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Instrumentation, Controls & Electrical / Technical Description / Juni 2014

SPPA-E3000
Brushless Excitation System (BES, Type RG3)

Maximum-availability excitation system for synchronous generators with


brushless exciters

Answers for energy.


Siemens Power and Gas Instrumentation, Controls & Electrical

Table of Contents

1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 3
2. Basic circuit ............................................................................................................................................ 4
3. Method of operation................................................................................................................................ 5
3.1 Automatic voltage regulator (automatic control system) ................................................................... 5
3.2 Manual control system (excitation current regulator) ........................................................................ 5
3.3 Other operating modes .................................................................................................................... 5
3.4 Follow-up control ............................................................................................................................. 5
3.5 Limiters ............................................................................................................................................ 6
3.6 Overmodulation and field-forcing limiter ........................................................................................... 7
3.7 Power system stabilizer (PSS) ......................................................................................................... 7
3.8 Open-loop control ............................................................................................................................ 8
3.9 Power circuit .................................................................................................................................... 8
3.10 De-excitation .................................................................................................................................. 8
4. Basic modules ........................................................................................................................................ 9
4.1 Basic modules ................................................................................................................................. 9
4.2 Data exchange with DCS ............................................................................................................... 11
4.3 Local operator and monitoring ....................................................................................................... 11
5. Software ............................................................................................................................................... 12
6. Areas of Applicaltion ............................................................................................................................. 13
7. Technical Data...................................................................................................................................... 14
8. Abbreviations ........................................................................................................................................ 15

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1. Introduction
The automatic voltage regulator SPPA-E3000 BES Type RG3 (SPPA Siemens
Power Plant Automation) for brushless excitation system is suitable for any type
of synchronous generator. It is equally suited to hydroelectric, steam, or nuclear
power plants.

Thanks to its high degree of flexibility, it can be adapted to the conditions of any
plant and is an optimal solution both for new plants and for the modernization of
existing plants.
Depending on the technical aspects of the modernization of existing plants, a
number of flexible, project-specific adaptations are possible.

The main performance characteristics of the BES excitation system are:


High reliability
High availability
Good adaptability
Low maintenance requirements
High speed of response
Good regulating properties
Robust construction
Digital open- and closed-loop control
Extreme flexibility
Compact design
Low space requirements Figure 1: SPPA-E3000 BES
Type RG3-S (Example)

The voltage converter is implemented with a powerful microprocessor which, besides performing voltage control, also assumes all
the important limitation and monitoring functions of the excitation system.
A high availability factor is achieved by the use of field-proven industrial components.
It’s completely modular design makes the operation and maintenance extremely user friendly.

A brief description of the main components of the excitation system is given below followed by a detailed description of the device
and component scope and their functions.

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2. Basic circuit
The voltage regulator RG3 is suitable for brushless excitation system for synchronous generators with an exciter. It can also be
connected directly to the slip rings of the generator. Its high flexibility and modular design make it suitable for use in all power plant
types, and especially for the modernization of existing plants.

Versions of BES available:


RG3 – DUR is designed especially for small generators with excitation current up to 30 A
RG3 – S is suitable for all power ratings.
This version also offers the full flexibility of the logic as well as in the communication to the control system

The power section comprises a transistorized chopper regulator which is connected to the field winding of the exciter or the
generator slip rings.

The BES excitation system can obtain its excitation power from any of the following:
from the permanent-magnet pilot exciter (PMG)
from an auxiliary winding in the generator stator (e.g. clamping bolt voltage of laminated core)
from the auxiliary power supply of the power plant
via a separate excitation transformer
This excitation transformer can either be connected to the terminals of the synchronous generator or supplied by the auxiliary
power supply.

Other redundant power supplies are possible, e.g. battery power supply or UPS system. A redundant power supply from two or
more of the sources named above is also possible in order to increase the availability.

The modular design, the flexible software of the digital open- and closed-loop control, and the low space requirements make the
RG3 especially suited for new plants and for the modernization of existing excitation systems.

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3. Method of operation
3.1 Automatic voltage regulator (automatic control system)

In this operating mode the generator voltage actual value is compared with an adjustable generator voltage setpoint in the
automatic voltage regulator. The resulting signal is compared with the outputs of the excitation limit controllers and applied to the
input of the PI voltage regulator. The PI voltage regulator, whose gain and time response can be adjusted, supplies an output
signal which is used as the current setpoint input (Isetpoint) for the lower-level excitation current regulator. The degree of modulation
of the pulse-width modulated trigger signals for the power transistors varies depending on the output of the current regulator.
The structure of the AVR is represented by the model AC7B in IEEE 421.5-2005.

3.2 Manual control system (excitation current regulator)

A smoothed setpoint signal is input to the associated P-action control amplifier in the excitation current regulator and compared
with the excitation current actual value. The output signal controls the power transistors of the associated output stage by means of
pulse-width modulation.
This operating mode is especially used during commissioning and testing of the generator and protection system. It is also the
emergency operating mode as a backup mode for the AVR.

3.3 Other operating modes

Automatic power factor regulation or reactive power regulation on generator leads or net coupling point
The power factor regulator compares the actual value with an adjustable power factor setpoint. In the event of a deviation, the
setpoint value of the voltage regulator is adjusted until the power factor deviation is reduced to zero. In isolated or no-load
operation of the generator, automatic switchover from the power factor regulator to the automatic voltage regulator is performed.
The reactive power regulator is working analog to the power factor regulator.
Optionally also regulation at the net coupling point is available.

Of the three operating modes (chapter 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3), the automatic voltage regulator is normally the one in operation, even
during startup and shutdown of the turbine generator. The automatic voltage regulator comprises measured value acquisition,
setpoint inputs and the control and monitoring circuits for the following functions:
Generator voltage regulation
Lower-level control and limitation of the excitation current (excitation current regulation) and/or field-forcing limiter
Limit controller for the under-excited range (under-excitation limiter)
Delayed limit controller for the overexcited range (overexcitation limiter)
Delayed generator current limit controller (stator current limiter)

3.4 Follow-up control

The setpoint value of the excitation current controller is continuously updated during operation with the automatic control system,
thus ensuring rapid and virtually bumpless changeover to the excitation current regulator (manual control system or the other
channel) in the event of a fault. Automatic changeover takes place, for example, when internal monitoring functions for the
excitation current respond and in the event of error messages relating to generator voltage actual value acquisition.

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3.5 Limiters

When operating a synchronous generator, it is necessary to observe the


permissible combinations of active and reactive power, as shown in the
capability diagram.

L-M-O Limit characteristic of the underexcited range


O-P Limit characteristic set by the stator temperature rise
P-Q Limit characteristic set by the rotor temperature rise

The underexcitation limiter corrects the reactive power by raising the


generator voltage such that, in the case of an excursion beyond limit Figure 2: Limit characteristics of synchronous
characteristic L-M-O, the operating point is returned to that characteristic generator in
before the generator is tripped by the underexcitation protection.
This limiter can be represented by UEL2 model in IEEE 421.5-2005.

The overexcitation limiter ensures that the operating point is always kept
within section P-Q of the generator capability diagram in the overexcited
range. In response to system voltage drops caused by high reactive power
requirements, switching operations or faults, the voltage regulator raises the
excitation level so as to keep the generator voltage constant. The
overexcitation limiter acts as a safeguard against thermal overloading of the
rotor.

The overexcitation limiter permits excitation values between the maximum


continuous current and the maximum excitation current (field-forcing) for a
limited period of time to enable the generator to provide voltage support in
response to short-time voltage dips on the power system.

The excitation current limiter (field-forcing limiter), in contrast, has the task
of limiting the excitation current to the maximum permissible value as quickly
as possible.

The stator current limiter ensures delayed limiting to the continuously


permitted stator current. The task of the stator current limiter is to prevent the Figure 3: Underexcitation limiter
thermal overload of the generator stator which can be caused by high reactive
power at increased active power. The stator current limiter also permits
increased excitation values for a limited period to enable the generator to
provide voltage support for the power system.

Ceiling current
limiter

Overexitation
limiter

Ceiling current limiter

Figure 4: Overexcitation limiter and ceiling current


limiter

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3.6 Overmodulation and field-forcing limiter

At full modulation, the chopper regulator outputs a higher voltage than is required for excitation to ceiling current. This voltage
overmodulation of the field winding shortens the time required for the ceiling current to be reached, thus also shortening the
compensation of setpoint deviations of the voltage on the generator terminals.

The output voltage of the chopper regulator for the manual control system is limited by the upper value of the setpoint.

The output voltage of the chopper regulator for the automatic control system is affected by the modulation limiter of the PI voltage
regulator. This reference variable corresponds to the voltage value of the required excitation current.

Figure 5: Overexcitation limiter and lower-level excitation current limiter

3.7 Power system stabilizer (PSS)

A "Dual Input PSS" according to IEEE 421.5 type PSS2B is implemented. This feature acquires the frequency or active power
changes in the natural frequency range of the generator and the network, and exerts a damping influence through the voltage
regulator and the generator excitation.
This is achieved by calculation of the integral of the accelerating power from the electrical active power and compensated
frequency as input variables into the PSS.
Implemented is also the model Hinfinite (PSS3B).
A PSS is recommended for networks where steady-state stability is endangered by the presence of long transmission lines and the
natural damping properties of the generator are inadequate.

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3.8 Open-loop control

Every operating condition of the excitation system is monitored and displayed. In addition to internal fault indication, the internal
monitoring routine makes the following alarms available at the cabinet terminals:
Fault with TRIP command
Fault in automatic voltage regulator and switchover to manual mode
Group alarm triggered by various internal fault signals

Status signals are also made available for external indication:


Excitation is on
Excitation is off
Automatic is on
Manual is on
Power factor / reactive power regulation is on
Limiters are active

Other detailed alarms status signals are possible as options on customer-specific design for modernization projects.

3.9 Power circuit

In the power circuit, SINAMCS S120 or DIGUREG transistorized chopper regulators are used to make the necessary excitation
power available via a DC link, i.e. the output stages of the transistorized chopper regulator derive their power from the DC link. The
excitation voltage is influenced by the pulse/pause ratio and the excitation current is changed via the field resistor. The excitation
current is measured in the output stage and converted for the field current regulator.

3.10 De-excitation

When the synchronous generator is shut down or when the protection systems of the generator or unit transformer respond, the
generator must be de-excited. The chopper regulator is disabled directly by the de-excitation command for this purpose. The
magnetic energy of the field is fed back into the DC link via the integrated diodes in the chopper regulator. The de-excitation
process can therefore be performed very quickly. The excitation switch also isolates the power circuit from the power supplies.

positive negative
Zero voltage
voltage voltage
UDC

tt11

-UDC
T

Figure 6: Block diagram of transistorized DC link converter Figure 7: Principle of operation of pulse-width modulation

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4. Basic modules
The transistorized chopper (1), and in the case of redundant systems a second transistorized chopper (2), supplies the necessary
excitation current for the exciter (5-7) or the generator field (8).
Whereas the automatic voltage regulator (3) controls the generator terminal voltage (automatic channel), the excitation current
regulator (4) controls the field current of the exciter (manual channel). Thanks to their compact design, these two modules have
been integrated in a single device.
The excitation power (E) can be supplied by the auxiliary power supply, a power plant battery, an auxiliary winding, a separate
excitation transformer or via a pilot exciter. The optional redundant supplies of exciter power, e.g. from the power plant battery,
ensure high availability of the excitation system.
RG3 can be used for a wide variety of generator types, e.g. for brushless turbine generators with a three-phase exciter and
rotating-rectifier diodes (5) and (7), for turbine generators with a direct-current exciter (6) and also for directly excited generators
(8). The transistorized chopper regulator is supplied by means of a DC link.
The integrated de-excitation resistor, which is connected in parallel to the DC link of the chopper regulator, is used for de-excitation
of the generator. In the event of de-excitation, the field power of the exciter is fed back into the DC link of the chopper regulator.

Figure 8: RG3 basic modules

4.1 Basic modules

Both versions of the BES excitation system are installed in a standard cabinet specially designed for systems combining electronic
closed- and open-loop control systems, and power electronics.
Modular design and easy access to all components make for simple handling of all the important functions and optimization
equipment. The dimensions of the standard cabinet are 800 mm wide, 2200 mm high and 600 mm deep. However, adaptations to
a wide range of plant requirements, especially in the case of modernization projects, may necessitate deviations from these
dimensions.

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SIMOTION D435-2
Open / closed – loop control
incl. communication to DCS

Basic Line Module (BLM)


Power supply module with DC-Link

SINAMICS S120 Single Line


Module (SLM)
Power module

De-excitation resistor

Output choke to compensate the


cable length

NTG-3000
Actual value acquisition

Power supply, output to field

Figure 9: Main components in RG3-S cabinet - example

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4.2 Data exchange with DCS

Data exchange to/from the excitation system is implemented via a PROFIBUS DP interface and at a standard baud rate of
12Mbit/s. On redundant excitation systems, the PROFIBUS DP interface is also redundantly implemented.
The main control commands, feedback signals for operator control and monitoring of the excitation system, as well as fault
messages and measured values of the generator and excitation variables are transmitted.
Optionally, the signal interface can also be implemented with conventional hardwiring with coupling relays and optocouplers.

4.3 Local operator and monitoring (Option)

An operator control and monitoring device SIMATIC TouchPanel can be installed in


the door of the regulating and control cubicle for local operation, monitoring of
operating states, measured values from the excitation system and for signaling faults
and alarms.

The main functions and features of this visualization unit are:


Simultaneous display of operating and display values of both channels
Simultaneous display of 6 analog values per channel
Password protection
Local operation of the excitation system

Figure 10: Local operator panel (example)

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5. Software
User-friendly software tools (SCOUT or Webserver for RG3-S and DIGUREG-Tool for RG3-DUR) are used for easy
commissioning and maintenance of the excitation system. The converter and the power section can be parameterized fully with
this software.
For this, the voltage converter is connected to a PC via the ethernet, from where it is configured.
Actual parameters can be monitored directly in the parameter list. A parameter can be changed simply by selecting it and entering
a new value. Several predefined parameter lists for various applications (e.g. inputs/outputs) and an entire parameter list are
available. It is also possible to compile user-defined parameter lists by entering parameter numbers.
The current parameterization can also be stored on data media. This provides a simple method of documenting the actual state of
the voltage regulator.
The RG3-DUR DIGUREG-Tool can also be used as a local HMI (Human Machine Interface) installed either in the cabinet door or
directly in the control room.
RG3 features a TRACE memory. The TRACE is an important commissioning, diagnostic and trouble-shooting tool. Up to 8 analog
values (measuring channels) of any type can be recorded with the TRACE function as with a storage oscilloscope. Alternatively,
each measuring channel can be used to record 16 binary values. An easy-to-use trigger can be used to start recording. A
pretrigger can be set to record events before and after the main trigger event. The recording level can be configured. The sampling
time between two measuring points is 250µs.

Figure11: Trace function for RG3-S Figure12: Trace function for RG3-DUR

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6. Areas of Application

Figure 13: Applications of SPPA-E3000 SES excitation systems

Example of a version in the


lower power range
Dual-channel open- and closed-loop control
DIGUREG dual-channel voltage regulator
Example for newly built power plant

Figure 14: BES-DUR dual-channel excitation system with integrated redundant closed-loop controller

Example of a version in the


upper power range
Dual-channel open- and closed-loop control with local control
AC and DC power supply
Example for modernization project

Figure 15: RG3-S dual-channel excitation system with integrated redundant closed-loop controller

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7. Technical Data
Auxiliary power supply from power plant battery: For signal and controller power supply (24 V DC power supply)

Power consumption: < 0.2 kW continuous

Accuracy of AVR: 0,5% continuously

Transformers: Voltage converters:


3-phase connection to generator voltage
Power consumption < 5 VA per phase
Rated secondary voltage 100 V to 120 V

Current transformer:
1 to 3-phase for measurement of generator current
Rated secondary current 1 A or 5 A
Power consumption < 3 VA (not including losses on incoming cables)

The transformers are not included in the scope of supply of the voltage
regulator.

Standards: The BES excitation system complies with the


applicable IEC, EN, DIN, VDE standards and IEEE-421.

Models: according to IEEE 421.5-2005 AC7B


(available in PSS/E version 31 or higher)

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8. Abbreviations
BES Brushless Excitation System (= Rotating Excitation System)
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V. (German Standards Institute)
EN European standard
IE Output current of chopper regulator corresponds to excitation current
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEN Output current for rated load
IEO Output current for no-load operation
IGBT Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor
Imax Ceiling current
Isetpoint Exciter setpoint
PMG Permanent magnet synchronous generator
PSS Power System Stabilizer
RG3 – DUR BES with DIGUREG as power stage and as closed-loop control
RG3 – S BES with SINAMICS S120 as power stage and SIMOTION D4x5-2 as open-loop control
SES Static excitation systems
SPPA Siemens Power Plant Automation
SPPA-E3000 Siemens Power Plant Automation Electrical Solutions
UE Output voltage of chopper regulator corresponds to excitation voltage
VDE Verband der Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik e.V.

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Published by and copyright © 2014

Siemens AG
Power and Gas
Freyeslebenstrasse 1
91058 Erlangen, Germany

For more information, please contact

Siemens AG
Fossil Power Generation Division
Instrumentation, Controls & Electrical
Siemensallee 84
76187 Karlsruhe, Germany

Siemens Energy, Inc.


Instrumentation, Controls & Electrical
1345 Ridgeland Parkway, Suite 116
Alpharetta, GA 30004, USA

E-mail: sppa-e3000.energy@siemens.com
www.siemens.com/energy/excitationsystems

E3071_DT31_BES_TechnDescription_e_V2-4

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