleys characterize the ridged
morphology. In this morphology, the lead particles were
spangles have different morphologies. Microscopic analysis found at certain points. The amount of lead particles pres-
was performed on both dull and bright spangle areas. In ent in this morphology is less than that of in dimpled mor-
the dull area, three different surface morphologies were phology (Fig. 9b).

Fig. 9. (a) Dimpled morphology, (b) ridged morphology, (c) orthogonal morphology, (d) shiny morphology and (e) feathery morphology.
64 H. Asgari et al. / Current Applied Physics 9 (2009) 59–66

(00.2) component (20.1) component

(10.0) component Corrosion current density

45 45

40 A 40
35 35

icorr(micro A/cm2)
30 30
I (hkil) /I 0(hkil)

25 B 25

20 20

15 15

10 10

5 5

0 0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08
Wt.% of Pb in zinc bath
Fig. 10. Relationship between lead content of the zinc bath, texture components and icorr of the samples.

Orthogonal dendritic: The orthogonal dendrite spangles mainly covered with basal planes which are parallel to
are characterized by the secondary dendritic arms mor- sheet surface [5,13,14]. The basal planes have the highest
phology as illustrated in Fig. 9c. In this area, the lead par- binding energy of the surface atoms and thus the total
ticles were also found at some places. energy involved in the breaking of the bonds and the sub-
The bright spangles areas are: sequent dissolution of atoms is highest for these planes [15].
Shiny: The shiny regions display a smooth surface struc- Also, surface becomes electrochemically less active because
ture in comparison with the dull area. The surface mor- surface energy, that its value is inversely proportional to
phology is indicated in Fig. 9d. The shiny area contains the atomic spacing (d) and directly proportional to the
lead particles, but in much smaller amounts and sizes with number of broken bonds per atom (a), is lowest for basal
respect to the dull area. plane with respect to other planes in hcp structure (for
Feathery: The feathery structure consists of a lath-like example: 1/d = 0.41 and 0.89 for (00.2) and (20.1) planes,
pattern with alternate shiny dendritic branches and dull respectively) [5,16].
areas (Fig. 9e). In (Figs. 5 and 6), it was observed that by increasing the
The above morphologies, observed in this work, are in coatings thickness, (00.2) basal texture component weak-
good agreement with the morphologies obtained by other ened and conversely, (20.1) and (10.0) texture components
researchers [10–12]. strengthened. These effects would be probably ascribed to
the surface and strain energies. There are many models
4. Discussion and theories that explain the changes of texture due to the
variations of the coating thickness; however, the nature of
It can be seen in Fig. 1 that increasing the lead content of these changes and relations is not completely clear yet.
the zinc bath affects the intensity of the texture components. Among these models, the most general ones are usually
This is due to the fact that lead decreases the nucleation sites used: surface energy minimization and strain energy mini-
of basal planes and conversely, increases the nucleation sites mization models. As it was mentioned before, texture is
of other planes such as low angle pyramids, high angle pyra- determined by a competition and balancing between surface
mids and prism planes [13]. Therefore, when the lead content and strain energies; i.e. at small thicknesses, the coating
of zinc bath is increased, less nuclei of basal planes form and shows an orientation corresponding to that with lowest sur-
consequently, less basal planes would be formed and lower face energy and highest strain energy [7–9]. In other words,
area of the surface would be covered by these planes which when the coating is thin, the strain energy of the coating
are parallel with the surface [5,13,14]. structure is very low and negligible and conversely, the sur-
In Fig. 10, it is evident that (00.2) basal texture compo- face energy is high and important because surface energy
nent has a key role in determining the corrosion resistance does not vary with the coating thickness [7,8]; therefore,
of the coatings. When the relative intensity of (00.2) basal the texture of the coating consists of planes which have
plane texture is high, it can be concluded that the surface is the lowest surface energy and highest strain energy to com-
H. Asgari et al. / Current Applied Physics 9 (2009) 59–66 65

pensate the shortage of strain energy and make a balance of lead in the spangles increases as the lead content of the
between surface and strain energies [7–9]. Eta layer has bath increases [2,5].
about 98 wt% of zinc and in hcp structure of this ele- It is worthy of note here that to some extent, it was
ment, (00.2) planes have the lowest surface energy and the expected that with concentrations of aluminum up to
highest strain energy [5]. Thus, when the coating thickness 0.1 wt% aluminum in the zinc bath, (0.2 wt% in this
(and eta layer thickness) is small, basal planes would study), Fe2Al5 layer would be formed and suppressed the
increase and become the predominant texture component formation of delta and eta phases [1,18]. However, micro-
of the coating and other planes, such as (20.1) and (10.0) scopic investigations confirmed that four layers have been
with much higher surface energy and lower strain energy formed (Fig. 1) and EDS analysis detected no aluminum
than basal planes would have a low intensity. In contrast, within the layers. It is probably due to the fact that for
as the coating thickness increases, the strain energy would Fe2Al5 layer to be formed, in addition to the required
be increased and became much higher than surface energy. amount of aluminum concentration in the bath [1,19],
In this situation, texture of the coating tries to establish a low temperature of the zinc bath [20] and rather high differ-
balance between surface and strain energies by means of ence between the strip entry temperature and bath temper-
decreasing the strain energy and increasing the surface ature [21] should be prepared. The low temperature of the
energy [7–9]; hence, the intensity of high strain energy bath can slow down the reaction rate of zinc–iron and pro-
(00.2) basal planes would be decreased whilst the intensity vides a suitable condition for the reaction of aluminum and
of (20.1) and (10.0) planes with much higher surface energy iron [22–24]. Also, as the temperature of the zinc bath
would be increased. decreases, the incubation period for Fe–Zn phases forma-
In (Figs. 7 and 8), it was illustrated that increasing the tion increases and their formation becomes more difficult
coatings thickness was detrimental to the corrosion resis- [22–24]. Besides, the high temperature difference between
tance of the coatings. As it was mentioned above, it can the strip and galvanizing bath (e.g. 15 °C) can effectively
be attributed to the low corrosion resistance of (20.1) and increase Al–Fe reaction rate [19,20]. In the other words,
(10.0) planes which strengthened in intensity as the coat- the rate of Al uptake in zinc coatings to form Fe2Al5
ings thickened [15]; consequently, the corrosion resistance depends on the difference between the temperatures of
of the thick coating (with thicker eta layer) would be the zinc bath and strip entry temperature, that is, the Al
decreased. Therefore, the outstanding result of this content in the interface increases approximately linearly
research is the fact that although increasing the thickness with the difference between the strip entry temperature
of hot-dip galvanized coatings results in the increasing of and the bath temperature [19,20]. Note that iron in
the coatings lifetime [1], this thickening would not lead to Fe2Al5Znx and Fe2Al5 belongs to the galvanizing bath
better corrosion resistance or texture of the coating and and steel substrate, respectively. In this work, temperature
would have detrimental effect on these properties. There- of the zinc bath was enough high (462 °C) [20] and the
fore, considering the relationship between texture, corro- difference between the bath temperature and strip entry
sion resistance and coating thickness in any application temperature (466 °C) was small [21]; thus, the formation
of these coatings is necessary. It is possible by more accu- of Fe2Al5 was inhibited.
rate studies to attain an optimized coating thickness in
which the texture, corrosion resistance and microstructure 5. Conclusions
of the coating are in the best situation. This optimized coat-
ing thickness is not only the best ones in terms of corrosion 1. Increasing the lead content of the zinc bath results in the
resistance, but also the most economical; thus, increasing weakening of (00.2) basal texture component and
the thickness of hot-dip galvanized coatings up to this opti- strengthening of (20.1) high angle pyramidal and
mized thickness for sensitive applications in which the (10.0) prism texture components.
quality and corrosion resistance considered as determining 2. Coatings with strong (00.2) texture component and
factor is not suggested. weak (20.1) and (10.0) texture components have higher
Different morphologies and segregated lead on the sur- corrosion resistance than the coatings with weak (00.2)
faces in Fig. 9 could be attributed to the fact that in zinc texture component and strong (20.1) and (10.0) texture
solidification, the fast growth crystallographic direction is components.
[1 0 1 0] that drops in the basal plane [2]. When the dendrites 3. As the coating thickness increases, the relative intensity
grow parallel to the sheet surface, that means the basal of (00.2) basal planes decreases and conversely, the rel-
plane of zinc is parallel to it, the solutes are rejected ative intensity of (20.1) and (10.0) planes increases; thus,
towards the grain boundary, leaving the surface relatively corrosion resistance of the coating decreases.
pure and bright [2,5,17]. However, when the basal plane 4. Simonkolleite is the major corrosion product which
of the grain is at angle with the substrate, the fast growth would be formed on the surface of hot-dip galvanized
direction is towards the coating surface and the solutes coatings during the salt spray test.
are rejected towards it and cause the surface to be dark- 5. Five types of morphology would be observed on the sur-
ened. These facts explain the different segregation observed face of hot-dip galvanized coatings in dull and bright
in bright and dull spangles [2,5,17]. In addition, segregation spangles.
66 H. Asgari et al. / Current Applied Physics 9 (2009) 59–66

6. Increasing the bath temperature (462 °C) and decreas- [10] J. Strutzenberger, J. Faderl, Solidification and spangle formation of
ing the difference between the bath temperature and hot-dip galvanized zinc coatings, Met. Mater. Trans. 29A (1998) 631.
[11] D. Jaffrey, J.D. Brown, T.J. Howard, Metall. Trans. A. Phys. Metall.
strip entry temperature would inhibit the formation of 12 (1980) 631–635.
Fe2Al5 inhibition layer. [12] A.K. Singh, G. Jha, S. Chakrrabarti, Spangle formation on hot-dip
galvanized steel sheet and its effects on corrosion resistant properties,
Acknowledgement Corrosion 59 (2) (2003) 189–196.
[13] V. Rangarajan, C.A. Natalie, D.K. Matlock, G. Krauss, Deformation
behavior of hot-dip galvanized coatings in complex sheet metal
The authors would like to thank Mobarakeh Steel Com- forming, J. Mater. Shaping Technol. 8 (1990) 101–105.
pany laboratories staff and R&D unit engineers for helping [14] H. Asgari, M.R. Toroghinejad, M.A. Golozar, F. Ashrafizadeh, K.
with the samples. Assistance received from SEM and XRD Raeissi, The role of (00.2) basal texture component and morphology
laboratories staff of Materials Engineering Department of in modifying the corrosion resistance of hot-dip galvanized zinc
Isfahan University of Technology is also appreciated. coatings, in: 45th Conference of Metallurgists, Proceedings of the
Conference, Canada, Montreal, 2006.
[15] J.C. Scully, The Fundamentals of Corrosion, Pergamon Press, 1990.
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