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Complete Book on CCNA you must Read!


By:

It’s All About CCNA…

30.000
It’s not Just a Bo0k It’s a Expirence!

EasyPeezZi.com “CLASSROOM INby Fayyaz


---------------------This Book is written A BOOK”
Ahmed---------------------
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Presented By:

EXAM: 200-120
EXAM: 200-125

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3| Free Learning (Fayyaz Ahmed) CSCO12971267

Fayyaz Ahmed

EasyPeezZi.com ---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------


4| Free Learning (Fayyaz Ahmed) CSCO12971267

Hello Everybody This is Fayyaz Ahmed and I try to Write & Share a Book on
CCNA which you Read right now.
Recently By the Garce of ALLAH I Completed my CCNA Certifiaction so I Try to
write a book on CCNA in Roman Urdu which make easy and helpful for every-
one who knows English or not & Learn CCNA in Roman in a easy way,
The best part of the bo0k it’s “FREE OF COST”

The Resason to write a book because I did lots of cources, but in after few years I lost every thing
which I learn, I forgot everything. S0 In 2013 when I did my CCNA, I decide to capture my all Classes
so that its recordable for lifetime. So if I forgot this again after few years. I have my book just read it
again in a few days and I got my knowledge back.

I Read CCNA Book (Offical Cisco CCNA Book) and 1 year Personal Research about CCNA on the
internet then I made my personal notes and try to maintain all my notes in a single book, which makes
Easiser for reading again for Me & you as Well.
So please take it serious because its all about CCNA if you really want to learn CCNA s0 read this
Cearfully its not a book its my 1 year Personal Research about CCNA, and I invest my Lots of time &
Efforts here I learn that topic first and then translate to Roman type a thousands of words by myslef to
make this Book.
And finally i decide to Share with you guys Free of Cost so that you guyss also learn very easily and
Clear your Concepts.
“My simple philosophy is Shearing my knowledge with others becasues when you share your
knowledge its always increased”

The book desing in 10 moudles (150) Pages like a classes in any academy you make your To DO list
to Read this book and learn CCNA day by day in a easiest way.

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5| Free Learning (Fayyaz Ahmed) CSCO12971267

Whats EasyPeezi?
The idea behind EasyPeezi is that which makes Learning it’s very Easy for Everyone.
In EasyPeezi we have 2 cartoon character the boy is Easy & the Girl is Peezzi :-p you can see the pic
below which help you to Read books, blogs very easily.
In Easypeezzi site I upload my Education my notes my concept which I have in my field and try to
share with you all guys in Roman so you can also Learn this Concept Quickly & Easily as you know
English or Not..
I invest my lots of Time & Efforts to build site learn this things making all notes and books in Roman
type thousands of words by my self & Share my knowledge with all of you. so take It serious learn
things quickly go ahead and enjoy the show.

For further details visit Site www.Easypeezzi.com hope this site is helpful you and others and its
informative to learn these things Quickly & Easily. So0o it’s all about EasyPeezzi.

Feedback
Easypeezzi@gmail.com

All contents copyright All rights reserved. No part of this document or the related files may be
reproduced or transmitted in any form, by any means (electronic, photocopying, recording, or
otherwise) without the prior written permission of the publisher.

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Story behind Update this Book & Created


EasyPeezzi:
I started write a book “Middle in 2014” and I update this book day by day to learn new things and then
updated in a book. it’s a long time I had working on this book.
I completed this book “Middle in 2015” but it’s a lots of Typing Mistakes in my old book as you read
before my that book so you noticed. So, when I noticed i Read Twice again and Retype my all
mistakes and write it again & now in JAN, 2017 I Finally completed my book with no more Mistakes.
When I Read & Retype my book again so I also shrink the paragraph of this book suppose the
paragraph is first 10 lines so now its 6 lines point to point knowledge.
I “Read & Desing this book approx 8 times agin & again” believe me its not a piece of cake its not
easy for me to do daily job and invest my Time & Efforts here sometime I very Furestrate to Read this
again & again but I have to do! In this time I learn a lots of thing one thing is that “Make your Work
Easy” as possible as you can so that’s way This is the Reason I created www.easypeezzi.com where I
offer free Cisco Books to help people learn networking in a very Easiest Way. I created this book with
concept and configuration to give you a compact guide which will help you to Learn CCNA.
So that’s the whole Story Behind this book and EasyPeezzi.
If you have any questions or comments about this book, please let me know:
E-mail: Fayyazahmed007@outlook.com , Easypeezzi@gmail.com
Website: www.easypeezzi.com
Facebook: Facebook.com/easypeezzi

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Message for the Readers


“If you Really wan’na Learn something so nothing is Too Hard ”
What you Need? You just need to Focus “One thing at a Time”
Plan your Week, Plan your Study Hour & learn things Day by
Day, & you will noticed its really Easy if you really wanna learn
something we just need to Focus & manage things and time.
Don’t be confused yourslef to learn 4 or 5 things at a time, May
be you enjoye in the early stage when you started but after few
days or weeks you Frustrated and not be able to complete all
things and leave it all. I’m telling you my personal experince I do
that before! Not Now
Try that if you want! Learn One Things At a Time & gives your
100% on it you will get a better result if you do that.

Learn this Book Day by Day select your Topic & Learn it Once, if you feel some Confusions Learn Again,
Learn that time when you Feel Confident on the Topic & you Says Aahhh Suppose VLAN it’s a Piece of Cake
for ME.

So0o0o0o Sit Relax in a chair Make your TO DO List Select your Learning Hour
“Maximum 1 or 2 Hour” is a best Learning Hour a day Enjoy Reading my book and
good luck for your CCNA Certification!

Here we Go First View of Book Summary…

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8| Free Learning (Fayyaz Ahmed) CSCO12971267

You will Learn Inside the BOOK:

▪ Module # 1: OSI Reference Module


(Seven Layer of OSI Concept & Detail, PDUs Concept & Detail)

▪ Module # 2: LAN Switching Technologies


(Switch Overview, Switching Detail Information, Cisco Hierarchal Design, Interface &
configuration Modes)

▪ Module # 3: VLAN & Trunking


(VLAN Overview, Trunking Concept & Detail, VTP Protocol Concept & Detail)

▪ Module # 4: Spanning Tree Protocol


(STP Problem & Solution, STP Elections Process, BPDUs Concept & Detail, Ether-Channel
Overview, Ether-Channel Protocol Concept & Detail)

▪ Module # 5: IPv4 Addressing


(Concept & Detail about IPv4, Subnetting, VLSM Concept & Detail)

▪ Module # 6: Router & Routing Protocol


(Router Overview & Terminology, Routing Protocols EIGRP & OSPF Concept & Detail)

▪ Module # 7: Network Security


(Port Security Concept & Detail, ACLs Overview, Standard & Extended Both, NAT
Terminology)

▪ Module # 8: First Hop Redundancy Protocol


(HSRP Concept & Detail, VRRP & GLBP Concept & Detail or Configuration)

▪ Module # 9: Network Management


(SNMP, Syslog, DHCP Concept & Detail)

▪ Module 10: WAN Encapsulation protocols


(Transmission Techniques, WAN Protocol, Frame Relay Concept & Detail)

So0o Here we Go Module # 1 OSI Module:

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9| Free Learning (Fayyaz Ahmed) CSCO12971267

OSI Refrence Module

U Contant U

OSI Overview:
7) Application Layer:
o Telnet: 23
o SSH: 22
o FTP: 21
o TFTP: 69
o HTTP: 80
o HTTPS: 443
o NTP: 123
o
6) Presentation Layer:
o Encryption:
o Compression:
o Translation:
5) Session Layer:
4) Transport Layer:
o TCP:
o UDP:
o Flow Control:
o Segmentation:
o Fragmentation:
3) Network Layer:
2) Data Link Layer:
1) Physical Layer:

Protocol Data Unit (PDU)

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OSI Reference Module:


Soo Start with OSI because CCNA ki starting yahi sy hoti hy or essy samjhna important bhi hy qk essa
keh sakty hy k ye base hy CCNA ki. So what is OSI? Basically ye eak module hy jessy hum OSI
Reference Module k naam sy janty hy. OSI means (Open System Interconnection) network
communication k ley hamray do networks module bany thy the 1st one is DOD (Department of
Defense) or 2nd is OSI module. OSI Module ISO (International Organization Standardization) ny
developed kia tha, IOS jo k eak American company hy us ny 1 standard banaya k agar network py koi
communication hogi to wo is process sy or sequence ko follow kary gi or is process ko pher 7 hessu my
divide kia gaya jinhy aaj hum 7 layers k nam sy bhi janty hy yaha her layer ko kuch Responsibilities
assign ki gai hy or sari hi layer bhut important task perform karti hy agar in my sy koi 1 layer bhi hata
di jaye to network communication impossible hojaye gi. Is standard per 1977 py kam hona choru howa
tha or pher 1984 my essy globally approved kia gaya. Hum in ki detail dekhyee gy or start kary gy
upper layer sy qk network my communication start wahi sy hoti hy jo k hy Application Layer.

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Layer 7: Application Layer:


Computers ki sari hi application wessy to application layer py perform hoti hy but important point jessy
hum assani sy samajh saky wo ye hy k koi bhi application jo computer per installed ho ya over the
internet hu jessy Facebook, yahoo, Gmail is tarha ki jitni bhi sites hum internet py search karty hy wo
sub bhi application layer py perform hoti hy. Kuch protocols Jo k application layer py work karty hy un
ki details nechy mention hy.

Application Layer Protocol:


Telnet:
Telnet protocol banna tha 1969 my telnet 1 protocol hy Jo port number 23 py work karta hy. like
hamari window my 1 service hy remote desktop connection ki to essi tarha Cisco k IOS py bhi 1
service hy jessy hum telnet khty hy telnet bilkul wesa hi hy jessye remote desktop. Remote desktop sy
hum window ka remote ly lyty hy or us py kam kar lyty hy same essi tarha telnet sy hum router ki IOS
ka remote ly lyty hy or kahi sy bhi apny router ko configure kar sakty hy pher chahye wo kessi dosri
country my hi q na rakha ho or telnet session line VTY or IP address sy configure hota hy or is ka port
number hy 23 simply ye remote services hai Cisco Platform mai or hum apny computer per CMD sy
telnet ko access karty hai.

SSH:
SSH means (Secure shell) SSH bhi same telnet hy or telnet k sath hi work karta hy bs diffrence ye hai k
without SSH telnet py jo traffic ja rahi hoti hy wo plan text yani simple wording my hoti hy jessy koi
bhi catch kar k uski information ko read kar sakta hy or SSH ka benefit ye hy k is my sari traffic
encrypted hoti hy matlab k secure hoti hy or ye port number 22 py work karta hy or ye 1 secure tunnel
banna k dyta hy jis sy traffic securely flow hoti hy.

FTP:
FTP means (File Transfer Protocol) jessy k hum apny computer py rehty howy hi apni files ko copy
paste karty hy same essi tarha agar hamara 1 computer kessi or country py rakha hy or 1 computer
hamary branch office my is condition my agar hamy remote office waly computer sy kuch heavy files
copy karni ho to waha hum FTP server ka use karty hy and over the internet file ko remote pc sy copy
karty hy apny computer py & the second example that k jo files hum internet sy download karty hy ya

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12 | F r e e L e a r n i n g ( F a y y a z A h m e d ) CSCO12971267

internet per apni files ko store/Upload karty hy ye bhi FTP server sy hi kiya jata hy or is ka port
number hy 21.

TFTP:
TFTP means (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) TFTP sever 1 application hy jessy hum internet sy
download karty hy or direct apny computer per use karty hy ye hota is ley hy k hamary CISCO k router
my jo IOS run hota hy matlab us my jo running configuration chal rahi hoti hy us ka backup save karny
k ley use hoti hy or wahi sy restore bhi hojati hy or hum apny router ko upgrade bhi essi application ki
help sy karty hy or ye port number 69 py kam karti hy.

HTTP:
HTTP means (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) i.e word, excel ki files MS office per run hoti hy essi
tarha HTTP ki files web browser k ley use hoti hy jessy k hum lekhty hy www.google.com to computer
don’t know what is google they know k ye HTTP per base hy HTTP backhand py communication karta
hy or pher essy hamary browser py open karta hy or ye port number 80 py kam karta hy.

HTTPS:
HTTPS means (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure) ye bhi same HTTP ki tarha hi hy per HTTPS use
hota hy hamari secure websites per jessy hamari banks ki site hogai qk is ka link secure hota hy matlab
ye 1 tarha sy 1 tunnel create karta hy jis my sari traffic encrypted hoti hy jessi koi hack nahi kar pata or
ye port 443 py work karta hy.

NTP:
NTP means (Network Time Protocol) hamry network py bhut sary switches or Routers ya servers hy to
in sub py logs generate hoty hy to ye bhi must hy k sub servers per time same hona chahye taky wo
servers apny statistics ko accurate time per record kar saky to is k ley 1 protocol use hota hy jessy hum
NTP khty hy ye hum kessi bhi router ya server py run karty hy or jaha ye run hy waha hum jo time set
karty hy sary server or switches py wohi time auto sync/set hojata hy or seconds ka bhi fark nahi aatta
so NTP protocol is ley use hota hy or ye port number 123 py work karta hy or ye sary hi protocols OSI
ki application layer per work karty hy or yahi application layer ki responsibility hy.

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Layer 6: Presentation Layer:


Presentation Layer check the format of data jessy hamary data k formates hoty hy like docx, JPG,
MP3, MP4 ya koi bhi format hu to presentation layer ki responsibility ye hy k data ka format ko check
kary k network my jo file send ho rahi hy us ka format kia hy. Presentation layer ki kuch or
responsibility bhi hy which mention below.

▪ Encryption:
Network my do tarha k text follow hoty hy 1) Plan Text or 2) Cypher Text. Plan text wo hoty hy jinhy
hum samajh sakty hy jessy English/Urdu ya any language jessy human easily read kar saky but Cypher
text essi language hoti hy jinhy hum samajh nahi sakty like *&^###@@ symbol wording garbage data
kuch is tarha sy to is sy hamara data secure hojata hy jis sy agar koi hamara data capture kar ley ya koi
file hack bhi kar ly to wo hamari information ko read nahi kar sakta qk wo encrypted hoti hy.
presentation layer my encryption or decryption hoti hy to encryption k process my data plan sy cypher
my convert hota hy or decryption my cypher sy wapas plan jis sy travelling k doran data secure hota hy
or pher destination py pouch k wapas cypher sy plan my ho jata hy or pher hum us language ko easily
read kar sakty hy ye sara kam backhand py hota hy. Hamari kuch sites bhi is process ko follow karti hy
like banks ki sites or her wo site jis k start my HTTPS laga ho S means Secure jaha encryption &
decryption ho rahi hoti hy. Or wo sites jin k start my just HTTP lekha hota hy wo sites plan text my
access ho rahi hoti hy.

▪ Compression:
Compression means jis sy hamary data ka size reduce hojata hy or commutation easily hojati hy kam
bandwidth my qk bary size ka data choty size or blocks my hojata hy or travelling k doran km
bandwidth ko use karta hy.

▪ Translation:
Translation bhi presentation layer my hoti hy jessy koi bhi language ho to computer ussy translate kar
sakta hy suppose Information convert to Data and data convert to Signals to is tarha data
communication bhi translation ki form my hi hoti hy.

Layer 5: Session Layer:


Session layer hamary sessions ko create karti hy jaissy hum apny browser py multiples TABs open
karty hy 4 sy 5 to her TAB my hum kuch naya search kar rahy hoty hy to ussy sessions khty hy
sessions layers her TAB py 1 alag session create karti hy. jis sy har TAB py hum kuch new search kar

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rahy hoty hy or wo session jab tak rehta hy jab tak hum wo TAB close nahi kar dyty. Essy hum yu bhi
samajh sakty hy k jb hum internet sy koi file download py lagaty hy to waha hamy 1 time dekhta hy k
file 5 mint my download hojaye gi to ye bhi session layer my hi perform hota hy k 5 minute tak hamara
session connect rahy ga us server sy jaha sy ap us file ko download kar rarhy hoty hy. Or agar is doran
session break hota hy to ERROR aata hy Session time out.

Layer 4: Transport Layer:


Transport Layer hamari end to end transmission karti hy from source to destination message or data ko
bilkul sahi tarha deliver karti hy or ussy 1 way means roadmap Provide karti hy jis py data flow hota
hy. Or jab hum transport layer ki bat karty hy to is k 2 main protocol hoty hy 1) TCP or 2) UDP jo is
layer py kam karty hy. Transport layer ki kuch or responsibilities bhi hy jessy Flow control,
Segmentation, Fragmentation which mention belowc.

▪ TCP:
TCP means (Transmission Control Protocol) zada tar networks ki communication my TCP use hota hy
bcz ye hamy Acknowledgment dyta hy like agar my ny kessi computer py message send kia hy to waha
sy mujhy 1 Acknowledgment milti hy k data sahi tarha send ho chukka hy ye sara process packets my
hota hy jessy hi 1 packet dosry computer tak pouch jata hy to dosra computer ACK dyta hy k packet
receive hogaya hy. Essi ley ye transmission Reliable hoti hy or trusted hoti hy.

▪ UDP:
UDP means (User Datagram Protocol) UDP kam to same TCP ki tarha hi karta hy per iska
disadvantage ye hy k ye ACK send nahi karta matlab koi guaranty nahi k data dosray end py received
howa bhi hy ya nahi ye sirf packets ko agye throw kar dyta hy or koi ACK received nahi karta or ye
zada reliable bhi nahi hota. voice or video communication k ley mostly UDP protocol use hota hy like
Skype, Audio or Video Calling k ley qk waha ACK ki need hi nahi hoti bat karty waqt agar 1 sy 2
packet miss bhi hojaye to itna fark nahi parta.

▪ Flow Control:
Transport layer hamy flow control provide karti hy matlab limited data send karti hy jinti k hamari
speed hoti hy data receiving ki us sy zada nahi karti warna conjunction ka khatra hota hy essi ley wo
flow control ko use karti hy data sending or receiving k doran jis mai Traffic k Flow ka 1 control hota
hy.

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▪ Segmentation:
Transport layer hamy Segmentation bhi provide karti hy matlab jessy k agar bhut bara data send ho
raha ho like 10MB ka to wo us 10MB k data ko phly 10 packets banati hy choty choty or pher ussy
Arrange karti hy sequence my like 1 to 10 or her packet py 1 label laga dyti hy jis sy agar koi packet
miss hojaye to ussy recover karny my aasani hu or sirf wohi packet recover ho jo miss howa hy to is
process ko hum segmentation khty hy.

▪ Fragmentation:
Fragmentation opposite hota hy segmentation k segmentation my bara data choty choty packets my
convert hota hy or Fragmentation my wohi choty choty packets dobara destination py pouch k bary
data my wapas convert hojaty hy.

Layer 3: Network Layer:


Network Layer my hamari IP add hojati hy jis sy communication hoti hy like source and destination IP
address from host to host. Routers network layer py work karty hy or essi ley hum router ko layer 3
device bhi khty hy qk routers network my best path ko search karty hy IP or routing protocols ki base
py or data ko us ki destination py send bhi karty hy in a different network. Router use karta hy IP or
IPx ko bhi IP ka matlab (internet Protocol) or IPX matlab (Internet Packet Exchanged) jo routers k
bech my packets exchange hoty hy wo IPX protocol ki help sy hoty hy.

Layer 2: Data Link Layer:


Data link layer work karti hy hamary switches py ye work karti hy MAC Address per switches my jo
frames banty hy us my IP address to nahi hoti per MAC Address hoty hy jis sy data destination host
tak pouch pata hy is frame my source MAC or Destination MAC address hota hy jis sy switch py
communication hoti hy. Hamary network switches work karty hy data link layer per jabhi network
switches ko Layer 2 device bhi kaha jata hy.

Layer 1: Physical Layer:


Physical layer 1 essi layer hy jaha actual data network interface sy physically move hota hy. Physical
layer cables or connector sy related standard ko specify karti hy. Kessi cable or transmission technic ko
use karna hy media wire hy ya wireless hy kon sy connections ko use karna hy ye sub hi physical layer

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k functions my aata hy. Jessy repeater, hub, media convertor etc subhi chezy physical layer py
perform hoti hy jo k physical layer ki responsibilities hy.

PDUs:
PDUs means (Protocol Data Unit) PDUs hamy hamary packet ki form bataty hy 7 layer my jab data
Application, Presentation, Session layers py hota hy to wo sirf Data hi hota hy per jab Data Transport
layer py ata hy to wo convert hojata hy Segment my or pher jab Data Network layer py hota hy tab data
khlata hy packet or pher jab Data Data link py hota hy to data khelata hy Frame or physical layer py
data bits ki form my hota hy essy khty hy PDUs matlab protocol data unit.
1) Data on Transport Layer called Segment.
2) Data on Network Layer called Packet.
3) Data on Data link Layer called Frame.

YES Finally you Complete your Module # 1 Hope this is


Informative for you & Easy to Learn.
For More Learning & Notes Visite www.easypeezzi.com

Express Feelings

10% Completed just 90% Left on your CCNA!

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Now Plan your Another Day & Learn Module # 2 which is second step of yours
17 | F r e e L e a r n i n g ( F a y y a z A h m e d ) CSCO12971267

LAN Switching Technologies

Contant U

What is Switch
✓ Switch Overview:
✓ Process of Working Switch:
✓ Benefit of using switch:
✓ Working of Switch how Switch builds a mac address:

Swithcing Information
✓ HUB?
✓ Switch?
✓ Types of Switches?
o Manageable Switch:
o Unmanageable Switch:

✓ CISCO Hierarchical Model?


o Access Layer:
o Distribution Layer:
o Core Layer:

✓ Switching Mode/ Switches Techniques?


o Fragment Free Switches:
o Store & Forward Switches:
o CUT Throw Switches:

Interface Modes
✓ Types of Switch Interface Modes?
o Administrative Mode:
o Operational Mode:
✓ Administrative Mode?
o Access Mode:
o Trunk Mode:
o Dynamic Auto / Dynamic Desirable:
✓ Operational Mode?
o Access Mode:
o Trunk Mode:
✓ Configuration Modes?
✓ Cisco device modes?

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18 | F r e e L e a r n i n g ( F a y y a z A h m e d ) CSCO12971267

Switch Concept:
Network switch 1 essi device hy jo computers, dosry
switches or network devices ko aapas my connect karti hy. switch ko multi-port bridge bhi kaha jata hy
or ye switches OSI ki data link layer matlab layer 2 py work karty hy lekin aajkal hammy essy switches
bhi dekhny ko milty hy jo k layer 3 or layer 4 py bhi work karty hy essy switches ko layer 3 switches
ya multi-layer switches bhi kehty hy but agar kahi sirf switch word use hota hy to matlab k wo layer 2
switch ki bat ho rahi hy jo sirf LAN py connectivity provide karta hy routing wagera perform nahi
karta. Switch ki working bhut simple hoti hy switch apni port py messages ko receive karta hy in the
form of frame or ussy transmit karta hy ussi device ko jis device py wo message send kia jata hy yani 1
to 1 communication switch hub ki tarha nahi hy qk hub py jo bhi message receive hota tha hub ussy
broadcast kar dyta tha pory network py to jis k ley wo message hota tha wo us message ko receive kar
lyta tha or baki sub us message ko discard kardy ty thy to hub as a dumb kam karta tha or switch as a
intelligent kam karta hy jo sirf message ko ussi device py direct send karta hy jaha ussy jana hota hy or
yahi hub or switch ka sub sy bara difference hy, switch essa is ley kar pata hy qk switch apny andar 1
table banata hy jessy Forwarding table ya MAC table bhi kahty hy is table my ye khud sy connect sari
devices ki information ko save rakhta hy taky messages ko direct ussi device py send kar saky jaha
ussy jana hota hy.

Process of Working Switch:


Switch apni her port py 1 alag collision domain ko create karta hy. Collision domain means jaha data k
darmiyan kabhi bhi takrao ho sakta hy ammoman ye jab hota hai jab hamara network shared media mai
design hu so essi ley switch advance hy to is ki sari ports khud my hi 1 alag seprate collision domain
hoti hy jis ki waja sy data apaas my takra kar crash hony matlab collision ka khatra nahi hota 1 switch
jis my 24 ports hy to wo sari ports 1 hi broadcast domain ka hissa hogi per per switch ki her 1 port 1
alag collision domain my hoti hy.

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Benefit of using switch:


1) Switch hamy LAN py connectivity provide karta hy or switch plug and play hota hy
mtalab jessy hi switch py cables connect hoti hy switch apni working auto hi start kar
dyta hy.
2) Switch hamy LAN py high-speed py data ko exchange karny ki facility provide karta
hy qk ye work karty hy 100, to 1000 Giga bits per. Is k elawa ye full duplex
communication use karty hy (Sending receiving both same time)
3) Switch hamy point to point data communication bhi provide karta hy.

Working of Switch How Switch builds a MAC Address:


Switch ON hoty hi sub sy phly apny ander1 Mac-table
banaty hy jis my wo khud sy connect sary PCs ki
information ko save karty hy or pher ussi address py direct
data ko transfer karty. Suppose mery network my 1 switch
hy or 4 PC’s hy or ye charo PC’s mery switch k sath connect hy to switch 1 forwarding ya Mac-table
banata hy jis my wo her port sy connect computer ka Mac-address apny Mac-table my ussi port k sath
jis sy wo connect hy port or Mac-address donu ko hi save kar lyta hy jissy data Sending and Receiving
aasan hojati hy.
Now discuss k ye kam kessye karta hy first time jab switch on hota hy to switch ka Mac-table bilkul
Empty (blank) hota hy jessy hi PC A data send karta hy PC B ko to switch first time kam karta hy as a
HUB or wo us frame ko broadcast kar dyta hy or sirf PC B us frame ko receive kar k ussy accept kar
lyta hy or baki sub us frame ko discard kar dyty hy PC B frame receive karny k bad 1 acknowledgment
send karta hy switch ko k data my ny receive kar liya hy tu is sy PC B or PC A ka MAC-address switch
apny mac table my save kar lyta hy uski connected port k sath tu next time pher wo broadcast nahi
karta direct ussi PC ko data send karta hy jaha ussy jana hota hy qk us k Mac-table my us ki
information save ho jati hy.
If you wanna show the Mac-table of
switch use the command mention
below.
SW1# Show mac address-table

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HUB Device:
Hub is a Dummy Device jo MAC address ko learn nahi karta tha. Layer 1 py work karta hai in the form
of 1 or 0 HUB hamesha broadcast karta hy. Bandwidth ko sary PCs py share karta hy or single
collision or broadcast domain create karta hai hub topology work in a share network.

Quick Concept of Switch:


Switch apni her port py MAC address ko learn karta hy. switch layer 2 py work karta hy. Switch jab on
hota hy to first time Broadcast karta hy or pher us k bad Unicast karta hy broadcast nahi. Switch k
andar 1 chip hoti hy jis ko ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) khty hy jis ki waja sy ye essa
kar patta hy or ye apny andar 1 MAC table banata hy jis sy ye direct ussi PC ko data send karta hy jis
ko wo jana hota hy yani unicast karta hy broadcast nahi. ye fixed bandwidth py work karta hy
bandwidth ko shared nahi karta. Switch my 1 Broadcast Domain hota hy or per port py 1 single
Collision Domain hota hy.

Types of Switches:

▪ Manageable Switch:
Manageable switch ko hum Command sy Configure kar sakty hy apni Network Requirement k
according changes kar sakty hy security implement kar sakty NIC Slots adds kar k uski ports ko
increase karny k k ley Switch ko IP assign kar k remotely ussy configure kar sakty hai and so on.

▪ Unmanageable Switch:
Unmanageable switch means jin ko hum manage nahi kar sakty ye fixed hoty hy or plug and play hoty
ap is my khud sy koi changes nahi kar sakty this is for very small business plug & Play Network.

Unmanageable Switch Manageable Switch

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CISCO Hierarchical Model:


CISCO k hierarchical design my 3 Layers hoti hy jinhy segments k according divide kar k design kia
jata hy jis my Access, Distribution or Core Layers Design hoti hy hy. Hierarchical module mai
Switches ko unki Series, un ki Powers or technic k According design kia jata hy. layers ko samjhny sy
phly hum switches ki technics or modes k barry my thori information gain karty hy.

Switching Mode/ Switches Techniques:


Switches switching karty waqt kuch internally Process or Techniques ko use karty hy jinhy hum
Switching Mode ya Techniques khty hy.

▪ Fragment Free Switches:


Switches py jo Frame send hoty hy wo over all 1500 Byte something k hoty hy tu jo switch Fragment
Free Techniques ko use karty hy wo Frame ko check karty hy jaha py unki Addressing Information
store hoti hy. Research k mutabik essa pata lagaya gaya hy k frame my jo error hoty hy wo zada tar
start k 64 bytes k ander hi hoty hy or ye sirf unhi bytes ko check karta hy agar inhee my koi error hota
hy tu ye frame ko wahi Discard kar dyta hy or agye send nahi karta. Fragment Free Switches ki CPU
Utilization bhi zada nahi hoti or ye Bandwidth bhi Medium Use karty hy to is type k Switches yani
Fragment Free Switches Access Layer py lagaye jaty hy the series start of Access layer (1900 to 2900
Series Switches).

▪ Store & Forward Switches:


Store and forward switch my 1 buffer laga hota hy jab ye frame ko receive karta hy apni port per to ye
frame ko us buffer my store karlyta hy or us k bad uski error checking karta hy agar frame my kuch
error hota hy to ye frame ko wahi discard kardyta hy or agye forward nahi karta. Store and forward
types of Switches jo data transfer karty hy wo sub sy zada reliable hota hy. Or Store & Forward types k
Switches Hamesha Distribution Layer py lagaye jaty hy & the series start of Distribution layer (3000 to
5000 Series Switches). QK ye CPU Utilization High use karty hy or ye Bandwidth bhi zada use karty
hy to jabhi is layer py High series k Switches lagaye jaty hy.

▪ CUT Throw Switches:


Jo switches cut throw technic ko use karty hy wo hoty bhut Fast hy or hamesha Core Layer py Cut
Throw Techniques k Switches hi lagaty hy. Ye kessi type ki error Checking nahi karty qk sari
Checking Distribution layer sy clear hoky Core layer k switches py aati hy jabhi ye koi error checking

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nahi katy just data ko speedily aagye forward karty hy qk agar Core layer k switches bhi error checking
kary gy to waha load zada barhy ga jo nahi hona chyee Core layer hamesha bilkul Free or fast hi honi
chayee qk core layer hamry different units or ISP end k sath direct connect hota hai jabhi hum waha
Cut Throw Techniques k Switches use karty hy tu essi ley iski CPU Utilization zada hoti hy. So Cor
layer py Cut Throw Techniques k Switches lagaye jaty hy the series start of Core layer (7000 to
10,000 Series Switches).
So that’s the Hierarchical Design technic now we discuss the layer or this desing which mention
below.

Details of Layers in Hierarchical Design:

▪ Access Layer:
Access Layer wo Layer hoti hy jis sy Direct PCs connect hoty hy or users network resources ko access
karty hai that’s is called Access Layer essi ley waha thory lowest end ki series k switches ko lagaya jata
hy jessy like (1900 to 2900 Series Switches).

▪ Distribution Layer:
Distribution Layer wo layer hoti hy jo Network k Middle my hoti hy Core Layer or Access Layer k
darmiyan Connectivity provide karti hy or waha sy network distribute ho raha hota hy typicall
configuration ACls distribution Layer per configure hoti hai. That’s way waha thori achi series k
switches lagaye jaty hy jessy (3000 to 5000 Series Switches).

▪ Core Layer:
Core layer yani wo layer jo Network my sub sy important layer hoti hy jaha sy pora Network Manage
ho raha hota hy or dossri jagaho sy bhi Direct Connect hota hy. Essi ley hum waha Best series k
switches lagaty hy qk agar core layer down hogi tu internal users ki outside communication or outside
user ki internall user sy communication break hojaye gi. That’s way waha bhut hi Fast or Powerful
swithces hoty hy just like (7000, 8000 & 10,000 Series Switches). So ye CISCO ka Hierarchical
Design hy jo k enterprise network k ley desing hota hai jis sy Network bhut acha or powerfull Design
hota hy.
See picture very simple Desing of Hierarchical Network:

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Types of Switch Interface Modes:


By default, switch k interface k 2 modes hoty hy.
1) Administrative Mode.
2) Operational Mode.

Administrative Mode:
Administrative mode my hum switch ki ports ko khud sy configure karty hy or is k 4 mode
hoty hy.

▪ Access Mode:
Access Mode end user’s ki connecting ports hoti hy jo direct switch sy user ki end devices
yani computer k sath connect hoti hy jaha sy wo network ko access karty hai. Access mode
sy 1 hi Vlan ka data carry hota hy ye hamesha aapni single port sy 1 hi vlan ka data travel
karti hy multiple vlans ka nahi. Or Access ports security purpose k ley bhi banai jati hy qk
ye ports auto as a trunk configure nahi hoti.

▪ Trunk Mode:
Trunk Mode wo ports hoti hy jo single port per Multiple VLANs ka data send & receive
kar sakti hy trunk port py vlan tagging hoti hy jissy data ko pata lagta hy k ye data kon c
vlan k ley hy. Or hum switch ki last port ko jo k dosray switches sy connected hoti un ports
ko hum trunk port configure karty hy taky wo multiple vlan’s ka data send or receive kar
saky dosray switches per bhi.

▪ Dynamic Auto / Dynamic Desirable:


Ye donu hi mode hum switch py chor dyty hy or ye negotiable hoty hy Matlab samny wali
port ko dekh k decide kia jata hy k port kis role my configure hogi agar wo access hy to wo
bhi khud ko auto access configure karly gi or ager trunk hy to auto hi trunk configure
hojaye gi.

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Diffrenece between Dynamic Auto & Desirable:


Dynamic Auto: jab tak khud ko trunk port nahi banati jab tak dosra switch us ko trunk ka
message send na kardy agar dono switch ki ports dynamic auto hai tu switch khud sy us
port k mode ko change nahi karyga jb tk ussy change na kiya jaye
Dynamic Desirable: jesssy hi dosry end ki switchport Trunk configure hoti hai to wo wait
nahi karti hy dekhti hy samny waly switch k port Trunk configure hoi hai tu khud ko bhi
foren hi trunk port configure karlyti hy.

Example: 1

Example: 2

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Example: 3

Example: 04

Discuss Operational Mode:


Switch k 2 Operational Mode hoty hy basic mode 4 configure hoty hy but switch ki port 2 Operational
Mode mai work karti hai which mention below.
1) Access Mode.
2) Trunk Mode.

Note:

Access or Trunk k elawa ports koi or ACT nahi karti ya to wo Trunk ACT kary gi ya pher Access.
By default Switch k ports Dynamic Desirable mode my hoti hy jabhi wo khud sy trunk ya access nahi
banti jab tak hum ussy khud configure na kar dy.

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Cisco Device Modes:


Window my jis tarha hamary users k kuch privileges hoty hy jessy user and admin essi tarha cisco ki
devices ko configure karny k ley bhi kuch privileged ko hammy access karna parta hy ye modes alag
alag task perform karny k ley use kiyee jaty hy. Cisco device wo chahyee router hu ya switch in k basic
3 modes hoty hy.

▪ User Exec Mode:


User Exec mode Security purpose k ley hota hy jaissy aager kessi ko router ya switch py sirf
ye rights hy k wo sirf running-config dekh saky to wo sirf use Exec mode ko access kary ga
kuch configuration karna chahye ga to nahi kar paye ga. User Exec mode sirf show commands
use karny k ley hota hy ap sirf dekh satky hy k switch py kia configuration hy wo bhi kuch had
tak abki ping kar sakti hai & so on. Qk user exec mode bhi limited commands ko accept karta
hy jessy ping wagera. The symbol shows of user exec mode “Switch>”

▪ Privilege Exec Mode:


Is mode py hum show ki sari commands use kar sakty hy or kuch had tk configuration bhi kar
sakty hy. but yaha py limited configuration hoti hy full rights yaha bhi nahi hoty leakin yaha
per hum show ki sari commands ko use kar sakty hy. This is the symbol of user Privilege mode
“Switch#”

▪ Global Configuration mode:


Is mode ko access karny k bad humy Full Authority hoti hy router or switch ko configure
karny ki. yaha sy hum pory network ko configure kar sakty hy or yaha hamy ful rights hoty hai.
This is the symbol of Global Configuration mode “Switch(config)#”

Concept of Console port:


Console port: Cisco k Router or Switches GUI base bhi hoty hy or CLI base bhi jaha hum commands
k throw router ko configure karty hy CLI mode my koi graphic nahi hoti is my kuch bhi apko graphic
my nahi dekhta to router ko configure karny k ley hamy kessi computer la laptop ki need hoti hy jis ki
help sy hum router ko configure kar sakty hu tu console port router ka display ap k computer per dyti
hy jis sy hum us Router/Switch ko configure kar sakty hy.

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Simply console port Router/Switch ko configure karny k ley use hoti hy. Or Router/Switch ka console
lyny k ley hum kuch software use karty hy jessy window XP my Hyper Terminal use karty thy or ab
window 7 ya latest window k ley hum Putty software ka use karty hy Router/Switch ka console lyny k
ley so is tarha hum rotuer ya switch ki configuration kar sakty hy.

Changing Switch Modes Commands:


Router > enable (Enable Takes you to Priviledge Mode)
Router # configure terminal (Takes you to Configuration Mode)
Router (config)#

Interface mode (Router physical interface configuration mode)


Router(config-if)#

• Subinterface mode (Router sub-interface configuration mode)


Router(config-subif)#

• Line mode (Router line configuration mode - console, vty etc.)


Router(config-line)#

• Router configuration mode (Routing protocols configuration mode.)


Router(config-router)#

YES Finally you also Complete your Module # 2 Hope this is


Informative for you & Easy to Learn.
For More Learning & Notes Visite www.easypeezzi.com

Feeling Relax & Plan Another Day


20% Completed just 80%
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VLANs & VLan Trunking

Contant
U U

Vertual Local Area Network :

✓ Vlan Overview?
✓ Types of Vlan?
o Data Vlan
o Default Vlan
o Native Vlan
o Management Vlan
o SVI Vlan

✓ Vlan ID’s Range?


✓ Extended Range?
✓ Trunks Port?
✓ Router on a Stick?
✓ Inter-vlan Routing?
U

VTP Protocol:
✓ VTP Overview?
✓ How VTP Work?
✓ VTP Modes?
o Sever Mode:
o Client Mode:
o Transparent Mode:
✓ Requirment for VTP?
o Always Port Trunk:
o Always same Domain:
o VTP Password:

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VLAN’s Overview:

VLAN (Virtual LAN) eak logical network ko kehty hai. Eak hi switch py rehty howy switches k
multiples portion create karna VLAN ki another example hai. Suppose k hamary network mai 5
buildings hai or wo sabhi same LAN segment ko use kar rahi hai without any configuration simple
network ki tarha to is Scenario mai agar network mai koi broadcast create hoti hai to us ki waja sy
hamara pora network down hojaye hai sari buildings ka.
So VLAN eak essi technic hai jis ki help sy hum switches ko buildings ya multiples department mai
divide kar sakty hai VLAN configuration k throw.
Her VLAN eak separate Network hoti hai pher chahye wo eak hi switch py hu ya multiple swithces
per. Or separte network means separate broadcast domain so jab hum VLANs configure karty hai
deparments wise ya building wise to switch apny single boradcast domain mai sy eak separate
boradcast domain us VLAN k ley create karta hai or jitny bhi interfaces ya computers us VLAN ka
part hoty hai wo sub eak hi switch py rehty howy bhi eak separate network ki tarha ACT karty hai.
So agar hum apny network mai 5 VLANs create kary or her eak building ko eak separate VLAN mai
assign kary to agar next time network mai koi broadcast create hoti hai to us ka impact sirf ussi
building tk rahy ga bakki ki buildings per us ka effect nahi hoga ga because single VLAN is a separate
Network or separate Broadcast Domain
Hum VLAN ka usage kessi bhi tarha kar sakty hai apni network requirement k according like building
wise or departments wise suppose HR Deparment (eak separateVALN), Audit Deparment (eak
separateVALN), Sary VoIP Phones (eak separateVALN), or Management Staff (eak separateVALN)
so its up to you k hum VLANs ko kis tarha apny network mai implement karty hai network traffic ko
separate rakhny k ley.

If you wanna show the


VLAN of switch use the command SW1# Show VLAN brief

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Types of VLAN:

Default VLAN : Default VLAN hamray switches py by default bani hoti hy jis py
phly sy switch ki sari port assign hoti hy jessy hum VLAN 1 khty hy VLAN 1 is by default VLAN in
every Cisco Switches.

Management VLAN : Management VLAN mai hum VLANs ko IP dy sakty hy taky


hum apny switch ko bhi router ki tarha remotely telnet session k throw configure kar saky to jis bhi
VLAN ko hum IP assign karty hy hamari wo VLAN management VLAN khelati hy jaha sy hum
switch ka remote ly k switch ko remotely bhi configure kar sakty hy or T-shoot k ley us switch ki IP
ping kar k deparments ki connectivity ko bhi check kar sakty hai.

Data VLAN : Data VLAN sirf User’s ka Data Carry karti hy


Management/administration ka nahi ye sirf control karti hy hamary data ko or hamari voice traffic ko.

Native VLAN : Jab hum inter VLAN routing perform karty hy matlab do different
VLANs k darmiyan communicate karwaty hy to waha hum 802.1Q protocol ka use karty hy jo her
VLAN per us ki destination VLAN ka address TAG kar dyta hy k ye traffic kon c VLAN per jayegi. So
essi tarha VLAN 1 koi different VLAN nahi hoti yani hum ussy khud sy create nahi karty wo by
default hoti hy to agar VLAN 10 sy data send hoga VLAN 1 ko to wo untagged hoga qk wo koi
different VLAN nahi hy switch ki apni default VLAN hy to essi ley hum VLAN 1 ko as a native
VLAN bhi khty hy qk wo untagged hoti hy jis my kessi bhi destination VLAN ki information nahi hoti

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switch ki apni VLAN ki information hoti hy. So Simple VLAN 1 is Native VLAN or native VLAN
hum apni marzi sy bhi configure kar sakty hy.

SVI VLAN : SVI means (Switch Virtual Interface) jab bhi hum apny switch ko IP dyty hy
to wo kessi VLAN ko active kar k dyty hy or switch ko IP dyny sy switch hamy layer 3 ki functionality
dyta hy sirf 1 VLAN k ley to jis VLAN py IP address configure hota hy us VLAN ko hum SVI VLAN
khty hy qk wo as a Router k virtual interface ki tarha perform kar rahi hoti hy or ye by default off hoti
hy essy hamy forcefully configure karna hota hy

VLAN ID’s Range:


• 1 to 1005
• VLAN 1 (Default) Created by default con not be deleted.
• VLAN 1002 – 1005 (use for Token Ring and FDDI default) Created by default con not be
deleted.
• VLAN information save in VLAN.DAT file in flash memory.

Extended Range:
• 1006 - 4094
• Extended VLAN’s Range used for ISP’s.
• And VLAN information stored in Running Configuration.
U

Concept of Trunks Port:


By default switch ki her port khud sy Single VLAN ka data
access karti hy but agar hamari VLAN kessi dosry switch py bhi
configure hy like end to end VLAN or different VLANs hy to
yaha hamy switch ki end ports ko Trunk Port banana parta hy qk
Trunk port 1 single port my hi Multiple VLANs ka data send and
receive kar sakti hy. Agar hum switch ki last port lo trunk port
nahi bannye gy to different VLANs k darmiyan communication
nahi ho paye gi.

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Router on a Stick:
Router on a stick ko inter VLAN routing bhi khty hy agar hum do different VLANs ko appas mai
communicate bhi karana chty hai tu is conndition mai hammy 1 router ya L3 device ki need hoti hy qk
router 2 different network k darmiyan communicate kar waata hy to essi ley hum is process ko inter
VLAN routing bhi khty hy jis my 2 VLANs 1 different network my rehty howy bhi apas my
communicate kar sakti hy is k ley hum router py DOT1Q protocol ko use karty howy Sub Interfaces
banta hy or pher virtual links create karty hy jis ki help sy VLANs communicate kar pati hy.

Inter-VLAN Routing:
Inter VLAN routing my router my do seprate interface ko use
kia jata hy VLANs ko apas my communicate karwany k ley is
ka disadvantage ye hy k router my bhut km interfaces hoty hy
or agar humary pass 5 VLANs configure hai tu waha hum itny
sary interfaces to nahi use kar sakta essi ley hum router on a
stick trick ko use karty hy is my hum bs 1 hi interface ko use
karty hy or ussi interface mai sub interfaces dot1q protocol ko
use karty howy virtual interface create kar dyty hy jissy 1 hi
interface py rehty howay sari VLANs apas my communicate
kar rhi hoti hy or zada interfaces bhi use nahi hoty.
U

LAB: Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN)


Switch>enable
Switch # configure terminal
Switch(conf)# VLAN 10
Switch(config)# name H.R
Switch(config)# exit
Switch(conf)# VLAN 20
Switch(config)# name SALES
Switch(config)# exit

Show VLAN on the Switch


SW1# Show VLAN brief

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Assigning ports in VLAN


Switch (config)#int fa0/1
Switch (config-if)#switchport mode access
Switch (config-if)#switchport access VLAN 10
Switch (config-if)#exit

Switch (config)#int fa0/2


Switch (config-if)#switchport mode access
Switch (config-if)#switchport access VLAN 20
Switch (config-if)#exit

Inter-VLAN Routing:

Creating sub-interface for VLAN 10 on Router:


Router> en
Router# config t
Router(config) Int fa0/0.10
Router(config-subif) encapsulation dot1Q 10
Router(config-subif) ip address 10.0.0.100 255.0.0.0
Router(config-subif) no shut

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VTP Explanation:
VTP means (VLAN Trunking Protocol) VTP
cisco ka propriety protocol hy VTP protocol
kam ye karta yehy k jaisy suppose hamary
network my (40) Switches hy or hum ny 1
switch py VLAN create karni hy like VLAN10
so 1 switch tak to ye thk hy per agar mujhy is
VLAN ko apny network py rakhy or switches sy
bhi connect karna hy to waha mujhy yehi VLAN
or switches py bhi configure karni hogi.
Is k ley mujhy sary switches ka console ly k ye
VLAN sary switches per manually configure
karni hogi but ye koi best way nahi hy olta thaka dyny wala kam hy to essi ley CISCO ny VTP protocol
banaya hy VTP protocol my hum apny sary switches py VTP protocol ko enable karty hy or VTP
protocol my switches k mode set karty hy jaissy k Server mode or Client mode so Server mode my jo
switch hota hy hum bs ussi switch py 1 VLAN create karty hy or wo switch khud sy connect sary
switch py auto hi wo VLAN create kar dyta hy. yani k VLAN ki information sync kar dyta hy. To
hammy her switch py jaja k wohi VLAN create nahi karni parti or yahi sub sy bara benefit hy is
protocol ka. Or VTP sirf CISCO k swithes py hi chalta hy.

Quick Concept of VTP Protocol:


VLAN Trunking Protocol Cisco ka propriety protocol hy ye run karta hy sirf Trunk links py or
synchronize karta hy VLAN k database ko sary switches py jo same domain ka part hoty hy. VTP
domain 1 administrative group hota hy or jin switches py VTP run karna hy un ka same domain my
hona lazmi hy jabhi wo VLAN k database ko sary switches py synchronize kar saky gy or un ka
domain name bhi same configure hona chayee the name is case sensative. VTP work karta hy us k
Revision number sy or VTP my maximum 4.3 billion revision num ban sakty hy.
1) Network my sary switches VTP ki advertisement ko send karty hy her 5 minute k bad or aagar
un k VLAN database my koi changing hoi hu to foren hi VTP update send karty hy pher 5
minute wait nahi karty.
2) VTP work karta hy us k Revision number sy Network my koi VLAN banny ya delete ho too us
my revision number hamesha 1 plus hota rehta hy or pher wo revision number network my

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advertise hota hy or bakki k switches ussy apny revision number sy match karty hy aagar
revision number zada hota hy to wo us switch ka databse apny database sy replace kar lyty hy.
or jis switch ka revision number higher hota hy to sary switches us VLAN database ho khud
my overwrite kar lyty hy.

VTP Modes:

▪ Server Mode:

By default Cisco k switches my VTP enable hota hy or ye Server mode my ACT kar raha hota
hy. Server mode my ap khud sy VLAN banna bhi sakty hy us my editing bhi kar sakty hy or
ussy delete bhi kar sakty hy.

▪ Client Mode:

Client mode k switch my ap na to VLAN banna sakty hy na edit kar sakty hy or nahi delete kar
sakty hy client mode k switch hamesha khud my VLANs ki information ko overwrite karty hy
server mode k switch sy jessy hi server mode k switch my 1 VLAN create hoti hy to wo Switch
foren hi apny network my khud sy connect sary switches ko 1 VTP update send karta hy or
Client mode k sary switches us update ko accept karty hy or khud my wohi VLAN update kar
lyty hy jo server mode switch my forcefully configure hoi hoti hy.

▪ Transparent Mode:

Transparent jaissy k name sy hi show ho rha hy matlab cross yani Arr Paarr. Cisco k Sary
Switches py VTP enable hota hy or hum essy disable nahi kar sakty suppose (40) switches my
sy kuch switches essy bhi hy jin my my koi bhi vla nahi banna chata qk waha VLAN ki koi
need hi nahi hy to essy my ma us switch ko server mode py bhi chor nahi sakty qk pher us
switch ko full rights mil jaye gy or mai VTP ko disable bhi nahi kar sakta to bs itnaa kar sakty
hu k us switch ka mode Transparent configure kar sakty hy. wessy to sary hi switches VTP ki
update ko poray network py send karty hy or client mode k switches us update ko accept kar k
khud my wohi changing kar lyty hy per transparent mode my switch us update ko receive to
karyga per khud my kuch changing nahi karyga or wessy hi us update ko agye forward kardy
ga or switches ko. So transparent mode k switches ko hum as a disable man lyty hy qk wo VTP
ki Update receive to karty hy or direct hi agye forward kar dyty hy means transparent mode k
switches my VTP ki Update us switch sy cross means Arr Paarr ho jati hy.

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Requirement for VTP to Between Two Switches:


1) VTP ki phli requirement to ye hy k switches ki connecting ports jo kessi dosry switch sy
connect ho rahi hu un ka Trunk Port hona lazmi hy jab hi wo agye VTP ki Update ko send kar
pay gy.
2) Dosri requirement ye hy k VTP ka kessi 1 Domain my hona lazmi hy matlab agar hum chty hy
k VTP ki update sary switches py same rahy tu un ka kessi 1 domain k name lazmi hy. hum
apny network my 3 sy 4 Domain bhi bana sakty hy to jis bhi domain my VTP ki update hoi
hogi to sirf unhi client py wo receive hogi jo us domain ka part hongy. Is k ley hum switch py
VTP configure karty waqt domain ka name configure karty hy jabhi us switch ko pata lagta hy
k wo kon sy domain ka part hy. Or ye domain name case sensitive hoty hy matlab sary
switches py name 1 jaisa hi hona chaye ager small letter my hy to small my hi or agar capital
letter my hy tu capital my hi.
3) (Optional) hum security purpose k ley VTP server my passwords bhi dy sakty hu or wo
password bhi sary switches py same hona chaye jabhi wo VTP ki update ko password match
kar k agye forward kary gy.

Configuration of VTP Server:


Switch (config)#Vtp mode client, server, transparent
Switch (config)#Vtp domain cisco
Switch (config)#Vtp password cisco (optional)
Switch (config)#Vtp version 1,2,3
Switch (config)#Vtp pruning (optional)

VTP Show Commands:


Switch#Show VTP status
Switch#Show VTP password

YES Finally you also Complete your Module # 3 Hope this is


Informative for you & Easy to Learn.
For More Learning & Notes Visite www.easypeezzi.com

30% Completed just 70% Left on Your


CCNA!
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Spanning Tree Protocol

Contant
U U

Spanning Tree Protocol:


✓ Spanning Tree Protocol Problums?
o Instable CAM Table:
o Broadcast Storming:
o Repeatable Delivery:

✓ Describe Solution:
✓ STP Overview (802.1D):
✓ How’s Spanning Tree protocol Work’s:
✓ Elections Process of STP:
o ROOT switch Election?
o ROOT Port Election?
o Designated switch Election?

✓ Spanning tree Protocol Bridge I.D?


✓ Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU)?
✓ TCN BPDU (Topology Change Notification)?
✓ BPDU 3 Process?
✓ BPDU Timer?
o Hello Timer:
o Max Age Timer:
o Forward Delay Timer:

✓ Describe Election of Root Switch?


✓ Describe Election Root Port?
✓ Describe Election Designated Switch/port?

Ether Channel:
U

✓ Ether-Channel Overview?
✓ How Ether-Channel Works?
✓ Range of Ether-Channel?
✓ Benefits of Ehter-Channel?
✓ Ehter-Channel Protocols?
o PAGP:
o LACP:

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Concept of Redundant Topology:


STP ko samjhny sy phly ye samjhna zarori hy k Redundant Topology kia hoti hy. So jab bhi hum apny
network my multiple switches ko connect karty hy to is condition my hum 1 hi single link py depend
nahi rehty qk agar essa hoga to wohi 1 link down hony per hamari Network sy connectivity break ho
jaye gi. to essi liye hum multiple links create karty hy switches k bech my jesy hum backup links bhi
kehty hy. jis sy agar 1 link down ho bhi jaye jo network ki traffic auto hi dosray link sy flow ho jati hy.
Essa hum kar to dyty hy but multiple links create karny sy switches k darmiyaan multiple Frames bhi
copy hojaty hy or essi topology ko hum redundant topology kehty hai the Diagram mention below.

But is tarha ki topology my 3 tarha ki problem’s create hoti hy.

▪ Instable CAM Table:


CAM means (Content addressable memory) ye phly k switch my 1 memory hoti thi jis my switch
khud sy connect sary pc’s k Mac-address ko record karta tha or ab CAM table ko hum MAC-table bhi
khty hy. To is table my switch sy connect sary PC’s ki information un k MAC address or connecting
ports ki shakal my hoti hy. Instable CAM Table matlab same Mac Address ka 2 bar milna 1 hi port py
its like looping.

▪ Broadcast Storming:
Broadcast Storming matlab ager koi PC Network my broadcast karta hy to wo broadcast us switch k
donu interface sy out hogi jis ki waja sy her PC ko wohi broadcast 2 bar mily gi or ye broadcast 1 loop
ki shakal my chalti hi jaye gi bar bar.

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▪ Repeatable Delivery:
Repeatable delivery matlab k JAB switch apni port per broadcast MAC address ko received kary ga jo
k hota hy “FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF” to her switch us frame ko khud sy sary connect PC’s ko wo
information deliver to kar dyga magar jab yehi frame dosray link sy bhi switch ko mily ga or us my
broadcast MAC-address hoga to switch dobara sy wohi frame Repeatable Deliver kar dy pory network
py to essi tarha wohi frame again & again deliver hota rahy ga or looping create hojaye gi jis sy
network chock ho k down hojaye ga.

Solutions of LoOp:
So multiple links create karny sy hammy in problems ko face karna pary ga jo k network k ley bilkul
bhi thk nahi hy per agar hammy pher bhi backup links create karny hotu CISCO hammy 1 Protocol
provide karta hai jessy hum “Spanning Tree Protocol” khty hy or ye CISCO k Switch my by default
enable hota hy. To jaisy hi hum CISCO k switches ko multiple links sy connect karty hy STP auto run
hota hy or multiple links my sy 1 links ko auto hi down kar dyta hy jis sy 1 time py 1 hi link up hota
hy. And for the backup jessy hi Up Link down hota hy to spanning Tree Protocol Foren hi us dosray
link ko auto hi UP kar dyta hy jo hum ny Backup way k ley create kiya tha to is sy hum apny switch py
multiple links create kar sakty hy. per Spanning Tree Protocol 1 time py 1 hi link ko UP rakhty hy taky
wo looping or in 3 problem’s ko network my na hony dy,

STP Overview:
1) STP Standard of IEEE.
2) STP Port Number 802.1D.
3) Avoids Switching Loops.
4) Auto enable in cisco switches.
5) Work Data link layer.

How’s Spanning Tree protocol Work’s:


Spanning Tree Protocol is process ko karny k ley apna 1 Algorithm chalata hy jis ka name hy
“Spanning Tree Algorithm” or is algorithm k throw wo election karta hy switches k darmiyan. Or pher
network switches my 3 tarha k Elections hoty hy.

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First Election:
First election ye hota hy k network my mojood sary switches my sy ROOT switch kon banye ga jis k
throw data travel hoga or wo pory network ki responsibility lyga. ROOT Switch k sary interface
Forwarding State my hoty hy us ka koi bhi interface blocking state my nahi hota.

Second Election:
First election k bad jab network mai ROOT Switch select ho jata hy tu us k bad network py connect
sary switch NON Root Switch hojaty hy. Or NON Root Switch ki koi eak port ROOT Interface hoti hai
jo Root Switch sy direct connect hoti hai or ye Root port decide hoti hy interface ki Cost sy suppose k
ager network py connect sari port Fast Ethernet hy to un ki speed hogi 100Mbps to in interfaces ki cost
hoti hy 19 or essi cost ko dekhty howay NON Root switch ye decide karty hy k un ki kon c port Root
port hogi jis sy wo Root bridge/switch tak km time my pouch saky gy. Or Root port bhi kabhi blocking
state my nahi jatti ye hamesha forwarding state my hoti hy.

Third Election:
3rd election process hota hy k kon sa switch Designated switch banny ga matlab k ager 1 link py 2
switches Connect hy to un 2 switches my sy kon sa switch designated switch hoga jis ki taraf data
throw hoga. Or network mai jo switch designated switch banta hy us switch ki ports bhi designated
ports ban jati hy Root Port or Designated ports forwarding state my hoti hy or switch ki wo port jo k
PC’s sy connect hoti hy wo port designated khelati. Root Switch ki sari Port Forwarding state my hogi
or NON Root switch ki 1 port Root Port hogi jo k forwarding State my hogi or 1 Switch essa hoga jo k
designated switch hoga or us ki connecting port bhi Forwarding State my hogi. So0o0o Spanning Tree
Protocol ka algorithm chalny k bad bhi agar koi port forwarding state my nahi jati to wo khud hi
blocking state my chali jati hy so STP ka Algorithm kuch is tarha work karta hy.

Spanning tree Protocol Bridge I.D:


Cisco ya kessi bhi switch ka apna 1 unique address hota hy 1 I.D hoti hy jessy hum Switch ki Bridge
I.D khty hy. Or bridge I.D is ley khty hy qk switch sy phly Hub or us sy bhi phly bridges use hoty thy
tu jab sy hi hum switch ki I.D ko Bridge I.D khty hy. Or ye bridge I.D 8byte ki hoti hy her switch my
us ka apna 1 unique MAC-Address hota hy jessy hum “Base Ethernet MAC address” bhi khty hy jo k
6 byte ka hota hy or 2 byte us switch ki priority filed k hoty hy to is tarha total ye sub mil k 8 byte ki
bridge I. D hoti hy. Hum essa bhi keh satky hy k switch ka MAC address or priority mil k switch ki
bridge banaty hy jessy hum bridge I.D khty hy. Or switch ki default priority “32768” hoti hy jo be
default sary switches py same hi hoti hy.

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Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU):


BPDU switches k darmiyan 1 message ko khty hy jo k unki connectivity ka status ko appas my share
karty hy. BPDU ko hum hello message bhi khty hy jo k switches aappas my send karty hy takky unhy
pata chal saky k sary switches UP hy or jaha sy BPDU ka reply nahi atta matlab Hello Message ka
reply nahi receive hota to essi BPDU message k throw ye pata lag jata hy k kon sa switch network my
down howa hy.

TCN BPDU (Topology Change Notification)


Network my kahi bhi koi link down hota hy ya koi failure hota hy to jab switches TCN BPDU ko send
karty hy that means Topology Change so Notify others..

BPDU Process:
BPDU k kuch rule hy jessy k.
1) Network my jo bhi switch Root switch hoga wo apni bridge I.D sary switches ko advertised
kary ga or sary switches apny BPDU my us Root Switch ki Bridge I.D OR apni bridge I.D
aapas my exchange kary gy.
2) Jo bhi switch BPDU send karta hy to wo us BPDU message my apni khud ki Bridge I.D TAG
kar k agye forward karta hy or Receiving k doran bhi same yahi Process hota hy.
3) Her Switch jab BPDU exchange kary ga to us my wo Root Switch tak pouchny ki Cost jo hogi
wo or us switch sy ly kar Root switch tak ki jo cost hogi wo donu hi us BPDU message my
TAG kar k agy send kary ga that’s the rule of BPDU’s.

BPDU Timer Detail:


BPDU my 1 timer hota hy jis sy wo auto us time k bad send and receive hoty hy or ye timer hum khud
sy bhi set kar sakty hy BPDU my 3 tarha k timer use hoty hy or hum inhy manually bhi apni
requirement k mutabik configure kar sakty hy.

1) Hello Timer:
Hello Timer matlab kitni dair k bad dosray switch ko Hello message send kiyee jayee gy or ye by
default 2sec hota hy.

2) Max Age Timer:


Max age timer matlab kitni dair tak agar dosray switch sy BPDU message ka rply nahi aaya to hum
ye man ly gy k dosra switch down hogaya hy or ye by default 20sec ka hota hy.

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3) Forward Delay Timer:


Suppose k agar hamary kessi switch ki port blocking state my hoti hy or hum ussy Up kary to wo
port Direct UP nahi hoti kuch time bad up hoti hy us port ki kuch states hoti hy jessy Blocking,
Listening or Learning state jis my wo switch Mac address ko learn karta hy or pher wo forwarding
state my jata hy.
To hamara switch kitni dair tak Listening state my rahy ga kitni dair tak learning state my rahy ga
ye depand karta hy “Forward Delay Timer” py jo k by default 15 second ka hota hy. to agar
hamara switch py koi interface agar blocking ya disable mode my jata hy to wo 15 second tak
Listening state my rahy ga or 15 second tak wo learning state my rahy ga or pher total 30 second
bad my wo switch ya interface Forwarding state my aaye ga. So in sub process my jo time lagta hy
ussy forward & delay timer kehty hy.

NOTE:
Wait for a Moment Relax your Mind & don’t be Confused, Study Relax make a Comfertable Zone & Read it Carefully

We are Going to Discuss STP Elections

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Explanation about STP Election:


Jis Switch ki Bridge I.D lowest hogi wohi switch Root bridge banny ga. Jessy k hammary bridge I.D
my 2 chezzy hoti hy 1) Switch ka Mac address or 2) Us ki Priority value to Mac address to hum
change nahi kar sakty hy tu jis bhi switch ki priority low hogi wo switch khud ko as a root switch
consider kar lyga. Or Cisco k sary Switches my us ki priority Value “32768” sub my Same hi hoti hy
tu is scenario my jaha switch ki priority value same hogi waha jis switch ka MAC address lowest hoga
wo switch election jeet jaye ga or network Root Switch ban jaye ga.
U

▪ 1st Election Root Switch:


1st election hota hy root switch ka jo k bridge I.D sy hota hy. jo k decide hota hy switch ki priority or
us k Mac Address sy. or jab switch ki priority same hoti hy to pher switch k mac address ko compare
kia jata hy or jis bhi switch ka mac address lowest hota hy wo banta hy network mai Root Switch.

▪ 2nd Election Root Port:


Root Port my hum jo sub sy phli chez dekhty hy wo hoti hy cost to reach Root switch matlab wo kon
sa rasta hy jis sy km cost per Root switch tak poucha ja sakta hy. or agar interfaces ki cost bhi same ho
tu jaisy jitney bhi interfaces lagye hy wo sary hi 100mpbs k hy to matlab unki cost hoi 19 ye to ye cost
sub ki same hogi to essy my switch is bat ko decide karye ga us port k interfaces sy. or jis interface ki
value kam hogi wo port root port ban jaye gi jessy (example) Fa0/1 or Fa0/2 sy switch connect hy to
essy my Fa0/1 lower hy Fa0/2 sy Right to is condition my Fa0/1 Root port ban jaye ga. To ager cost
bhi same ho to Root port decide hoti hy switch k Lower interface sy.

▪ 3rd Election Designated Switch/port:


Is case my bhi Switch ye dekhty hy k kis rasty ki cost kam hy Root Switch tak pouchny k ley to wo
Switch Designated Switch ban jaye ga or us ki sari port Forwarding Sate my hoti hy jessy hum
Designated Port bhi khty hy. Or agar cost same hogi to jis switch ki Bridge I.D lowest hogi to wo
Designated Switch ban jaye ga or in case ager Bridge I.D bhi same hy to is case my hum pher us switch
k lowest interface sy decide kary gy k kon sa switch Designated Switch bannye ga. Or in cases ko hm
Tie “Braker bhi khty hy”.

To is tarha Spanning tree Protocol ka Algorithm work karta hy or STP ka election hota hy jis sy sub
kuch decide hota hy. Or jab tak inhy BPDU message milty rahy gy yahi process chalta rahy ga per agar
15 sec tak BPDU ka rply nahi aya to switch consider kar ly gy k koi 1 switch down hogaya hy to jo
port blocking state my hogi us k multiple links my wo port up hojaye gi or traffic waha sy janna choro

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ho jaye gi & hamara Root Switch hi BPDU send karta hy sary switches py or pher sary switches ussy
aapas my exchange karty hy conectivity check karny k ley.

Commands of Enable BPDU Guard:


1) Spanning-tree portfast bpduguard defualt.
2) Spanning-tree bpduguard enable.
3) Show Spanning-tree summary totals.

Commands of Enable BPDU Filtering:


1) Spanning-tree portfast bpdufilter defualt.
2) Spanning-tree bpdufilter enable.

Commands of Enable Root Guard:


1) Spanning-tree guard root
2) Show spanning-tree inconsistent ports

T-Shoot Commands:
1) Show interfaces
2) Show spanning tree
3) Show bridge
4) Show process cpu
5) Debug spanning tree
6) Show mac-address table aging-time (Vlan #)
7) Show spanning tree vlan (Vlan #) detail

For Further information watch STP Animation to understand STP Process:


http://www.cisco.com/image/gif/paws/10556/spanning_tree1.swf

It’s Time to Reward Yourself


you Completed STP!
Now goto Next…
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Concept of Ether-channel:
The terminology of Ehter-Channel is that Jab hum multiple links
create karty hy apny switches my network disaster sy bachny k ley
to waha hum multiple links create karty hy jis sy network mai
Loops create ho jatty hy. Or Cisco k Switches my Loop sy bachny
k ley Spanning Tree Protocol Work karta hy or hum Loops ki
problem Sy bach jaty hy but jo multiple links hum create karty hy
us my bs 1 hi link working hota hy or bakki sub down hoty hy ya
ap chaye jitney bhi links create karly us my sy work bs 1 hi karyga
or baki k sary interfaces Down State my rahy gy. To jo links down
state my hy unki Speed or Bandwidth bhi west hoti hy qk jab link
down hoga to us ki Bandwidth bhi use nahi ho rahi ho gi to essy my
“Ether Channel 1 essa concept hy jissy hum un links ki bandwidth ko bhi apny us single link py use
kar sakty hy jo k us time py Down hoty hy” suppose mery network my 2 switch lagye hy or un py 2
links create hy per 1 link Up hy or 1 link Down Spanning Tree Protocol ki waja sy to mujhy maximum
speed bhi 100mbps hi mil rahi hogi or 100mpbs dosry link ki jo down hy wo waste ho rahi hogi to my
Ether Channel configure kar k us link ki speed bhi apni single link py use kar sakta hu to mujhy 1 link
py hi 200mpbs ki speed milygi 100 apny link ki speed jo us time up hoga or 100 us link speed jo us
time Down hoga. So ether channel k throw mai apny down links ki speed bhi us single link py utilize
kar sakta hu.

In Short:
“Ether Channel 1 essa feature hy jo hamary multiple links ko bind kar k unhy 1 physical link bana
dyta hy”

Ether Channel jo Technology hy ye 1990’s my 1 company ny invent kit hi jis ka name tha “Kalpana”
lekin bad my Cisco ny is company ko 1994 kharid lia or pher 2000 my is technology ko Cisco ny open
Standard kardiya matlab ye un switches py bhi configure ho sakta tha jo switch cisco k nahi hy. or
pher IEEE ny essy 1 Number assign kia jo ab is ki identity bhi hy or ab essy “802.3ad” k name sy bhi
janna jata hy.

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How Ether-Channel Work:


Ether Channel configure karty hi switch un sary links ko jo k Foult Tolerance ya backup k ley lagaye
jaty hy ether channel un sub links ko 1 hi link samjhta hy or 1 hi link py un sub ki speed bhi hammy
combine kar k dyta hy. Ether Channel configure karty waqt hum un sari ports ko 1 channel my dalty hy
jissy wo sari ports 1 physical link ya channel ban k act karti hy.

Range of Ether-Channel:
Ether channel mai Hum 2 sy ly kar 8 links ko configure kar k 1 physical link create kar sakty hy. jissy
hammy un 8 links ki speed us single link py milly jo us waqt active hoga. suppose agar hum 100 Mpbs
ka link use kar rahy hy to hammy 8 links ki speed us single interface py milye gi jo k 800 Mbps ho gi
essi tarha agar hum 1 Giga ka link use kar rhy hy to 8 Giga ki speed hogi or agar hum 10 Gbps ka link
use kar rahy hy to wo singal link hamy 80 Gbps ki speed provide kary ga so that’s the Ether-Channel
Feature.
U

Benefits of Ether-Channel:
Ether Channel hammy Backup links yani load sharing or redundant topology provide karta hy or hum
ye Ether Channel Layer 2 or Layer 3 donu Switches py hi use kar sakty hy. Or is ka sub sy bara Faida
ye hy k hum multiple links create kar k zada sy zada speed ko use kar sakty hy jissy network my
communication fast hogi.
U

Ether-Channel Protocol:
Ether Channel 2 protocol ko use kartahy.

1) Port Aggregation protocol (PAGP):


PAGP protocol Cisco ka property protocol hy or ye protocol sirf Cisco k Switches py hi chalta hy.
PAGP Modes;
▪ Desirable
▪ Auto

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2) Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP 802.3ad):


LACP 1 industry type matlab open standard protocol hy. jaisa k 2000 my aa k ye open standard
hogaya tha to agar 1 switch Cisco ka hy or 1 Switch Juniper ka ya kessi or brand to hum waha bhi
LACP protocol ko use kar sakty hy.
LACP Modes:
▪ Active
▪ Passive

Configuration Ether Channel:


Configuration PAGP Protocol on 3 links:
U

Configuring Switch-1:
U U

SW1> enable
SW1# configure terminal
SW1(config)#interface range fa0/1 - 3
SW1(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode on <1 to 48>
SW1(config-if-range)#exit

SW1(config)#interface port-channel 1
SW1(config-if)#switchport mode trunk

Configuring Switch-2:
U U

SW2(config)#interface range fa0/1 - 3


SW2(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode on <1 to 48>
SW2(config-if-range)#exit

SW2(config)#interface port-channel 1
SW2(config-if)#switchport mode trunk

Show Command:
U

Switch1# show ip interface brief


Switch1# show etherchannel 1 port
Switch1# show etherchannel detail
Switch1# show etherchannel summary
Switch1# show running-config int fa0/1
Switch1# show etherchannel summary
Switch1# show etherchannel load-balance

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Express Feelings

YES Finally you Completed your Module # 4 Hope this is


Informative for you & Easy to Learn.
For More Learning & Notes Visite www.easypeezzi.com

40% Completed just 60%

LeftTo your CCNA!

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Now Plan your Another Day & Learn Module # 5 which is second step of yours
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IP Version 4 Addressing

Contant
U U

IP Address:
U

✓ IPv4 Addressing?
✓ Define Both IP’s?
✓ Range of IP address?
✓ Discussion about IPv4?
✓ Subnet Mask?
✓ Wildcard Mask?
✓ How to calculate Wildcard mask?
✓ Subnet CIDR?
✓ How to define a Class by IANA?
✓ Why Made Classes IANA?
✓ Public& Private Address?
✓ Private Address Range of Free ip’s?
✓ Loopback Number (127)?

Subnetting:
U

✓ Define Subnetting?
✓ Define Values?
✓ Uses of Subnetting?
✓ Subnetting of Class C:

VLSM:
U

✓ Define VLSM?
35VLSM for 4 Branches
✓ First Branch 100 Host required
✓ Second Branch 60 Host required
✓ Third Branch 30 Host required
✓ Forth Branch 10 Host required

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Details about IPv4 Addressing:


IP address means k Ager hum apny kessi computers ko Network k sath connect karna chty hy or chty
hy k wo computers appas my data bhi share kary eak dosry k sath to waha hammy hamary computers
ki identity chyee hogi us ki source location or destination location ka computer ko pata hona chyee
taky wo destination computer sy communicate kar saky. Example Jessy k hummary mobiles phones
agar hummay kessi sy bat karni hoti hy to hammy us person ka number chayee hota hy jis sy hammy
bat karni hu Right. To same essi tarha hamary computer ko bhi numbers chaye hoty hy taky computers
appas my communicate kar saky so yaha hum computers k number k ley IP address ka use karty hy jo
un computers k ley un ka number ka kam karti hy or computers ko network sy connect kar k data
shearing or communication provide karti hy.

There are Two Types of IP address:


1) IP Version 4
2) IP Version 6

Discuss Both IP’s:


IPv6 implement hogya tha 1999 my but humary pass IPv4 ki range abhi bakki thi jabhi hum IPv4 ko hi
ab tak use kar rahy thy. Per ab ahista ahista IPv6 implement ho raha hy or kafi jagahu py ho bhi chukka
hy. IPv4 hamara 32 bit ka address hota hy jis my 4octet hoty hy or her 1 octet 8 bit ka hota hy so 8
multiply by 4 its equals to 32 is tarha hamra IPv4 32bit ka 1 complete address banta hy IPv4 my 3 tarha
sy communication hoti hy 1st is Unicast (One to one communication) 2nd Multicast (One to Many
communication) & 3rd one is Broadcast (One to all communication) or IPv6 128 bit ka 1 large address
hota hy. Is my bhi 3 tarha sy communication hoti hy 1st is Unicast means (One to one communication)
2nd Multicast (One to Many communication) & 3rd one is Anycast (One to Closet) Anycast IPv6 1 new
addition hy replacement of Broadcast.

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Ranges & Classes of IP addresses:


IP Address Network portion Host portion
Class A 1 to 126 255.0.0.0/8 N.H.H.H/24 224= 16,277,216
P P 1 Network 3 host
portion.
Class B 128 to 191 255.255.0.0/16 N.N.H.H/16 216 = 64,536
P P 2 Network 2 host
portion.
Class C 192 to 223 255.255.255.0/24 N.N.N.H/8 28 P P = 256 3 Network 1host portion.
Class D 224 to 239 Reserve for Research/Development
Class E 240 to 255 Reserve for Research/Development

Discussion about IPv4:


Ager hum IPv4 ki bat kary to IPv4 my 4 Octet hoty hy essi ley hum ussy 32 bit address khty hy or is ka
Minimum number hota hy 1 or Maximum number 255 hota hy IPv4 1989 mai implement hoi thi or tab
ussy 5 classes my define kiyaa gaya tha jis sy hum IPs ko apny network requirement k according use
kar saky.
Class A, Class B & Class C ye wo Classes hy jo hum apny network my use karty hy Class D & Class
E Research ya military Network k ley use ki jati hy.
So agar my yaha bat karu k is ka largest number 255 q hy so dekhy IPv4 my 4 octet hoty hy or her 1
octet 8 bit ka hota hy to agar hum Class A ki IP ko Use kary or is k sary octet k bits ko open kar dy to
IP hammy kuch is tarha dekhy gi binary wording mai 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 jis my
network ka portion 1 hoga or host k portion 0 hongy to ab agar my 1 ki powers nikalo in numbers ko
calculate karny k ley like kuch is tarha sy 27.26.25.24.23.22.21.20 to in ki powers calculate karny k bad
final result kuch Is tarha aaye ga like 2 ki power 7 its = to 128 and then 6 so on .64.32.16.8.4.2.1 so ab
agar my in sub ki powers ko plus karo to mery pass in ki total value 255 aye gi jabhi ye IPv4 ka
Maximum Number hy is k bad koi bhi IP use nahi karty or essi ley jo network portion hota hy subnet
mai hum ussy 255 sy represent karty hy or hamara subnet mask bhi essy sy represent hota hy.

Subnet Mask:
Subnet Mask represent hota hy hamary networks k ley k hum kon sy Network ki IP ko Use kar rahy hy
agar Class A ki IP hy us my sirf 1 Network Portion hy to uska Subnet Mask hota hy 255.0.0.0 or Class
B my 2 Network Portion hoty hy to us ka Subnet Mask hota hy 255.255.0.0 or Class C my 3 Network

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portion hoty hy to Class C ka Subnet Mask hota hy 255.255.255.0 to subnet hammary Network ko
represent karta hy k hum kon sy network ko use kar rahy hy.
Or essi tarha ye Router ko bhi help karta hy Broadcasting rokny k ley jessy hi kessi 1 network ki
Broadcast Router k pass jati hy to Router sub sy phly us IP ka Subnet Mask check karta hy agar wo
Subnet Mask us k dosray interface sy connect Network sy match hota hy to Router ussy agye Forward
kar dyta hy Or agar Subnet Mask same nahi hota to wo Broadcasting ko wahi rok dyta hy.
Essi ley Class A ki jo IPs hoti hy us my Network portion 1 hota hy or baki k portion Host portions hoty
hy jo k computers k ley use hoty hy to network portion 1 matlab 8 bit full hy essi ley hum Class A ki Ip
ko /8 ka Subnet Mask bhi khty hy or Class B ki IP my 2 Portion full to hum ussy /16 ka Subnet Mask
khty hy or or Class C k Subnet Mask ko hum /24 ka network khty hy qk us my 3 Network portion use
hoty hy so 8 multiply by 3 its equals to 24.

Wildcard Mask:
Wildcard mask opposite hota hy subnet mask ky jaisy k hum subnet mask my 1 bit ko count karty hy or
0 bit ko ignore karty hy essi tarha hum Wildcard mask my 0 bit ko count karty hy or 1 bit ko ignore
karty hy. Wildcard mask my 0 bits check hoty hy or 1 bit ignores hoty hy.
Class A ka Subnet Mask 255.0.0.0 hota hy so is Wildcard Mask mai 255 1 portion hy matlab ye 1 hy jo
subnet mask my count hota hy to Wildcard k ley hum 255 ki jaga 1 sy ussy 0 kar dy ga or bakki ki 0
bits ko 1 kar dy gy qk Wildcard mask opposite hota hy subnet mask k. So Class A ka Wildcard Mask
banny ga 0.255.255.255 opposite of subnet.
Class B Subnet Mask 255.255.0.0 Wildcard Mask 0.0.255.255
But kabhi kabhi hummay is tarha ka bhi subnet dekhny ko milta hy like 255.192.0.0 to is condition my
hum is mask ka wiladcast mask nikalny k ley is mask ko minus karaty hy Globally subnet mask sy jo
hy 255.255.255.255 so 255.192.0.0 minus/- 255.255.255.255 so Wildcard mask aye ga 0.0.63.255 essi
tarha 1 or example like mask hy 255.255.128.0 so again minus this mask into globally mask like
255.255.255.255 minus 255.255.128.0 so Wildcard mask is 0.0.127.255 as simple.

Subnet CIDR:
Hum jo subnet mask is tarha leakhty hy like /10 ya /15 to is tarha k mask ko CIDR
matlab (Classless Inter Domain Routing) khty hy.

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Why IANA Made Classes?


IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) ny IPs ko Classes my divide kiya qk jitni hamary
Network ki requirement hy hum ussy hisab sy ussi Class ki IP ko use kar saky. suppose aagar mera
Small Network hy to waha my Class C ki IP ko Use karlo ga Agar Medium Network hy to Class B ki
IP or agar Large Network hy to waha my Class A ki IP ko use karu ga.
Wo kessy? Simple Class A my Network portion hoty hy 1 so us ka network portion howa hy /8 baki k
jo 3 portion bachy us ka host portion howa /24 ye howa Class A ka Host portion so agar ap 2 ki power
logy 24 so result aaye ga (16,277,216) to hum Class A ki IP ko use karty howy itny computers ko IP
assign kar sakty hy After subnetting to essi ley Class A use hoti hy Large network k ley.
Or Class B my 2 Network Portion hoty hy /16 so pher hammy 2 Host portion milty hy /16 so 2 ki
power 16 so result aaye ga (65,536) to Class B ki IP ko use karty howy hum itny Computers ko IPs
assign kar sakty hy.
& Class C my hoty hy 3 Network Portion /24 so host portion k ley bachty hy just /8 so 2 ki power 8 so
result aaye ga (256) to Class C ki IP ko use karty howy hum itny Computers ko IPs assign kar skaty hy.
Essi ley Class C Small network k ley use ki jati hy qk us my computers ki Range bhut kam milti hy to
IANA ny ye Classes is ley bannai taky hum apny Network k mutabik Ussi Class ki IP ko use kar sakky.

How to define a Class by IANA:


IANA 1 essi international Organization hy jo IP Addresses ko create karti hy or ye organization new
IPs ko launch bhi karti hy So hum ab ye samjhty hy k IANA ny ye Classes kessy baanai.
Define Class A:
IANA ny in Classes ko divide karty waqt Class A my sy is k koi bhi Bit use nahi kiyee essi ley Class A
Start hoti hy 0 sy ly lekar 255.
Define Class B:
Then jab IANA ny Class B ko divide kia to IANA ny Class B k Bits ki 1 power ko use kia left to right
so hamary 8 octet my sy last bit ki power like 27 so its equals to 128 so is tarha IANA ny Class B k last
bit ki power ko use karty howy Class B ki IP Start ki 128 sy ly kar 191 tak.
Define Class C:
Now question is that k last ki IP hamy kessy pata chalti hai k 191 hi hogi to IANA ny 5 Classes banni
or phly un panchu classes ko divide kia to ager IANA ny Class B k ley us ki 1 power ko use kia or
Class C nikalny k ley IANA ny ussi bit ki 2 powers ko use kia like 27 & 26 so ye hota hy 128+64 = 192

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so essi ley Class C ki IP Start hoi 192 sy then pher essi tarha Class D Start hoi 224 sy qk is my 3 bits
ko use kia tha or Class E Start hoi 240 sy qk is my 4 bits ko use kia gaya.
So is tarha IANA ny Classes ko Divide kia or new network milta raha to jaha sy wo new network start
ho raha tha us k last digit hamari phly class ka ending digit ban gaya like Class A is 0 to 126 or 127
loopback number hota hy jabhi hum essy IP my use nahi karty or 128 jo k Class B ki IP my ja k lag
gaya Simple.

Public& Private Address:


IPs 2 tarha sy use hoti hy 1st Public IP or 2nd Private IP. Public IPs hammy IANA sy Purchase karni
parti hy jessy aaj jo hum apny ISP sy internet use karny k ley IPs lyty hy wo hammari Public IPs hoti
hy jin ki payment humy pay karni hoti hy Right jessy k Google k Servers hy Facebook k Serves hy in
ki IPs Online hy to ye IANA sy purchased hy or internet per available hy to Public Ip hammy IANA sy
purchase karni parti hy hum or Private IP Free hoti hy jo hum apny local Network k ley use karty hy or
in my bhi kuch Ranges hoti hy which mention below.

Private Address Range of Free ip’s


U

1) Class A 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254 (1 Network)

2) Class B 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.254.254 (15 Network)

3) Class C 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.254.254 (254 Network)

So IANA na unhi IPs my sy kuch IPs ko Private k ley reserve kar diya taky hum essy locally bhi free
mai use kar saky PC’s ki communication k ley or kuch IPs ko Public k ley reserve kar diya. To Jab tak
ap apny local network k indar hi communication kar rahy to tab to hum private Ip ko hi use kar sakty
hy qk wo internally communication k ley use ho rahi hy per jab hum internally communication sy nikal
kar Externally communication matlab out of the office kessi or branch sy ya kessi or Network ya
internet ko access karna chahy gy to waha hammy public IP ki required hogi jo hammy online
connectivity provide kary gi on internet sy connect karygi.

Loopback Number (127):


Loop back 1 Virtual IP address hoti hy jo k ping ki request ka rply karti hy or Loop Back IPs hamesha
active rehti hy kabhi down state my nahi jati. IPv4 my Loop back IP hy 127.0.0.0 ye IP hammy ping
command ka response dyti hy. agar hammy network per kessi computer ki connectivity check karni hu
k wo system network per hai ya nahi to hum waha loopback IP k throw us ki connectivity check kar
sakty hy.

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Hum Loop Back IP khud sy bhi configure kar sakty hy CISCO k Router per is sy faida ye hoga k Client
side k computers per hum Gateway IP “Loop back IP” configure kar dy to agar Router ka 1interface
Down bhi hojata hy to hammy sary PCs py un ka Gateway Change nahi karna parta dosra interface UP
hony k bad wohi Virtual IP yani Loop Back IP as a Gateway ACT Karna Start kardyti hy. Essa
normally jab hota hai jab hum multiple routers mai FHRP Technic ko use karty hai
“So that’s all about IPv4 Addressing & the next section we will Subnetting which is the part of
CCNA”

Define Subnetting:
FLSM (Fixed Length Subnet Mask) Subnetting eak essa way hai jis mai hum eak large network ko
smaller different networks mai apni requirement k according divide karty hai like eak hi Class ki IPs ko
use karty howy ussy multiple network my divide karny ko subnetting khty hy. suppose 4 offices hy or
charu my hi Class C k network ki IP ko use karna hy but network different ho ye requirement hai to is
case mai hum subnetting ko use karty howy Class C ki IP ko 4 different networks my divide karty hai.

Diffrence between FLSM or VLSM?


Suppose agar mujhy apny her office my 60 computer require hy charu office my 60\60 computer but in
a different network is tarha ki subnetting ko FLSM(Fix Lenght Subnet Mask) khty hy agar equal
portion karny ho tu or agar different portion karny hy jaisy 1 office my 100 computer or dosry office
my 50 computer to is tarha ki subnetting ko VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Mask) khty hy.
How to Subnet?
Subnetting karny sy phly kuch basics bhut important hy jaisy k Class A my 1 Network bit hota hy or 3
Host bit hoty hy. To agar my un 8 bit ki power lyta hu to mujy value milti hy 255 Right. But subnetting
my hamary subnet mask change hoty hy. Jessy subnetting my subnet mask kuch is tarha bhi aata hy k
/9, /10, /23, /28.
To agar /9 ka mask hai tu 255.0.0.0 matlab /8 mask 8 bit full hai and /9 mask k ley 1 bit hum host
portion sy borrow karty haii taky /9 mask create ho saky so like 255.10000000. 00000000.00000000 so
ab jo 1 bit hum ny borrow kara hai host portion sy hum is ko power ko subnet mai add karty hai like 2

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ki power 7 27 = 128 so /9 ka subnet mask hoga 255.128.0.0 after subnetting or is my host ki value bhi
barh jaye gy.
Essi tarha agar /10 ka mask hy to 8 bit 1 portion sy complete hogaye or 2 bit us k baraber wally host
portion sy liyee like 255.11000000. 00000000.00000000 ab in bits ki powers ko plus kia like 128 + 64
= 192 to /10 ka subnet mask aye ga 255.192.0.0 after subnetting.
Or is ko yad karny ka asan tarika hy k hum bits ki power phly calculate kar k yad kar ly k agar itny bit

2 ki Powers Values Borrow Bits Values


The value calculate left to right
2 ki power 7 like 27 = 128 Borrow 1 bit so value is = 128
2 ki power 6 like 26 = 64 Borrow 2 bit so value is = 192
2 ki power 5 like 25 = 32 Borrow 3 bit so value is = 224
2 ki power 4 like 24 = 16 Borrow 4 bit so value is = 240
2 ki power 3 like 23 = 8 Borrow 5 bit so value is = 248
2 ki power 2 like 22 = 4 Borrow 6 bit so value is = 252
2 ki power 1 like 21 = 2 Borrow 7 bit so value is = 254
2 ki power 0 like 20 = 1 Borrow 8 bit so value is = 255
lyny hy to kia value aaye gi to is sy asani hojati hy
subnetting karny my.
First Remind Powers of 2: Now Borrow Bits and calculate value:

Subnetting my required ye hy k jitney bhi bits kaam pary apny / mask ko complete karny k ley so
baraber waly host portion sy utny bit ly ky un ki value ko pick kar ly jaisy agar 5 value pick ki hy tu
mask aye ga 255.248.0.0 is tarha sy bs host portion k bits ko 0 sy 1 count karna hota hy or apni
requirement k according host portion sy bits ko borrows karna hota hai.

In Short:
“Subnetting eak way hota hy jis sy hum bary network ki IP Range ko choty networks my break karty
hy apni network requirenment k according”

Uses of Subnetting:
1) Easy to troubleshoot.
2) 1 hi class ki IP ko use karty howy ussy smaller different network mai divide karna.

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3) 1 bary network ko small networks my divide karna.


4) Decrease size of broadcast domain.
U

Subnetting of Class C:
Requeird Host 40 each Network:
Subnetting Class : 192.168.10.0/24 to subnetting karny k ley hamy ye dekhna parta hy k kis 2 ki power
my mujhy 40 host asani sy mil sakty hy, to phly hammy Required host nikalny hy jo k subnetting my
H sy represent hoty hy.
1) Required Host:
So phly hamy H ki Value nikalni parti hy yani Host bit k kis power ko ly k hum apni requirement pori
kar sakty hy. to agar my yaha 2 ki power 6 lyta ho to 26 so its equals to 64 so yaha meri requirement
pori horahi hy to yaha my H ki value 6 rakh sakta hu.
2) Now Converted Network bits: Formula (Total Host bits – Required Host H Value)

Class C my mujhy Host bits mil rahy thy 8 to mai un bits ko minus kardu ga apni H ki value sy jo meri
required host hy so 8 - 6 its equals to 2 to mera N yani Network bits 2 nikla ye 2 bits hum network
portion my add karata hy.
3) Full Formula of subnetting:
So Total network bits + converted Network bits jo H k value ko Minus karny k bad aye hy.
So Class C k Network my phly total network kitny thy 24 Right to converted N/W bit kitny aye hy
mery pass 2 bits jo H k value k Minus karny k bad aye hy so fomula apply karny k bad yani 24 + 2 =
26 to after subnetting Class C ka network ab present hoga /26 sy to agar ab network /26 hogaya hy to is
ka subnet mask hoga 255.255.255.192 to /26 k network ka subnet mask ya hoga after subnetting.

Subnetworks:
yani subnetting k bad ab mujhy Class C ki 1 single IP kitny networks dy rahi hy. To us ka formula hota
hy (2 ki power N) so N kia tha hamary pass 2 to yahi aajye ga hamary pass k 2 ki power 2 like 22 = 4
to after this subnetting mujhy Class C ki single Network I.D 4 subnetwork Network provide kary gi jis
mai eak hi Class ki IP ko use karty howy 4 diffrenet offices mai different network ki IPs ko assign kar
saku ga.

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Calculate Host Block Size:


yani ab is 1 network my mujhy ktiny computer mily gy jinhy mai 1 network ki IP assign kar saku ga to
us ka formula hota y (2 ki power H) so H kia tha hamary pass 6 so 2 ki power 6 like 26 = 64 to mujhy
1 network my 64 Hosts mily gy to is tarha hum ye calculate kar sakty hai k jo subnetting hoi hai usky 1
network ko use karty howy hum kitny host ko IP assign kar sakty hai.

Calculate Range Network I.Ds:


jo subnet mask ho ko us like 255.255.255.192 is ko 256 my minus kara do to 1 new network I.D mil
jaye gi like 255.255.255.192 -256 so ye aye ga 64.
▪ So First Network is 192.168.10.1 to 192.168.10.63 : Subnet Mask is :
255.255.255.192
“64 new network ID hai to 64 hum yaha count nahi kary gy”
Bs essi tarha ab hum 64 jo value aai hai essy network ID mai + karty rahy gy or hammy new network
milta rahy ga or is ki last stage hy 255 tak which mention below.
▪ So Second Network is 192.168.10.64 to 192.168.10.126 : Subnet Mask is :
255.255.255.192
“64 + 64 = 128 but 127 loopback address jissy hum use nahi karty or 128 new network ID hai so 128
bhi hum yaha count nahi kary gy is network ki IPs 126 tk hi rahygi”
▪ So Third Network is 192.168.10.128 to 192.168.10.191 : Subnet Mask is :
255.255.255.192
“192 new network ID hai to 192 hum yaha count nahi kary gy”
▪ And the Last & Forth network is 192.168.10.192 to 192.168.10.256 (Same Subnet)
“But 255 hamara broadcast number hota hai jessy hum use nahi karty so is network ki last IPs bhi
254 tk hi rahy gi which mention below”

Network Number Range of Start IP Subnet Mask Range of End IP


Network 01 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.192 192.168.10.63
Network 02 192.168.10.64 255.255.255.192 192.168.10.126
Network 03 192.168.10.128 255.255.255.192 192.168.10.191
Network 04 192.168.10.192 255.255.255.192 192.168.10.254

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RECALL:
So jessy k hum ny subnetting ki thi 64 host k ley jis mai hammy 22 rakh k 4 networks mily thy so is
tarha subnetting mai wo 4 networks complete howy & Each network assign 64 IPs & each network is
diffrenet but same Class that is Class C so that is all about subnetting.

Subnet Mask CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing)


Easy to Remember / Mask Subnet Mask.
Calculate Vlaue Subnet Mask / Mask
0 255.0.0.0 /8
Class A Subnet Borrow 1 bit 255.128.0.0 /9
Borrow 2 bit (128+64 = 192) 255.192.0.0 /10
Borrow 3 bit (128+64+32 = 224) 255.224.0.0 /11
Borrow 4 bit 255.240.0.0 /12
Borrow 5 bit 255.248.0.0 /13
Borrow 6 bit 255.252.0.0 /14
Borrow 7 bit 255.254.0.0 /15
Borrow 8 bit 255.255.0.0 /16
Class B Subnet Borrow 1 bit 255.255.128.0 /17
Borrow 2 bit (128+64 = 192) 255.255.192.0 /18
Borrow 3 bit (128+64+32 = 224) 255.255.224.0 /19
Borrow 4 bit 255.255.240.0 /20
Borrow 5 bit 255.255.248.0 /21
Borrow 6 bit 255.255.252.0 22
Borrow 7 bit 255.255.254.0 /23
Borrow 8 bit 255.255.255.0 /24
Class C Subnet Borrow 1 bit 255.255.255.128 /25
Borrow 2 bit (128+64 = 192) 255.255.255.192 /26
Borrow 3 bit (128+64+32 = 224) 255.255.255.224 /27
Borrow 4 bit 255.255.255.240 /28
Borrow 5 bit 255.255.255.248 /29
Borrow 6 bit 255.255.255.252 /30

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SO That is all about CIDR Mask essy yaad karny sy hammy bhut faida hota hai qk agar kahi hammy
subnet mask ye show hota hai like this 255.255.255.248 so hummy idea ho jata hai k yaha /29 ka
subnet use ho raha hai.

NOTE:

“Wait take a Moment, Get Comfortable and in a Good State of mind & Relax your Mind”
Read it Carefully. Subnetting VLSM:

We are Going to Deep in Subnetting

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Define VLSM:
VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Mask) subnetting ki second type hy jis my hum apni requirement k
according subnetwork k size ko divide kar sakty hy suppose hamary offices ki 4 branches hy or
hammy un branches my different network ki IPs assign karni hy or jitney host us branch my hy us sy
bs kuch IP zada rakhni hy taky agar bad my kuch user add ho tu un ko bhi fulfill kar saky or zada IPs
waste na ho saky.
jessy k subnetting my equal subnetwork hoty hy her subnetwork my equal size like 128 host ya 64 host
to agar hamary kessi office my subnetting hoi v hy /26 k according jo k per branch my 64 host dy rahi
hy tu subnetting fixed hy agar kessi brach my sirf 10 computer hi hy to waha bakki ki IPs waste ho rahi
hogi. Essi ley VLSM my hum brachnes k according un ki IPs ki scheme ko design karty hy taky IPs
waste na hu. Iska formula bhi simple hy bus hammy jitney host chayee hoty hum hum host portion k
utny bits ko 0 sy 1 kar k un ki powers ko count kar lyty hy.

VLSM for 4 Branches:


IP Address : 192.168.1.0 /24
Subnet mask : 255.255.255.0

First Branch 100 Host required:


Open subnet in Octat : 255.255.255.00000000
Required 100 so borrow 1 bit in host portion : 255.255.255.10000000
So new subnet mask is : 255.255.255.128 /25
Yaha 1 bit hum ny is ley borrow kiya qk 128 my hamari 100 host ki requirement pori ho rahi thi or
kuch extra IPs bhi mil rahi thi so 27 = 128.

Network ID First IP Address Last IP Address Brodcast IP Address


192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.125 192.168.1.126

And subnetmask /25 : 255.255.255.128 That’s it… that’s the VLSM of 100 host.

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Second Branch 60 Host required:


Open subnet in Octat : 255.255.255.00000000
Required 60 so borrow 2 bit in host portion : 255.255.255.11000000
So new subnet mask is : 255.255.255.192 /26
Yaha 2 bit hum ny is ley borrow kiya qk 64 my hamari 60 host ki requirement pori ho rahi thi or kuch
extra IPs bhi mil rahi thi so 26 = 64.
Network ID First IP Address Last IP Address Brodcast IP Address
192.168.1.128 192.168.1.129 192.168.1.190 192.168.1.191

And subnetmask /26 : 255.255.255.192 That’s it… that’s the VLSM of 60 host.

Third Branch 30 Host required:


Open subnet in Octat : 255.255.255.00000000
Required 30 so borrow 3 bit in host portion : 255.255.255.11100000
So new subnet mask is : 255.255.255.224 /27
Yaha 3 bit hum ny is ley borrow kiya qk 32 my hamari 30 host ki requirement pori ho rahi thi or kuch
extra IPs bhi mil rahi thi so 25 = 32.
Network ID First IP Address Last IP Address Brodcast IP Address
192.168.1.192 192.168.1.193 192.168.1.223 192.168.1.224

And subnetmask /27 : 255.255.255.224 That’s it… that’s the VLSM of 30 host.

Forth Branch 10 Host required:


Open subnet in Octat : 255.255.255.00000000
Required 10 so borrow 4 bit in host portion : 255.255.255.11110000
So new subnet mask is : 255.255.255.240 /28
Yaha 3 bit hum ny is ley borrow kiya qk 16 my hamari 10 host ki requirement pori ho rahi thi or kuch
extra IPs bhi mil rahi thi so 24 = 16.

Network ID First IP Address Last IP Address Brodcast IP Address


192.168.1.225 192.168.1.226 192.168.1.239 192.168.1.240

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And subnetmask /28 : 255.255.255.240 That’s it… that’s the VLSM of 10 host.
VLSM bhut hi simple hai hammy just apni host requirement k according bits borrow karny hoty host
portion sy or unki vlaue ko calculate kar k network IDs create karni hoti hai.

YES Finally you Completed your Module # 5


“Now your SWITCHING Topics is Completed in CCNA”
Hope this is Informative for you & Easy to Learn.
For More Learning & Notes Visite www.easypeezzi.com

50% Completed just 50% Left


Now Start “Routing Part” & Complete the Book
Your’r Doing Good :-)

Feedback
Easypeezzi@gmail.com
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Router & Routing Protocol

Contant
U U

Router Topics:
✓ What is Router?
✓ Function of Router?
1) Restrict broadcast to the Lan:
2) Act as a default Gateway:
3) Route or Move Data Between Network:
4) Learn and advertise Loop free path:
5) How we can connect routers?
6) Directly connected Router:
7) Static Router:
8) Dynamic Router:

Routing Protocol EIGRP:


1) Routing Protocol concept?
42Distance Vector Routing Protocol:
2) Link State Routing Protocol:
3) Hybrid Routing Protocol:
✓ EIGRP Overview:

1) EIGRP Features?
2) EIGRP Concept?
3) EIGRP Table?
o Neighbor Table?
o Topology Table?
o Routing Table?
✓ EIGRP Message?
o Hello Message:
o Update Message:
o Query Message:
o Rply Message:
o Acknowledgment Message:
✓ EIGRP Transport?
✓ EIGRP Delay Time?
✓ Successor Route?
✓ Feasible Successor Route?

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✓ Feasible Distance?
✓ Advertise Distance?
✓ EIGRP Matricalculation K Value?
✓ EIGRP Autonomous System Number?
✓ EIGRP PDMs Protocol?
✓ EIGRP Authentication?
✓ EIGRP Authentication Feature?
✓ EIGRP Load Balancing?
✓ Unequal load Balancing (Variance command)?
✓ Equal Load Balancing?

Routing Protocol OSPF:


✓ OSPF Protocol Concept?
✓ Quick View of OSPF?
✓ OSPF Network Structure?
✓ OSPF Features?
✓ OSPF Areas?
1) Backbone Area:
2) Regular Area:
3) Stub Area:
4) Totally Stubby Area:
5) Not-so-Stubby Area (NSSA):
6) Totally NSSA:

✓ OSPF Areas Routers?


1) Backbone Routes:
2) Internal Routes:
3) ABR Routers:
4) ASBR Routers:
5) Virtual Links:
6) Detail of Virtual links:

✓ OSPF Routers Roles?


✓ OSFP Matric Cost?
✓ Link State Advertisements (LSA)?
✓ LSA Operation?
✓ OSPF Sequence Number?
✓ OSPF LSA Types?
1) Router LSA Type 1:
2) Network LSA Type 2:
3) Summary LSA Type 3:
4) Summary LSA Type 4:
5) External LSA Type 5:
6) Not-so-Stubby Area Type 6:

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7) External Attributes LSA:

✓ OSPF Operations?
✓ OSPF Packets?
✓ Hello Message?
✓ Link State Request?
✓ Database Description?
✓ Link State Acknowledgment?
✓ Detail of Hello Message?
✓ Establishment Neighbors & Exchanging Routes?
✓ Down State?
✓ Init State?
✓ Two-way State?
✓ Exstart State?
✓ Loading State?
✓ Full State?
✓ Designated Router in OSPF?
✓ Selection of DR & BDR?
✓ Basic OSPF Configuration?

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Concept of Router?

Router:
Router 1 essy specialize computer ko bolla jata jo different networks ko apas my connect karwata hy.
essy hum internetworking device bhi kehty hy. Router 1 essi device hy jo multiples different network
ko apas my connect karta hy taky wo appas my Communicate kar saky.
Router my 1 operating system install hota hy jessy hum IOS khty hy jis sy router operate hota hy or
routing wagera perform karta hy data ko 1 jaga sy dosri jaga move karta hy an all that.
Router Routing karny k ley switch ki tarha 1 table create karta hy jessy Routing Table kehty hy or is
routing table ki help sy wo 1 jaga sy dosri jaga data send karta hy diffrenet networks mai. Router OSI
ki layer 3 Network layer py kam karta hy jessy hamary repeater or cables layer 1 py kam karty hy
Switches layer 2 py kam karty hy essi tarha router layer 3 network layer py kam karta hy.
Router bhut sary functions perform karta hy per is ka main function kessi dosry network k sath
communicate karwana hy. Or essi tarha router ka dosra main function hy k ye broadcast traffic ko
rokta hy bhut sari companies router banati hy jessy k Junipher, 3COM, HP, Nortel or Cisco or is k
elawa bhi bhut c companies router banati hy per most popular Cisco router hy jo common Enterprise
network k ley worldwide use kiyee jaty hy.
U

Functions of Router:

1) Restrict broadcast to the Lan:


Broadcast 1 essi transmission hy jis ka message network py sary PCs 1 sath receive karty hy yani 1 to
all communication. Lan my broadcast msg bhut hi common hoty hy or ye broadcast transmission
physical layer, data link layer, or network layer my use ki jati hy. without broadcasting k network my
commination karna bhut hi mushkil ho jata hy qk bhut sy protocol broadcast communication ko use
karty hy jessy k ARP, RARP, DHCP or bhi bhut sary protocol broadcast commination ko use karty hy
networks my communicate karny k ley essi wajja sy hum broadcasting ko LAN sy to bilkul khatam
nahi kar sakty hy qk ye zarori bhi hy. but hum essy restrict kar sakty hy throw the router Qk router her
1 interface py 1 alag broadcast domain create karta hy.

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2) Act as a default Gateway:


Eak network sy kessi network tk ya data ko kessi dosri jaga send karny k ley hum default Gateway use
karty hy. Agar hamry sary PC LAN sy connect hy or wo aapas my communicate kar rahy hy to jab
hamy default gateway ki zarorat nahi hy qk wo sari pc 1 hi switch k sath lan sy connect hy per agar
hamy internet py rakhy kessi server ya computer ko use karna hy matlab agar hamy LAN sy nikal k
WAN py jana hy tu waha hamy 1 gate ki zarorat hogi jaha sy hamari request bahar ja saky or request ka
response ander bhi aa saky to is k ley hum router ko as a Gateway bhi use karty hy.

3) Route or Move Data Between Network:


Router 1 network sy dosray network tak jany k ley best route search karta hy or pher help karta hy k
data router sy dosry router tak 1 achy rasty sy travel ho k waha tak pouch saky. Router k bhut sary
interfaces hoty hy jessy k Ethernet interface, Serial interface, Router best path apny route table ko use
kar k search karta hy or data ko uski destination per move karta hy jo k us k ley best path hai.

4) Learn and advertise Loop free path:


Router apny her interface py dosray router ko learn kartay hy taky ussy 1 road mil saky jis sy data ko
uski destination location per send kia ja saky jessy Commonly hum essy neighbor router kehty hy k
matlab us router k baraber my kon sa router hy or us k agye kitny routers lagye hy. jessy hi do routers
apas my connect hoty hy to wo apas my apna routing table exchange karty hy dosray router k sath taky
commination dono taraf sy aasan hu or yaha sy waha jany k rasty donu router k pass mojood hu.
Routers route learns karny k ley 3 proccess ka use karty which mention below.

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Connecting Routers & Exchange Routing Tables:


▪ Directly connected Router:
Is process my router ye detkhta hy k kon sa Router is Router k sath directly connected hy throw the
wire or usko apny Routing table my save kar lyta hy.

▪ Static Router:
Is process my Router khud sy koi Route learn nahi karty balky network administrator manually
Networks or Routers ko apny Router my save karta hy taky dono Routers ko aapas my connect kar
saky.

▪ Dynamic Router:
Is process my network administrator Router my sirf Routing Protocol ko enable karty hy or sary
Router is protocol k throw hi dosray Routers k addresses ko auto learn kar lyty hy.

Routing Protocol concept:


Terminology which use Routing Protocols:

▪ Distance Vector Routing Protocol:


Distance Vector Routing protocol my Router apna pora Routing Table pori topology my exchange
karty hy her 30 second k bad. (Example) : IGRP, RIP & RIPv2

▪ Link State Routing Protocol:


Link State Routing Protocol my router apna pora Routing Table exchange nahi karty sirf Router
my hoi Changes ya updates ko send karty hy. Benefit ye hota hy k is Process mai kam bandwidth
utilize hoti hy. (Example) : OSPF

▪ Hybrid Routing Prtocol:


Hybrid Routing Protocol my Distance or Link state donu hi routing protocol ki Ability hoti hy.
(I.E) EIGRP

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Explain EIGRP Protocol:


EIGRP sy phly IGRP hota tha jo k 1 (Distance Vector Routing Protocol) tha pher essi protocol ko
Enhance kiya gaya essy or better banaya gaya or pher IGRP ko Update kar k hi EIGRP yani (Enhance
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) Cisco ny developed kia or EIGRP (Hybrid Routing Protocol)
trimnology ko use karta hai jo sirf router my hoi changing ya update ko send karta hy pora routing table
send nahi karta her 30 Sec k bad.

EIGRP Features:
▪ EIGRP matriculation karta hy based on Bandwidth or Delay.
▪ EIGRP Multiple Network Layer ko support karta hy jessy “IP,IPX & Apple Talk”
▪ EIGRP 1 wahid essa protocol hy jo Equal on Unequal load balancing provide karta hy.
▪ EIGRP best path to calculate karta hi hy per 2nd best path bhi phly sy hi calculate kar k rakhta
hy taky Delay time kam lagye.
▪ EIGRP ki Conversation bhut fast hy qk ye 2nd best path phly sy hi calculate kar k apny
topology table rakhta hy.
▪ EIGRP Loop free Topology create karta hy.
▪ EIGRP Classless Routing Protocol hy or ye manual Summarization or VLSM ko bhi support
karta hy.
▪ EIGRP py hum kessi bhi router per Summarization kar sakty hy or OSPF my Summarization
sirf ABR router per hoti hy.
▪ EIGRP jab bhi koi Update packet send karta hy tu wo broadcast nahi balky Multicast IP py
send karta hy & Multicast IP is 224.0.0.10.
▪ Fast conversation changing Fastly Update.
▪ Only Update share pora routing table nahi.

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▪ No broadcast unicast & Multicast Only.


▪ Multiple Network Layer support or sub k seprate Routing Table.
▪ EIGRP k Routes routing Table mai “D” symbol sy represent hoty hy.

EIGRP Concept:
➢ EIGRP phly sirf CISCO Propriety protocol tha but ab cisco ny essy open standard kar diya
hy.
➢ EIGRP ka Administrative Distance yani A.D hota hy 90 or is ka protocol number hy 88.
➢ EIGRP ka Algorithm hy DUAL (Diffusion Update Algorithm).
➢ Best Path calculate based on Bandwidth & Delay.
➢ Bandwidth zada delay km its equals to Best Path.

EIGRP Tables:
EIGRP Routing karny sy phly 3 tarha k Tables Create karta hy.

▪ 1st one is “Neighbor Table”:


Neighbor Table my Router khud sy directly connected router ki information ko save karta hy k us k
baraber my kon sa Router laga hy or us tak janny ki kia information hy ya kia rasta or kia address hy ye
sari chezzy. Or Router pher apny neighbor routers ko Hello msges send karta hai jis sy Router ko pata
lagta rehta hyk us ka neighbor Router UP hy ya down hy essy KEEPALIVE message bhi khty hy. Or
ye message her 5 second k bad auto send hoty hy but is timer ko hum change bhi kar sakty hai. & the
dead timer is 3 time load yani 15 second tak agar hello message ka response nahi aata hy to router
samajh jata hy k us ka nighbor Router down hogaya hy. Or ye HELLO packets bhi Multicast IP py
send hoty hy which is 224.0.0.10.
(Show ip eigrp nieghbors)
▪ Topology Table:
Topology table my Routers apny pory network diagram rakhta hy or us my sary router ki information
hoti hy or pori topology information bhi save hoti hy. Or EIGRP ka 2nd best path bhi topology table
my hota hy.
(Show ip eigrp Topology)

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▪ Routing Table:
Routing Table my sary Routers ki information hoti hy or Best Path bhi routing table my hota hy.
Router table ko hum router ka brain khty hy qk router wahi sy sary decision lyta hy or sary networks ki
information bhi router k routing table mai save hoti hai.
(Show ip Route)

EIGRP Message:
EIGRP 5 tarha k Messages ko send karta hy Routers py.

1) Hello Message:

Neighbor Relationship build karny k ley.

2) Update Message:

Networks my jab bhi koi update hoti hy tu waha Update message Multicast send kiye jaty hy.

3) Query Message:

Query message jab best path down hojata hy to Router 2nd best path ko up kar dyta hy but pher
Router second best path ko search karny k ley sary routers ko query message send karta hy or wo
dosry router sy best route ki information k bary my pata karta hy. (Query message is like Asking
something)

4) Rply Message:

Rply message my router Hello message ka rply karty hy hello message sy hi.

5) Acknowledgment Message:

ACK message my router ko jab Update message mil jta hy to router ACK message send karty hy k
unhy update packets mil gaye hy.

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EIGRP Transport:
Example IP ki transport TCP sy guzarti hy Voice ki traffic UDP sy guzarti hy wessy hi EIGRP ki
Transport us k apny protocol RTP (Reliable Transport Protocol) sy guzarti hy. Update Message, Query
Message or Rply Message my RTP use hota hy qk waha sy response milta hy to us ki traffic RTP
through karta hy.

EIGRP Delay Time:


Kessi bhi 1 Router sy dosry Router tak data ko pouchny my jo time lagta hy ussy Delay Time khty hy.
Serial interfaces py by default Delay Time hota 20,000 in milliseconds or Fast-Ethernate py delay time
hota hy 100 milliseconds/Ms.

▪ Successor Route:
Jo First path hota hy EIGRP my ussy hum Successor Route khty hy. Or Successor Route ki
information Routing Table my hoti hy qk wo best path hota hy.

▪ Feasible Succssor Route:


Jo Second best path hota hy EIGRP my ussy hum Feasible Successor Route khty hy. Or us ki
information Topology table my hoti hy Qk wo 2nd best path hota hy.

Routers how Calculate Second best path?


Ye samajhny sy phly hum ye samajhty hy k Feasible Distance or Advertise Distance kia hota hy.

▪ Feasible Distance: Source Router sy ly kar Distention Router tak jo Cost hoti hy links ki
ussy hum Feasible Distance khty hy.
▪ Advertise Distance: Next Hope yani Source Router k Neighbor Router sy ly kar
Destination Router tak jo Cost hoti hy links ki ussy hum Advertise Distance khty hy.

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Second best path chose karny k ley that’s a Rule k agar kessi router ko 2nd best path banna hy tu us ka
Advertise Distance chota hona chayee best path k Feasible Distance sy. Jab ja k wo 2nd best path
banny ga or essi waja sy EIGRP my hammy loop free topology milti hy qk wo FD ko AD sy campare
kar k second best path choose karta hai.

EIGRP Matricalculation:
EIGRP 5 chezzo ko use karta hy apni Matricalculation k ley jis sy wo best path wagera ki selection
karta hy.
K1 = Bandwidth Value 1
K2 = Delay Value 1
K3 = Load Value 0
K4 = Reliability Value 0
K5 = MFU Value 0

Formula of Calculate Matri-calculation:

K1 K2 Bandwidth + K3 Delay K5 256


Bandwidth +256 –load K4 + reliability

That is Book Formula:


Easy Formula to Calculate Matricalculation:
 Matric = (107 / Minimum Bandwidth + Sum of Delays ) * 256
 Bandwidth 1544 Kbits , Delay 200000 U’sec
U

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EIGRP Autonomous System Number:


EIGRP Configure karty waqt hum ussy A.S number assign karty hy jo k us network ki boundary hoti
hy ya u samajh ly k us network ki identity hoti hy. A.S number bhi Private or Public hoty hy agar hum
internally EIGRP configure kar rahy hy jo sirf hamary offices tak hi hy to hum waha private A.S
number ko use kar sakty hy but agar hum Externally EIGRP configure kar rahy hy jo over the Internet
hoga to waha hammy IANA sy A.S number Purchase karna parta hy to ussy hum Public A.S khty hy.
Or is ki range 1 to 65535 tak hoti hy or hum 1 A.S my Maximum 255 Router laga sakty hy.

EIGRP PDMs Protocol:


PDMs (Protocol Department Module’s) ye protocol work karta hy EIGRP my deferent networks layers
k ley. Qk EIGRP Different Routing table banata hy essi ley wo different routing table create karta hy
IP k ley alag Table, IPX k ley alag Table or Apple Talk k ley alag Table so that’s the work of PDMs
Protocol.

EIGRP Authentication:
U

EIGRP Authentication k ley MD5 yani (Message Digest 5) Algorithm ko use karta hy jo k
authentication method ki high security hai. MD5 password ko encrypt kar k Hash value my change
kardyta hai or hash value encrypted hoti hy or jab ye hash value dosry Router k password or hash value
sy match hoti hy jabhi data flow hota hy warna nahi.

EIGRP Authentication Feature:


EIGRP apni Authentication k ley Key-Chain bhi Create karta hy jis my hum multiple passwords create
kar satky hy multiple keys k throw like Key 1, Key 2, Key 3. Is ka faida ye hoga k jaisy company ka
rule hy k her month k bad password ko change karna hy to waha hum manually password ko change
karny sy acha hy Key-chains bana dy or us ka life time set kar dy to her month k bad key password
auto hi renew hojaye ga hammy manually nahi karna pary ga so that’s the key-chain authentication
feature.

Cammands of Authentication Key-Chain:


R1(config)# Key-chain (Name) “Create”
R1(config)# Key 1
R1(config)# Key-string (Password)
R1(config)# exit

R1(config)# int s0/0 “Assign Interface”

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R1(config)# ip authentication mode eigrp 100 md5


R1(config)# ip authentication key-chain eigrp 100 (Key Name)

NOTE:
“Wait take a Moment, Get Comfortable and in a Good State of mind & Feel Relax!
Study CareFully…

BcZ we are Going to Deep EIGRP Load Balancing

EIGRP Load Balancing:

Understanding Unequal load Balancing:


Before understanding Unequal Load Balancing Learn what is Feasible or Advertise Distance in upper
section.
Suppose hamary pass eak Router 4 hy or ussy jana hy Router 5 py or ussy 3 path mil rahy hy routing
table mai waha tak janny k ley which mention below.
1) Router 1 ki metric hy 50 or is ka A.D hy 30
2) Router 2 ki metric hy 90 or is ka A.D hy 40
3) Router 3 ki metric hy 120 or is ka A.D hy 60

NOTE: (FIRST RELAX YOUR MIND AND READ THIS CAREFULLY)

To is case mai hammy 3 path mil rahy hy tu router sub sy lowest metric k path ko as a Best Path
consider kary ga or wahi sy data send kary ga. Or is ka Feasible Distance hoga 50 Right to ab hum
dekhty hy k is ka second best path kon bannye ga to second best path banny k ley condition ye hy k jis
router ka A.D means (Advertise Distance) lowest hoga best route k F.D (Feasible Distance) sy to wo
second best banny ga jo is case my Router 2 hy qk is ka A.D lowest hy best route k F.D sy to ye iska
second best path hoga.

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To jab bhi hum unequal load balancing ki bat karty hy tu hum sirf feasible successor path ko hi
consider karty hy unequal load balancing k ley. To yaha py jo variance ki value hy wo by default 1 hoti
hy to agar my variance ki value ko barha k kar do 2 kar do or pher ussy multiply kardu Rotuer 1 ki
metric sy jo hamara best path hy to variance ki value kitni aye gi 100 like 50*2 is equal to100.
To ab kia hoga hammary essy path jin ki metric 100 sy kam hy to wo outh k router k routing table my
chaly jaye gy. Jis sy Load balancing start ho jaye gi variance mai hammy value ko itna barhana hota hy
k hamara jo second route hy us ka F.D lowest hojaye successor Route k F.D sy.
jabhi hum ny variance ki value 2 consider ki thi takky 50 ko cross kar k wo 100 hojaye means multiply
k bad or pher Router 2 ki Matric us sy kam hojaye taky wo Route oth k Routing table my aajye or load
balancing start hojaye. Agar hum essa nahi karty to Router 2 wessy bhi hamara 2nd best path tha per
wo load balancing nahi kar raha tha qk wo routing table my nahi tha wo topology table my tha qk 2nd
best path topology table my hoty hy routing table my nahi to jabhi hum unequal load balancing k ley
variance command ko use karty hy or us ki metric ko multiply kar k highest karty hy taky 2nd path
topology table sy oth k router table my aajye. Or hamesha feasible successor hi topology table sy oth k
routing table my aaty hy koi or router nahi or hum Maximum 16 path ko routing table my la k load
balancing kara sakty hy.

Commands of Unequal load Balancing:


R1(config)# Router eigrp 100
R1(config)# variance 2
R1(config)# exit

Equal Load Balancing:


Equal load balancing matlab k agar router ko us k donu links py same Cost mily gi distination route tak
janny k ley to wo auto hi laod balancing start kar dy ga us my wo 1 packet first link sy bhejye ga or 1
packet dosry link sy is tarha wo alternate packets ko send kar k equal load balancing kary ga jis sy
traffic ka load divide hojaye ga donu links per.

EIGRP Commands:
Adding networks for EIGRP on Router R1:
R1(config)#router eigrp 100
R1(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0
R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0

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R1(config-router)#no auto-summary
R1(config-router)#exit

Note: All directly connected networks will be issued in the router eigrp mode. Autonomous System
number must be same on all the routers in the network.

Adding networks for EIGRP on Router R2:


U U

R1(config)#router eigrp 100


R1(config-router)#network 20.0.0.0
R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0
R1(config-router)#no auto-summary
R1(config-router)#exit
U

Show Commads on EIGRP:

R1# show ip route


R1# show ip eigrp topology
R1# show ip eigrp neighbors
R1# show ip eigrp interfaces
R1# show ip protocol

Hello Mess age or Delay Time Set Command:


R1(config)# ip hello-interval eigrp (A.S number) or (Time seconds my)
R1(config)# ip hold-time eigrp (time)

YES Finally you Completed your “EIGRP Protocol”


“Now your Routing Part Start in CCNA you must Pay Attention on It”
Hope this is Informative for you & Easy to Learn.
For More Learning & Notes Visite www.easypeezzi.com

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OSPF Protocol Concept:


Now you have to more Consideration because it’s OSPF.
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) open standard protocol hy
hum essy kessi bhi Router py run kar sakty hy chahye 1 taraf
Juniper ho or 1 taraf CISCO k routers ho OSPF configure ho
jaye ga. OSFP bhi EIGRP ki tarha Classless Routing protocol
hy. EIGRP matric calculation ko use karta hy best path
calculate karny k ley or OSPF links ki cost ko use karta best
path calculate karny k ley.
OSPF link state Routing Protocol hy or ye SPF (Shortest Path First) algorithm ko use karta hy best
path ko calculate karny k ley k pory network my sy best path kon sy hai. Link state routing protocol
Router ki information ko get karty hy us k network structure or topolgy sy.

Quick View:
▪ Open Standard.
▪ Only IP base routing not IPX or Apple TAC like EIGRP.
▪ Classless Routing Protocol. (CIDR Supported)
▪ Support VLSM.
▪ Link state routing protocol. (Only Update send)
1) No Feasible Successor.
2) No unequal load balancing.
3) OSPF Cost based upon bandwidth.

OSPF Routers aappas my Hello Message ko send karty hy apni neighbor relationship ko build karny k
ley. Her 1 router apny neighbor router ko learn karta hy us ki RID sy yani Router ID or us ki Cost sy.
Or wo uski neighbor information ko save rakhta hy apny Adjency Database my.

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IMPORTANT POINT:

✓ Neighbor table ko OSPF my “Adjency database” khty hy.


✓ OSFP my Topology Table ko LSDB yani “Link State Database” khty hy qk is my topology
same nahi hoti her area my 1 alag topology hoti hy.
✓ Her Router SPF algorithm ko use karta hy best path ko calculate karny k ley or jab wo best
path search kar lyta hy to wo ussy apny Forwarding database my move kar dyta hy. Routing
Table ko OSPF my “Forwarding Database” khty hy.

OSPF Network Structure:


OSPF my networks ko break kar dia jata hy area wise or in areas ki starting hoti hy Area 0 sy pher
Area 1, Area 2 or ess tarha Areas chalty hy. Jo bhi update hoti hy wo sirf ussi Area my flood hoti hy
jaha koi update ya changing hoti hy bakki area my nahi. OSPF ko 2 hierarchal design my divide kia
gaya hy.
1) Area 0 jo k pory network ka backbone hota hy or sari traffic Area 0 sy hi aagye forward hoti
hy.
2) Others Area jo k directly connected hoty hy backbone area sy unhy others area khty hy.

OSFP my ap 1 Area k ander 50 sy 100 routers tak connect kar sakty hy ye hamary network design py
depend karta hy.

OSPF Features:
U

1) Link State Protocol.


2) Routing Table is to short qk her area my sirf apny hi routes show hoty hy.
3) Router 1 to just Router 1 information and Router 2 to Router 2 information yaha her router
apna separate routing table banata hy or just ussi ki information rakhta hy sary routers ki nahi.
4) Update Customize yani jis Area my changing hoi hogi updates sirf ussi Area Flood hogi bakki
k Areas my nahi.

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OSPF Areas:
Several Types of Ares in OSPF.

▪ Backbone Area:

Area 0 hamara Backbone Area hota hai jo k sary Area’s sy Direct connected hota hy.

▪ Regular Area:

Wo Routers jo backbone area my nahi hoty wo regular area my hoty hy like Area 1 or Area 2 or in
k database my Internal Routes bhi hoty hy or External Routes bhi.

▪ Stub Area:

Stub Area k database my sirf default routes hoty hy or internal routes ki information hoti hy.

▪ Totally Stubby Area:

Ye CISCO properity hy jis my routers k database my un k apny Area’s my jo Routers hy unki


information hoti hy or Default Routes hoty hy.

▪ Not-so-Stubby Area: (NSSA)

Is k database my Internal Routes hoty hy, Redistributed Routes hoty hy jo is k routes sy connected
hoty hy. Or optionally hy k hum is my default route bhi agar rakhna chahye tu rakh sakty hai.

▪ Totally NSSA:

Ye CISCO ka Propriety Area hy. Is k Database my is k Area k Routes ki information hoti hy or


Redistributed Routes ki bhi information hoti hy jo is k Routes k sath Connected hu or Defualt
Route ki bhi information hoti hy.

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OSPF Areas Routers:


Backbone Routes: Wo Routers jo Backbone Area k Ander ho unhy “Backbone Routers” kehty hy.

Internal Routes: Jo routers 1 hi Area k ander ho unhy “Internal Routers” khty hy.

ABR Routers : Jo Router 1 Area sy nikal kar kessi dosry Area sy Connect hu unhy“Area Border
Routers” khty hy

ASBR Routers : jo Routers apny Area k sath connect hu or kessi or Domain k sath bhi connected ho ya
kessi protocol k sath like EIGRP to wo routers ASBR (Autonomous System Border
Router) router khlaty hy.

Virtual Links : Essy Router jo k direct connect nahi ho sakty Backbone Area sy to essy my hum ABR
router per Virtual Links create karty hy or then pher unhy Backbone Area sy connect
karty hy. But that is a temporary solution.

Detail of Virtual links:


OSPF my requirement tu ye hoti hy k sary Area directly connected hu Area 0 sy. Per jab essa Possible
nahi hota kuch Scenarios my to waha hum Virtual links ko create karty hy jo as a bridge work karta hy.
Area 0 or Regular Area k darmiyaan but this is a temporary solution Figure 3-3 Show OSPF Virtual
links.

Configuration of Virtual Links:


On Router 1
R1(config)# router ospf 1
R1(config-router)# area 1 virtual-link 10.20.20.20

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On Router 3
R3(config-router)# router ospf 1
R3(config-router)# area 1 virtual-link 10.10.10.10

Verify Virtual-links
R3# show ip ospf virtual-links
U

OSPF Routers Roles:


OSPF ny Routers ko kuch rules assign kiye hy or 1 router per multiple Rules bhi ho sakty hy the Rules
says.
▪ Internal Routers apny sary Interfaces ko 1 hi Area my rakhty hai or Link state
database maintain karty hai sirf apny Area ka.
▪ Backbone Routers at least apna koi 1 interface kesi dosray routers jo k backbone Area
my na hu un k sath jo Area 0 hy us k sath koi interface zaroor rakhy.
▪ Area Border Roter (ABR) Routers apna 1 interface Backbone Area my rakhy or 1
Interface us Area my rakhy jis Area ko Backbone Area sy connect kia gaya ga
▪ Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR) Router k interface inside or outside donu
ki taraf hona lazzmi hy qk us ka 1 interface kessi or domain k sath bhi connect hota hy.

OSFP Matric Cost:


By default Cisco ny sary interfaces ki cost 100 Mbps hi rakhi hy. Or agar hammy khud sy Cost ko
calculate karna hu to uska formula hy (Link Cost = 100 Mbps divide by Bandwidth Value). Is cost
ko hum auto bhi adjust kar sakty hy links k hisab sy router k global mode py command chalye gi
“auto-cost” or is ki cost manually bhi set kar sakty hy ”ip ospf cost 27” is command sy.

OSPF Link State Advertisements (LSA):


OSPF ka her router apny links k state ko dosry routers k sath advertise karty hy jessy hum LSA yani
(Link State Advertise) khty hy. Her router apny ander 1 Database ko contain karta hy jessy hum LSDB
(Link-State Data Base) khty hy. OSPF my her router 1 spreate LSDB ko khud my maintain karta hy or
dosray routers ko latest LSA send karta hy or apny link k state ko advertised karta hy network mai.

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LSA Operation:
Her LSA 1 sequence number k sath hoti hy or 1 time k bad auto send hoti hy or iska default timer 30
minute hota hy. Her router 30 minute k bad LSA ko send or dosray routers sy Receive bhi karty hy. Jab
routers LSA ko receive karty hy to pher wo ussy apny LSDB sy compare karty hy agar wo LSA new
hoti hy to wo ussy apny LSDB yani (Topology Table) mai save/add kar lyty hy or pher SPF algorithm
ko run karty hy. Agar router k pass uski router ID phly sy hi hoti hy to wo pher LSA ka sequence
number apny oldest LSA k sequence number k sath match karty hy or then changing ovewrite karty hy
agar wo new hoti hy to wo porani LSA ko discard kar k new LSA ko update kar lyty hy.

OSPF Sequence Number:


OSPF Sequence number 32 bit ka hota hy. Or us ka first legal Sequence number 0x80000001 hota hy
Sequence number change hoty hy per do sirf hi condition per.
▪ 1st condition router k Link ki State my koi changing hoi ho jeassy koi Router new
lagaya gaya hu ya Delete kai gaya hu jab sequence number change hota hy jab network
my koi changing hoi hu.
▪ Ya LSA ki jo age hy wo OUT hogai hu (Matlab jo LSA Update hy wo her 30 minute
bad network my flood ho rahi hu per network koi changes nahi ho rahi wohi LSA bar
bar send ho rahi hu jab sequence number khud hi change hojata hy)
▪ The Command “Show ip OSPF database” apko LSA k sequence number show kardy
gi.

OSPF LSA Types:


OSPF different type ki LSA ko advertise karty hy different types of Routes k ley jaissy k Internal
Routes, External Routes or ye sary hi routes represent hoty hy un k routing table my or ye un k prefix
sy phchany jaty hy k wo kon c LSA hy.

1) Router LSA Type 1:

Ye LSA sirf 1 hi Area k ander Flood hoti hy ABR router ko Cross nahi karti. Or ye “O” Prefix sy
Show hoti hy Routing Table my.

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2) Network LSA Type 2:

Network LSA sirf DR router yani Designated Router hi send karty hy or ye hamesha Broadcast
karty hy. Lekin ye LSA bhi 1 hi Area k ander Flood hoti hy ABR Router ko Cross naih karti. Or ye
bhi “O” Prefix sy Show hoti hy Routing Table my.

3) Summary LSA Type 3:

Ye LSA pory Network my Flood hoti ABR Routers ko bhi Cross kar jati hy or ye LSA ABR
Router generate karty hy or apni Router ID laga k essy agye send karty hy. Or ye “O IA” Prefix sy
Show hoti hy Routing Table mai.

4) Summary LSA Type 4:

Is LSA sy tamam Area ko ye pata lagta hy k ASBR (Autonomous System Boundary Route) Router
kaha laga hy or us ki Router ID kia hy. QK is Summary LSA my Router ID ASBR ki hoti hy or
bakki routers bhi ASBR ki Router ID laga k hi agye send karty hy. Or ye bhi “O IA” Prefix sy
Show hoti hy Routing Table mai.

5) External LSA Type 5:

Is LSA my ASBR khud Poray Network my Network ki Update ko Flood karty hy ABR router nahi
karty. Or ye 2 prefix sy show hoti hy routing table my pory network my jab ye LSA pass hoti hy to
is ky Matrix bhi increase hoty hy her router py. To ye LSA show hoti hy “O EI” sy or “O E2”.

6) Not-so-Stubby Area Type 6:


Ye LSA Flood hoti hy un Routers py jo kessi or Domain ka part hoty hy ya kessi or protocol ko bhi
run kar rahy hoty hy. Or ye LSA ASBR router hi generate karty hy or ye sirf NSSA my hi Flood
hoti hy.
N1-Metrix Increase as it passed through the network.
O N2- Matrix is not increase (By-default)

7) External Attributes LSA:

Ye LSA OSPF jab use karta hy jab OSPF or BGP k darmiyan Connectivity hu.
▪ (O IA) prefix sy dosray Area k router my show hogi. (O EI) prefix sy External
Routes my show hogi.

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OSPF Operations:
OSPF Different type k Messages ko use karta hy apny Neighbor Relationship ko build karny k ley or
correct routing information ko get karny k ley. Or OSPF packets type or neighbors Relationship kessy
build karta hy ye janna bhut zarori hy which mention below.

OSPF Packets:
OSPF use five types of packets ye apny packet ko UDP ya TCP my Forward nahi karta OSPF ki
transport us k apny OSPF road map sy forward hoti hy or ye IP (protocol number 89) py apny OSPF
header laga k data aagye forward karta hy.

▪ Hello Message:
Build a Neighbor Relationship & send a Keep alive message.

▪ Link State Request:


Update Request jab send hoti hy network my to jab “LSR” Message Flood hoty hy.

▪ Database Description:
Is Message my database ki pori summary hoti hy. Including Router ID or her LSA ka
sequence number bhi hota hy us k LSDB my.

▪ Link State Update:


Is message my network ki Update information send hoti hy like topology information
router ID or neighbor Router RID or us ki cost. Or 1 LSU apny ander multiple LSAs ko
contain kar sakti hy.

▪ Link State Acknowledgment:


(LSA ack) ye Message sary Routers send karty hy jab bhi un ko koi OSPF ka packet
milta hy. including Hello Message.

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Detail of Hello Message:

▪ Hello Message my Router ki ID.


▪ Hello or Dead interval (dead interval = time duration when other router response to
hello message by default is 5 sec agar 5 second my rply nahi aya to Relationship
Down)
▪ Area ID
▪ Router Priority
▪ DR Router or BDR Router ID authenticate ID.
▪ Packet State

NOTE:
OSPF Traffic Multicast hoti hy 2 addresses py OSPF k jo sary Routers hy wo Packet ko Multicast karty
hy 224.0.0.5 address py or OSPF my jo Designated Router hoty hy wo message ko Multicast karty hy
224.0.0.6 address py.

Establishment Neighbors & Exchanging Routes:

OSPF Link State:


Down State : Jab Link Down hota hy or Hello Message bhi sent nahi howy hoty.

Init State : Jab Routers apny sary interfaces py Hello Messge ko Send kar raha hota hy.

Two-way State: Jab Router Hello Message ko receive karty hy dosray router sy jis my us ki
Router ID bhi hoti hy Or agar sari requirements pori hoti hy routers Neighbors
ban jaty hy.

Exstart State : Jab Router apny Routes ko exchange karta hy to wo ye dekhta hy k kis ny phly
exchanging process start kia hy.

Loading State : Jab Router Unknown State my hota hy.

Full State : Jab router k database my us k neighbor ki sari information hoti hy to wo Full
State my hota hy.

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Basic OSPF Configuration:


OSPF ki Configuration bhi bhut simple hy Router k Global mode py hum OSPF ko configure karty hy
or us k sary interfaces ko define karty hy k ye kon sy Area my run hongy. OSPF ki configuration my
OSPF ki process ID configure karna lazmi hoti hy like EIGRP but EIGRP ki process ID sary network
py same hona lazmi hy but OSPF my change bhi hoti hy like Area wise & OSPF my hum wildcard
mask use karty hy. EIGRP my optionally hy but OSPF my hum wildcard mask hi use karty hy.
Here show the ABR router configuration:
R1(config)# router ospf 8
R1(config-router)# network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R1(config-router)# network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 1

➢ us k bad hum kessi single interface py bhi OSPF ka process run kar sakty hy like.
R1(config)# int s0/0/0
R1(config-router)# ip ospf 8 area 0

➢ And if you want to clear OSPF process the command is.


R1(config)# clear ip ospf process *

➢ Configure Virtual interface ya Loopback Interface command is.


R1(config)# interface loopback 0
R1(config-router)# ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0

➢ If you want to change a Rotuer ID so command is.


R1(config)# router ospf 8
R1(config-router)# router-id 10.0.0.1

Designated Router in OSPF:


Jaha multiple Routers lagye hoty hy waha 1 router ka election hota hy as Designated Router (DR) or 1
ka election hota hy as a Backup Designated Router (BDR) DR or BDR k select hony k bad Network
my sary Router Other Routers khlaty hy.
DR LSA (type 2) ko Network my Flood karta hy or apni Router ID advertise karny k ley. NON DR
means other router DR router sy communicate karty hy 224.0.0.6 Multicast address sy or DR Router
other Routers ko information send karty hy 224.0.0.5 is multicast address sy.

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Select DR & BDR Routers:


▪ Higher Priority = DR Router
▪ 2nd Higher Priority = BDR Router

✓ (if priority is same so the 1st higher IP is DR router & 2nd higher IP is BDR Router)
✓ (Agar apni marzi sy DR Router bannana ho tu us router ki priority increase kar dygy jaissy
DR Router bannana hu)
✓ (Router ki priority set karny k bad OSPF process ko clear kary gy taky sary router pher sy
OSPF k process ko run kary or New DR router ko select kary)
✓ (Or agar hum kessi Router ki priority 0 kar dy gy to wo router na to kabhi DR router
bannye ga or na hi BDR Router banny ga wo as a Other Router hi act kary ga)

Changing Priority to make a DR Router:

➢ If you want to set a priority on DR router so command is.


R1(config)# int fa0/1
R1(config-router)# ip ospf priority 2

Verify & Troubleshoot OSPF Process:


Commands Purpose
R1# debug ip ospf adjacencies See the neighbor initialization process.

R1# debug ip ospf packet view all the OSPF packet in Real Time.

R1# show ip ospf neighbors See the neighbor table so command is. (This
command also show the Designated Router &
Backup Designated Router)

R1# show ip route See the OSPF Route Table.

R1# show ip route ospf If you want to filter the Routing Table & show
only that routes who learn OSPF Process.

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YES Finally you Completed your “EIGRP Protocol”


“Now your Security Part Start in CCNA you must Pay Attention on It”
Hope this is Informative for you & Easy to Learn.
For More Learning & Notes Visite www.easypeezzi.com

60% Completed just 40% Left


To your CCNA!

Keep Going You’re Doing Good just 40% Study More on your CCNA after you’re
you Complete your CCNA…

Now Plan your Another Day & Learn Module # 7 which is Next step of yours
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Network Security

Contant
U U

Port Security:
✓ Port Security Overview?
✓ Why port security?
✓ Modes of Violation?
✓ Modes of port security?
1) Shutdown:
2) Restricted:
3) Protect:
LAB: Port-Security (Commands)

Access Control List:

Access Control List Overview?


✓ Types of ACL?
1) Standard ACL?
o Where to apply standard ACL?
o Important for standard ACL?

✓ Extended ACL?
o Where to apply Extended ACL?
o Advantage of Extended ACL direct HTTP Block?
o Advantage of Extended ACL direct TELNET

✓ Named ACL on Cisco Router?


o Benefit of Named ACL?
o Criteria Of Applying ACL?
o Selection of ACL?
o Direction & Action of ACL?
o In Bound?
o Out Bound?

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Network Address Translation (NAT):

✓ NAT Overview?
✓ Types of NAT?
o Static NAT?
o Dynamic NAT?
o NAT over Loading / PAT?

✓ NAT Terminology? 66
o Inside Local?
o Inside Global?
o Outside Local?
o Outside Global?
o

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Port Security:
Port security 1 essa feature hy cisco switches my jis sy hum apny network environment ko Secure kar
sakty hy. Is feature ko apply karny k bad switch sirf unhi host ko Recognize karta hy jis ko hum allow
karty hy unknown host ko wo network ka acces nahi dyta. Or agar us computer k elawa koi unknown
computer agar us switch ki port py connect hota hy tu switch us port ko auto hi shutdown ya wo action
perform karta hy jo hum manually set karty hy. Port security Computer k MAC address py lagayi jati
hy jis sy switch sirf unhi computers ko network sy connect karta hy jis MAC address sy us port py bind
kia jata hy. Ya essa samjh ly k wo computer jo us swtich ki port sy connect hota hy jo ussy assign ki
gai hy. Mac Address manually bhi configure hojaty hai or hum essy auto bhi kar sakty hai stiky
keyword sy jessy jo computer first time us port sy cunnect hoga switch us ka Mac Address apni port k
sath auto bind karly ga so that’s the concept of Port Security in Switch.

Why port security:


Port security network my security purpose k ley use ki jati hy taky koi unknown computer ya switch
hamary network my access na ho saky sirf wo computer ya switch access ho saky jo k hamry network
ka part hy.

Modes of Violation:

Port Security network administrator ko security k kuch modes allow karti hy jo bhi action network
administrator us port py set karta hy port wohi action unknown computer k connect hoty hy perform
karti hy is chez ko hum violation kehty hy.

Modes of port security:


▪ Shutdown:

Agar switch py port security enable hy or us py violation mode shutdown set hy to Shutdown mode
jessy hi koi unknown Host hamary network sy connect hony ki koshish karta hy to switch us port ko
shutdown kar dyte hy or us unknown computer ko network py nahi any dyta. Is violation ka
disadvantage ye hy k ye port agar shutdown hogai tu essy manually network administrator ko
commands dy k up karna parta hy Ye khud sy up nahi hoti.

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▪ Restricted:

Restrict mode my jessy hi Unknown Host network sy connect hota hy to network administrator ko
notification mil jata hy. Or switch koi new MAC address learn nahi karta agar us ko koi new MAC
address milta bhi hy to switch us MAC address ko apni port per discard/ignore kar dyta hy.

▪ Protect:

Protect mode my switch sirf ussi computer ko allow karta hy jis ka mac address uski port k sath bind
hota hai New Host milty hi wo port ko auto shutdown kra dyta hy. Ye same shutdown mode ki tarha
hy but is ka advantage ye hy k is my jessy hi wo host jo us port k sath bind hai dobara is port k sath
connect hota hy or ussy wo porana MAC address milta hy to switch auto hi us port ko again up kar
dyta hy administrator ko manually commands sy up nahi karna parta.

LAB: Port-Security (Commands)


U

EP-Switch>enable
EP-Switch # configure terminal
EP-Switch (config)#interface fa0/1
EP-Switch (config-if)#switchport mode access
EP-Switch (config-if)#switchport port-security
EP-Switch (config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address sticky
EP-Switch (config-if)#switchport port-security maximum 1
EP-Switch (config-if)#switchport port-security violation shutdown
EP-Switch (config-if)#exit

EP-Switch (config)#interface fa0/2


EP-Switch (config-if)#switchport mode access
EP-Switch (config-if)#switchport port-security
EP-Switch (config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address sticky
EP-Switch (config-if)#switchport port-security maximum 1
EP-Switch (config-if)#switchport port-security violation shutdown
EP-Switch (config-if)#exit

What happens if violation occurred:


When a new PC is attached to the port on which port-security is enabled then Switch will take an action
which is set in the violation mode.

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Access Control List:


Access Control List sy hum Packet Filtering ka function perform karty hy k kis packet ko Allow karna
hai or kessy Deny. ACL Router per configure hoti hy jab tak ACL nahi hy matlab hamary network mai
koi Filtering nahi hy is case mai koi bhi Traffic network k router per throw ho sakti hy per jab hum
ACL apply karty hy tu us my hum packets ki filtering karty hy k kon c Traffic Router py Access hogi
or kon c nahi.
There are Two Type of ACL:

Standard ACL:

Standard ACL my hum filtering kar sakty hy base upon the “Source IP Address” matlab kessi bhi
computer ki IP dy kar us ki Traffic k access ko block kai ja sakta hy. Standard ACL my hamy control
bhut kam milta hy hum is py blocking kar sakty but sirf us computer ki source IP ki base py k Traffic
kis IP sy aarahi hy kis IP py jaraha hy us py nahi.
To yaha hammy is ka bhut bara disadvantage face karny ko milta hy qk hum Router k interface py is
source IP ko block to kar dyty suppose k ye PC hamary Server ko access na kar saky to is condition my
hum ny 1 ACL laga di or us computer ki Source IP waha define kar di to Disadvantage ye hoga k pher
wo PC server ko access nahi karye ga qk ACL Apply hy per wo PC us k sath sath waha rakhy kessi
Computer ya kessi or server ko bhi Access nahi kar paye.
Reason Standard ACL Source IP dekhti hy Destination nahi ussy sirf ye pata hy k kis IP k Traffic ko
block karna hy ye nahi pata k kis k ley block karna hy to essy my wo us sub computer k ley us PC ki
Traffic ko Block kar dygi jo Router k dosray End py hy qk waha Router us packet ko filter kary ga or
dekhy ga ACL hy sirf Source IP to waha wo us IP ki sari Traffic ko Discard karta rahy ga or Traffic
aggy pass nahi kary ga.
That’s way yaha hammy Router ki Selection bhut dekh k karni parti hy matlab k wo Router hamry
network per to hu per Client side sy na connect hu warna Client side ki bhi Traffic Block hojaye gi TO
essi ley hum zada tar Extended ACL ko Use karty hy qk waha hum pher Source or Destination IP donu
bataty hy manually to waha itni problem nahi hoti Per Router Selection waha bhi bhut important hy k
ACL kis Router, interface or kis direction mai configure karni hai.
ACL my hum 1 single IP ko bhi Block kar sakty hy or ACL ki 1 Statement sy pory Network ki IP ko
bhi block kia ja sakta hy agar us Source IP my apny Pory Network ki IP lekh dy ya Range define kardy

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like 192.168.0.10/20 Deny is tarha sy to 10 sy ly kar 20 tak k PC ki Traffic Block hojaye gi 1 single
Statement sy. Or is tarha k Range ko Block karny k ley hum Wildcard Mask use karty hy.
“Range of Standard ACL is 1 to 99 & 1300 to 1999 (Expended Range)”
Matlab hum jo bhi statement configure kary gy Router per us k statement number ki range 1 sy ly kar
99 tak hogi or hum 1 hi statement per different actions laga sakty hy like IN/OUT. Matlab k statement
ka number 1 hi rahy or us py action change ho yani Deny or Permit.

Where to Apply standard ACL?

“As close as possible to Destination Host”

Important for ACL:


ACL my hum jab bhi koi Statement lagaty ho like Deny ki to us k bad Router khud sy us Statement k
bad 1 Statement or add karta hy All Traffic deny to agar hum ny koi 1 ACL lagai hy Deny ki to wo
ACL apki sari Traffic ko hi Deny kar dygi qk ap ny Router ko ye to bata diye kis IP ki Traffic ko
Block karna hy per ye nahi bataya k or Kon c IP’s ko Permit karna hy.
Agar ap essa samjhty hy k Router bs unhy IP’s ko Deny kary ga jinhy hum forcefully ACL my deny
kary gy or bakki sub ko khud hi Permit kar dyga to essa bilkul nahi hy 1 Deny list create k bad Router
us Statement k bad 1 apni statement laga dyga or sari hi traffic ko Deny kar dyga. Is problem sy bachny
k ley hum Deny statement k bad 1 statement or lekhty hy jis my hum bakki ki Traffic ko Permit karty
hy jis sy Router ko pata lag jata hy or wo bakki ki IP’s permit karni hai.
Router ACL list ko hamesha Oper sy Nechy ki taraf Check karta hy. Or jaha humari koi bhi statement
ACL sy match karti hy Router foren Action Dekhta hy Deny hy to Discard or Permit hy to traffic ko
Allow kar dyta hy that’s it so that’s the concept of ACL & now see the configuration of ACL which
mention below.

Example & Confirmation of Standard ACL:


Router(config)# Access-list 1 Deny 192.168.0.1 0.0.255.255
Router(config)# Access-list 1 Deny 192.168.0.2 0.0.255.255
Router(config)# Access-list1 permit 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255

Router(config)# int fa0/0


Router(int-config)# ip access-group 1 out (Router(int-config)# exit)

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Extended ACL:

Extended ACL is good for implementation because Extended ACL my hum filtering kar sakty hy base
upon the.
1) Source IP Address.
2) Destination IP Address.
3) Protocol Base Blocking like HTTP, FTP, ICMP, UDP, TCP.
4) Blocking via Port Number.
To is my hammy control bhut zada milta hy is ley ye zada use hoti hy & this is the 2nd type of ACL.
“Range of Extendard ACL is 100 to 199 & 2000 to 2699 (Expended Range)”

Where to apply Extended ACL?

“As close as possible to Source Host”

Configuration of Extended ACL:


Router(config)# Access-list 100 deny ip host 192.168.0.1 host
192.168.0.10 (1st Source & 2nd Destination IP)
Router(config)# Access-list 100 Permit Any Any

Router(config)# int fa0/0


Router(int-config)# ip access-group 100 in
Router(int-config)# exit

1st Advantage of Extended ACL:

The 1st advantage is hum direct hi us ki Destination IP ko Block kar sakty hy sirf ussi PC k ley or
bakki ki Communication permit hi rahy gi or bs us Destination IP k ley hi deny hojaye gi.

2nd Advantage of Extended ACL:

The 2nd advantage is Extended ACL ka k hum protocol base blocking bhi kar sakty hy jessy koi ping na
kar saky to waha hum ny ICMP ko Deny kar diya. Or 2nd k koi Browsing na kar saky to waha hum ny
port number 80 dy HTTP ko Block kar diya matlab pori connectivity nahi block hoi just protocol ko
block kia jo hum chaty thy.

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Configuration Deny HTTP Protocol in Extended ACL:


Router(config)# Access-list 100 deny ICMP host 192.168.0.2 host
192.168.0.10 (1st Source & 2nd Destination IP)
Router(config)# Access-list 100 deny tcp host 192.168.0.3 host
192.168.0.10 eq 80 (HTTP Protocol Blocking here)
Router(config)# Access-list 100 Permit ip Any Any

Router(config)# int fa0/0


Router(int-config)# ip access-group 100 in
Router(int-config)# exit

Bad Way To Configure This Type of Telnet:

Is Configuration mai problem ye hy k hum ny Telnet ko is my block kia per is my Problem ye hy agar
is router my koi Dosra interface Up hoga to waha sy Telnet hojaye ga wo kessi dosray interface sy
telnet ka console ly lyga to agar hammy Telnet rokna hoga to hum pher 1 Statement configure kary gy
or pher waha us interface ki destination IP ko configure kary gy to ye koi good solution nahi hy matlab
Router per jitney bhi interfaces hongy hammy utni hi Statement Again & Again Configure karni pary
gi Telnet ko block karny k ley.

Configuration Deny Telnet Protocol in Extended ACL:


Router(config)# Access-list 100 deny tcp host 192.168.0.3 host
192.168.0.10 eq 23 (Telnet Protocol Blocking here)
Router(config)# Access-list 100 Permit ip Any Any
Router(config)# int fa0/0
Router(int-config)# ip access-group 100 in
Router(int-config)# exit

Best Way to configure telnet here:

Bajaye is k k hum her interface per blocking kary telnet ka 1 simple or best way ye hy k hum us line ko
hi block kar dy jaha telnet use hoti hy or wo line hy line vty jaha telnet use hoti hy to best way ye hy k
hum us Router per us line ko hi Deny kar dy to jitney bhi interfaces hongy us Router per sub py auto hi
Telnet deny hojaye ga.

Configuration Deny Telnet Protocol in Extended ACL in Best Way:


Router(config)# access-list 1 deny host 192.168.0.1 (Here is
Source PC IP Which You Want to Block Telnet)
Router(config)# access-list 1 permit any
Router(config)# line vty 0 4
Router(config)#access-class 1 in (Router(int-config)# exit)

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Named ACL on Cisco


Router:
Wessy to ACL ki 2 hi type hy 1st Standard or 2nd Extended but in donu ACl my hi hum editing ya
kessi 1 statement ko delete ya edit nahi kar skty agar koi new statement add bhi karni hotu to dobara sy
sari ACL ko list wise dobara configure karna parta hy or agar delete bhi karna hotu koi 1 single
statement ko hum delete nahi kar sakty to essi ley CISCO ny hamari Aasani k ley inhe ACL ko Modify
kar k 1 new ACL ka Concept diya hammy jessy hum “Named ACL” khty hy or ye sirf CISCO k
Routers per hi work karti hy.

Benefit of Named ACL:


Named ACL ka sub sy bara benefit ye hy k hum is my Editing bhi kar sakty hy or kessi 1 single
statement ko Delete bhi kar sakty hy. Standard or Extended my tu hum us k number ki range dyty hy
jis sy router ko pata lagta hy k ye Standard ACL hy ya Extended ACL hy per Named ACL my hum
ACL ka 1 Name dyty hy hy jis sy router us name ko dekhta hy or us k bad hum ACL ki type lekhty hy
hum jo bhi use karna chahye Standard ya Extended or pher us ACL ko 1 number dyty hy. Named ACL
ko use karty howay hum Apni sari ACL ko edit bhi kar sakty hy or kessi single statement ko Delete bhi
kar sakty hy ussi configuration my rehty howay dobora sy pori Configuration karny ki zarorat nahi
parti.

Configuration of Named ACL for Standard ACL:


Router(config)#ip access-list standard Blocking-List
(Blocking-List is the Name of ACL)

Router(config-std-nacl)# deny host 192.168.0.1


(Suppose ACL number is 10)

Router(config-std-nacl)# 12 deny host 192.168.0.3


(ACL number is 12)

Router(config-std-nacl)# deny host 192.168.0.2


(Suppose ACL number is 20)

Router(config-std-nacl)# Permit any


(Suppose ACL number is 30)

Router(config-std-nacl)# show access-list


Router(config-std-nacl)# 12 deny host 192.168.0.3
(Editing in ACL after Configuration)

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Router(config-std-nacl)# no deny host 192.168.0.1


(1st Method of Delete Single Statement)
Router(config-std-nacl)# no 10
(2nd Method of Delete Single Statement with ACL number)

Router(config)# int fa0/0


Router(int-config)# ip access-group Blocking-List in
Router(int-config)# exit

Note That:

Cisco ny named ACL my her ACL ko 1 number diya hy wo jab hum “Show access-list” ki command
chalaty hy to hammy wo number dekhty hy. or ye 10 sy start hoty hy or aagyee barhty jaty hy. Ye gape
is ley hota hy taky agar hammy koi statement bad my add karani hoi to hum us sy phly ka number use
kar k us statement ki placement waha kar sakty hy agar hum essa nahi kary gy or koi statement
configure kar dygy to wo statement us list k last my ja kar lag jaye gi jo permit statement k bad hogi or
ussy number bhi us k bad ka hi milly ga to wo run nahi hi hopaye gi essi ley hummy number bhi ussi
gape ko use karty howy dyna hota hy jaha hammy wo statement place karni hu jaisy my ny oper diya
hy 10 or 20 k bech ka number taky wo statement jo my ny bad my configure ki hy wo waha ja k place
ho saky.

Operator in Extended ACL:


Operator in the access-list command Meaning
Eq Equals to
Neq Not equals to
it Less Then
gt Greater Then
range Range of port Numbers

Criteria of Applying ACL:


ACL ko Apply karny k ley hammy phly hammy network diagram ko samjhna hota hy k jis computer
ki Traffic ko hum block karna chty hy to kitny essy Rasty hy hamary network ki Topology my jaha sy
wo Traffic access ho rahi hy ya throw ho rahi hy qk agar hum essa nahi kary gy to suppose jis
computer ko hum block karna chty thy us ki traffic k ley multiple links sy throw hoti hu. Right or ye
bhi dekhna hota hy k Traffic k entrance kaha sy ho rahi hy to ussy point py matlab Router k ussi
interface py jaha wo traffic access ho rahi hoti hy ussi interface py ACL laga k
hammy ussy Block karna hota hy.

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Configuration Of Named ACL for Extended ACL:


Router(config)# ip access-list extended Blocking-HTTP
(Blocking-HTTP is the Name of ACL)
Router(config-etd-nacl)# deny tcp host 192.168.0.1 host 192.168.0.10
eq 80
Router(config-etd-nacl)# Permit any

Router(config)# int fa0/0


Router(int-config)# ip access-group Blocking-HTTP in
Router(int-config)# exit

Selection/Planning of ACL:
1) Step k kon sy Router py ACL lagani hy agar ap k Network my multiple Router hy to phly to
Router ki selection hogi k kon sa router py ACL Apply karni hy.
2) Step k us Router k kon sy interface py ACL ko Apply karna hy like agar apky Rotuer per Multiple
Ports hy to waha apko ye bhi dekhna hoga k Router k kis interface py ap ACL ko Apply karo gy.

Direction & Action of ACL:


Kessi bhi tarha ki ACL ho Standard ya pher Extended donu hi ACL sirf (2) Direction py hi lagti hy.

1) In Bound:

Means traffic jaha sy aarahi hu agar wo side Block karni hy tu waha hum “InBound” Direction ko
use karty hy ACL Apply karny k ley. Inbound direction ki ACL work karti hy Routing Decision sy
phly. Jab koi bhi packet Router py in hoti hy to phly wo ussy match karta hy apny Routing table
my or pher ACL statement ko check karta hy k wo Deny hy ya Permit Deny hota hy Packet
Discard kar dyta hy or Permit hota hy to Packet aagye Forward kar dyta hy.

2) Out Bound:

Means traffic jaha sy Bahar ja rahi hu us side py Blocking lagany k ley hum “Outbound”
Direction ko use karty hy ACL Apply karny k ley. Or outbound direction ki ACL work karti hy
Routing Decision k Baad.
Router k her (1) Single interface py hum sirf (2) ACL ko hi use kar sakty hy wo bhi jab un donu ki
directions different hu yani 1 interface py 1 hi ACL lagi ho incoming Traffic ko Block karny k ley or 1
ACL lagi hu Outgoing Traffic ko Block karny k ley.

“Yess you Learn ACLs:-) Now Plan your Another Day & Learn NAT Terminology Ahead”
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Network Address Translation (NAT):


NAT Termnilogy hum use kart hy network address ko Translate karny k ley. Jaisy kessi private IP ko
public IP my translate karna hu. kessi Ipv4 ko Ipv6 my translate karna hu. Ya address ki over Lapping
ho rahi hu tu over Lapping matlab (jaissy hamary office my 192 ka subnet chal raha hy or 1 dosri
company thi waha per bhi 192 ka subnet chal raha tha to agar hum essi branches ko connect kary gy to
abhi same IP ki waja sy conflict aye ga qk hum idher bhi same wohi network ko use kar rahy hy to is
tarha k scenario my bhi hum translation ko use kar sakty hy.
Matlab kahi jagga per NAT use ho sakta hy per is ka popular use hy Private IP address ko public
address my translate karna ya Kessi 1 network ko dosry network my translate karna apni private IP
address ko hide kar k public address my translate karna or other benefit security Provide karna network
k structure ko or apni personal IP addresses ko hide karna.

Types of NAT:
There are Three types or NAT.
1) Static NAT
2) Dynamic NAT
3) Nat Over Load/PAT (Port Address Translation)

Static NAT:
Static NAT my network Administrator khud sy IP ki mapping karta hy k agar Source IP ye hy to is ko
translate kar k is ki public IP ye hojaye is tarha wo sari IP khud sy configure karta hy manually. To
yaha py 1 to 1 mapping hoti hy matlab k her 1 private IP k ley 1 public IP or ye IP us k sath permit
yani bind hojati hy.
Example jessy mery pass Web server rakha hy or my cha raha hu k wo internet py access ho saky tu
my 1 IP purchase kar k apny server ki private IP ko us Global IP k sath mapping kara do ga. one to
one mapping Jitney computer utni hi IPs.

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Dynamic NAT:
Dynamic NAT my hum 1 pool create karty hy or us my public IPs ki range ko configure kar dty hy to
jab koi computer internet py janny ki request send karta hy router ko to router us computer ki exiting
IP ko hide kar k ussi pool my sy 1 public IP assign kar dyta hy. Is ki range hy k hum dynamic NAT my
sirf 50 IPs ka pool bana sakty hy. difference ye hy k bs is my hammy static NAT ki tarha one to one
mapping nahi karni parti just one time pool create karna hota hy or IPs auto range k according us pool
my sy assign hoti rehti hy.

NAT over Loading / PAT:


Static or Dynamic my disadvantage ye hy k ye 1 to 1 mapping karty hy matlab jitni IPs hogi hamary
pass hammy utni hi public IPs chyee hogi us k sath map karny k ley tu ye bhut costly hy per is ka
Benefit ye hy k confusion nahi hy hammy saaf pata hota hy k is IP ka address is IP k sath map hy.
PAT ka benefit ye bhi hy k hammy public IP zada purchase nahi karni parti hum 1 public IP ko use
karty howy multiple IP ki translation us 1 single public IP py kara sakty hy qk ye 1 to 1 mapping nahi
hy.
Is process ko different rakhny k ley computer us same IP address k agye port address laga dyta hy
jessy her page k sath 1 port number auto generate hota hy jis sy us ki identity deferent hojati hy. IP 1
hi rehti hy bus computer auto hi us IP k agye port numbers generate kar k packet agye forward karta
rehta hy.

Easy Wording:
Nat over load my ye hota hy k agar hamary pass 1 hi public IP hy to public IP to change nahi hogi qk 1
hi hy essy my NAT over load 1 hi public IP rakhta hy or us k bad computers k port numbers assign kar
dyta hy to computers k port number pher us 1 IP ki alag alag identity banty hy qk her session py port
number alag hota hy to computer ko ye pata lag jata hy k request kaha or kis port per send karni hai
Natting k doran. Matlab Many to one, like ISP Internet IP & Gateways.

NAT Terminology:
▪ Inside Local: matlab jo hamara private network hy wo apka inside local address hota ga.

▪ Inside Global: matlab jo public address humny apni private IP k sath map kar k rakha hy.

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▪ Outside Local : jis server ko hum access kar rahy hy agar us py bhi translation hoi ho gi to us k
bhi 2 address hogy jinhy hum Local or Global kahaye gy,

▪ Outside Global: agar wo server jis ko hum access kar rahy hy us py koi translation nahi hogi
to us k address ko hum just globally address hi kahy gy.

LAB: Static NAT


Objective: To Show Static Translation from Public Ip Address to Private Ip
Address by Implementing Static Nat

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Configuration R0
EP-Router#configure terminal
EP-Router (config)#ip nat inside source static 10.0.0.1 172.16.1.3
EP-Router (config)#interface f0/0
EP-Router (config-if)#ip nat outside
EP-Router (config-if)#exit

EP-Router (config)#interface f0/1


EP-Router (config-if)#ip nat inside
EP-Router (config-if)#exit

Ping from pc 1 to server 1 after that run the show command


EP-Router (config)#do sh ip nat translation

Pro Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside global


icmp 172.16.1.3:1 10.0.0.1:1 200.1.1.1:1 200.1.1.1:1
icmp 172.16.1.3:2 10.0.0.1:2 200.1.1.1:2 200.1.1.1:2
icmp 172.16.1.3:3 10.0.0.1:3 200.1.1.1:3 200.1.1.1:3
icmp 172.16.1.3:4 10.0.0.1:4 200.1.1.1:4 200.1.1.1:4
icmp 172.16.1.3:5 10.0.0.1:5 200.1.1.1:5 200.1.1.1:5

LAB: Dynamic NAT


Objective: To Show Dynamic Translation from Public Ip Address to Private Ip
Address by Implementing Dynamic Nat

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Configuration on R0
EP-Router (config)#ip nat pool abc 172.16.1.3 172.16.1.4 netmask
255.255.255.0
EP-Router (config)#ip nat inside source list 10 pool abc
EP-Router (config)#access-list 10 permit 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255
EP-Router (config-if)#exit

EP-Router (config)#interface f0/0


EP-Router (config-if)#ip access-group 10 out

Ping from Pc1 & from Pc2 but not from Pc3
EP-Router # show ip nat translations

Pro Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside global


tcp 172.16.1.3:1025 10.0.0.1:1025 200.1.1.1:80 200.1.1.1:80
tcp 172.16.1.4:1025 10.0.0.2:1025 200.1.1.1:80 200.1.1.1:80

LAB: PAT
Objective: To Show Translation from One Public Ip Address to Many Private Ip
Address by Implementing Pat

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Configuration on R1
EP-Router (config)#ip nat pool abc 172.16.1.3 172.16.1.3 netmask
255.255.255.0
EP-Router (config)#ip nat inside source list 10 pool abc overload
EP-Router (config)#access-list 10 permit 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255
EP-Router (config)#interface f0/1
EP-Router (config-if)#ip nat inside
EP-Router (config-if)#exit

EP-Router (config)#interface f0/0


EP-Router (config-if)#ip nat outside
EP-Router (config-if)#exit
EP-Router (config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 f0/0

Ping 200.1.1.1 and then check the router translation

EP-Router (config)#do sh ip nat translation

Pro Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside global


icmp 172.16.1.3:5 10.0.0.1:5 200.1.1.1:5 200.1.1.1:5
icmp 172.16.1.3:6 10.0.0.1:6 200.1.1.1:6 200.1.1.1:6
icmp 172.16.1.3:7 10.0.0.1:7 200.1.1.1:7 200.1.1.1:7 i
cmp 172.16.1.3:8 10.0.0.1:8 200.1.1.1:8 200.1.1.1:8

YES Finally you Completed your “Module # 7”


“Now your Redundancy Part Start in CCNA you also Pay Attention on It”
Hope this is Informative for you & Easy to Learn.
For More Learning & Notes Visite www.easypeezzi.com

70% Completed just 30% Left


To Complete your CCNA!

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First Hop Redundancy


Protocol

Contant

First Hop redundancy Protocol:


✓ HSRP Overview?
✓ Router Modes in HSRP?
o Active Router?
o Standby Router?
o Listening Router?
✓ Selection of Active Router?
✓ HSRP States?
o Disable
o INIT
o Learn
o Listen
o Speak
o Standby
o Active
o Lab of HSRP

VRRP Topics:
✓ VRRP Overview?
✓ VRRP Features?
✓ Configuration

GLBP Topics:
✓ GLBP Overview?
✓ GLBP Features?
✓ Configuration

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HSRP:
HSRP (Hot standby routing protocol) Cisco ka propriety protocol hy ye protocol Cisco ny 1994 my
developed kia tha is ka default hello timer 3 second & dead timer 10 second hota hy. Cisco phli
company thi jis ny is tarha ka koi protocol developed kia tha jo routers my Redundancy provide karta
tha.
Is scenario my 2 ya multiple Routers eak sath lagaye jaty hy per un mai sy work sirf eak router hi karta
hy or second router Standby my rehty hy. Standy Routers her 3 second k bad hello message send karty
hy ye dekhny k ley k neighbor routers proper working kar rahy hy ya nahi or aagar 10 second tak kessi
router sy hello message ka rply nahi ata tu routers ye maan lyty hy k un ka neighbor router down ho
gaya hy or pher second router jo standby my hota hy wo default router ki responsibility apny oper ly
lyta hy or network ki traffic apny interfaces sy forward karna start kar dyta hy.
So0o that’s the working of HSRP. HSRP ko configure karty waqt hum us ko group number assign
karty hy or group ki range define karty hy jo hoti hy 0 to 255 in number ko use karty howy hum HSRP
my group create kar k HSRP ko configure kia jata hai.
“IN HSRP Hello Message send this Multicast IP 244.0.0.2 over UDP port 1985”

Router Modes in HSRP:

▪ Active Router:
Network mai jo router active hota hy or sari traffic ko apny interfaces sy throw kar raha hota hy wo
router active mode my hota hy.

▪ Standby Router:
Active router k sath 1 router hum redundancy k ley use karty hy jab tk active router active rehta hy
second router auto standby mode py hota hy or jab active router down hojata hy to stand by router auto
hi active mode aa jata hy or network traffic apny interfaces sy throw karta hai without any downtime.

▪ Listening Router:
Active or Standby router k elawa network my jo baki sary router hoty hy wo listening mode my hoty
hy.

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Selection of Active Router:


Jis router ki priority sub sy High hoti hy HSRP my wo router kehlata hy Active Router. Or agar
Routers ki priority same hogi to jis router ki highest IP hogi wo Router Active router ban jaye ga.

HSRP States:

Disable: Suppose bhut sary routers hamary 1 hi group my chal rahy hy to active or standby Router ko
hata k hum baki k Routers ki port hum shutdown kar dyty hy to us condition my un Routers per HSRP
Disable mode my hota hy.

INIT : jab hum us group my koi new Router Add kar k us ki ports ko up karty hy then jab HSRP
INIT mode my hota hy. “This is a starting state when an interface is first boot up”

Learn : jab Routers on hoty hy or active Router sy hello messages ko learn kar rahy hoty hy.

Listen : jab router us hello message ko learn kar lyta hy tu tab wo listening mode my hoty hy or virtual
IP ko listen kar rahy hoty hy.

Speak : jab router pori tarha sy up ho jata hy learning or listening state sy agye barh jata hy jab wo
speak mode my aajata hy or Hello message ko apny neighbor router k sath share karna start kar dyta
hy.

Standby: Ab Router finally ye decide karta hy k ab mujhy standby router banna hy ya active router.
Agar us sy highest IP ya priority ka router network my mojood hota hy tu tab wo standby mode my
chala jata hy.

Active : yaha router un sub state ko cross kar k finally active mode my aajata hy or active state my act
karta hy.

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LAB: Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP):


Objective: How to show Redundancy by using HSRP

Configuring WAN-RT:
WAN-RT(config)#interface Loopback0
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 200.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit

WAN-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.2.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit

WAN-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit

WAN-RT(config)#router rip
WAN-RT(config-router)#version 2
WAN-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
WAN-RT(config-router)#network 200.0.0.0
WAN-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary
WAN-RT(config-router)#exit

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Configuring Master-RT:
Master-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
Master-RT(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.10 255.255.255.0
Master-RT(config-if)#standby 1 ip 10.0.0.100
Master-RT(config-if)#standby 1 priority 110
Master-RT(config-if)#standby 1 preempt
Master-RT(config-if)#standby 1 track FastEthernet0/1
Master-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Master-RT(config-if)#exit

Master-RT(config-if)
Master-RT(config )#interface FastEthernet0/1
Master-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.0
Master-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Master-RT(config-if)#exit
Master-RT(config)#router rip
Master-RT(config-router)#version 2
Master-RT(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0
Master-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
Master-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary

Configuring Backup-RT:
Backup-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
Backup-RT(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.9 255.255.255.0
Backup-RT(config-if)#standby 1 ip 10.0.0.100
Backup-RT(config-if)#standby 1 priority 95
Backup-RT(config-if)#standby 1 preempt
Backup-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Backup-RT(config-if)#exit

Backup-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1
Backup-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0
Backup-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Backup-RT(config-if)#exit

Backup-RT(config)#router rip
Backup-RT(config-router)#version 2
Backup-RT(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0
Backup-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
Backup-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary

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VRRP:
VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol) ye protocol IETF ny developed kia tha 1999 my open
standard protocol hy or iska RFC hy 2338. HSRP k bad IETF ko 5 saal lagyee essa protocol developed
karny my jo HSRP ki tarha redundancy kar saky but wo industry standard hu matlab k essy sary
vender use kar saky to VRRP 1 essa protocol jo cisco k elawa other vender k routers per bhi run ho
sakta hy. Is ka benefit hi ye howa k agar 1 Router Cisco Company ka hy or dosra router kessi or vender
ka hy to hum waha bhi VRRP ko run kar sakty hy gateway redundancy k ley. Or is ka 2nd benefit ye
hy k ye HSRP sy fast hy is ka hello timer hy 1 second or dead timer hy 3 second to is ki conversion bhi
HSRP sy fast hy.

VRRP Features:
1) The Router with the Highest Priority becomes the Master Router.
2) All other router becomes backup Router.
3) By default, the virtual MAC address is 0000.5e00.01XX, where xx is the hexadecimal VRRP
group number.
4) Hellos are send 1 second by default.
5) VRRP hellos are sent to multicast address 224.0.0.18 using UPD port 112,
6) In VRRP preempt by default.
7) Group Range 1 to 1024
8) In VRRP cannot track the interface.

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LAB: Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)


Objective: How to show Redundancy by using VRRP

Configuring WAN-RT:
WAN-RT(config)#interface Loopback0
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 200.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit

WAN-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.2.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit

WAN-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit

WAN-RT(config)#router rip
WAN-RT(config-router)#version 2
WAN-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
WAN-RT(config-router)#network 200.0.0.0
WAN-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary
WAN-RT(config-router)#exit

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Configuring Master-RT:
Master-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
Master-RT(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.10 255.255.255.0
Master-RT(config-if)#vrrp 1 ip 10.0.0.100
Master-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Master-RT(config-if)#exit

Master-RT(config-if)
Master-RT(config )#interface FastEthernet0/1
Master-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.0
Master-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Master-RT(config-if)#exit

Master-RT(config)#router rip
Master-RT(config-router)#version 2
Master-RT(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0
Master-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
Master-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary

Configuring Backup-RT:
Backup-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
Backup-RT(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.9 255.255.255.0
Backup-RT(config-if)#vrrp 1 ip 10.0.0.100
Backup-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Backup-RT(config-if)#exit

Backup-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1
Backup-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0
Backup-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Backup-RT(config-if)#exit

Backup-RT(config)#router rip
Backup-RT(config-router)#version 2
Backup-RT(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0
Backup-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
Backup-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary

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GLBP:
GLBP (Gateway Load Balancing Protocol) Cisco propriety protocol hy cisco ny eak or Redundancy
Protocol developed kia 2005 my jo gateway ki load balancing kar saky HSRP or VRRP my tu just 1
router hi up hota hy or dosra router standby py hota hy but GLBP my hamary donu router hi active
hoty hy or load balancing provide karty hy. Or aager essy my donu router my sy koi eak router down
ho jata hy tu dosra router as a fault tolerance use hota hy or sari traffic apny interface sy agye forward
karta hy.

GLBP Features:
1) Multicast IP 224.0.0.102
2) Group number 1 to 255
3) All Routers are active

LAB: Gateway Load Balancing Protocol


Objective: How to show Redundancy by using GLBP

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Configuring WAN-RT:
WAN-RT(config)#interface Loopback0
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 200.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit

WAN-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.2.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit

WAN-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit

WAN-RT(config)#router rip
WAN-RT(config-router)#version 2
WAN-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
WAN-RT(config-router)#network 200.0.0.0
WAN-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary
WAN-RT(config-router)#exit

Configuring Master-RT:
Master-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
Master-RT(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.10 255.255.255.0
Master-RT(config-if)#glbp 1 ip 10.0.0.100
Master-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Master-RT(config-if)#exit

Master-RT(config-if)
Master-RT(config )#interface FastEthernet0/1
Master-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.0
Master-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Master-RT(config-if)#exit

Master-RT(config)#router rip
Master-RT(config-router)#version 2
Master-RT(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0
Master-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
Master-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary
Backup-RT(config-if)#exit

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Configuring Backup-RT:
Backup-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
Backup-RT(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.9 255.255.255.0
Backup-RT(config-if)#glbp 1 ip 10.0.0.100
Backup-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Backup-RT(config-if)#exit

Backup-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1
Backup-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0
Backup-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Backup-RT(config-if)#exit

Backup-RT(config)#router rip
Backup-RT(config-router)#version 2
Backup-RT(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0
Backup-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
Backup-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary
Backup-RT(config-if)#exit

YES! Finally you Completed your “Module # 8”


“Now your Redundancy Part is Over…”
& Starting a “Network Management” Module in CCNA
Hope this is Informative for you & Easy to Learn.
For More Learning & Notes Visite www.easypeezzi.com
+

Now Play Games &


Feel Relax it’s “Time to Enjoye”
it

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Network Management

Contant

Network Mangment:
✓ SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)?
✓ SNMP Access?
✓ Read-Only (RO)?
o Read-Write (RW)?
o SNMP Configuration:

✓ Syslog Server?
✓ In short Description of Syslog Server?
✓ Logging states?
✓ Syslog Configuration?

✓ DHCP Overview?
✓ DHCP Explain?
✓ Configuration of DHCP server on Cisco Router?

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Concept of SNMP:
SNMP application layer ka protocol hy jo hammy
communication ka format provide karta hy. SNMP is
based on TCP/IP networks or ye protocol 1988 my
developed howa tha or is ka RFC hy 1065.
SNMP monitoring ka protocol hy jo IP k network per
run hota hy. Is my sari information record hoti hy k
kon c port up ho rahi hy kon c down ho rahi hy and so
on. Ye network my mojood sari devices ki information
ka record rakhta hy ye sirf switches ya router tk hi
limited nahi hy network devices jaissy servers,
computer, printers and so on ye sub devices apny states
ko share kar sakti hy us computer ya us server k sath jis py SNMP manager Install kia gaya hy.
SNMP Manger bs eak software hy or jis computer per hum SNMP manager ko install karty hy wo
computer hamara As a SNMP Manager ACT karna start kar dyta hy. Jab ap 1 computer ko SNMP
Manager bana lyty hy to network my lagi sari devices pher SNMP agent khelati hy or hamy un devices
py SNMP Agent software install karna parta hy taky wo apny statistics SNMP manager ko send kar
saky. SNMP k throw hum devices ki sirf monitor hi nahi balky unhy configure bhi kar sakty hy.
Suppose hammy router ka koi interface down karna h ya up karna hy so ye bhi kar sakty hy ye depend
karta hy k hammy privilege kia mily hy hum SNMP ka kon sa version use kar rahy hy& So on.
SNMP manager MIB k name sy apny ander 1 database banata hy jis my wo her activity ko monitor or
record karta hy MIB stands for (Management Information Base) or SNMP ka console hamy hamary
browser per dekhta hy us k ley flash player bhi hona zarori hy.

SNMP Access:
Read-Only (RO):

Read only my hum sirf MIB variables k database ko sirf Rkar sakty hy change nahi kar sakty.

Read-Write (RW):

Provide Read and Write access to all objects in the MIB.

SNMP Priveledge Configuration:


R1(config)# snmp-server community string RO|RW
(community is kind of string or
password)
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Concept of Syslog:
Jab hum Router ya Switches py koi bhi chez configure karty
hy tu us k bad foren 1 message generate hota hy jo ye define
karta hy k Router py ye changes hoi hy. To by default wo
hamary Router per hi generate hota hy or ussi my save hota
hy Router my eak buffer hota hy ye syslog message waha us
buffer mai save ho jaty hy.
Buffer? (Hamary Router ki memory my sy hi kuch hissa
nikal diya jata hy jessy hum buffer kehty hy jaha hamary
logs save hoty hy logs matlab jo configuration hum ny ki hy
us k messages. To agar hum chahyee to wo logs kessi computer ya server per bhi bhej sakty hy matlab
jo bhi configuration hum router per kary gy wo us k logs 1 computer py save karta rahye ga k ye ye
configuration hoi is date ko hoi is time ko hoi and so on.
Tu is tarha k logs ko hum syslog kehty hy or agar hum inhy dekhna chahy tu command hy “ R1#show
logging” tu agar hum chahy k hum ye sary logs router per save na kary balky ye sary logs 1
dedicated server per save hu ya ap k network my 5 sy 6 router lagyee hy tu ap ye cha rahy hu k sub k
log us 1 computer per hi monitor hu tu is k ley hum syslog ka concept use karty hy.

In short
Cisco device my hum ny jo bhi configuration ki us ka messages wo logs my save krta hy jessy hum
syslog kehty hy. Or agar hum chty hy k hamary Router ya Switches py koi log save na hu tu hum
command use kary gy “R1(config) #no service timetamps”
Or agar hum chty hy k ye sary logs hamary computer per bany taky my uss log ko apny computer sy hi
monitor kar saky to command hy “R1(config) #logging 192.168.0.100” bs logging k agye
hum us computer ki IP dal dy gy jaha hum logs ko monitor krna chty hy that’s it.

Logging states:
Syslog message k sath 1 number hota hy jo hamary message ki state ko define karta hy jis sy hamy pata
lagta hy k agar message generate howa hy tu is ki state/level kia hy which mention below.

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Level States Explanations


0 Emergency The system may be unusable.
1 Alert Immediate action may be required.
2 Critical A critical event took place.
3 Error The router experienced is error.
4 Warning A condition might warrant attention.
5 Notification A normal but significant condition occurred.
6 Informational A normal event occurred.
7 Debugging The output is a result of a debug command.

Agar hum chayee to sirf particular states ko bhi monitor kar sakty hy jaisy my cha raha hu k sirf
Emergency, Warning ya Error state k syslog message mujhy show hu tu hum command use karty hy
“R1(config) #logging trap 4”
Trap k agyee us message state ka number hum configure karty hy to jaissy yaha my ny 4 configure kia
hy to mujhy ya 0 sy ly kar 4 state tk k syslog message show hongy bss Notifications Informational or
Debugging k message mujy show nahi hongy is ka benefit ye hy k my sirf un states ko monitor kar
sakta hu jaisy forcefully configure karu ga so that is all about syslogs.

LAB: SYSLOG
OBJECTIVE: To Implement Syslog and to Show The Output it Generates On the
Syslog Server

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Configuration on Router

Router>enable
Router#conf t
Router(config)#int fa0/0
Router(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
Router(config-if)#no shut
Router(config-if)#exit

Router(config)#int fa0/1
Router(config-if)#ip address 20.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
Router(config-if)#no shut

Router(config)#service timestamps log datetime msec


Router(config)#logging host 20.0.0.2
Router(config)#logging trap debugging
Router(config)#end

*Mar 01, 00:04:47.044: *Mar 01, 00:04:47.044: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I:


Configured from console by console Enter configuration commands, one
per line. End with CNTL/Z. 83 Copyright@ CTTC

In order to generate the log do some configuration as below.


Router(config)#router eigrp 10
Router(config-router)#exit

Router(config)#int fa0/0
Router(config-if)#shutdown
*Mar 01, 00:05:50.055: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0,
changed state to administratively down *Mar 01, 00:05:50.055:
%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0,
changed state to down Router
(config-if)#no shutdown
Router(config-if)#
*Mar 01, 00:05:52.055: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0,
changed state to up *Mar 01, 00:05:52.055: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line
protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up
Now

Visit Site www.EasypeezZi.com & Download Other Topics & Modules & Learn with FUN

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Explain DHCP:
I.E Microsoft my humy DHCP yani (Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol) configure karty hy taky
hammay manually IP’s assign na karni pary apny
network my or sary Host py IP Dynamically Assign
hojaye yani auto hi hojaye mujhy alag alag PC py ja
k khud sy IP ko assign na karny pary. To essi tarha
same is server ki configuration hum apny Cisco
Router per bhi kar satky hy.
Apny Router per hammy DHCP configure karny k ley hammy sub sy phly Router per IP’s ka 1 pool
create karna hota hy jis my hum IP’s ki Range define karty hy like 100 sy ly kar 200 tak IP’s assign ho
jay hamary networks py tu jitney bhi computer hy unhy 100 sy ly kar 200 tak ki IP’s auto assign
hojaye gi.
Hum 1 hi Router py rehty howay 2 different networks k DHCP server bhi configure kar sakty hy jessy
my cha raha hu 1 side py IP’s mily 10 k Network ki or dosry side py IP mily 20 k Network ki to my
DHCP essy bhi configure kar sakta hu tu hamara Router 2 Different network ki IP’s hi Assign kary ga
10 k Network my 10 ki IP or 20 k Network my 20 ki IP.
Is my hum router k do Seprate interface ko use karty hy jaisy 1 interface py my 10 ka DHCP configure
karu ga or Dosry interface oy my 20 ka to jis interface py my 10 ka network dallo ga un Computers ko
10 k Network ki IP milly gi or jis interface py my 20 ka Network dallu ga un Computer ko 20 ki IP
milye gi.
DHCP 2 port number ko use karta hy apni working k ley 1) 68 jo k use hota hy client ki request k ley
jab client IP address ki request karty hy DHCP server sy or 2) 67 jo use hota hy Server Response k ley.
Microsoft k DHCP 1 feature provide karty hy jessy hum khty hy DHCP reservation ye is ley hota hy k
my cha raha hu 100 sy ly 120 tak ki IP client ko nahi milly ye mery servers k ley hy client ko IP milly
120 k bad sy to DHCP my hum IP ko Reserve kara dyty hy jis sy router wo IP jo reserve hy wo IP
client ko nahi dyta to same Microsoft ki tarha ye feature Cisco k Router per bhi perform hota hy. But
100 sy 120 tak ki IP’s hamy manually apny servers py configure karni hogi qk wo DHCP k Network ka
part to hogi per DHCP un IP’s ko khud sy assign nahi kary ga.

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Configuration of DHCP server on Cisco Router:


EP-Router(config)#ip dhcp pool Marketing
EP-Router (dhcp-config)#network 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0
EP-Router (dhcp-config)#default-router 10.0.0.100
EP-Router (dhcp-config)#dns-server 8.8.8.8
EP-Router (dhcp-config)#exit

EP-Router (config)#ip dhcp excluded-address 10.0.0.101 10.0.0.200


EP-Router (config)#service dhcp
EP-Router (config)#no service dhcp
EP-Router #show ip dhcp binding
EP-Router #show ip dhcp server statistics
EP-Router #clear ip dhcp binding *

YES! Finally you Completed your “Module # 9”


“Now your WAN Part Start in CCNA you Must Pay Attention on It”
Hope this is Informative for you & Easy to Learn.
For More Learning & Notes Visite www.easypeezzi.com

90% Completed just 10% Left


to Complete your CCNA!

Feedback
Easypeezzi@gmail.com

“Now Plan your Another Day & Learn Module # 10 which is Last step of yours”
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WAN Encapsulation Protocol

Contant

Transmission Technics:
✓ Transmission Technics?
✓ Three Types of Transmission Technics?
✓ First how to data transfer one place to another place?
o Simplex:
o Duplex:

✓ Second how to bits transfer in channel?


o Serial Transmission:
o Parallel Transmission:

✓ Third how to sync data between transmitter & receiver?


o Synchronic Transmission:
o A synchronic Transmission:

Wan Encapsulation Protocol:


✓ Lease Line/Dedicated Line?
✓ Lease Line Protocols?
o PPP
o HDLC

✓ Packet Switching?
✓ Circuit Switching?
✓ WAN Technology\Terminology?
✓ DCE and DTE devices?
✓ CSU\DSU Device?

✓ WAN Encapsulation Protocols?


o HDLC?
o HDLC Disadvantage
o PPP?
o Features of PPP?
o PPP Authentication?
▪ PAP (Password Authentication Protocol)
▪ CHAP (Challenge Handshaking protocol)

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Frame Relay:

✓ Frame Relay?
✓ PVC (permanent Virtual Circuit)?
✓ SVC (Switch Virtual Circuit)?
✓ Frame-Relay Mapping?
✓ DLCI Technical detail?
✓ CIR (Committed information rate)?
✓ LAR (Local Access Rate)?
✓ LMI (Local Management Interface)?
✓ LMI Types?
✓ Version IOS?
✓ LMI States?

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Three types of Transmission techniques.


“First techniques k Data 1 jaga sy dosri jaga kessy transfer ho raha hy”
This type of transmission includes;

1) Simplex
I.E (keyboard) qk keyboard py hum koi output nahi dekh sakty hum just keyboard ko input dyty hy key
press kar k or wire k throw wo bits transmission ho k computer tk pouchty hy or hammy screen per
show hoty hy. it’s like simplex transmission techniques jis my bits eak jaga sy move hoky kessi dosri
jagga receive hoty hy.

2) Duplex
Half duplex: Data 1 hi channel mai receive or send hu sakta hy but same time nahi one by one like
(Wokitoki One way Communication) Calling.
Full duplex: Data 1 hi channel sy 1 hi time my receive bhi ho sakta hy or send bhi ho sakta hy like
(Mobile Two way Communication) Calling.
“Second Techniques k Bits 1 channel py kitny send ho rahy hy”
Yaha ye dekha jata hy k 1 hi channel sy 1 jaga sy dosri jaga kitni bits transfer ho rahy hy. Is ko hum 2
categories my divide karty hy like Serial & Parallel.

1) Serial Transmission;
Just 1 bit 1 jaga sy dosri jaga transfer hota hy. Jo data transfer hoga wo bit by bit hoga 1 sath sari bits
transfer nahi hosakti to is type ki communication ko serial type of communication kehty hy. I.E (COM
Port).

2) Parallel Transmission;
Jaha 1 sath number of bits transfer ho saky bulk mai. to is type ki communication ko Parallel type of
communication kehty hy I.E (Parallel Port)

“Third Techniques hy k Transmitter or Receiver k bech my data synchronize kessy ho raha hy”

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1) Synchronic Transmission;
Synchronic way wo hota hy jaha Transmitter or Receiver 1 hi sath 1 hi time 1 hi clock or 1 hi interval k
bad data send kar rahy hu. I.E jessy hamary Army man jab PT karty hy to wo 1 hi sath apny pao ko
othaty hy pr rakhty hy or sub 1 hi tarha chal rahy hoty hy same timing mai no of bits move hoty hai to
is tarha ki transmission Synchronic transmission khlati hy the example Pic mention below..

2) Asynchronous Transmission;
Asynchronic way wo hota hy jaha sender or receiver k darmiyan data transfer karny ka jo interval hota
hy wo fix nahi hota jessi requirement hoti hy data wessy hi move kia jata hy. I.E (Keyboard) hamra jab
dil karta hy hum button press karty hy koi fix time nahi hy k itny time button dabana hy or 1 sath
dabana hy.

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ARP resolve the known IP address to MAC address.

There are 5 types of ARP.


1) ARP
2) Proxy ARP
3) Gratuitous ARP
4) RARP
5) Inverse ARP

1) ARP Works

ARP packet hamesha broadcast hota hy jab bhi hum kessi computer ko ping karty hy us ki network
connectivity ko check karny k ley tu switch ko nahi pata k PC ki IP kiaa hy switch ko us PC k
MAC or connecting port pata hoti hai to switch us IP ko resolve karny k ley ARP ko use karta hai
so ARP karta ye hy k computer ki IP ko us computer k MAC address my resolve kar dyta hy taky
switch py connectivity easily ho saky. In short ARP resolve the IP address into Computer MAC
address.

2) Proxy ARP (PARP)

Routers LANs ki broadcast ko agyee forward nahi karty qk wo LAN py


broadcast ko restrict karty hy essy my agar hammy kessy different
network sy communicate karna ho tu Router apna MAC address laga k us
request ko agyee forward karta hy or communication karwata hy ye
process Proxy ARP kehlata hy. Qk router different network py
communicate karty waqt apna MAC address laga k sary packet send kar
raha hota hy.

3) Gratuitous ARP (GARP)

Gratuitous ARP matlab jab hum apny network py kessi computer ko ya router ko same IP address
dobara dyty hy by mistake to GARP hammy notify karta hy k ye Ip address phly sy kahi use ho
rahi hy tob ackhand py GARP ARP is chez py work karta hai jab hum same IP dyty hy to ussy
notify karta hy.

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4) RARP (Reverse ARP)

Reverse ARP like essy hum u samjhty hy k jab hum internet py search karty hy google.com to yaha
computer ko sirf us ka MAC address pata hota hy Google ka IP address nahi pata hota to essy my
RARP ka packet send hota hy to reverse ARP MAC address ko IP address my resolve karta hy or
communication karata hy.

5) Inverse ARP (IARP)

Inverse ARP layer 2 address ko layer 3 address my resolve karta hy. Frame Relay inverse ARP ko
use karta hy.

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WAN Technologies:
WAN Technology jab hum internet sy cunnect hoty hai or LAN network sy nikal k WAN network per
jaty hai. WAN ko use karty howy hum kuch Protocols or kuch ways/line ko use karty hy which
mention below.

Lease Line/Dedicated Line:


Jab hamy different branches ko connect karna hota hy tu hum Lease Line ya Dedicated Line purchase
karty hy. Lease Line direct 1 hi link hoti hy jo hamary apny Router sy connect hoty howy hamary
branch office k Router sy direct connect hoti hy. Ye sub sy zada reliable hoti hy per costly bhi hoti hy
qk wo line hamari personal tunnel hoti hy jaha sy sirf hamara data hi move ho raha hota hy jabhi essy
dedicated line kehty hy.

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Lease Line Protocols:

1) PPP
2) HDLC

Packet Switching:
Packet Switching Terminology WAN network yani ISP k Network my use hoti hy qk waha hamara
packet multiple Routers or different Switches sy ho k agye forward hoty hy so it’s like a packet
switching I.E mention below.

Circuit Switching:
Packet switching my tu hamary packets multiple Router sy forward hoty hy but Circuit switching 1
specific path define hota hy 1 Circuit design hota hy jis sy sary packets us 1 hi circuit sy ho k agyee
forward hoty hy eak road map k throw.

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WAN Technology\Terminology:

DCE and DTE devices:


DCE means (Data Communication Equipment) and DTE means (Data Termination Equipment)
DCE device like a modem or DTE is like a Router. DCE generate a Clock rate or DTE us Clock rate
per work karta hy. ager hammy do Router ko connect karna hota hy to hum waha serial cable ka use
karty hy to serial cable 1 taraf sy DCE device sy connect hoti hy or dosri taraf sy DTE py to DCE
device clock rate ko generate karti hy or DTE device us clock rate ko use karti hy process k doran.
Agar hammy do Routers ko connect karna ho jo different country my hy or do branches ko hammy 1
sath connect karna hy to waha hum ISP k throw connect hoty hy jaha bech my 1 ISP ka modem laga
hota hy jaha sy Clock Rate generate hoty hy or dosri taraf hamari company ka Router hota hy or wo us
clock rate per work karta hy. So DCE device hamari Modem hoti hy or DTE device hamary Routers
hoty hy. DCE device jessy DSL Modem, Cable Modem, CSU/DSU and DCE is a Service Provider side
and DTE is a Customer side I.E mention below.

CSU\DSU Device:
CSU (Channel Service Unit) DSU (Data Service Unit) ye na to hamara source point hy or na hi
destination point ye bs 1 bridge hota hy jo hamari WAN sy communication karwata hy. WAN sy jo bhi

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hum connection lyty hy wo direct hum apny Router per terminate nahi kar sakty hum us link ko
CSU\DSU device sy connect karty hy or pher hum ussy apny Router sy connect karty hy to CSU\DSU
device hamay WAN sy connect karti hy like a modem.
Jessy ISP ka connection hamary pass aaya ab ya tu wo hamary modem sy connect hoga ya pher Router
sy connect hoga agar CSU\DSU sy connect hoga tu digital circuit hona chayee or agar analog hy tu
modem k thorw connect hoga. Then modem sy 1 cable aaye gi jessy hum serial cable kehty hy ya jo
cable ISP hamay provide kary ga wo bhi 1 special cable hoti hy jis my RJ48 connector use hota hy wo
connect hota hy hamary CSU\DSU ya modem sy qk Router direct in signals ko nahi samajh sakta jabhi
hum is device ko use kary gy or pher waha sy serial cable hamary Router sy connect hogi or pher LAN
sy so that is all about CSU\DSU jo WAN or Router k bech mai Communication ko developed karta hai
I.E mention below.

WAN Encapsulation Protocols:


1) HDLC
2) PPP
3) Frame Relay

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WAN Encapsulation Protocol Physical or Data link layer py perform hoty hy is ka matlab k jo hum ny
frame send kia hy wo is way my WAN connection sy send ho k destination my pouchye ga.

High Level Data-link Control (HDLC):


HDLC (High-Level Data-Link Control) IOS Standard hy jessy 1970 my developed kia gaya tha HDLC
protocol by default Point-to-Point serial interfaces py enable hota hy. HDLC open standard protocol hy
or 1 HDLC protocol Cisco ka propriety bhi hy jo sirf Cisco k Routers per hi chalta hy jab cisco k
routers sy data send hota hy or donu taraf cisco k hi routers hy tu by default serial interfaces py WAN
encapsulation k ley HDLC protocol use hota hy jis k throw data WAN py move hota hy.

HDLC Disadvantage:
1) No Error Deduction.
2) No Authentication.
3) Only IP network Support.

Point to Point (PPP):


PPP (Point-to-point protocol) HDLC ka Alternative hy jo kessi bhi brand ya vendor k Router per
support karta hy. Qk HDLC my kuch disadvantage thy jessy k wo layer 2 py authentication ko support
nahi karta tha na data ko compress karta tha or na hi multiple network ko support karta tha ye sirf IPs k
network per hi chalta tha essi ley PPP ko developed kia gaya. Routing protocol jo apni authentication
karty hy wo application layer py karty hy or jitney bhi routing protocols hoty hy sub application layer
py work karty hy. PPP open standard protocol hy or CISCO bhi is protocol ko support karta hy WAN
Encapsulation k ley or PPP OSI ki data link layer py work karta hy.

Features of PPP:
1) Physically deferent types ki cables ko support karta hy.
2) LCP (Link Control Protocol) Error Deduction karta hy.
3) NCP (Network Control Protocol) Multiple networks ko support karta hy (IP, IPX, Apple Talk).
4) Support Authentication.
5) Data compress bhi kar sakta hy data ko send karny sy phly.

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PPP Authentication:
1) PAP (Password Authentication Protocol):

PAP protocol my hamara username or password plan text my hota hy or routers password match
karty hi data ko send karna start kar dyty hy essi ley PAP zada Secure nahi hy.

2) CHAP (Challenge Handshaking protocol)

CHAP my password Encrypted hota hy or Hash value my convert ho jata hy or jab tk Routers us
hash value ko match na karly jab tk data send nahi karty Routers phly hash value ko match karty hy
or pher us k bad three way handshake ka process run karty hy us k bad data ko send karty hy essi
ley CHAP kafi secure hy as compare to PAP.

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LAB: WAN Encapsulation OBJECTIVE:

To Implement authentication method and encapsulation used for WAN

Configuring R1:
R1(config)#int s0/3/0
R1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.252
R1(config-if)#clock rate 64000
R1(config-if)#encapsulation ppp
R1(config-if)#ppp authentication chap pap
R1(config-if)#no shutdown
R1(config-if)#exit

R1(config)#username
R2 password cisco

Configuring R2:
R2(config)#int s0/3/0
R2(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.252
R2(config-if)#encapsulation ppp
R2(config-if)#ppp authentication chap pap
R2(config-if)#no shutdown
R2(config-if)#exit

R2(config)#username
R1 password cisco

Note: Username R2 must be created on Router R1 and username R1 must be created on Router R2,
where usernames R1 and R2 are the hostname of their respective Routers. Passwords on both the
routers must be same.

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Concept of Frame Relay:


Frame Relay is a packet switching Technology Suppose 3 branches hy in a different location to is
scenario my agar hamy un branches ko connect ho tu jitni branches hogi hamy utni hi lease line ya
dedicated line purchase karni hogi jo k bhut hi costly bhi pary ga or bhut sari cables bhi hamy apny
Router k serial interface sy connect karnin parygi to “Frame Relay eak essa feature hy jis my hum apny
eak hi serial link ko use karty howy apny multiple remote Offices sy connect ho sakty hy” tu ye eak
basic overview hy k Frame Relay hota kia hy.
Frame Relay packet Switching k throw hamari cost ko reduce karta hy. Frame Relay packet switching
py based hy per is my bhi circuit create hoty hy jessy hum kehty hy Virtual Circuit VC jab bhi hum
remote office sy connect hoty hy tu VC Virtual Circuit generate hota hy jis k throw communication
hoti hy. Is case mai Hum bs apny Router ISP sy connect karty hy or apny Remote office ka Router bhi
ISP sy connect karty hy or is tarha hamari do branches jo k different countries my hy wo appas my
connect hojati hy or bech mai hum connectivity k ley ISP ka network use kar rahy hoty hy jo k packet
switching or Frame-Relay ka task perform karta hy the picture of Frame Relay is mention below.

Frame Relay:

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PVC (permanent Virtual Circuit):


PVC means k agar eak Router Remote office py data send karna chehta hy tu bech my ISP k jitney bhi
Routers hongy un k bech my 1 circuit phly sy hi design hoga jis k throw hamara data send hoga. PVC
my wohi circuit hamary link py permanent hoty hy matlab k ab hamara Router jitney bhi packets ko
send kary ga sary packet us same circuit ko hi use kary gy or ussi path k throw data ko forward kary gy
is circuit my VC fix hota hy.

SVC (Switch Virtual Circuit):


SVC my Router khud sy decide karta hy k packets ko kaha sy send karna hy is my koi bhi path fix
nahi hota packets kessi bhi Router sy ho kar guzar sakta hy inside of ISP network agar koi eak link
down hy to kessi dosray link sy data ko send kar dy ga to her eak individual packet individual decision
ly sakta hy wo kehlata hy hamara Switch Virtual Circuit (SVC).

Frame-Relay Mapping:
LAN py data link layer MAC address ko use karti hy us ki destination identity k ley essi thrha WAN py
eak protocol use hota hy jessy hum DLCI (Data link connection Identity) kehty hy. hota kia hy jessy
hamary multiple Virtual Circuit bany hy hamara Branch Router multiple remote Routers k sath
connect hy tu essy my locations ko identify karny k ley DLCI Frame Relay number
us ki Destination IP address k sath bind kar diya jata hy. ye DLCI Frame Relay
number ISP assign karta hy to essy my jab bhi
hamara Router kessi Remote Office k Router ko
data send karta hy jo kessi or country my hy tu us
ki destination IP address k sath wo us Frame Relay ka DLCI number bind
kar dyta hy jo us k packets ki identity hoti hy so is tarha Frame-Relay mai
DLCI Numbers k throw link ki identity hoti hy.

DLCI Technical detail:


1) Data link connection identifier.
2) Identify virtual circuit.
3) Range (16 - 1007)
4) Given by Service Provider.
5) Local DLCI MAP with remote IP address.
6) Manual or Automatic Mapping.

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CIR:
Committed information Rate (CIR) ISP jo hamy link provide karta hy Frame Relay k connection ya
internet k ley us ki jo speed hoti hy suppose 2Mbps tu CIR matlab ye bandwidth fix hy zayada ho sakti
hy is sy per 2mbps sy km nahi ho sakti CIR my bandwidth fix hoti hy but jitni apki link ki speed hogi
jo CIR ap select kary gy ussi hisab sy pher apko payment bhi karni hoti hy.

LAR:
Local Access Rate (LAR) hamary Office Router sy jo cable ISP sy connect ho rahi hy us ki physical
cable py jo speed hoti hy ussy hum khety hy (LAR) means Local Access Rate.

LMI (Local Management Interface)


ISP sy hamary Router py LMI messages send hoty hy jessy hum keep alive message kehty hy jo k
Frame Relay switch sy connectivity ko check karta hy ye internal hy jessy LAN my Hello messages
hoty hy wessy hi WAN py LMI Messages send hoty hy Frame Relay sy Rotuer k bech us ki
connectivity ko check karny k ley.

LMI Types:
Three types of LMI.
1) Cisco LMI
2) ITU-T LMI (International Telecommunication Union-Telecom)
3) ANSI LMI (American National Standard institute)
Frame Relay connection my ISP k Routers or hamary Routers k bech my LMI ki type same honi chyee

Version IOS:
(11.0) sy ly kar (11.3) tak LMI ko hamy manually configure karna parta tha apny Router per.
(12.0) sy still jo LMI type ISP k Router per hy hamary Router per bhi wohi LMI type
auto hi detect ho jati hy.

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LMI States:
1) Active (Link Ok)
2) In-Active (Frame-Relay Switch sy hamary Router tak k link my problem hy)
3) Deleted (Hamara link ok hy Destination Router or us k Frame-Relay Switch k link my
problem hy)

LAB:Frame Relay OBJECTIVE:


To Show How Router Connects With Each Other Over Cloud Using Frame Relay

Configuring R1:
R1(config)#int s0/3/0
R1(config-if)#no shutdown
R1(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R1(config-if)#exit

R1(config)#interface s0/3/0.122 point-to-point


R1(config-subif)#ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci 122
R1(config-subif)#exit

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R1(config)#interface s0/3/0.123 point-to-point


R1(config-subif)#ip address 10.1.3.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci 123
R1(config-subif)#exit

R1(config)#router rip
R1(config-router)#version 2
R1(config-router)#no auto-summary
R1(config-router)#network 10.1.2.0
R1(config-router)#network 10.1.3.0
R1(config-router)#exit

Configuring R2:
R2(config)#int s0/3/0
R2(config-if)#ip address 10.1.2.2 255.255.255.0
R2(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R2(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci 221
R2(config-if)#no shutdown
R2(config-if)#exit

R2(config)#router rip
R2(config-router)#version 2
R2(config-router)#no auto-summary
R2(config-router)#network 10.1.2.0

Configuring R3:
R3(config)#int s0/3/0
R3(config-if)#ip address 10.1.3.2 255.255.255.0
R3(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R3(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci 321
R3(config-if)#no shutdown R3(config-if)#exit
R3(config)#router rip
R3(config-router)#version 2
R3(config-router)#no auto-summary
R3(config-router)#network 10.1.3.0
R3(config-router)#exit

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Configuring WAN Emulation Cloud:

Note:
Click on WAN cloud then click on Config tab. You will see all the interfaces on the left hand side.
Now click on Serial0 button and add the DLCI value and Name as shown above and press ―Add‖
button. Serial0 is linked to two DLCI value, therefore both the DLCI values must be added. Now repeat
the same procedure for Serial1 and Serial2.

Note:
Now click on ―Frame Relay‖ button and map the DLCI accordingly as shown above and press the
―Add‖ button. You can now verify the connectivity by sending ping packets as follows.

On Router R1: On Router R2: On Router R3:


R1#ping 10.1.2.2 R2#ping 10.1.3.2 R3#ping 10.1.2.2
R1#ping 10.1.3.2

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Module # 1: OSI Reference Module (Completed)


(Seven Layer of OSI Concept & Detail, PDUs Concept & Detail)

Module # 2: LAN Switching Technologies (Completed)


(Switch Overview, Switching Detail Information, Cisco Hierarchal
Design, Interface & configuration Modes)

Module # 3: VLAN & Trunking (Completed)


(VLAN Overview, Trunking Concept & Detail, VTP Protocol Concept &
Detail)

Module # 4: Spanning Tree Protocol (Completed)


(STP Problem & Solution, STP Elections Process, BPDUs Concept & Detail, Ether-Channel
Overview, Ether-Channel Protocol Concept & Detail)

Module # 5: IPv4 Addressing (Completed)


(Concept & Detail about IPv4, Subnetting, VLSM Concept & Detail)

Module # 6: Router & Routing Protocol (Completed)


(Router Overview & Terminology, Routing Protocols EIGRP & OSPF Concept & Detail)

Module # 7: Network Security (Completed)


(Port Security Concept & Detail, ACLs Overview, Standard & Extended Both, NAT
Terminology)

Module # 8: First Hop Redundancy Protocol (Completed)


(HSRP Concept & Detail, VRRP & GLBP Concept & Detail or Configuration)

Module # 9: Network Management (Completed)


(SNMP, Syslog, DHCP Concept & Detail)

Module 10: WAN Encapsulation protocols (Completed)


(Transmission Techniques, WAN Protocol, Frame Relay Concept & Detail)

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Celebration Completion of your CCNA…

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RECALL!
Fayyaz Ahmed Says:
“If you Really wan’na Learn something so nothing is Too Hard ”
What you Need? You just need to Focus “One thing at a Time”
Plan your Week, Plan your Study Hour & learn things Day by
Day, & you will noticed its really Easy if you really wanna learn
something we just need to Focus & manage things and time.
Don’t be confused yourslef to learn 4 or 5 things at a time, May
be you enjoye in the early stage when you started but after few
days or weeks you Frustrated and not be able to complete all
things and leave it all. I’m telling you my personal experince I do
that before! Not Now
Try that if you want! Learn One Things At a Time & gives your
100% on it you will get a better result if you do that.
SOoOo,
Finally you Completed your “CCNA”
I Hope this is Informative for you & Easy to Learn CCNA in a easiest way
For More Learning & Notes Visite www.easypeezzi.com

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feedback and even if you think that it has been poorly conceived and written I would like to hear your
Feedback and your comments so Mail me if any query & other things on Fayyazahmed007@outlook.com &
Feel free to go my site which is “www.EasypeezZi.com/ for online learning & share it with others.
Thank You so much for reading this and also “prays for my bright Future” stay
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FREE Online
Edition

If you have any questions or comments about this book, please let me know:
E-mail: Fayyazahmed007@outlook.com , Easypeezzi@gmail.com
Website: www.EasyPeezZi.com
Facebook: facebook.com/easypeezzi

Feedback Information:
As you read this Book and you think this is helped you in any way then it would be great if you give me your
feedback and even if you think that it has been poorly conceived and written I would like to hear your
Feedback and your comments so Mail me if any query & other things on Fayyazahmed007@outlook.com &
Feel free to go my site which is “www.EasypeezZi.com/ for online learning & share it with others.
Thank You so much for reading this and also “prays for my bright Future” stay
connected. “Fayyaz Ahmed” Healty learning ☺

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Now It’s Time to Your CCNA Certification!


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