Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 546

Oracle8i™ Enterprise Edition

Getting Started

Release 8.1.5 for Windows NT

February 1999
Part No. A68694-01
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started

Part No. A68694-01

Release 8.1.5 for Windows NT

Copyright © 1995, 1998, 1999 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.

Primary Authors: Bronya Feldmann, Herbert Kelly, Mark Kennedy, Helen Slattery, and Jeff Stein

Contributors: Intel Technologies Division - NT Development and Oracle Support Services


License Restrictions & Warranty Disclaimer The Programs (which include both the software and
documentation) contain proprietary information of Oracle Corporation; they are provided under a
license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are also protected by copyright,
patent and other intellectual property law. Reverse engineering of the Programs is prohibited.

The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. If you find any problems
in the documentation, please report them to us in writing. Oracle Corporation does not warrant that this
document is error free. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written permission of Oracle
Corporation.

Hazardous Applications The Programs are not intended for use in any nuclear, aviation, mass transit,
medical, or other inherently dangerous applications. It shall be licensee's responsibility to take all
appropriate fail-safe, back up, redundancy and other measures to ensure the safe use of such applications
if the Programs are used for such purposes, and Oracle disclaims liability for any damages caused by
such use of the Programs.

If this Program is delivered to a U.S. Government Agency of the Department of Defense, then it is
delivered with Restricted Rights and the following legend is applicable:

Restricted Rights Legend Programs delivered subject to the DOD FAR Supplement are 'commercial
computer software' and use, duplication and disclosure of the Programs shall be subject to the licensing
restrictions set forth in the applicable Oracle license agreement. Otherwise, Programs delivered subject to
the Federal Acquisition Regulations are 'restricted computer software' and use, duplication and
disclosure of the Programs shall be subject to the restrictions in FAR 52..227-14, Rights in Data -- General,
including Alternate III (June 1987). Oracle Corporation, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065.

Trademark Notice Some Oracle products require the Java™ Runtime Environment. The Java™ Runtime
Environment (“The Software”) is developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. 2550 Garcia Avenue, Mountain
View, California 94043 Copyright (c) 1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc. The Software and documentation is the
confidential and proprietary information of Sun Microsystems, Inc. (“Confidential Information”). You
shall not disclose such Confidential Information and shall use it only in accordance with the terms of the
license agreement proved with The Software.

Oracle is a registered trademark, and ConText, Enabling the Information Age, Net8, Oracle ConText,
Oraclemetals, OracleMetaLink, Oracle Names, Oracle Store, Oracle SupportInsite, Oracle SupportNews,
Oracle7, Oracle8i, PL/SQL, Pro*C/C++, Pro*COBOL, Programmer/2000, SQL*Loader, and SQL*Plus are
trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle Corporation. Other names may be trademarks of their
respective owners.
Contents

Contact Us! ................................................................................................................................................. xv

Before You Begin.................................................................................................................................. xxiii

1 Getting Started with Your Documentation


Documentation Formats .................................................................................................................... 1-2
What Documentation Did I Receive? ............................................................................................. 1-3
Online Documentation Set .......................................................................................................... 1-4
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT and Windows 95/98 Release Notes.... 1-4
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT and Windows 95/98 Installation ........ 1-4
Oracle8i Server, Release 8.1.5............................................................................................... 1-4
Oracle8i Server Network and Security, Release 8.1.5 ...................................................... 1-6
Oracle8i Java Products, Release 8.1.5 ................................................................................. 1-6
Oracle8i interMedia, Spatial, Time Series, and Visual Information Retrieval Options,
Release 8.1.5.................................................................................................................. .......... 1-6
What Documentation Do I Read First?........................................................................................... 1-7
Starting Oracle Information Navigator .......................................................................................... 1-8
Starting Adobe Acrobat Reader ....................................................................................................... 1-9

2 Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition


Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Overview............................................................................................ 2-2
Supported Operating Systems............................................................................................. 2-2
4GB RAM Tuning (4GT) for Windows NT Server, Enterprise Edition ......................... 2-3
New in this Release ............................................................................................................................ 2-4

i
New Products ................................................................................................................... ............. 2-4
New Features................................................................................................................................. 2-6
List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products ................................................................................. 2-7
Licensing Information .................................................................................................................. 2-7
Oracle Enterprise Manager.......................................................................................................... 2-7
Net8................................................................................................................................................. 2-7
Choosing Which Oracle Products to Install.............................................................................. 2-8
How Server Installation Options Affect Network Configuration and Services........... 2-9
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition ................................................................................................ 2-11
Oracle8i Client...................................................................................................................... 2-25
Programmer/2000 ............................................................................................................... 2-34
Supported Protocol Stack Vendors ................................................................................................ 2-41
Unsupported Features ...................................................................................................................... 2-43

3 Database Tools Overview


Choosing a Database Tool ................................................................................................................. 3-2
Database Tools and Operating System Compatibility ............................................................ 3-3
Preferred Database Tools............................................................................................................. 3-5
Starting Database Tools ..................................................................................................................... 3-7
Starting Database Tools in Multiple Oracle Homes ................................................................ 3-7
Starting Tools from Release 8.0.4 and later 8.0.x Multiple Oracle Homes .................... 3-7
Starting Tools from Release 8.1.5 Multiple Oracle Homes .............................................. 3-8
Starting Oracle Utilities................................................................................................................ 3-9
Starting Windows NT Tools...................................................................................................... 3-11
Starting Oracle Enterprise Manager......................................................................................... 3-12
Starting Oracle Assistants......................................................................................................... 3-17
Starting Oracle for Windows NT Performance Monitor....................................................... 3-18
Starting SQL*Plus ....................................................................................................................... 3-18
Using SQL*Loader ............................................................................................................................ 3-19
Windows NT Processing Options ............................................................................................ 3-19
Direct Path Option...................................................................................................................... 3-19
Control File Conventions........................................................................................................... 3-20
Using Windows NT Tools ............................................................................................................... 3-21
Control Panel............................................................................................................................... 3-21
Which Oracle Services Appear in the Control Panel?.................................................... 3-21

ii
Event Viewer ................................................................................................................... ............ 3-22
What Oracle Database Events Are Monitored? .............................................................. 3-22
Performance Monitor ................................................................................................................. 3-24
What Oracle Database Information is Monitored?......................................................... 3-24
Registry ........................................................................................................................................ 3-26
What Database Parameters Are Configured? ................................................................. 3-26
User Manager .............................................................................................................................. 3-28
What Oracle8i Database Tasks Can User Manager Perform?....................................... 3-28

4 Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture


Introduction to Multiple Oracle Homes and OFA ....................................................................... 4-2
Multiple Oracle Homes Overview .................................................................................................. 4-2
What Is an Oracle Home?............................................................................................................ 4-2
Benefits of Using Multiple Oracle Homes ................................................................................ 4-3
Multiple Oracle Home Functionality in Different Releases ................................................... 4-3
One-Listener Support of Multiple Oracle Homes.................................................................... 4-5
Multiple Oracle Home Environments ....................................................................................... 4-5
Release 8.0.4 and Later 8.0.x Oracle Home Environments .............................................. 4-5
Release 8.1 Oracle Home Environment.............................................................................. 4-6
Which Products Are Multiple Oracle Home-Enabled? ............................................................... 4-7
Products Supporting Multiple Oracle Homes.......................................................................... 4-7
Products Supporting a Single Oracle Home............................................................................. 4-7
Products Not Supporting Multiple Oracle Homes ................................................................. 4-8
Products Not Associated with an Oracle Home ...................................................................... 4-8
Working with Multiple Oracle Homes........................................................................................... 4-8
Changing the Value of PATH, Using Oracle Home Selector ............................................... 4-10
Changing the Value of PATH at the System Level................................................................ 4-10
Changing the Value of PATH at the MS-DOS Command Prompt ..................................... 4-11
Exiting the Oracle Universal Installer After Entering Name and PATH ........................... 4-11
Optimal Flexible Architecture Overview..................................................................................... 4-13
Benefits of an OFA-Compliant Database ................................................................................ 4-14
Characteristics of an OFA-Compliant Database .................................................................... 4-14
Differences Between Directory Trees by Release....................................................................... 4-16
Directory Tree of a Sample OFA-Compliant Database ............................................................. 4-18
OFA Directory Naming Conventions ........................................................................................... 4-19

iii
ORACLE_BASE Directory ......................................................................................................... 4-19
ORACLE_HOME Directory ....................................................................................................... 4-21
ADMIN Directory....................................................................................................................... 4-21
ORADATA Directory................................................................................................................. 4-22
DB_NAME Directory.................................................................................................................. 4-22
OFA and Multiple Oracle Home Configurations ....................................................................... 4-23
Specifying an ORACLE_HOME Directory .............................................................................. 4-23
Default OFA Database ............................................................................................................... 4-24
Non-Default OFA Database, Case 1......................................................................................... 4-26
Non-Default OFA Database, Case 2......................................................................................... 4-28
Increasing Reliability and Performance....................................................................................... 4-30
Disk Mirroring............................................................................................................................. 4-30
Disk Striping................................................................................................................................ 4-30
Using Raw Partitions for Tablespaces ..................................................................................... 4-31
Comparison Between OFA on Windows NT and UNIX ........................................................... 4-32
Directory Naming ....................................................................................................................... 4-32
ORACLE_BASE Directory ......................................................................................................... 4-32
Support for Symbolic Links on Windows NT ........................................................................ 4-32

5 Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases


Intended Audience ............................................................................................................................. 5-2
What to Do With Previous Oracle Database Releases ................................................................. 5-3
Multiple Oracle Homes Overview .................................................................................................. 5-3
Migrating, Upgrading, and Downgrading Overview.................................................................. 5-4
What Is Migrating? ....................................................................................................................... 5-4
What Is Upgrading? ..................................................................................................................... 5-4
What Is Downgrading? ................................................................................................................ 5-4
Migrating and Upgrading Using Multiple Oracle Homes ..................................................... 5-5
Checklist of Database Release Numbers ................................................................................... 5-5
Export/Import Overview.................................................................................................................... 5-6
Version 8 and Version 7 Client/Server Configurations................................................................ 5-7
Oracle7 Database Applications................................................................................................... 5-7
Different Client and Database Release Considerations........................................................... 5-8
Oracle8i Client Release 8.1 to Oracle8i Database Release 8.1.......................................... 5-8
Oracle8 Client Release 8.0/Oracle7 Client to Oracle8i Database Release 8.1 ............... 5-9

iv
Oracle8i Client Release 8.1 to Oracle8 Release 8.0/Oracle7 Databases....................... 5-11
Multi-Versioning ........................................................................................................................ 5-12
Install Oracle7 and Oracle8i Databases in Multiple Oracle Homes .................................... 5-13
Install Oracle7 and Oracle8i Databases on Separate Computers ........................................ 5-14
Migrate an Oracle7 Database to an Oracle8i Database ......................................................... 5-15
Upgrade an Oracle8 Database to the Current Oracle8i Database Release ......................... 5-16
Migrate Oracle7 Clients to Oracle8i Clients ........................................................................... 5-17
Installing an Oracle 8.1 Database Where Version 7.x Already Exists ..................................... 5-18
Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i................................................................................. 5-21
Ten Issues That Can Affect Oracle7 to Oracle8i Migration .................................................. 5-21
Installing Appropriate Versions of SQL*Net .................................................................. 5-24
Migrating Using Oracle Data Migration Assistant................................................................ 5-25
What To Do Before Using Oracle Data Migration Assistant ........................................ 5-25
Migrating Using MIG................................................................................................................. 5-27
Step 1: What To Do Before Using MIG............................................................................. 5-28
Step 2: Shut Down the Oracle7 Database......................................................................... 5-31
Step 3: Back Up the Oracle7 Database.............................................................................. 5-32
Step 4: Install MIG From Oracle8i Enterprise Edition CD-ROM .................................... 5-34
Step 5: Run MIG................................................................................................................... 5-36
Step 6: Create Oracle8i Services and Database Files ...................................................... 5-39
Step 7: Remove Oracle7 Software (Optional) .................................................................. 5-44
Upgrading an Oracle8 Database Release 8.0.x to 8.1.5............................................................... 5-45
Upgrading Using Oracle Data Migration Assistant .............................................................. 5-45
Upgrading Using SQL Scripts .................................................................................................. 5-47
Step 1: Shut Down the Release 8.0.x Database ................................................................ 5-48
Step 2: Back Up the Release 8.0.x Database ..................................................................... 5-48
Step 3: Edit the COMPATIBLE Parameter in the 8.0.x INITSID.ORA File ................. 5-49
Step 4: Install Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Release 8.1.5 .................................................. 5-50
Step 5: Run the SQL Scripts ............................................................................................... 5-51
Migration Issues for Net8 and SQL*Net ...................................................................................... 5-55
Location of Network Configuration Files ............................................................................... 5-55
Listener Configuration in Multiple Oracle Home Installations........................................... 5-56
Changing Listener.ora for Migrated Databases ..................................................................... 5-57
Changes in Handling of TCP/IP Listening Address ............................................................ 5-57

v
Enabling NT Native Authentication ....................................................................................... 5-58
NT Authenticated Users in the Database ................................................................................ 5-58
Connection using Multi-threaded Server Mode ................................................................... 5-59
Installing Appropriate Versions of SQL*Net.......................................................................... 5-60
Installation of Oracle Names..................................................................................................... 5-60
Moving Database Files to an OFA-Compliant Directory.......................................................... 5-61

6 Post-Installation Configuration Tasks


What Products Must You Configure?.............................................................................................. 6-2
Oracle interMedia ......................................................................................................................... 6-3
Audio....................................................................................................................................... 6-3
Video ....................................................................................................................................... 6-4
Image ....................................................................................................................................... 6-4
Locator..................................................................................................................................... 6-4
Oracle interMedia Text ................................................................................................................ 6-6
Oracle Options ............................................................................................................................ 6-10
Oracle Spatial ....................................................................................................................... 6-10
Oracle Time Series ............................................................................................................... 6-12
Oracle Visual Information Retrieval ................................................................................. 6-15
Multi-Threaded Server Support ............................................................................................... 6-17
Enabling Multi-Threaded Server Support for IIOP Clients .......................................... 6-19
Enabling Multi-Threaded Server Support for Two-Task Net8 Clients........................ 6-19
Disabling Multi-Threaded Server Support for Two-Task Net8 Clients ...................... 6-20
Advanced Replication ................................................................................................................ 6-21
Checking Tablespace Requirements ................................................................................. 6-23
Checking Initialization Parameters................................................................................... 6-24
Performing Configuration Tasks....................................................................................... 6-24
Monitoring Data Dictionary Tables .................................................................................. 6-26
Upgrading Advanced Replication .................................................................................... 6-27

7 Starter and Custom Databases


Starter and Custom Database Overview ........................................................................................ 7-2
Starter Database Contents ................................................................................................................. 7-8
User Names and Passwords........................................................................................................ 7-8
Connecting to the Database From a Remote Machine .......................................................... 7-11
Connecting Without a Password.............................................................................................. 7-11
System Identifier and Database Name .................................................................................... 7-11
vi
Global Database Name ........................................................................................................... ... 7-11
Tablespaces.................................................................................................................................. 7-12
Data Files...................................................................................................................................... 7-12
Initialization Parameter File...................................................................................................... 7-13
Redo Log Files............................................................................................................................. 7-13
Control File .................................................................................................................................. 7-14
Rollback Segments...................................................................................................................... 7-14
Data Dictionary........................................................................................................................... 7-15
Creating Control, Data, and Log Files on Remote Computers ............................................ 7-15

8 Creating a Database
Before You Create a Database........................................................................................................... 8-2
Naming Conventions for Oracle Databases ............................................................................. 8-2
Installing Oracle Server (the Database Component) ............................................................... 8-2
Creating Data Files and Log Files on Remote Computers ..................................................... 8-3
Creating a Database Using Tools ..................................................................................................... 8-4
Using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant ..................................................................... 8-4
Creating a Database .............................................................................................................. 8-5
Modifying a Database........................................................................................................... 8-9
Deleting a Database............................................................................................................. 8-10
Using BUILD_DB.SQL ............................................................................................................... 8-10
How to Create a Database.................................................................................................. 8-11
Creating Directories ............................................................................................................ 8-12
Exporting an Existing Database ........................................................................................ 8-12
Deleting Database Files ...................................................................................................... 8-13
Modifying the INIT.ORA File............................................................................................ 8-14
Creating and Starting an Oracle Service .......................................................................... 8-16
Putting the CREATE DATABASE Statement in a Script............................................... 8-17
Creating a Database ............................................................................................................ 8-19
Importing a Database.......................................................................................................... 8-22
Updating the ORACLE_SID in the Registry ................................................................... 8-23
Backing Up the New Database.......................................................................................... 8-25
Storing Database Files on Compressed Drives ............................................................... 8-26
Using ORADIM to Administer an Oracle Instance ................................................................... 8-27
Creating an Instance................................................................................................................... 8-28

vii
Starting an Instance ........................................................................................................... ......... 8-29
Stopping an Instance .................................................................................................................. 8-29
Modifying an Instance ............................................................................................................... 8-30

9 Administering a Database
Managing Oracle Services................................................................................................................. 9-2
Oracle Service Naming Conventions for Multiple Oracle Homes ........................................ 9-2
Available Oracle Services ............................................................................................................ 9-4
Starting Oracle Services ............................................................................................................... 9-5
Stopping Oracle Services ............................................................................................................. 9-6
Auto-starting Oracle Services ..................................................................................................... 9-8
Starting and Shutting Down a Database with SQL*Plus ......................................................... 9-10
Starting and Shutting Down a Database Using Services.......................................................... 9-11
Running Multiple Instances ........................................................................................................... 9-16
Creating Password Files .................................................................................................................. 9-17
Viewing Password Files............................................................................................................. 9-19
Deleting Password Files .................................................................................................................. 9-20
Connecting as INTERNAL with a Password File ....................................................................... 9-20
Changing the INTERNAL Password ............................................................................................ 9-21
Encrypting Database Passwords .................................................................................................... 9-22
Archiving Redo Log Files ................................................................................................................ 9-23
Step 1: Change the Archive Mode to ARCHIVELOG ........................................................... 9-23
Step 2: Enable Automatic Archiving........................................................................................ 9-25
Using the ORADEBUG Utility....................................................................................................... 9-27

10 Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT


Authentication Overview ................................................................................................................ 10-2
Automatically Enabling Operating System Authentication During Installation ................ 10-3
Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT.................................................................... 10-4
Adding a Computer .......................................................................................................................... 10-5
Granting Database Administrator and Database Operator Privileges Using Oracle
Administration Assistant for Windows NT................................................................................. 10-6
Connecting to a Database .............................................................................................................. 10-10
Create a Nonprivileged Database User using Oracle Administration Assistant for
Windows NT .................................................................................................................................... 10-14
Create a Local Database Role........................................................................................................ 10-19
Create an External OS Role ........................................................................................................... 10-22
viii
Connecting Without a Password as a Nonprivileged Database User ................................... 10-25
Step 1: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Oracle8i Database Server.......................... 10-25
Step 2: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Client Computer ........................................ 10-28
Connecting as SYSDBA and SYSOPER Without a Password................................................ 10-30
Step 1: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Oracle8i Database Server.......................... 10-31
Step 2: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Client Computer ........................................ 10-33
Connecting as INTERNAL Without a Password ...................................................................... 10-35
Step 1: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Oracle8i Database Server.......................... 10-35
Step 2: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Client Computer ........................................ 10-39
Granting Database Roles through Windows NT ..................................................................... 10-40
Step 1: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Oracle8i Database Server.......................... 10-40
Step 2: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Client Computer ........................................ 10-45

11 Monitoring a Database
Database Monitoring Overview .................................................................................................... 11-2
Using Oracle Performance Monitor .............................................................................................. 11-3
Registry Information .................................................................................................................. 11-3
Accessing Oracle Performance Monitor.................................................................................. 11-4
Monitoring Oracle8i Objects ..................................................................................................... 11-5
Understanding Oracle Performance Objects .......................................................................... 11-7
Oracle Performance Monitor Troubleshooting Information.............................................. 11-10
Using the Event Viewer ................................................................................................................. 11-11
Accessing the Event Viewer.................................................................................................... 11-11
Reading the Event Viewer....................................................................................................... 11-12
Using the Event Viewer ........................................................................................................... 11-13
Managing the Event Viewer ................................................................................................... 11-14
Using Trace and Alert Files ........................................................................................................... 11-14
Viewing Threads Using the Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT ........... 11-15

12 Backing Up and Recovering Database Files


Selecting a Backup and Recovery Tool ......................................................................................... 12-2
Backing Up Files with OCOPY ..................................................................................................... 12-4
Recovering Files with OCOPY....................................................................................................... 12-6
Using Legato Storage Manager to Back Up Tapes...................................................................... 12-7

ix
13 Developing Applications
Java Products Overview................................................................................................................... 13-2
Oracle Java Option...................................................................................................................... 13-2
Oracle Java Utilities .................................................................................................................... 13-2
Oracle Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) Drivers .............................................................. 13-2
Oracle SQLJ Translator .............................................................................................................. 13-3
Building External Procedures ......................................................................................................... 13-4
External Procedures Overview ................................................................................................. 13-4
Installing and Configuring ........................................................................................................ 13-5
Installing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition .............................................................................. 13-5
Configuring Net8................................................................................................................. 13-5
Writing an External Procedure ................................................................................................. 13-6
Building a DLL ............................................................................................................................ 13-7
Registering an External Procedure........................................................................................... 13-8
Executing an External Procedure ........................................................................................... 13-10
Enabling Multi-Threaded Callout Support........................................................................... 13-10
Additional Documentation ..................................................................................................... 13-11
Accessing Web Data with Intercartridge Exchange.................................................................. 13-12
Configuring Intercartridge Exchange .................................................................................... 13-12
Using Intercartridge Exchange ............................................................................................... 13-13
Packaged Function UTL_HTTP.REQUEST ................................................................... 13-14
Packaged Function UTL_HTTP.REQUEST_PIECES.................................................... 13-14
UTL_HTTP Exception Conditions .................................................................................. 13-16
Exception Conditions and Error Messages.................................................................... 13-16
Troubleshooting................................................................................................................. 13-18

A Directory Structures
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Directory Structure........................................................................... A-2
ORACLE_HOME........................................................................................................................... A-2
ADMIN........................................................................................................................................... A-7
ORADATA..................................................................................................................................... A-7
Oracle8i Client Directory Structure................................................................................................. A-8
Oracle Programmer Directory Structure....................................................................................... A-11
Net8 Directory Structure.................................................................................................................. A-13

x
B Oracle8i Database Specifications for Windows NT
Initialization Parameter File (INIT.ORA) Overview ................................................................... B-2
Location of the Initialization Parameter File ............................................................................ B-2
Editing the Initialization Parameter File ................................................................................... B-2
Sample File .................................................................................................................................... B-3
Initialization Parameters ................................................................................................................... B-4
Initialization Parameters Without Windows NT-Specific Values......................................... B-6
Displaying Initialization Parameter Values ...................................................................... B-6
Database Initialization Parameters ............................................................................................ B-7
Calculating Database Limits............................................................................................................. B-8
Calculating Index Size ....................................................................................................................... B-9

C Oracle 8i Configuration Parameters and the Registry


About Configuration Parameters..................................................................................................... C-2
Registry Overview .............................................................................................................................. C-2
Registry Parameters............................................................................................................................ C-3
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\HOMEID ........................................ C-4
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE ............................................................ C-8
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\ALL_HOMES................................. C-8
IDx ........................................................................................................................................... C-8
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\ALL_HOMES Parameters..... C-9
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services ................................. C-9
Parameters for Oracle for Windows NT Performance Monitor................................... C-9
Parameters for Oracle Services.......................................................................................... C-11
Modifying a Registry Value with REGEDT32 ............................................................................ C-12
Adding a Registry Parameter with REGEDT32 .......................................................................... C-14
Adding and Modifying Oracle Home Parameters ..................................................................... C-16
Starting the Oracle Home Configuration Snap-In ................................................................. C-16
Adding Oracle Home Parameters ............................................................................................ C-16
Editing Oracle Home Parameters............................................................................................. C-17
Deleting Oracle Home Parameters .......................................................................................... C-17
Modifying Oracle for Windows NT Performance Monitor Parameters ................................ C-18
Using OPERFCFG....................................................................................................................... C-18
Using the Oracle Performance Monitoring Snap-In.............................................................. C-19

xi
D Net8 Configuration Parameters, Services, and Port Numbers
Understanding Net8 Registry Parameter and Subkeys ............................................................... D-2
Net8 Parameters............................................................................................................................ D-2
Net8 Service Subkeys ................................................................................................................... D-2
Understanding Optional Configuration Parameters ................................................................... D-3
LOCAL ........................................................................................................................................... D-3
TNS_ADMIN................................................................................................................................. D-4
USE_SHARED_SOCKET ............................................................................................................. D-4
Advanced Network Configuration.................................................................................................. D-5
Configuring Authentication Methods ....................................................................................... D-5
NDS Authentication .............................................................................................................. D-5
Windows NT Native Authentication.................................................................................. D-6
Using the NDS Naming Method ................................................................................................ D-7
NetWare Server Configuration............................................................................................ D-7
Client Configuration ............................................................................................................. D-8
Client Connection .................................................................................................................. D-8
Configuring Security for Named Pipes Protocol ..................................................................... D-8
Net8 Services and Port Numbers .................................................................................................. D-10
Services ........................................................................................................................................ D-10
TCP/IP Port Numbers .............................................................................................................. D-13

E National Language Support


NLS_LANG Parameters..................................................................................................................... E-2
Commonly Used Values for NLS_LANG....................................................................................... E-3
NLS_LANG Settings in MS-DOS Mode and Batch Mode ......................................................... E-5

F Storing Tablespaces on Raw Partitions


Raw Partition Overview .................................................................................................................... F-2
Disk Definition .............................................................................................................................. F-3
Raw Partition Definition.............................................................................................................. F-3
Physical Disk .......................................................................................................................... F-4
Logical Partition..................................................................................................................... F-4
Physical Disk and Logical Partition Considerations ........................................................ F-5
Frequently Asked Questions................................................................................................ F-5

xii
Compatibility Issues ............................................................................................................. F-6
Creating an Extended Partition ........................................................................................................ F-7
Creating Logical Partitions in an Extended Partition.............................................................. F-8
Assigning Symbolic Links to Each Logical Partition ........................................................... F-10
Removing or Ignoring Links..................................................................................................... F-11
Creating a Tablespace in a Raw Partition.................................................................................... F-12

G SNMP Support
What Is the Purpose of SNMP?........................................................................................................ G-2
Oracle SNMP Support ....................................................................................................................... G-2
Oracle SNMP Agent for Oracle Services........................................................................................ G-3
Configuring Oracle SNMP Agent ................................................................................................... G-4
Controlling the Master Agent and the Encapsulator ................................................................... G-6
Starting the Master Agent ........................................................................................................... G-6
Starting the Encapsulator ............................................................................................................ G-6
Understanding the MASTER.CFG File .......................................................................................... G-9
Understanding the ENCAPS.CFG File ........................................................................................ G-10
Installing Oracle SNMP Agent with Other Network Management Systems...................... G-12

Glossary

Index

xiii
xiv
Contact Us!
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, Release 8.1.5 for Windows NT
Part No. A68694-01

This document describes how to contact Oracle Corporation if you have issues with
the documentation or software. It also provides a list of useful resources for Oracle
partners and developers.

Read the section... If you...


"How to Contact Oracle Technical Publications" on page xv Have issues with Documentation
"How to Contact Oracle Support Services" on page xvi Have issues with Software
"Resources for Oracle Partners and Developers" on page xix Want to join an Oracle partner or application
developer program

How to Contact Oracle Technical Publications


Oracle Corporation welcomes your comments and suggestions on the quality and
usefulness of this publication. Your input is an important part of the information
used for revision.
■ Did you find any errors?
■ Is the information clearly presented?
■ Do you need more information? If so, where?
■ Are the examples correct? Do you need more examples?
■ What features did you like most about this guide?
■ Do you have suggestions for improvement? Please indicate the chapter, section,
and page number (if available).
You can send comments regarding documentation to ntdoc@us.oracle.com

xv
How to Contact Oracle Support Services
Please copy this page and distribute within your organization as necessary.
Oracle Support Services can be reached at the following telephone numbers. The
hours of business are detailed in your support contract and the Oracle Customer
Support Guide in your kit.

Oracle Support
Services In... Call...
United States of + (650) 506-1500 for customers with support contracts
America
+ (650) 506-5577 to obtain a support contract
Europe +44 1344 860 160 or the local support center in your country.
All other The telephone number for your country listed at the following Web site:
locations
http://www.oracle.com/support/html/suploc.html
Oracle Support Services telephone numbers are also listed in the Oracle
Customer Support Guide in your kit.

Please complete the following checklist before you call. If you have this information
ready, your call can be processed much quicker.

❏ Your CPU Support Identification Number (CSI Number) if applicable.

❏ The hardware name on which your application is running.

❏ The operating system name and release number on which your application is
running.

xvi
❏ The release numbers of the Oracle Server and associated products involved in
the current problem. For example, Oracle8i Enterprise Edition release 8.1.5.0.0
and Oracle Enterprise Manager release 2.0.0.0.0.

❏ The third-party software version you are using.

❏ The exact error codes and messages. Please write these down as they occur.
They are critical in helping Oracle Support Services to quickly resolve your
problem.

❏ A description of the issue, including:


■ What happened? For example, the command used and its result.

xvii
■ When did it happen? For example, during peak system load, or after a
certain command, or after an operating system upgrade.

■ Where did it happen? For example, on a particular system, or within a


certain procedure or table.

■ What is the extent of the problem? For example, production system


unavailable, or moderate impact but increasing with time, or minimal
impact and stable.

❏ Keep copies of any trace files, core dumps, and redo log files recorded at or near
the time of the incident. Oracle Support Services may need these to further
investigate your problem.

xviii
Resources for Oracle Partners and Developers
This section provides information on partner programs and resources for Oracle
database administrators and application developers.

Information Source Description


Oracle Corporation Home Page This Web site is the starting point for general information on
Oracle Corporation.
http://www.oracle.com
Alliance Online Oracle provides leading-edge technology, education, and
technical support that enables you to effectively integrate
http://alliance.oracle.com
Oracle into your business. By joining the Oracle Partner
Program, you demonstrate to customers that you are
committed to delivering innovative Oracle-based solutions
and services.
The greater your commitment to Oracle, the more we can
help you grow your business. It’s that simple. The value you
derive is associated directly with your level of commitment.
Oracle Education Customers come to Oracle Education with a variety of
needs. You may require a complete curriculum based on
http://education.oracle.com/
your job role to enable you to implement new technology. Or
you may seek an understanding of technology related to
your key area of responsibility to help you meet technical
challenges. You may be looking for self-paced training that
can be used as an ongoing resource for reference and
hands-on practice. Or, you may be interested in an overview
of a new product upgrade. Whatever your training need,
Oracle Education has the solution.
Oracle Technology Network The Oracle Technology Network is your definitive source for
Oracle technical information for developing for the Internet
http://technet.oracle.com/
platform. You will be part of an online community with
access to free software, Oracle Technology
Network-sponsored Internet developer conferences, and
discussion groups on up-to-date Oracle technology.
Membership is free.
Oracle Store This is Oracle’s online shopping center. Come to this site to
find special deals on Oracle software, documentation,
http://oraclestore.oracle.com/
publications, computer-based training products, and much
more.

xix
Information Source Description
Oracle Support Services’ Support Web Center Oracle Support Services offers a range of programs so you
can select the support services you need and access them in
http://www.oracle.com/support/
the way you prefer: by telephone, electronically, or face to
face. These award-winning programs help you maintain
your investment in Oracle technology and expertise.
Here are some of the resources available in the Support Web
Center:
OracleMetaLink OracleMetaLink is Oracle Support Services' premier Web
support service. It is available to Oraclemetals customers
http://www.oracle.com/support/
(Gold, Silver, Bronze), 24 hours a day, seven days a
elec_sup/index.html
week.
OracleLifecycle OracleLifecycle is designed to deliver customized,
industry-focused, full life-cycle support solutions that
http://www.oracle.com/support/
enable industry leaders to use Oracle technology to
sup_serv/lifecycle/index.html
make smart business decisions, achieve operational
excellence, and succeed in their markets.
ExpertONLINE Oracle Support Services has launched a new line of
services called ExpertONLINE. These services provide
http://www.oracle.com/support/
online database administration for companies looking
sup_serv/online/index.html
to supplement their existing DBA staff or fill a DBA
role. Services range from ExpertDETECT, a monitoring,
diagnostic, and recommendation service, to ExpertDBA,
a full online database administration service.
Virtual Support Analyst (VSA) VSA is Oracle's Internet e-mail service; it is available to
U.S. customers with an Oraclemetals support agreement.
http://www.oracle.com/support/
With VSA, you can initiate a request for assistance
sup_serv/vsa_start.html
through e-mail, bypassing the queues you may
encounter when using telephone support. VSA also
enables you to access Oracle's bug database.
Customer Service This site provides resources to make your interactions
with Oracle as easy as possible. Among the things you
http://www.oracle.com/support/
can do are
cus_serv/index.html
■ Learn what is a CPU Support Identification (CSI)
number
■ Update your technical contact information
■ Find out whom to contact for invoice and collection
issues
■ Request product update shipments
■ Access a glossary of Oracle Support Services terms

xx
Information Source Description
U.S. Customer Visit Program This U.S.-based program has been established to help
our customers understand and obtain maximum benefit
http://www.oracle.com/support/
from the support services they have purchased.
cus_serv/cus_visit.html
The visit typically offers a customized orientation
presentation, a comprehensive overview and
demonstration of Oracle’s electronic services, and
helpful tips on working more effectively with Oracle
Support Services.
Support Web Center Library This site contains articles, guides, and other
documentation to help you leverage the wealth of
http://www.oracle.com/support/
knowledge and reference material that Oracle Support
library/index.html
Services produces.
Product Availability Send an e-mail to request information on future product
releases on Oracle for Windows NT and Windows 95/98.
infowin@us.oracle.com

xxi
xxii
Before You Begin

This guide is your primary source of introductory, post-installation, configuration,


and administration information for Oracle8i Enterprise Edition.
Specific topics discussed:
■ Prerequisites
■ Intended Audience
■ How This Guide Is Organized
■ Documentation and Code Conventions

xxiii
Prerequisites
This guide assumes that you are familiar with the following:
■ Windows NT, and have installed and tested it on your computer system
■ Object-relational database management concepts

Additional Information: If you are not familiar with


object-relational database management concepts, see Oracle8
Concepts.

Intended Audience
This guide is necessary for anyone installing, configuring, or administering Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition.

Note: This guide describes only the features of Oracle8i Enterprise


Edition software that apply to the Windows NT, Windows 95, and
Windows 98 operating systems. For information about Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition that is applicable to all operating systems, see
the other documentation included in your package, listed in
"Online Documentation Set" on page 1-4.

How This Guide Is Organized


This guide is organized as follows:

Chapter 1, "Getting Started with Your Documentation"


Introduces you to the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition documentation set. Read this
chapter before installing or using Oracle8i Enterprise Edition.

Chapter 2, "Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition"


Describes the basic components of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition.

Chapter 3, "Database Tools Overview"


Provides a list of preferred and optional tools you can use to perform common
database administration tasks.

xxiv
Chapter 4, "Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture"
Describes how to use multiple Oracle homes and an Optimal Flexible
Architecture (OFA) configuration for placement of database files. Read this
chapter before installing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition.

Chapter 5, "Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases"


Describes what to do if you have existing databases on your system and want to
install the latest release of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition.

Chapter 6, "Post-Installation Configuration Tasks"


Describes or references the configuration tasks you must perform before using
such products as Net8, Oracle Enterprise Manager, and Oracle cartridges.

Chapter 7, "Starter and Custom Databases"


Describes how to install a starter or custom Oracle database. This chapter also
describes the contents of the starter database.

Chapter 8, "Creating a Database"


Describes how to create a database automatically using Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant, or manually using command line tools and the
BUILD_DB.SQL script.

Chapter 9, "Administering a Database"


Describes how to administer a database.

Chapter 10, "Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT"


Describes how to authenticate Oracle database users with Windows NT.

Chapter 11, "Monitoring a Database"


Describes how to monitor Oracle8i Enterprise Edition.

Chapter 12, "Backing Up and Recovering Database Files"


Provides recommendations and procedures for backing up and recovering
database files.

Chapter 13, "Developing Applications"


Describes Windows NT-specific issues for application developers.

xxv
Appendix A, "Directory Structures"
Describes the default directory structures created when you install Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition, Oracle8i Client, or Programmer/2000.

Appendix B, "Oracle8i Database Specifications for Windows NT"


Describes Oracle8i Enterprise Edition initialization parameters, how to edit
them, and Windows NT-specific values (and ranges) for them. This chapter also
explains how to calculate database limits.

Appendix C, "Oracle 8i Configuration Parameters and the Registry"


Describes the use of the registry for various Oracle8i Enterprise Edition
components. In addition, this chapter lists the recommended values and ranges
for configuration parameters.

Appendix D, "Net8 Configuration Parameters, Services, and Port Numbers"


Describes Net8 registry parameters and subkeys, as well as advanced
configuration for the NT and Windows platforms.

Appendix E, "National Language Support"


Explains the NLS_LANG configuration parameter and its components, and lists
available options.

Appendix F, "Storing Tablespaces on Raw Partitions"


Describes how to create raw partitions for database tablespaces.

Appendix G, "SNMP Support"


Describes Oracle SNMP Agent and SNMP support.

Glossary
Provides brief descriptions of terms used throughout this guide.

xxvi
Documentation and Code Conventions
The following conventions are used in this guide:

Convention Example Meaning


All uppercase plain C:\ORACLE\ORA81 Indicates command names, SQL reserved
words, and keywords, as in ALTER
DATABASE. All uppercase plain is also
used for directory names and file names.
Italic ■ Used to indicate a variable: Indicates a value that you must provide.
For example, if a command asks you to
file name
type file name, you must type the actual
■ Used to indicate the title of a guide. name of the file.
Square brackets [ ] X:\[PATHNAME]\ORACLE\ Encloses optional items. For example,
HOME_NAME when you create an OFA-compliant
Oracle home directory, you can place an
optional pathname before the \ORACLE
pathname.
Square brackets also indicate a function
key, for example [Enter].
Choose Start > Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - How to start a program. For example, to
HOME_NAME > Network Administration start Net8 Easy Config, you must click the
> Net8 Easy Config Start button on the taskbar and then
choose Programs, Oracle - HOME_NAME >
Network Administration > Net8
Easy Config.
C:\> C:\ORACLE\ORADATA> Represents the Windows NT command
prompt of the current hard disk drive.
Your prompt reflects the subdirectory in
which you are working. Referred to as the
MS-DOS command prompt in this guide.
Backslash (\) before a \ORADATA Indicates that the directory is a
directory name subdirectory of the root directory.

xxvii
Convention Example Meaning
ORACLE_HOME and Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_ In previous releases when you installed
ORACLE_BASE HOME\RDBMS\ADMIN directory Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, all
subdirectories were located under a top
level ORACLE_HOME directory, that by
default was:
■ C:\ORANT for Windows NT
■ C:\ORAWIN95 for Windows 95
■ C:\ORAWIN for Windows 3.1
or whatever you may have called your
Oracle home.
In this Optimal Flexible Architecture
(OFA)-compliant release, all
subdirectories are no longer under a top
level ORACLE_HOME directory. There is
now a new top-level directory called
ORACLE_BASE that by default is
C:\ORACLE. If you install Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition release 8.1.5 on a clean
computer (that is, there is no other Oracle
software on the computer), the default
settings for the first Oracle home
directory is C:\ORACLE\ORA81. If you
run Oracle Universal Installer again and
install release 8.2.x, the second Oracle
home directory is called \ORA82. These
Oracle home directories are located
directly under ORACLE_BASE.
All directory path examples in this guide
follow OFA conventions.
See Chapter 4, "Multiple Oracle Homes
and Optimal Flexible Architecture" for
additional information on OFA
compliances and for information on
installing Oracle products in non-OFA
compliant directories.
%ORACLE_HOME% SVRMGR> @%ORACLE_HOME%\ADMIN\DB_ In Server Manager commands, you may
NAME\ADHOC\CATALOG.SQL see %ORACLE_HOME%. Server Manager is
able to locate your Oracle Home directory
using the %ORACLE_HOME% variable.
This convention can be used in Server
Manager, SQL*Plus, Export Utility, and
Import Utility.

xxviii
Convention Example Meaning
HOME_NAME OracleHOME_NAMETNSListener Represents the Oracle home name.
The home name can be up to sixteen
alphanumeric characters. The only special
character allowed in the home name is the
underscore.
HOMEID HOME0, HOME1, HOME2 Represents a unique registry subkey for
each Oracle home directory in which you
install products. A new HOMEID is
created and incremented each time you
install products to a different Oracle home
directory on one computer. Each
HOMEID contains its own configuration
parameter settings for installed Oracle
products.
Symbols period . Symbols other than brackets and vertical
bars must be entered in commands
comma ,
exactly as shown.
hyphen -
semicolon ;
colon :
equal sign =
backslash \
single quote ’
double quote "
parentheses ()

xxix
xxx
1
Getting Started with Your Documentation

This chapter introduces you to the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT
documentation set. Read this chapter before installing or using Oracle8i Enterprise
Edition.
Specific topics discussed:
■ Documentation Formats
■ What Documentation Did I Receive?
■ What Documentation Do I Read First?
■ Starting Oracle Information Navigator
■ Starting Adobe Acrobat Reader

Getting Started with Your Documentation 1-1


Documentation Formats

Documentation Formats
This table describes the format and availability of documents in your Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition kit and the tools required to view them.

Format Availability Tools Required


Hypertext Markup All Oracle documentation Use Oracle Information Navigator to view your HTML
Language (HTML) is available in HTML. documentation set. For information on how to start Oracle
Information Navigator, see "Starting Oracle Information
Navigator" on page 1-8.
Portable Document All Oracle documentation Use Adobe Acrobat Reader to view your PDF documentation
Format (PDF) is available in PDF. set. For information on how to start Adobe Acrobat Reader,
see "Starting Adobe Acrobat Reader" on page 1-9.
Printed Oracle8i Enterprise Edition To order printed guides, contact Oracle Documentation Sales:
Installation Release 8.1.5 for
■ Telephone 1 (800) 252-0303 in the United States of
Windows NT. This is the
America.
CD-ROM insert that
contains the installation ■ Visit:
instructions. http://www.oracle.com/documentation/sales/
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition
Release Notes for Windows
NT. The release notes
contain important
last-minute installation
and configuration
information.
Note: Additional generic
documentation may be
included in your kit for
this release.

1-2 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Documentation Did I Receive?

What Documentation Did I Receive?


Your documentation set consists of two types of documentation.

Documentation Type Describes...


Operating system-specific Installation, configuration, and use of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition
products in a Windows NT, Windows 95, or Windows 98 environment.
Operating system-specific documents are occasionally referred to in the
generic documentation set. These documents are easy to identify
because they always mention their specific operating system in their
title.
Generic Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, Net8 networking information, and
application programming interface (API) information that is uniform
across all operating system platforms. Most of the documents in your
documentation set belong to this category. While reading through the
generic documentation set, you are occasionally asked to refer to your
platform-specific or operating system-specific documentation for
procedures specific to the Windows NT, Windows 95, or Windows 98
operating systems.
To easily identify where these generic documentation references are
described in your operating system documentation, see the index of this
guide for the following entry:
generic documentation references
All generic documentation references described in this guide appear
under this index entry.

IMPORTANT: Documentation may be included in your package


detailing products that you did not buy or license, or whose
functionality is not included in the current release. The presence
of such documentation does not mean that these products are
included in your package or that you are licensed to use them.

Getting Started with Your Documentation 1-3


What Documentation Did I Receive?

Online Documentation Set


Your online Oracle documentation set is divided into the following categories:
■ Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT and Windows 95/98 Installation
■ Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT and Windows 95/98 Release
Notes
■ Oracle8i Server, Release 8.1.5
■ Oracle8i Server Network and Security, Release 8.1.5
■ Oracle8i Java Products, Release 8.1.5
■ Oracle8i interMedia, Spatial, Time Series, and Visual Information Retrieval
Options, Release 8.1.5

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT and Windows 95/98 Release Notes
Release notes and Readme files for Oracle8i Enterprise Edition and additional
Oracle products.

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT and Windows 95/98 Installation


Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Installation Release 8.1.5 for Windows NT
(the CD-ROM insert)

Oracle8i Server, Release 8.1.5


Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started for Windows NT
Oracle Parallel Server Getting Started for Windows NT
Getting to Know Oracle8i
Oracle8i Concepts
Oracle8i Parallel Server Concepts and Administration
Oracle SNMP Support Reference Guide
Oracle8i Error Messages
Oracle8i National Language Support Guide
Oracle8i Reference
Oracle8i Replication API Reference
Oracle8i SQL Reference

1-4 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Documentation Did I Receive?

Oracle Supplied Packages Reference


SQL*Plus Getting Started for Windows NT and Windows 95/98
SQL*Plus Quick Reference
SQL*Plus User’s Guide and Reference
Oracle8i interMedia Audio, Image, and Video User’s Guide and Reference,
Release 8.1.5
Oracle8i interMedia Locator User’s Guide and Reference, Release 8.1.5
Oracle8i interMedia Audio, Image, and Video Java Client User’s Guide and Reference,
Release 8.1.5
Legato Storage Manager Administrator’s Guide
Oracle Intelligent Agent User’s Guide
Oracle8i Administrator’s Guide
Oracle8i Backup and Recovery Guide
Oracle8i Distributed Database Systems
Oracle8i Migration
Oracle8i Parallel Server Setup and Configuration Guide
Oracle8i Replication
Oracle8i Tuning
Oracle8i Utilities
Pro*C/C++ Precompiler Getting Started Release 8.1.5 for Windows NT and
Windows 95/98
Pro*COBOL Precompiler Getting Started Release 8.1.5 for Windows NT and
Windows 95/98
Oracle Call Interface Getting Started for Windows NT and Windows 95/98
Oracle AppWizard for Microsoft Visual C++ User’s Guide
Using Microsoft Transaction Server with Oracle8i
Oracle Call Interface Programmer’s Guide
Oracle8i Application Developer's Guide - Fundamentals
Oracle8i Application Developer's Guide - Advanced Queuing
Oracle8i Application Developer's Guide - Large Objects (LOBs)

Getting Started with Your Documentation 1-5


What Documentation Did I Receive?

Oracle8i Application Developer’s Reference - Packages


Oracle8i Data Cartridge Developer’s Guide
Oracle COM Automation Developer’s Guide
PL/SQL User's Guide and Reference
Pro*C/C++ Precompiler Programmer’s Guide
Pro*COBOL Precompiler Programmer’s Guide
Programmer’s Guide to the Oracle Precompilers
Pro*FORTRAN Supplement to the Oracle Precompilers
SQL* Module for Ada Programmer’s Guide
Oracle Web Publishing Assistant Getting Started for Windows NT

Oracle8i Server Network and Security, Release 8.1.5

Note: The guide Getting Started with Net8 Administration for


Windows NT and Windows 95/98 has been made obsolete by the Net8
Administrator’s Guide and by this guide.

Net8 Administrator’s Guide


Oracle Advanced Security Administrator’s Guide

Oracle8i Java Products, Release 8.1.5


Oracle8i Java Beans and CORBA Developer’s Guide
Oracle8i Java Stored Procedures Developer’s Guide
Oracle8i JDBC Developer’s Guide and Reference
Oracle8i SQLJ Developer’s Guide and Reference

Oracle8i interMedia, Spatial, Time Series, and Visual Information Retrieval


Options, Release 8.1.5
Oracle8i interMedia Text Migration
Oracle8i interMedia Text Reference
Oracle8i interMedia Audio, Image, and Video User’s Guide and Reference
Oracle8i interMedia Locator User’s Guide and Reference

1-6 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Documentation Do I Read First?

Oracle8i Spatial User’s Guide and Reference


Oracle8i Time Series User’s Guide
Oracle8i Visual Information Retrieval User’s Guide

What Documentation Do I Read First?


This table lists the recommended order in which to start reading through your
documentation set in order to quickly install and configure Oracle8i Enterprise
Edition.

Read documents in this order... For information on...


1. Oracle Customer Support Guide How to obtain customer support.
2. Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Release Notes for Windows NT Important last-minute installation and
configuration information.
3. Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Installation Release 8.1.5 for Installation instructions included in the
Windows NT CD-ROM insert.
4. Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started for Windows NT Post-installation, database creation, database
migration, database upgrade, and
configuration information for Oracle
products.
5. Oracle Net8 Administrator’s Guide Basic database network concepts, network
protocols, and troubleshooting.
6. Oracle8i Concepts Basic database concepts.
7. Oracle8i Administrator’s Guide Basic database administration.
8. Oracle Net8 Administrator’s Guide Oracle8i Enterprise Edition client/server
networking environment, advanced
database network concepts, and network
protocols.
9. Oracle Enterprise Manager Concepts Guide Instructions on using Oracle Enterprise
Manager.
Note: This guide is located on the Oracle
Enterprise Manager CD-ROM.
10. The remaining documentation in an order appropriate to
your needs.

Getting Started with Your Documentation 1-7


Starting Oracle Information Navigator

Starting Oracle Information Navigator


Use Oracle Information Navigator to view your HTML documentation set. Oracle
Information Navigator enables you to search your entire documentation set for
information on specific topics.
To start Oracle Information Navigator:
1. Install Oracle Documentation from the CD-ROM.
Oracle Information Navigator is automatically installed with your Oracle
Documentation.
2. Use one of the following Java-enabled browsers:
■ Netscape Navigator version 3.0 or later
Visit http://www.netscape.com
■ Microsoft Internet Explorer version 3.0 or later
Visit http://www.microsoft.com
Oracle Information Navigator can work only with a Java-enabled browser. If
you do not use these browsers, you cannot view documentation from the
WELCOME.HTM page that is accessed when you choose Start > Programs >
Oracle - HOME_NAME > Documentation.
You can still view online documentation by going to \DOC\INDEX.HTM
located at the top of your CD-ROM, or to ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_
HOME\DOC\INDEX.HTM if you installed the documentation onto your
computer.
3. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Documentation.
Your Web browser is automatically started, and a welcome page appears.
Oracle Information Navigator appears.
4. Click the icon to access help for instructions on using Oracle Information
Navigator.

1-8 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Starting Adobe Acrobat Reader

Notes: Some notes on using Oracle Information Navigator:


■ The Java components of Oracle Information Navigator do not
work on Windows 3.1. You can still access the Oracle online
documentation; however, you will not be able to use Oracle
Information Navigator. To use Oracle Information Navigator,
use a 32-bit Microsoft operating system such as Windows NT,
Windows 95, or Windows 98.
■ Changes to Microsoft’s Internet Explorer release 3.02 to address
security issues may prevent Oracle Information Navigator from
starting and displaying properly. This does not affect your
access to Oracle online documentation.

Starting Adobe Acrobat Reader


Use Adobe Acrobat Reader to view and print your PDF documentation set.
To start Adobe Acrobat Reader:
1. Insert the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition CD-ROM into the mapped CD-ROM
drive.
The operating system automatically detects the CD-ROM. The Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition Autorun dialog box appears and prompts you to make a
selection:
■ Add/Remove Products
■ Explore CD
■ Browse Information
2. Click Explore CD.
3. Go to the \ACROREAD directory.
4. Double-click Ar32e30 to install the free Adobe Acrobat Reader.
A wizard helps you quickly install Adobe Acrobat Reader.
5. Choose Start > Programs > Adobe Acrobat > Acrobat Reader 3.0 after
installation is complete to start Adobe Acrobat Reader.
6. Choose Open from the File menu and navigate to the \PDFDOC directory on
the CD-ROM to read the PDF documents.
7. Read PDF directly from the CD-ROM, or copy the files to your hard disk.

Getting Started with Your Documentation 1-9


Starting Adobe Acrobat Reader

Notes: Some notes on using Adobe Acrobat Reader:


■ After several documents are opened in Adobe Acrobat Reader,
you may receive an error message when trying to open an
additional document, stating that the document does not exist.
This error message occurs because memory is low. To solve the
problem, close any open documents that you are not using, and
continue.
■ You must use Adobe Acrobat Reader version 3.0 to view the
PDF documentation set.

1-10 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


2
Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition

This chapter introduces you to Oracle8i Enterprise Edition.


Specific topics discussed:
■ Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Overview
■ New in this Release
■ List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-1


Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Overview

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Overview


Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT is a development and deployment
platform for the Internet.
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT features include the following:
■ A built-in Java Virtual Machine that lets you store and run Java code within an
Oracle database.
■ Support for the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), the
Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP), and Enterprise JavaBeans.
■ Support for SQLJ, a programming syntax that lets you embed SQL statements
in Java programs.
■ Integration with the Component Object Model (COM) and Microsoft
Transaction Server.

Supported Operating Systems


Oracle8i Enterprise Edition client and server software operates on a personal
computer (PC), running on the following Microsoft operating systems:

Operating System Oracle Client software Oracle Server software


Windows NT Workstation 4.0 Yes Yes
Windows NT Server 4.0 Yes Yes
Windows NT Server Enterprise Edition Yes Yes
Windows 95 Yes No
Windows 98 Yes No

2-2 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Overview

4GB RAM Tuning (4GT) for Windows NT Server, Enterprise Edition


Windows NT Server, Enterprise Edition includes a new capability called 4GB RAM
Tuning (4GT). This capability allows memory-intensive applications running on
Windows NT Server, Enterprise Edition to utilize up to 50% more RAM on Intel
Architecture servers. It does this by reducing the potential RAM allocated to the NT
kernel from 2 Gigabytes (GB) to 1 GB, and increasing the potential RAM allocated to
processes from 2 GB to 3 GB. Note that this capability is not currently available on
any other Microsoft operating system.
For Oracle Server releases 7.3.4, 8.0.3, 8.0.4, 8.0.5, 8.1.3, 8.1.4, and 8.1.5 there is no
additional Oracle configuration required to take advantage of 4GB RAM Tuning,
nor is there a requirement that this feature be enabled in order to use Oracle Server.
To use 4GT for Oracle7 Server release 7.3.3, you must run the Windows NT
IMAGECFG.EXE tool at the MS-DOS command prompt:
C:\> IMAGECFG -L ORACLE73.EXE

Additional Information: See your Microsoft operating system


documentation for more information on using 4GB RAM Tuning
and the IMAGECFG.EXE tool, or visit:
http://www.microsoft.com

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-3


New in this Release

New in this Release


These tables describe the new products and features of release 8.1.5 specific to
Windows NT.

Additional Information: See Getting to Know Oracle 8i for the list of


new products and features common to all operating systems.

New Products
This table describes the new products of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition release 8.1.5.

New Product Description For more information, see...


OPERFCFG OPERFCFG is an Oracle tool that you run Appendix C, "Oracle 8i
from the MS-DOS command prompt to edit Configuration Parameters and
the Oracle for Windows NT Performance the Registry"
Monitor’s Hostname, Password, and
Username registry parameters. OPERFCFG
provides an alternative to modifying
parameters with REGEDT32, which requires
you to manually search through registry
subkeys until you find the correct location.
Oracle Snap-In Common A collection of snap-ins that enable you to Chapter 10, "Authenticating
Files for Windows NT perform various administrative functions Database Users with Windows
within Microsoft Management Console. NT" and Appendix C, "Oracle
These functions consist of starting and 8i Configuration Parameters
stopping the database service, auto-starting and the Registry"
Oracle services, viewing information about
Oracle background processes, configuring
Oracle database users to be authenticated by
Windows NT, and editing the registry
parameter settings.
Note: Microsoft Management Console must
be installed.

2-4 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


New in this Release

New Product Description For more information, see...


Oracle Advanced Security Provides both encryption and authentication Oracle Advanced Security
option - Export Edition services. Encryption allows data privacy by Administrator’s Guide
ensuring that data cannot be read during
transmission over a network. RSA, RC4, DES
encryption, and MD5 checksumming are all
installed automatically with Oracle Advanced
Security option. Checksumming ensures that
data is not modified during transmission over
a network.
Note: Although not a new Oracle product,
this product is new to the Oracle8i Enterprise
Edition for Windows NT CD-ROM.
Oracle AppWizard for Lets you create an Oracle application skeleton Oracle AppWizard for Microsoft
Microsoft Visual C++ in C++ code without writing a single line of Visual C++ User’s Guide
code. You then customize the application
skeleton as needed. This wizard is integrated
within the Microsoft Visual C++ 5.0
development environment.
Note: To install Oracle AppWizard for
Microsoft Visual C++, you must have
Microsoft Visual C++ already installed.
Oracle COM Automation Lets PL/SQL developers programmatically Oracle COM Automation Option
feature manipulate Component Object Model (COM) Technical Note
objects through the OLE Automation
interface (IDispatch). This option provides a
PL/SQL package and exposes a set of
application programming interfaces (APIs) to
instantiate COM objects, get and set their
properties, and invoke their methods.
PL/SQL developers can call these APIs from
PL/SQL subprograms, stored procedures,
stored functions, or triggers to manipulate
COM objects. There are no restrictions as to
where the COM objects can reside. They can
be either local to the database server or be
accessed remotely through the Distributed
Component Object Model (DCOM).

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-5


New in this Release

New Product Description For more information, see...


Oracle Services for Microsoft Lets application developers to create and Using Microsoft Transaction
Transaction Server deploy COM-based applications using Server with Oracle8i
Microsoft Transaction Server (MTS) against
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition and to have the
application transactions coordinated by MTS.
Note: To use Oracle Services for MTS, you
must install Microsoft Transaction Server and
Microsoft Management Console.

New Features
This table describes the new features of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition release 8.1.5
specific to Windows NT.

New Feature Description For more information, see...


Optimal Flexible Provides a structured method for installing "Optimal Flexible Architecture
Architecture (OFA) Oracle databases and applications in a Overview" on page 4-13
manner that helps promote ease of
Note: OFA has caused a
maintenance, improved performance, and
number of changes to the
reliability.
Oracle directory tree, file
names, directory names, and
the definition of Oracle home
since release 8.0.x. See
"Differences Between
Directory Trees by Release" on
page 4-16 for a list of changes.
Operating system When you install Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, "Automatically Enabling
authentication of DBA users your Windows NT user name is Operating System
by default automatically added to a Windows NT local Authentication During
group called ORA_DBA, giving you DBA Installation" on page 10-3
access to the Oracle database. Membership in
ORA_DBA lets you make connections to the
Oracle database without a password.

2-6 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Licensing Information
Although the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT CD-ROM in your kit
contains many Oracle products, you may install and use only those products for
which you have purchased licenses. For additional licensing information, refer to
the Global License Terms booklet in your kit.
Oracle Support Services does not provide support for products where licenses have
not been purchased.

Oracle Enterprise Manager


Oracle Enterprise Manager is not included on the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for
Windows NT CD-ROM. Oracle Enterprise Manager is shipped on a separate
CD-ROM from the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT kit and must be
installed in a separate Oracle home from Oracle Server. For more information on
Oracle Enterprise Manager, refer to the documentation included on the Oracle
Enterprise Manager CD-ROM.

Net8
Net8, which is included on the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT
CD-ROM, supports very large scale mission-critical environments. It offers a
state-of-the-art security server and simplifies administration and configuration of
both large and small environments. See the Net8 Administrator’s Guide for a description
of Net8 features in general. The features described in the tables beginning on
page 2-11 are specific to the NT and Windows 95/98 platforms.

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-7


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Choosing Which Oracle Products to Install


When you run Oracle Universal Installer, you can choose to install products from
the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, Oracle8i Client, or Programmer/2000 installation
options.
The following table lists the three installation options, their subset installation types,
and the operating systems on which you can install the products.

Installation Option Installation Type Platform


Oracle8i Enterprise Typical Windows NT
Edition
Installs a preconfigured starter database, licensable Oracle
options, networking services, Oracle utilities, and online
documentation. This type of installation is recommended for
users who want the complete database package.
Minimal
Gives you the option of installing a preconfigured starter
database, networking services, and Oracle utilities. This type of
installation is recommended for users who want a minimum
database package.
Custom
Lets you selectively install any Oracle8i Enterprise Edition
product from the CD-ROM.
Oracle8i Client Typical Windows NT
Installs components that allow database administrators to Windows 95
connect to an Oracle database and perform database
Windows 98
administration.
Custom
Lets you selectively install any Oracle8i Client product from the
CD-ROM.
Programmer/2000 Typical Windows NT
Installs development tools and interfaces for creating Windows 95
applications that access an Oracle database. This installation
Windows 98
package includes precompilers, networking services, and
documentation.
Custom
Lets you selectively install any Programmer/2000 product from
the CD-ROM.

2-8 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Note: The Oracle Server database component is available only


from the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition installation option and can be
installed only on Windows NT.

How Server Installation Options Affect Network Configuration and Services


The installation option you select will have an effect on listener and Client Service
Names configuration as well as on NT services.

Listener Configuration
During server installation, the Net8 Configuration Assistant configures the listener
as described below.

Installation Type Results


Typical The Net8 Configuration Assistant runs without user input and
configures a default listener named LISTENER for your
platform’s primary protocol, typically TCP/IP on port 1521.
Listener information is stored in file named LISTENER.ORA.
Minimal The Net8 Configuration Assistant runs without user input and
configures a default listener named LISTENER for your
platform’s primary protocol, typically TCP/IP on port 1521.
Listener information is stored in file named LISTENER.ORA.
Custom The Net8 Configuration Assistant prompts you to configure the
following:
■ Listener name(s)
■ Protocols to use for listener endpoints

Client Service Names Configuration


For each client (or Programmer/2000) installation type, the Net8 Configuration
Assistant runs without user input and configures a default client profile that
contains the Net8 naming domain information. Profile information is stored in a file
named SQLNET.ORA.
After the Net8 Configuration Assistant executes, the Net8 Easy Configuration
Assistant runs, configuring net service names for the local naming method
(TNSNAMES.ORA). See Chapter 6, "Configuring the Naming Methods with the
Listener" of the Net8 Administrator’s Guide,to configure this method.

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-9


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

If you do not want net service names to reside in the TNSNAMES.ORA, click Cancel
and see Chapter 6, "Configuring the Naming Methods with the Listener" of the Net8
Administrator’s Guide to configure another naming method.

Windows NT Services
The installation options you choose will have different effects on your Windows NT
services, as described below.

Typical and Minimal Installation


The following Windows NT services are installed during a Typical or Minimal
installation:

Oracle Service Description Server Client


OracleHOME_NAMEClientCache ■ Service to enable client caching. Yes Yes
■ Not started, and set up as Manual
Startup.
OracleHOME_NAMETNSListener ■ Service associated with the network Yes No
listener.
■ Started, and set up as Automatic
Startup.

Custom Installation
When you install Oracle Connection Manager, using the Custom Installation option,
the following NT services are installed. After configuration, you must start the
service(s) you need:

Oracle Service Description


OracleHOME_NAMECMAdmin ■ Service associated with the Oracle
Connection Manager’s CMADMIN
administrative process. This service
registers the Connection Manager with the
Oracle Names servers and acquires
information about the Oracle Names
servers.
■ Not started, and set up as Manual Startup.
OracleHOME_NAMECMan ■ Service associated with the Connection
Manager’s CMGW gateway process.
■ Not started, and set up as Manual Startup.

2-10 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition


This table describes the Oracle products that are available when you select the
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition installation option.
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition can be installed only on Windows NT.

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products Typical Minimal Custom


Assistant Common Files Yes Yes Yes
A collection of files required by Oracle assistants.
Legato Storage Manager (LSM) N/A N/A Yes
Using Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN.EXE) for Oracle
database backups requires the installation of a media
management product in order to back up and restore from tape
storage. You can choose to install the media management product
supplied with Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, which is LSM, or use a
third-party media management product that also complies with
Oracle’s Backup Solutions Program. LSM also includes a
scaled-down version of Legato NetWorker.
The installer prompts you to confirm whether or not you want to
install LSM. When you confirm installation, LSM is installed
automatically. For more information on this product, call toll free
(1) 888-8-LEGATO in the United States of America, or visit
Legato’s Oracle backup and recovery Web site:
http://www.backup-oracle.com/
Net8 Client Yes Yes Yes
Provides products that enable client connection to databases
across a network. A client-side application sends a request to
Net8 to be transported across the network to the server.

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-11


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products Typical Minimal Custom


Net8 Configuration Tools:
Net8 Configuration Assistant Yes Yes Yes
Oracle recommends using the Net8 Configuration Assistant
to configure certain Net8 client and server components after
installation.
Net8 Configuration Assistant can also be run in stand-alone
mode to configure naming methods, net service names, and
the listener.1
To start Net 8 Configuration Assistant:
Choose Start>Programs>Oracle-Home_Name>Network
Administration>Net8 Configuration Assistant.
Additional Information: See Chapter 5: "Considerations for
Upgrades and Migration and Chapter 7: "Enabling Optional
Net8 Features" of the Net8 Administrator’s Guide.
Net8 Assistant Yes Yes Yes
Helps you configure and administer the SQLNET.ORA file,
the TNSNAMES.ORA file, the LISTENER.ORA file, and
Oracle Names Servers.
Net8 Easy Config Yes Yes Yes
This Java-based tool lets you set up net service names in the
TNSNAMES.ORA file. Use this tool for configuring simple
networks and testing the configuration.
Trace Assistant Yes Yes Yes
Formats level-16 SUPPORT traces into paragraphs that are
easier to read than unformatted trace files.
Net8 Server Yes Yes Yes
Provides products that allow the network listener, through a
protocol, to accept connections from client applications on
the network.
Note: Net8 Server will not be installed if you select Oracle 8i
Client or Programmer/2000.
Net8 Support for the following naming methods:
Net8 clients communicate with Oracle servers through net
service names that are easy-to-remember aliases for database
addresses. Net8 resolves net service names using the following
naming methods:

2-12 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products Typical Minimal Custom


■ Host Naming Yes Yes Yes
■ Local Naming
■ Oracle Names
■ External Naming: NetWare Directory Service [NDS]
See Chapter 6: "Configuring Naming Methods and the
Listener" of the Net8 Administrator’s Guide for more
information.

Net8 Support for the following protocols:2


Net8 Client (and not Oracle Universal Installer) installs
TCP/IP and Named Pipes and auto-detects SPX. SPX is only
installed in the installation packages if the appropriate
software is detected on your system. If you explicitly select
this product in the Custom installation type, it will be
installed even if you do not have the appropriate software on
your computer.
TCP/IP Yes Yes Yes
Enables client/server conversation over a network using
TCP/IP and Net8. This combination of Oracle products
enables an Oracle application on a client to communicate
with remote Oracle databases through TCP/IP (if the Oracle
database is running on a host system that supports network
communication using TCP/IP).
SPX Yes Yes Yes
Enables client/server conversation over a network using
SPX/IPX and Net8. This combination of Oracle products
enables an Oracle application on a client to communicate
with remote Oracle databases through SPX/IPX (if the
Oracle database is running on a host system that supports
network communication using SPX/IPX). This protocol is
predominantly used in Novell Netware environments.
Named Pipes Yes Yes Yes
Enables client/server conversation over a network using
Named Pipes and Net8. This combination of Oracle products
enables an Oracle application on a client to communicate
with remote Oracle databases through Named Pipes (if the
Oracle database is running on a host system that supports
network communication using Named Pipes).

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-13


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products Typical Minimal Custom


Bequeath Yes Yes N/A
Enables clients to retrieve information from the database
without using the network listener. The Bequeath protocol
internally spawns a server thread for each client application.
In a sense, it does the same operation that a remote network
listener does for your connection, but locally.
Bequeath has the following attributes:
■ Does not use a network listener (therefore, no
network listener configuration is required)
■ Used for local connections where an Oracle client
application (such as SQL*Plus) communicates with
an Oracle server running on the same machine
■ Only works in Dedicated Server mode. Cannot be
used in a Multi-Threaded Server (MTS) mode.
■ Supported on Windows NT for 32-bit applications.
Also works on Windows 95 for connections to a
Oracle8i Personal Edition database for 32-bit
applications.
■ Installed by default with Net8 Client

2-14 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products Typical Minimal Custom


Logical Unit Type 6.2 (LU6.2) Protocol Adapter Yes No Yes
The adapter is part of the IBM Advanced
Program-to-Program Communication (APPC) architecture.
APPC is the IBM peer-to-peer (program-to-program)
protocol for a System Network Architecture (SNA) network.
SNA is an IBM reference model similar to the Open Systems
Interconnect (OSI) model of the International Standards
Organization (ISO).
APPC architecture lets the client and host communicate over
an SNA network without forcing the client to emulate a
terminal (as in terminal-to-host protocols). APPC
architecture allows peer-to-peer communication; the client
can initiate communication with the server.
An SNA network with the LU6.2 and Physical Unit Type 2.1
(PU2.1) protocols provides APPC. The LU6.2 protocol
defines a session between two application programs; LU6.2
is a product-independent LU-type.
The LU6.2 Protocol Adapter enables an Oracle application
on a PC to communicate with an Oracle database. This
communication occurs over an SNA network with the Oracle
database on a host system that supports APPC.
Net8 Scalability Features
Scalability refers to the ability to support simultaneous
network access by a large number of clients to a single
server. Net8 accomplishes this by optimizing the use of
network resources by reducing the number of physical
network connections a server must maintain. See the Net8
Administrator’s Guide for more information about the
following scalability-related features:
■ Oracle Connection Manager’s Connection No No Yes
Concentration

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-15


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products Typical Minimal Custom


■ Multi-Threaded Server Support (MTS) (in TCP/IP Yes Yes Yes
networks)
■ Connection Pooling (available only with MTS on
TCP/IP networks)
■ Support for WINSOCK2 on Windows NT
Net8 supports both the WINSOCK 1.1 AND WINSOCK2
socket interface. Net8 automatically detects WINSOCK2
on Windows NT and uses it if it is available.
WINSOCK2 is a standard feature of the Windows NT
release 4.0 operating system. Oracle uses these
WINSOCK2 features in Net8:
■ Overlapped I/O with events
■ Shared sockets (can be enabled as an optional feature),
as described in Appendix C, "Oracle 8i Configuration
Parameters and the Registry"
Net8 Security Features: No No Yes
■ Oracle Connection Manager’s Net8 Access Control
Incorporates a Net8 application proxy for implementing
firewall-like functionality. See Chapter 6: "Enabling
Connection Concentration" of the Net8 Administrator’s Guide.
■ Oracle Advanced Security option--Export Edition Yes No Yes
Ensures secure transmission of data over networks. Uses
encryption and authentication engines from RSA Data
Security, Inc. See the Oracle Advanced Security option
Administrator’s Guide for more information.
Available algorithms:
Encryption
RC4_40
DES_40
Checksumming
MD5

2-16 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products Typical Minimal Custom


■ Oracle Advanced Security option Single Sign-On Yes No Yes
Allows users to access multiple accounts and applications
with a single password. This feature eliminates the need for
multiple user passwords and simplifies administration of
user accounts and passwords.
Centralized, secure authentication services ensure high
confidence in the identity of users, clients, and servers in
distributed environments. Network authentication services
can also provide the benefit of single sign-on for users.
Support exists for the following authentication methods:
■ Kerberos
■ RADIUS
■ SSL
■ SecurID
■ Identix
■ CyberSafe
Net8 Enhancements for Developers: Yes Yes Yes
Net8 OPEN
An application programming interface (API) that lets
developers write applications that use Net8 for connectivity.
Net8 OPEN offers the following benefits:
■ Enables development of both database and
non-database applications that use an already
deployed Net8 network
■ Enables deployment of an application developed on
one machine to another without having to modify
calls to the network interface.
■ Provides a single common interface to all industry
standard network protocols.
For more information, see the Net8 Administrator’s Guide.

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-17


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products Typical Minimal Custom


Object Type Translator (OTT) Yes No Yes
OTT (executable name OTT.EXE) is used to create C-struct
representations of Abstract Data Types that have been
created and stored in an Oracle database. To take advantage
of objects, run OTT against the database, and a header file is
generated that includes the C-structs.
Oracle INTYPE File Assistant
An assistant that helps you to create an INTYPE file, which
provides a list of types for OTT to translate.
Oracle Snap-In Common Files Yes Yes Yes
A collection of snap-ins that let you perform various
administrative functions within Microsoft Management
Console.
Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT
Lets you start and stop the Oracle database service,
auto-start Oracle services, view information about Oracle
background processes, and configure Oracle database users
to be authenticated by Windows NT.
Oracle Remote Configuration Agent
Facilitates configuration and monitoring of remote Oracle
databases
Oracle Application Wizards for Microsoft Visual Studio No No Yes
This product contains the following component:
Oracle AppWizard for Microsoft Visual C++
Lets you create an Oracle application skeleton in C++ code
without writing a single line of code. You then customize the
application skeleton as needed. This wizard is integrated
within the Microsoft Visual C++ 5.0 development
environment.
Note: To install Oracle AppWizard for Microsoft Visual C++,
you must have Microsoft Visual C++ already installed.
Oracle Call Interface (OCI) Yes No Yes
An application programming interface (API) for accessing an
Oracle database from a C or C++ program. You make calls
directly to the OCI functions from within your C or C++
program to direct the execution of your SQL statements.

2-18 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products Typical Minimal Custom


Oracle COM Automation feature Yes No Yes
Enables PL/SQL developers to programmatically
manipulate COM objects through the OLE Automation
interface (IDispatch).
Oracle Connection Manager No No Yes
Lets you multiplex multiple logical client sessions through a
single transport connection to an Oracle server destination.
Oracle interMedia Yes No Yes
Oracle enables file management in a variety of media, from
text to audio, to video. Files in each medium are managed
through a specific component of interMedia as described
below.
Image
Provides for the storage, retrieval, and processing of
two-dimensional, static bitmapped images. Images are
stored efficiently using popular compression schemes in
industry-standard desktop publishing image interchange
formats.
Audio
Provides for the storage, retrieval and management of
digitized audio data within an Oracle database.
Video
Provides for the storage, retrieval and management of
digitized video data within an Oracle database.
Text
Enables text queries to be performed through SQL and
PL/SQL from most Oracle interfaces. By installing Oracle
interMedia Text with Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, client tools
such as SQL*Plus, Oracle Forms, and Pro*C/C++ are able to
retrieve and manipulate text in an Oracle database.
Locator
Enables Oracle8i to support online internet-based geocoding
facilities for locator applications and proximity queries.
This multi-component product requires a separate license.

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-19


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products Typical Minimal Custom


Oracle options Yes No Yes
■ Spatial
Oracle Spatial makes the storage, retrieval, and manipulation
of spatial data easier and more intuitive to users.
■ Time Series
Oracle Time Series stores and retrieves time-stamped data
through object data types (ODTs).
These products require a separate license.
Oracle Data Migration Assistant Yes Yes Yes
Lets you migrate your existing Oracle7 database (release
7.1.3.3.6 or later) or upgrade previous releases of Oracle8 and
Oracle8i to the current database release.
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant Yes Yes Yes
Lets you create, modify, and delete databases.
Oracle Documentation Yes Yes Yes
Available in HTML, viewable using a Web browser. A PDF
version is also available but is not automatically installed.
You can find the PDF documentation on the CD-ROM in the
PDFDOC directory. The Adobe Acrobat Reader is located in
the ACROREAD directory.
Oracle for Windows NT Performance Monitor Yes No Yes
Enables database administrators to monitor local and remote
database performance through the Windows NT
Performance Monitor.
Oracle Intelligent Agent Yes Yes Yes
Responds to, schedules, and executes database
administration job requests initiated by the Oracle Enterprise
Manger Console.
Oracle Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) Drivers Yes Yes Yes
A standard set of Java classes, specified by JavaSoft, that
provide vendor-independent access to relational data from
Java.

2-20 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products Typical Minimal Custom


Oracle Java option Yes No Yes
Provides a JDK 1.1.3-compliant Java Virtual Machine, a
CORBA 2.0 Object Request Broker, an embedded JDBC
driver, a SQLJ translator, and an Enterprise JavaBeans
transaction server.
Oracle Java Tools Yes No Yes
Provides Java tools to build and deploy Java stored
procedures, CORBA objects, and Enterprise JavaBeans with
Oracle’s Java Virtual Machine.
Oracle Names No No Yes
A distributed naming service developed for Oracle
environments to help simplify the setup and administration
of global, client/server computing networks. Oracle Names
does this by establishing and maintaining an integrated
system of Names servers. Oracle Names servers work like a
directory service storing addresses for all the database
services on a network and making them available to clients
that want to make a connection. See Net8 Administrator’s
Guide for more information on this product.
Oracle Objects for Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Yes Yes Yes
A custom control (OCX or ActiveX) combined with an OLE
in-process server that lets you plug native Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition functionality into your Windows
applications.
Oracle Objects Functionality Yes No Yes
Lets you create and manipulate objects, as well as to
integrate objects with standard relational functionality.

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-21


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products Typical Minimal Custom


Oracle Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) Driver Yes Yes Yes
Provides support for ODBC connections from Windows NT,
Windows 95, and Windows 98 client systems to Oracle
databases. The Oracle ODBC Driver complies with version
3.00 of the Microsoft ODBC specification and supports all
ODBC Core and the following Level 1 and Level 2 calls:
■ SQLBrowseConnect
■ SQLColumnPrivileges
■ SQLDescribeParam
■ SQLForeignKeys
■ SQLMoreResults
■ SQLPrimaryKeys
■ SQLProcedureColumns
■ SQLProcedures
■ SQLTablePrivileges
Oracle Parallel Server option Yes No Yes
Enables multiple Oracle instances to share a single Oracle
database. This product requires a separate license.
The following product is automatically installed when you
install Oracle Parallel Server option:
Oracle Parallel Server Manager
Enables Oracle Parallel Server nodes to manage multiple
parallel server instances.
Oracle Partitioning option Yes No Yes
Provides more control in managing tables and indexes by
directing all maintenance operations to individual partitions
rather than to tables and index names. This product
requires a separate license.
Oracle Server Yes Yes Yes
The database component of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition
software.
Oracle Services for Microsoft Transaction Server No No Yes
Provides full integration of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition
release 8.1.5 with Microsoft Transaction Server (MTS). This
product offers a solution to develop and deploy COM-based
applications using MTS against Oracle8i release 8.1.5.

2-22 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products Typical Minimal Custom


Oracle SNMP Agent No No Yes
Oracle SNMP Agent allows Oracle products to be located,
identified, and monitored by any SNMP-based network
management system.
Oracle SQLJ Translator Yes No Yes
A preprocessor for Java programs that contain embedded SQL
statements. Oracle SQLJ Translator converts the SQL statements
to JDBC calls.
Oracle Universal Installer Yes Yes Yes
A GUI application that lets you quickly install, update, and
remove Oracle products. Oracle Universal Installer also
automatically installs Oracle Home Selector, a tool that lets
you edit your environmental path to make an appropriate
Oracle home directory your primary home.
Oracle Utilities Yes Yes Yes
A suite of products used for database administration. Oracle
Utilities include Server Manager, Export Utility, Import
Utility, ORADIM, SQL*Loader, DBVERIFY, TKPROF,
Migration Utility, Recovery Manager, OCOPY, and the
Password Utility.
Note: When using SQL*Loader to direct load an
Index-Organized Table, you may receive an internal error
unless the table has an Overflow segment.
Oracle Visual Information Retrieval Yes No Yes
Provides image storage, content-based retrieval, and format
conversion capabilities through an object data type. This
option is a building block for various imaging applications,
rather than being an end-user application. Some common
applications for this option consist of digital art galleries and
museums, real estate marketing, document imaging, and
stock photo collections for fashion designers and architect.
A demonstration is also available.
Oracle Web Publishing Assistant Yes No Yes
Lets you query a database and publish the data retrieved on
a Web page.

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-23


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products Typical Minimal Custom


Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Release Notes Yes Yes Yes
Important last-minute installation and configuration
information that you should read before using Oracle
products.
SQL*Plus Yes Yes Yes
Lets you use the SQL and PL/SQL database languages in the
Windows NT, Windows 95, or Windows 98 environments.
SQL*Plus has both command line and GUI versions.
1
The NT platform version of Net8 does not support prespawned dedicated server processes by the listener. Therefore, do not
include the following parameters in the SID_DESC’s of the LISTENER.ORA file: PRESPAWN_MAX, PROTOCOL, POOL_
SIZE, TIMEOUT.
2
Installation of some stand-alone TCP/IP and TCP/IP with SSL, SPX, and Named Pipes protocols is done, based on
automatic detection of your system protocol stacks.

2-24 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Client
This table describes the Oracle products that are available when you select the
Oracle8i Client installation option.
Oracle8i Client can be installed on Windows NT, Windows 95, and Windows 98.

Oracle8i Client Products Typical Custom


Assistant Common Files Yes Yes
A collection of files required by Oracle assistants.
Legato Storage Manager (LSM) N/A N/A
Using Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN.EXE) for Oracle database backups NT only NT only
requires the installation of a media management product in order to back
up and restore from tape storage. You can choose to install the media
management product supplied with Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, which is
LSM, or use a third-party media management product that also complies
with Oracle’s Backup Solutions Program. LSM also includes a scaled-down
version of Legato NetWorker.
The installer prompts you to confirm whether or not you want to install
LSM. When you confirm installation, LSM is installed automatically.†For
more information on this product, call toll free 1 (888) 8-LEGATO in the
United States of America, or visit Legato’s Oracle backup and recovery Web
site:
http://www.backup-oracle.com/
Net8 Client Yes Yes
Provides products that enable client connection to databases across a
network. A client-side application sends a request to Net8 to be transported
across the network to the server. See Net8 Administrator’s Guide for more
information on this product.

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-25


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Client Products Typical Custom


Net8 Configuration Tools:
Net8 Configuration Assistant Yes Yes
Oracle recommends using the Net8 Configuration Assistant to configure
certain Net8 client and server components after installation.
Net8 Configuration Assistant can also be run in stand-alone mode to
configure naming methods, net service names, and the listener.1
To start Net 8 Configuration Assistant:
■ Choose Start>Programs>Oracle-Home_Name>Network
Administration>Net8 Configuration Assistant.
Additional Information: See Chapter 5: "Considerations for Upgrades and
Migration and Chapter 7: "Enabling Optional Net8 Features" of the Net8
Administrator’s Guide.
Net8 Assistant Yes Yes
Helps you configure and administer the SQLNET.ORA file, the
TNSNAMES.ORA file, the LISTENER.ORA file, and Oracle Names Servers.
Net8 Easy Config Yes Yes
This Java-based tool lets you set up net service names in the
TNSNAMES.ORA file. Use this tool for configuring simple networks and
testing the configuration.
Trace Assistant Yes Yes
Formats level-16 SUPPORT traces into paragraphs that are easier to read
than unformatted trace files.
Net8 Support for the following naming methods:
Net8 clients communicates with Oracle servers through net service names
that are easy-to-remember aliases for database addresses. Net8 resolves net
service names using the following naming methods:
■ Host Naming Yes Yes
■ Local Naming
■ Oracle Names
■ External Naming: NetWare Directory Service (NDS)
See Chapter 6: "Configuring Naming Methods and the Listener" of the
Net8 Administrator’s Guide for more information.

2-26 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Client Products Typical Custom

Support for the following protocols:2


Net8 Client (and not Oracle Universal Installer) installs TCP/IP and Named
Pipes, and auto-detects SPX. SPX is only installed in the installation
packages if the appropriate software is detected on your system. If you
explicitly select this product in the Custom installation type, it will be
installed even if you do not have the appropriate software on your
computer.
TCP/IP Yes Yes
Enables client/server conversation over a network using TCP/IP and Net8.
This combination of Oracle products enables an Oracle application on a
client to communicate with remote Oracle databases through TCP/IP (if the
Oracle database is running on a host system that supports network
communication using TCP/IP).
SPX Yes Yes
Enables client/server conversation over a network using SPX/IPX and
Net8. This combination of Oracle products enables an Oracle application on
a client to communicate with remote Oracle databases through SPX/IPX (if
the Oracle database is running on a host system that supports network
communication using SPX/IPX). This protocol is predominantly used in
Novell Netware environments.
Named Pipes Yes Yes
Enables client/server conversation over a network using Named Pipes and
Net8. This combination of Oracle products enables an Oracle application on
a client to communicate with remote Oracle databases through Named
Pipes (if the Oracle database is running on a host system that supports
network communication using Named Pipes).

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-27


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Client Products Typical Custom


Bequeath Yes N/A
Enables clients to retrieve information from the database without using the
network listener. The Bequeath protocol internally spawns a server thread
for each client application. In a sense, it does the same operation that a
remote network listener does for your connection, yet locally.
Bequeath has the following attributes:
■ Does not use a network listener (therefore, no network listener
configuration is required)
■ Used for local connections where an Oracle client application (such
as SQL*Plus) communicates with an Oracle server running on the
same machine
■ Only works in Dedicated Server mode. Cannot be used in a
Multi-Threaded Server (MTS) mode.
■ Supported on Windows NT for 32-bit applications. Also works on
Windows 95 for connections to a Oracle8i Personal Edition database
for 32-bit applications.
■ Installed by default with Net8 Client
Logical Unit Type 6.2 (LU6.2) Protocol Adapter Yes Yes
The adapter is part of the IBM Advanced Program-to-Program
Communication (APPC) architecture.
APPC is the IBM peer-to-peer (program-to-program) protocol for a System
Network Architecture (SNA) network. SNA is an IBM reference model
similar to the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model of the International
Standards Organization (ISO).
APPC architecture lets the client and host communicate over an SNA
network without forcing the client to emulate a terminal (as in
terminal-to-host protocols). APPC architecture allows peer-to-peer
communication; the client can initiate communication with the server.
An SNA network with the LU6.2 and Physical Unit Type 2.1 (PU2.1)
protocols provides APPC. The LU6.2 protocol defines a session between
two application programs; LU6.2 is a product-independent LU-type.
The LU6.2 Protocol Adapter enables an Oracle application on a PC to
communicate with an Oracle database. This communication occurs over an
SNA network with the Oracle database on a host system that supports
APPC.

2-28 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Client Products Typical Custom


■ Oracle Advanced Security option--Export Edition Yes Yes
Ensures secure transmission of data over networks. Uses encryption and
authentication engines from RSA Data Security, Inc. See the Oracle Advanced
Security option Administrator’s Guide for more information.
Available algorithms:
Encryption
RC4_40
DES_40
Checksumming
MD5
■ Oracle Advanced Security option Single Sign-On Yes Yes
Allows users to access multiple accounts and applications with a single
password. This feature eliminates the need for multiple user passwords and
simplifies administration of user accounts and passwords.
Centralized, secure authentication services ensure high confidence in the
identity of users, clients, and servers in distributed environments. Network
authentication services can also provide the benefit of single sign-on for
users.
Support exists for the following authentication methods:
■ Kerberos
■ RADIUS
■ SSL
■ SecurID
■ Identix
■ Cybersafe

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-29


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Client Products Typical Custom


Net8 Enhancements for Developers: Yes Yes
Net8 OPEN
An application programming interface (API) that lets developers write
applications that use Net8 for connectivity. Net8 OPEN offers the following
benefits:
■ Enables development of both database and non-database
applications that use an already deployed Net8 network
■ Enables deployment of an application developed on one machine to
another without having to modify calls to the network interface.
■ Provides a single common interface to all industry standard network
protocols.
For more information, see the Net8 Administrator’s Guide.
Object Type Translator (OTT) Yes Yes
OTT (executable name OTT.EXE) is used to create C-struct representations
of Abstract Data Types that have been created and stored in an Oracle
database. To take advantage of objects, run OTT against the database, and a
header file is generated that includes the C structs.
Oracle INTYPE File Assistant
An assistant that helps you to create an INTYPE file, which provides a list of
types for OTT to translate.
Oracle AppWizard for Microsoft Visual C++ No Yes
Lets you create an Oracle application skeleton in C++ code without writing a
single line of code. You then customize the application skeleton as needed.
This wizard is integrated within the Microsoft Visual C++ 5.0 development
environment.
Note: To install Oracle AppWizard for Microsoft Visual C++, you must have
Microsoft Visual C++ already installed.
Oracle Call Interface (OCI) Yes Yes
An application programming interface (API) for accessing an Oracle
database from a C or C++ program. You make calls directly to the OCI
functions from within your C or C++ program to direct the execution of
your SQL statements.
Oracle Documentation Yes Yes
Available in HTML, viewable using a Web browser. A PDF version is also
available but is not automatically installed. You can find the PDF
documentation on the CD-ROM in the PDFDOC directory. The Adobe
Acrobat Reader is located in the ACROREAD directory.

2-30 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Client Products Typical Custom


Oracle interMedia Client Yes Yes
Provides an Oracle8i interMedia Audio, Image, and Video Java interface
that lets you use client-side applications to manipulate and/or modify
multimedia data stored in a network accessible database on the server.
It also provides a simple interMedia Image sample (SimpImg.exe) that was
developed, using MS Visual C++. SimpImg.exe locates and updates
images, using interMedia Image in an Oracle8i database.
This multi-component product requires a separate license.
Oracle Visual Information Retrieval Client Yes Yes
Available through a Java interface.
Provides image storage, content-based retrieval, and format conversion
capabilities through an object data type. This option is a building block for
various imaging applications, rather than being an end-user application.
Some common applications for this option consist of digital art galleries and
museums, real estate marketing, document imaging, and stock photo
collections for fashion designers and architect.
Also available as a demonstration.
Oracle Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) Drivers Yes Yes
A standard set of Java classes, specified by JavaSoft, that provide
vendor-independent access to relational data from Java.
Oracle Java Tools Yes Yes
Provides Java tools to build and deploy Java stored procedures, CORBA
objects, and Enterprise JavaBeans with Oracle’s Java Virtual Machine.
Oracle Objects for Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Yes Yes
A custom control (OCX or ActiveX) combined with an OLE in-process
server that lets you plug native Oracle8i Enterprise Edition functionality
into your Windows applications.

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-31


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Client Products Typical Custom


Oracle Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) Driver Yes Yes
Provides support for ODBC connections from Windows NT, Windows 95,
and Windows 98 client systems to Oracle databases. The Oracle ODBC
Driver complies with version 3.00 of the Microsoft ODBC specification and
supports all ODBC Core and the following Level 1 and Level 2 calls:
■ SQLBrowseConnect
■ SQLColumnPrivileges
■ SQLDescribeParam
■ SQLForeignKeys
■ SQLMoreResults
■ SQLPrimaryKeys
■ SQLProcedureColumns
■ SQLProcedures
■ SQLTablePrivileges
Oracle Services for Microsoft Transaction Server No Yes
Provides full integration of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition release 8.1.5 with NT only
Microsoft Transaction Server (MTS). This product offers a solution to
develop and deploy COM-based applications using MTS against Oracle8i
release 8.1.5.
Oracle Universal Installer Yes Yes
A GUI application that lets you quickly install, update, and remove Oracle
products. Oracle Universal Installer also automatically installs Oracle
Home Selector, a tool that lets you edit your environmental path to make an
appropriate Oracle home directory your primary home.
Oracle Utilities Yes Yes
A suite of products used for database administration. Oracle Utilities
include Server Manager, Export Utility, Import Utility, ORADIM,
SQL*Loader, DBVERIFY, TKPROF, Migration Utility, Recovery Manager,
OCOPY, and the Password Utility.
Note: When using SQL*Loader to direct load an Index-Organized Table,
you may receive an internal error unless the table has an Overflow segment.
Oracle Web Publishing Assistant Yes Yes
Lets you query a database and publish the data retrieved on a Web page. NT only NT only

2-32 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Oracle8i Client Products Typical Custom


Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Release Notes Yes Yes
Important last-minute installation and configuration information that you
should read before using Oracle products.
SQL*Plus Yes Yes
Lets you use the SQL and PL/SQL database languages in the Windows NT,
Windows 95, or Windows 98 environments. SQL*Plus has both command
line and GUI versions.
1
The NT platform version of Net8 does not support prespawned dedicated server processes by the listener. Therefore, do not
include the following parameters in the SID_DESC’s of the LISTENER.ORA file: PRESPAWN_MAX, PROTOCOL, POOL_
SIZE, TIMEOUT.
2
Installation of some stand-alone TCP/IP and TCP/IP with SSL, SPX, and Named Pipes protocols is done, based on
automatic detection of your system protocol stacks.

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-33


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Programmer/2000
This table describes the Oracle products that are available when you select the
Programmer/2000 installation option.
Programmer/2000 can be installed on Windows NT, Windows 95, and Windows 98.

Programmer/2000 Products Typical Custom


Assistant Common Files Yes Yes
A collection of files required by Oracle assistants.
Net8 Client Yes Yes
Provides products that enable client connection to databases across a
network. A client-side application sends a request to Net8 to be transported
across the network to the server. See Net8 Administrator’s Guide for more
information on this product.
Net8 Configuration Tools:
Net8 Configuration Assistant Yes Yes
Oracle recommends using the Net8 Configuration Assistant to configure
certain Net8 client and server components after installation.
Net8 Configuration Assistant can also be run in stand-alone mode to
configure naming methods, net service names, and the listener.1
To start Net 8 Configuration Assistant:
■ Choose Start>Programs>Oracle-Home_Name>Network
Administration>Net8 Configuration Assistant.
Additional Information: See Chapter 5: "Considerations for Upgrades and
Migration and Chapter 7: "Enabling Optional Net8 Features" of the Net8
Administrator’s Guide.
Net8 Assistant Yes Yes
Helps you configure and administer the SQLNET.ORA file, the
TNSNAMES.ORA file, the LISTENER.ORA file, and Oracle Names Servers.
Net8 Easy Config Yes Yes
This Java-based tool lets you set up net service names in the
TNSNAMES.ORA file. Use this tool for configuring simple networks and
testing the configuration.
Trace Assistant Yes Yes
Formats level-16 SUPPORT traces into paragraphs that are easier to read
than unformatted trace files.

2-34 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Programmer/2000 Products Typical Custom


Net8 Support for the following naming methods:
Net8 clients communicates with Oracle servers through net service names that
are easy-to-remember aliases for database addresses. Net8 resolves net service
names using the following naming methods:
■ Host Naming Yes Yes
■ Local Naming
■ Oracle Names
■ External Naming: Windows NT Native Authentication Method, NetWare
Directory Service [NDS]
See Chapter 6: "Configuring Naming Methods and the Listener" of the Net8
Administrator’s Guide for more information.

Net8 Support for the following protocols:2


Net8 Client (and not Oracle Universal Installer) installs TCP/IP and Named
Pipes, and auto-detects SPX. SPX is only installed in the installation
packages if the appropriate software is detected on your system. If you
explicitly select this product in the Custom installation type, it will be
installed even if you do not have the appropriate software on your
computer.
TCP/IP Yes Yes
Enables client/server conversation over a network using TCP/IP and Net8.
This combination of Oracle products enables an Oracle application on a
client to communicate with remote Oracle databases through TCP/IP (if the
Oracle database is running on a host system that supports network
communication using TCP/IP).
SPX Yes Yes
Enables client/server conversation over a network using SPX/IPX and
Net8. This combination of Oracle products enables an Oracle application on
a client to communicate with remote Oracle databases through SPX/IPX (if
the Oracle database is running on a host system that supports network
communication using SPX/IPX). This protocol is predominantly used in
Novell Netware environments.
Named Pipes Yes Yes
Enables client/server conversation over a network using Named Pipes and
Net8. This combination of Oracle products enables an Oracle application on
a client to communicate with remote Oracle databases through Named
Pipes (if the Oracle database is running on a host system that supports
network communication using Named Pipes).

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-35


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Programmer/2000 Products Typical Custom


Logical Unit Type 6.2 (LU6.2) Protocol Adapter Yes Yes
The adapter is part of the IBM Advanced Program-to-Program
Communication (APPC) architecture.
APPC is the IBM peer-to-peer (program-to-program) protocol for a System
Network Architecture (SNA) network. SNA is an IBM reference model
similar to the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model of the International
Standards Organization (ISO).
APPC architecture lets the client and host communicate over an SNA
network without forcing the client to emulate a terminal (as in
terminal-to-host protocols). APPC architecture allows peer-to-peer
communication; the client can initiate communication with the server.
An SNA network with the LU6.2 and Physical Unit Type 2.1 (PU2.1)
protocols provides APPC. The LU6.2 protocol defines a session between
two application programs; LU6.2 is a product-independent LU-type.
The LU6.2 Protocol Adapter enables an Oracle application on a PC to
communicate with an Oracle database. This communication occurs over an
SNA network with the Oracle database on a host system that supports
APPC.
Bequeath Yes N/A
Enables clients to retrieve information from the database without using the
network listener. The Bequeath protocol internally spawns a server thread
for each client application. In a sense, it does the same operation that a
remote network listener does for your connection, but locally.
Bequeath has the following attributes:
■ Does not use a network listener (therefore, no network listener
configuration is required)
■ Used for local connections where an Oracle client application (such
as SQL*Plus) communicates with an Oracle server running on the
same machine
■ Only works in Dedicated Server mode. Cannot be used in a
Multi-Threaded Server (MTS) mode.
■ Supported on Windows NT for 32-bit applications. Also works on
Windows 95 for connections to a Oracle8i Personal Edition database
for 32-bit applications.
■ Installed by default with Net8 Client

2-36 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Programmer/2000 Products Typical Custom


■ Oracle Advanced Security option--Export Edition Yes Yes
Ensures secure transmission of data over networks. Uses encryption and
authentication engines from RSA Data Security, Inc. See the Oracle Advanced
Security option Administrator’s Guide for more information.
Available algorithms:
Encryption
RC4_40
DES_40
Checksumming
MD5
■ Oracle Advance Security option Single Sign-On Yes Yes
Allows users to access multiple accounts and applications with a single
password. This feature eliminates the need for multiple user passwords and
simplifies administration of user accounts and passwords.
Centralized, secure authentication services ensure high confidence in the
identity of users, clients, and servers in distributed environments. Network
authentication services can also provide the benefit of single sign-on for
users.
Support exists for the following authentication methods:
■ Kerberos
■ RADIUS
■ SSL
■ SecurID
■ Identix
■ CyberSafe

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-37


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Programmer/2000 Products Typical Custom


Net8 Enhancements for Developers: Yes Yes
Net8 OPEN
An application programming interface (API) that lets developers write
applications that use Net8 for connectivity. Net8 OPEN offers the following
benefits:
■ Enables development of both database and non-database
applications that use an already deployed Net8 network
■ Enables deployment of an application developed on one machine to
another without having to modify calls to the network interface.
■ Provides a single common interface to all industry standard network
protocols.
For more information, see the Net8 Administrator’s Guide.
Object Type Translator (OTT) Yes Yes
OTT (executable name OTT.EXE) is used to create C-struct representations
of Abstract Data Types that have been created and stored in an Oracle
database. To take advantage of objects, run OTT against the database, and a
header file is generated that includes the C structs.
Oracle INTYPE File Assistant
An assistant that helps you to create an INTYPE file, which provides a list of
types for OTT to translate.
Oracle AppWizard for Microsoft Visual C++ Yes
Lets you create an Oracle application skeleton in C++ code without writing a
single line of code. You then customize the application skeleton as needed.
This wizard is integrated within the Microsoft Visual C++ 5.0 development
environment.
Note: To install Oracle AppWizard for Microsoft Visual C++, you must have
Microsoft Visual C++ already installed.
Oracle Call Interface (OCI) Yes Yes
An application programming interface (API) for accessing an Oracle
database from a C or C++ program. You make calls directly to the OCI
functions from within your C or C++ program to direct the execution of
your SQL statements.
Oracle Documentation Yes Yes
Available in HTML, viewable using a Web browser. A PDF version is also
available, but is not automatically installed. You can find the PDF
documentation on the CD-ROM in the PDFDOC directory. The Adobe
Acrobat Reader is located in the ACROREAD directory.

2-38 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Programmer/2000 Products Typical Custom


Oracle Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) Drivers Yes Yes
A standard set of Java classes, specified by JavaSoft, that provide
vendor-independent access to relational data from Java.
Oracle Java Tools Yes Yes
Provides Java tools to build and deploy Java stored procedures, CORBA
objects, and Enterprise JavaBeans with Oracle’s Java Virtual Machine.
Oracle Objects for Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Yes Yes
A custom control (OCX or ActiveX) combined with an OLE in-process
server that lets you plug native Oracle8i Enterprise Edition functionality
into your Windows applications.
Oracle Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) Driver Yes Yes
Provides support for ODBC connections from Windows NT, Windows 95,
and Windows 98 client systems to Oracle databases. The Oracle ODBC
Driver complies with version 3.00 of the Microsoft ODBC specification and
supports all ODBC Core and the following Level 1 and Level 2 calls:
■ SQLBrowseConnect
■ SQLColumnPrivileges
■ SQLDescribeParam
■ SQLForeignKeys
■ SQLMoreResults
■ SQLPrimaryKeys
■ SQLProcedureColumns
■ SQLProcedures
■ SQLTablePrivileges
Oracle SQLJ Translator Yes Yes
A preprocessor for Java programs that contain embedded SQL statements.
Oracle SQLJ Translator converts the SQL statements to JDBC calls.
Oracle Universal Installer Yes Yes
A GUI application that lets you quickly install, update, and remove Oracle products.
Oracle Universal Installer also automatically installs Oracle Home Selector, a tool
that lets you edit your environmental path to make an appropriate Oracle home
directory your primary home.

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Release Notes Yes Yes


Important last-minute installation and configuration information that you
should read before using Oracle products.

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-39


List of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Products

Programmer/2000 Products Typical Custom


Pro*C/C++ Yes Yes
The Pro*C/C++ precompiler takes SQL statements embedded in your C
and C++ program and converts them to standard C code. When you
precompile this code, the result is a C or C++ program that you can compile
and use to build applications that access an Oracle database.
Pro*COBOL Yes Yes
To access an Oracle database, you use a high-level query language called
Structured Query Language (SQL). You often use SQL through an
interactive interface, such as SQL*Plus. Pro*COBOL is a precompiler that
converts SQL statements embedded within COBOL programs into standard
Oracle run-time library calls. The output file can then be compiled by a
COBOL compiler.
SQL*Plus Yes Yes
Lets you use the SQL and PL/SQL database languages in the Windows NT,
Windows 95, or Windows 98 environments. SQL*Plus has both command
line and GUI versions.
1
The NT platform version of Net8 does not support prespawned dedicated server processes by the listener. Therefore, do
not include the following parameters in the SID_DESC’s of the LISTENER.ORA file: PRESPAWN_MAX, PROTOCOL,
POOL_SIZE, TIMEOUT.
2
Installation of some stand-alone TCP/IP and TCP/IP with SSL, SPX, and Named Pipes protocols is done, based on
automatic detection of your system protocol stacks.

2-40 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Supported Protocol Stack Vendors

Supported Protocol Stack Vendors


The table below lists the supported vendor for each networking protocol.

Protocol Platform Supported Vendor


TCP/IP Windows NT and Microsoft TCP/IP
Windows 95/98
SPX Windows NT and ■ Microsoft NW Link for Windows NT,
Windows 95/98 Windows 95/98
■ Novell NetWare Client 32 release 4.1
■ Novell IntranetWare Client release 4.1
for Windows NT
■ Novell IntranetWare Client release 2.2
for Windows 95
Note: For Microsoft NW Link, Client
Service for NetWare must be installed.
Named Pipes Windows NT and Microsoft NETBEUI
Windows 95/98
Host Naming Adapter Windows NT Microsoft TCP/IP
NDS Native Naming Windows NT and ■ Novell NetWare Client 32 release 4.1
Windows 95
■ Novell IntranetWare Client release 4.1
for Windows NT
■ Novell IntranetWare Client release 2.2
for Windows 95
Note: An Oracle Server release 7.2.2 or
above for NetWare release 4.1 is required.
NDS authentication Windows NT and ■ Novell NetWare Client 32 release 4.1
method Windows 95
■ Novell IntranetWare Client release 4.1
for Windows NT
■ Novell IntranetWare Client release 2.2
for Windows 95
Note: An Oracle Server release 7.2.2 or
above for NetWare release 4.1 is required.
Windows NT Native Windows NT and Microsoft
authentication method Windows 95/98

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-41


Supported Protocol Stack Vendors

Protocol Platform Supported Vendor


Oracle Advanced Windows NT and No vendor software requirements on an
Security option Windows 95/98 Oracle client or server
Kerberos authentication
method
Oracle Advanced Windows NT and No vendor software requirements on an
Security option RADIUS Windows 95/98 Oracle client or server. The RADIUS server
authentication method must be compliant with the standards in
the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
RFC #2138, and RFC #2139
See: Oracle Advanced Security
Administrator’s Guide
Oracle Advanced Windows NT and No vendor software requirements on an
Security option SecurID Windows 95/98 Oracle client or server, but a SecurID card
authentication method is needed
SSL Windows NT and No vendor software requirements. An
Windows 95/98 X.509-compliant certificate server is
required to generate certificates
Oracle Advanced Windows NT and CyberSafe Challenger, version 5.2.7.3 on
Security option Windows 95/98 client and server (Oracle product
CyberSafe developed with CyberSafe Application
authentication method Security Toolkit 1.1)
Oracle Advanced Windows NT and Identix hardware and driver on an
Security option Identix Windows 95/98 Oracle 8 client
(Biometric)
authentication method
Logical Unit Type 6.2 Windows NT Microsoft SNA Server, version 3.0
(LU6.2) Protocol
Adapter

2-42 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Unsupported Features

Unsupported Features
The following features are currently unsupported on the Microsoft NT and
Windows 95/98 platforms.

Feature Description
TRCROUTE Client application not supported on the NT
and Windows platforms.
SPAWN SPAWN command in the listener control
utility is not supported on the NT and
Windows platforms.
Pre-SPAWNED dedicated Not supported by the listener.
server processes

Introducing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition 2-43


Unsupported Features

2-44 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


3
Database Tools Overview

Oracle8i Enterprise Edition includes various tools to perform database functions.


This chapter describes the preferred tools to perform common database
administration tasks.
Specific topics discussed are:
■ Choosing a Database Tool
■ Starting Database Tools
■ Using SQL*Loader
■ Using Windows NT Tools

Database Tools Overview 3-1


Choosing a Database Tool

Choosing a Database Tool


Database tools is a collective term for tools, utilities, and assistants that you can use
to perform database administration tasks. Some database tools perform similar
tasks, though no one database tool performs all database administration tasks. The
following sections indicate which database tools can be used on particular
operating systems and the preferred tools to use for common database
administration tasks.

Important: Oracle Enterprise Manager


Question: Where is Oracle Enterprise Manager located?
Answer: Oracle Enterprise Manager is not included on the Oracle8i Enterprise
Edition for Windows NT CD-ROM 8.1.5 release. Oracle Enterprise Manager is
shipped on a separate CD-ROM in the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT
kit and must be installed in a separate Oracle home from Oracle8i Server. For more
information on Oracle Enterprise Manager, refer to the documentation included on
the Oracle Enterprise Manager CD-ROM.

Important: SQL*Plus and Server Manager


Question: Should I use SQL*Plus or Server Manager?
Answer: This chapter describes tasks that use SQL*Plus command line syntax.
Starting with this 8.1.5 release, all Server Manager text and examples have been
replaced with SQL*Plus equivalents. Although Server Manager will continue to be
shipped with 8.1.x releases, Oracle Corporation strongly recommends that you
migrate to SQL*Plus as soon as possible. See your SQL*Plus documentation for
information on using SQL*Plus to perform database administration tasks.
Note that for all previous Oracle8 8.0.x releases, the Server Manager executable was
SVRMGR30.EXE. For 8.1.5, the Server Manager executable is SVRMGRL. The "L"
indicates line mode.

3-2 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Choosing a Database Tool

Database Tools and Operating System Compatibility


This table lists database tools and the operating system(s) on which each can be
used:

Database Tools Windows NT Windows 95 and Windows 981

Oracle Utilities
DBVERIFY (DBVERF) Yes Yes
Export Utility (EXP) Yes Yes
Import Utility (IMP) Yes Yes
Migration Utility (MIG) Yes No
OCOPY Yes Yes
OPERFCFG Yes Yes

ORADIM 2 Yes No

Password Utility (ORAPWD)3 Yes No

Recovery Manager (RMAN) Yes Yes


Server Manager Yes Yes

SQL*Plus (SQLPLUS)4 Yes Yes

SQL*Loader (SQLLDR) Yes Yes


TKPROF (TKPROF) Yes Yes
Windows NT Tools
Control Panel Yes Yes
Event Viewer Yes No
Performance Monitor Yes No
Registry Yes Yes
User Manager Yes No
Oracle Manager for Microsoft Transaction Server Yes No
Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows Yes No
NT

Database Tools Overview 3-3


Choosing a Database Tool

Database Tools Windows NT Windows 95 and Windows 981

Oracle Enterprise Manager


Backup Management Wizards Yes No
Data Management Wizards Yes No
Instance Manager Yes Yes

Net8 Assistant5 Yes Yes

Schema Manager Yes Yes


Security Manager Yes Yes
Storage Manager Yes Yes
Oracle Assistants
Oracle Data Migration Assistant Yes No
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant Yes No

Net8 Assistant5 Yes Yes

Net8 Easy Config Yes Yes


Oracle Web Publishing Assistant Yes No
Oracle Application Wizards for Microsoft Visual Yes Yes
Studio
Oracle AppWizard for Microsoft Visual C++ Yes Yes
Oracle for Windows NT Performance Monitor Yes No
SQL*Plus Yes Yes
1
Oracle Enterprise Manager has not been tested on Windows 98.
2
ORADIM only operates on local databases.
3
ORAPWD does not work on password files for remote databases.
4
The ORADEBUG utility can be used through SQL*Plus to send debug commands to Oracle processes. See "Using the
ORADEBUG Utility" on page 9-27.
5
In addition to being a standalone product, Net8 Assistant is also included in Oracle Enterprise Manager.

3-4 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Choosing a Database Tool

Preferred Database Tools


This table lists common database administration tasks and the various database
tools you can use to perform them. Oracle Corporation recommends you use the
tools listed in the "Preferred Database Tool" column of the table. After choosing a
tool to perform a task, go to "Starting Database Tools" on page 3-7 for instructions
on how to start the tool.

Database Administration Task Preferred Database Tool Other Database Tools


Create a database Oracle Database Configuration ■ ORADIM and SQL*Plus (SQLPLUS)
Assistant together
■ SQL Worksheet and ORADIM
Delete a database Oracle Database Configuration ORADIM and SQL*Plus (SQLPLUS) together
Assistant
Delete a database service Oracle Database Configuration ORADIM
Assistant
Start a database Instance Manager1 ■ ORADIM and SQL*Plus (SQLPLUS)
together
■ SQL Worksheet
■ Oracle Administration Assistant for
Windows NT
Shut down a database Instance Manager ■ ORADIM and SQL*Plus (SQLPLUS)
together
■ Control Panel
■ SQL Worksheet
■ Oracle Administration Assistant for
Windows NT
Change internal database passwords ORAPWD ORADIM2
Migrate a database Oracle Data Migration Assistant Migration Utility (MIG)
From release 7.x to release 8.1.5
Upgrade a database Oracle Data Migration Run provided scripts in SQL*Plus
From release 8.0.x to release 8.1.5 Assistant3

Export data Export Wizard Export Utility (EXP)


Import data Import Wizard Import Utility (IMP)
Load data Load Wizard SQL*Loader (SQLLDR)
Back up a database Backup Wizard ■ Recovery Manager (RMAN)
■ OCOPY4

Database Tools Overview 3-5


Choosing a Database Tool

Database Administration Task Preferred Database Tool Other Database Tools


Recover a database Recovery Wizard ■ Recovery Manager (RMAN)
■ OCOPY
Authenticate database administrators Security Manager ■ SQL*Plus (SQLPLUS)
and users
■ Windows NT operating system
■ Oracle Administration Assistant for
Windows NT(OS Authenticated users)
Grant database roles Security Manager ■ User Manager
■ Oracle Administration Assistant for
Windows NT (OS Authenticated users)

Create database objects5 Schema Manager ■ Server Manager


■ SQL*Plus
1
Instance Manager can start up and shut down a database and perform other limited functions. This tool cannot be used to
create database services, or create and delete databases. Instance Manager is an Oracle Enterprise Manager tool.
2
ORADIM can only set a password when none was previously set. Also, ORADIM can change a password by deleting and
recreating the Oracle8 services.
3
Oracle Data Migration Assistant can only be used to upgrade release 7.x or 8.0.x databases to release 8.1.5. It cannot be used
to upgrade an earlier Oracle7 database release to a later Oracle7 database release. See your Oracle7 for Windows NT
documentation for information on how to upgrade from an earlier Oracle7 release to a later Oracle7 release.
4
Do not back up files while you are shutting down the database, otherwise your backup will be invalid. You cannot use an
invalid backup to restore files at a later date.
5
See Oracle8 Administrator’s Guide for guidelines on creating databases objects. In particular, see Appendix A, "Space
Estimations for Schema Objects" which provides equations for estimating the space requirements for clusters, non-clustered
tables, and indexes. Windows NT uses the same fixed header, transaction header, and row header constants described in that
guide.

Note: The table above describes tasks that can be performed with
Server Manager or SQL*Plus. In release 8.1.5, all Server Manager
text and examples in this guide have been replaced with SQL*Plus
equivalents. Although Server Manager will continue to be shipped
with 8.1.x releases, Oracle Corporation strongly recommends that
you migrate to SQL*Plus as soon as possible. See your SQL*Plus
documentation for information on using SQL*Plus to perform
database administration tasks.

3-6 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Starting Database Tools

Starting Database Tools


This section describes how to start each of the database tools in the following
categories:
■ Starting Database Tools in Multiple Oracle Homes
■ Starting Oracle Utilities
■ Starting Windows NT Tools
■ Starting Oracle Enterprise Manager
■ Starting Oracle Assistants
■ Starting Oracle for Windows NT Performance Monitor
■ Starting SQL*Plus
You will be referred back to this section for database tool startup procedures as you
use this guide.

Starting Database Tools in Multiple Oracle Homes


If you are using multiple Oracle homes, be aware that there have been changes to
this feature for release 8.1.5. If you have multiple Oracle homes on your computer
from previous releases, see "Multiple Oracle Home Functionality in Different
Releases" on page 4-3 and "Multiple Oracle Home Environments" on page 4-5 for a
description of the differences between pre-8.1.5 Oracle homes and release 8.1.5 and
later Oracle homes.

Starting Tools from Release 8.0.4 and later 8.0.x Multiple Oracle Homes
If you are using multiple Oracle homes functionality, the command to start a tool
includes a [HOME_NAME], where [HOME_NAME] indicates the name of a
different Oracle home. Note that the first Oracle home created on your computer does
not have [HOME_NAME] appended to the group. For example:
To start Oracle Database Assistant from the first Oracle home, choose:
Start > Programs > Oracle for Windows NT > Oracle Database Assistant
To start Oracle Database Assistant from an additional Oracle home, choose:
Start > Programs > Oracle for Windows NT - [HOME_NAME] > Oracle Database
Assistant

Database Tools Overview 3-7


Starting Database Tools

Starting Tools from Release 8.1.5 Multiple Oracle Homes


In release 8.1.5, all Oracle homes, including the first Oracle home you create on your
computer, have a unique HOME_NAME. For example, the command to start Oracle
Database Configuration Assistant is as follows:
Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Oracle Enterprise Management >
Database Administration Applications > Database Configuration Assistant, where
HOME_NAME is the name of the Oracle home. For example, either HOME1 or
HOME2 in the following figure:

Taskbar pathname for first


Oracle database installation.
A home name of HOME1
appears in the pathname.

Taskbar pathname for


second Oracle database
installation. A home name
of HOME2 appears in the
pathname.

3-8 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Starting Database Tools

Starting Oracle Utilities


This table describes how to start each Oracle Utility, and where to go for further
information on using these products:

Oracle Utilities To Start... For More Information, See...


DBVERIFY Enter the following at the MS-DOS command prompt: Oracle8i Utilities
(DBVERF)
C:\> DBVERF
DBVERIFY starts and prompts you for a file name
parameter. To obtain a list of parameters, enter the
following at the MS-DOS command prompt:
C:\> DBVERF HELP=Y
Export Utility Enter the following at the MS-DOS command prompt ■ Oracle8i Utilities, which
(EXP) followed by your user name and password: describes how to use the Export
utility
C:\> EXP
EXP starts and prompts you for parameters. To obtain ■ Oracle8i Error Messages for
a list of these parameters, enter the following at the information on error messages
MS-DOS command prompt:
C:\> EXP HELP=Y
Note: When running the Export utility, the default
values for the following parameters under Windows
NT are:
BUFFER 4 KB
RECORDLENGTH 2 KB
Note: To export an entire database, you must use the
user name SYSTEM. Do not use INTERNAL or SYS.
Import Utility Enter the following at the MS-DOS command prompt ■ Oracle8i Utilities, which
(IMP) followed by your user name and password: describes how to use the
Import utility
C:\> IMP
IMP starts and prompts you for parameters. To obtain ■ Oracle8i Error Messages for
a list of these parameters, enter the following at the information on error messages
MS-DOS command prompt:
C:\> IMP HELP=Y
Note: When running the Import utility, the default
values for the following parameters under Windows
NT are:
BUFFER 4 KB
RECORDLENGTH 2 KB

Database Tools Overview 3-9


Starting Database Tools

Oracle Utilities To Start... For More Information, See...


Migration Utility Enter the following at the MS-DOS command prompt: "Migrating Using MIG" on
(MIG) page 5-27
C:\> MIG
To obtain a list of parameters, enter the following at
the MS-DOS command prompt:
C:\> MIG HELP=Y
OCOPY Enter the following at the MS-DOS command prompt: "Backing Up Files with OCOPY" on
page 12-4
C:\> OCOPY
OPERFCFG Enter the following at the MS-DOS command prompt: "Modifying Oracle for Windows NT
Performance Monitor Parameters"
C:\> OPERFCFG
on page C-18
ORADIM Enter the following with parameters at the MS-DOS "Using ORADIM to Administer an
command prompt: Oracle Instance" on page 8-27
C:\> ORADIM PARAMETERS
To get a complete listing of ORADIM parameters,
enter the following:
C:\> ORADIM -? | -H | -HELP
Note: Entering ORADIM without any options also
displays a listing of parameters.
Password Utility Enter the following at the MS-DOS command prompt: "Creating Password Files" on
(ORAPWD) page 9-17
C:\> ORAPWD
Note that the password file is a hidden file. To see it in
a file list, enter the following at the MS-DOS
command prompt from the directory where the file
resides.
C:\> ATTRIB
Recovery Enter the following at the MS-DOS command prompt: "Recovery Manager" on page 12-3
Manager and Oracle8 Backup and Recovery
C:\> RMAN PARAMETERS
(RMAN) Guide for instructions on using this
tool
SQL*Plus Enter the following at the MS-DOS command prompt: ■ Oracle SQL*Plus User’s Guide
(SQLPLUS) and Reference
C:\> SQLPLUS
■ "Starting and Shutting Down a
Database with SQL*Plus" on
page 9-10, for examples of
starting and stopping the
database with SQL*Plus

3-10 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Starting Database Tools

Oracle Utilities To Start... For More Information, See...


SQL*Loader Invoke SQL*Loader at the MS-DOS command prompt ■ Oracle8i Utilities, which
(SQLLDR) followed by certain keywords. Enter the following describes how to use the
and SQL*Loader displays a Help screen with the SQL*Loader utility
available keywords and default values:
■ Oracle8 Error Messages for
C:\> SQLLDR information on error messages
■ "Using SQL*Loader" on
page 3-19
TKPROF Enter the following at the MS-DOS command prompt: Oracle8i Tuning
(TKPROF)
C:\> TKPROF

Starting Windows NT Tools


This table describes how to start each Windows NT tool, and where to go for more
information on using these products:

Windows NT To Start... For More Information, See...


Tools
Control Panel Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel ■ "Control Panel" on page 3-21
■ "Managing Oracle Services"
on page 9-2
■ Your Microsoft Windows NT
documentation
Event Viewer Choose Start > Programs > Administrative Tools > Event ■ "Event Viewer" on page 3-22
Viewer
■ "Using the Event Viewer" on
page 11-11
■ Your Microsoft Windows NT
documentation
Performance Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > ■ "Performance Monitor" on
Monitor Database Administration > Oracle for Windows NT page 3-24
Performance Monitor
■ "Using Oracle Performance
Monitor" on page 11-3
■ Your Microsoft Windows NT
documentation

Database Tools Overview 3-11


Starting Database Tools

Windows NT To Start... For More Information, See...


Tools
Registry ■ Enter the following at the MS-DOS command ■ "Registry" on page 3-26
prompt on Windows NT:
■ Appendix C, "Oracle 8i
C:\> REGEDT32 Configuration Parameters
and the Registry"
The registry editor window appears.
■ Your Microsoft Windows NT
■ Enter the following at the MS-DOS command
documentation
prompt on Windows 95 or Windows 98:
C:\> REGEDIT
The registry editor window appears.
User Manager Choose Start > Programs > Administrative Tools > User ■ "User Manager" on
Manager page 3-28
■ Chapter 10, "Authenticating
Database Users with
Windows NT"
■ Your Microsoft operating
system documentation

Starting Oracle Enterprise Manager


Applications in the DBA Management Pack can be launched through the Oracle
Enterprise Manager console or launched separately as stand-alone applications.
When an application is launched through the console, it is connected to the Oracle
Management Server and is used in the Oracle Enterprise Manager repository.
When an application is launched separately, the user has the option to connect to
either a specific database or to a Management Server.
When connected to an Oracle Management Server, the DBA Management Pack
application has access to all the databases in that Oracle Enterprise Manager
repository.
To start an Oracle Enterprise Manager tool separately:
1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Oracle Enterprise
Management > DBA Management Pack > tool.
For Example, Choose Start > Program > Oracle-HOME1 > Oracle Enterprise
Management > DBA Management Pack > Schema Manager.
After launching a DBA application, the Oracle Enterprise Manager Login dialog
box appears giving you the option to connect to either the Oracle Management
Server or directly to a single database.

3-12 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Starting Database Tools

2. Choose the login method for the database administration application and enter
the appropriate connect information.
■ Login to the Oracle Management Server.
When a database administration application is connected to the Oracle
Management Server, the DBA application can access all the databases on
discovered nodes in that repository, and all of these databases appear in the
client’s tree list of managed objects. The Oracle Management Server must be
running for a DBA application to connect to it.
■ Connect directly to a single database.
When connected to a single database, the Oracle Management Server does
not need to be running, and that database is the only database that shows in
the client’s tree list. Your tnsnames.ora file must have an entry for the
database. You can also enter the host:port:sid connect string for your
service.
Note: You could also use the LaunchPad.
1. Choose Start > Program > Oracle-HOME_NAME > LaunchPad.
2. Choose DB Administration.
3. Choose the tool you want.

Database Tools Overview 3-13


Starting Database Tools

Additional Information: See the Oracle Enterprise Manager


Configuration Guide for information on configuration tasks you must
perform before using Oracle Enterprise Manager and information
on how to connect to an Oracle database.

To start an Oracle Enterprise Manager tool from the Console:


1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Oracle Enterprise
Management > Enterprise Manager Console.
The Login Information dialog box appears.
2. Log on when prompted.
3. You can now either:
■ Select the database you want to administer in the Navigator tree or in the
Map window, then choose the tool from the Console Tools menu or in the
Launch Palette.

3-14 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Starting Database Tools

■ Select the database you want to administer in the Navigator tree, then
choose the tool from the Related Tools menu of the context-sensitive menu.
■ Choose the application from the Console Tools menu or from the Launch
Palette, then enter the connect information in the Login Information dialog
box.

Note: When you select a database before starting a tool, you are
connected to the database according to the preferred credentials
that have been set up for the database or the credentials you used to
log on to the Console. If connection to the database fails for any
reason, the Login Information dialog box appears.

Database Tools Overview 3-15


Starting Database Tools

This table describes how to start each Oracle Enterprise Manager tool through the
Console, and where to go for further information on using these tools.

Oracle Enterprise Choose Tools > Applications > For More Information, See...
Manager Tool
Instance Manager Oracle Instance Manager Oracle Enterprise Manager
Configuration Guide
Storage Manager Oracle Storage Manager Oracle Enterprise Manager
Configuration Guide
Schema Manager Oracle Schema Manager Oracle Enterprise Manager
Configuration Guide
Security Manager Oracle Security Manager Oracle Enterprise Manager
Configuration Guide
SQL Worksheet Oracle SQL Worksheet Oracle Enterprise Manager
The new worksheet is connected to the database you Configuration Guide
have selected in the Navigator tree list or in the map
window.

You can start the Backup Management wizards using one of the following
methods:
■ From the Console or Storage Manager, select the database, tablespaces, or
datafiles you want to administer in the Navigator tree; then, choose the
application from the Backup Management menu of the context-sensitive menu.
■ From Storage Manager > Tools menu > Backup Management.
You can start the Data Management wizards using one of the following methods:
■ From the Console or Schema Manager, select the database, tables, or datafiles
you want to administer in the Navigator tree; then, choose the application from
the Data Management menu of the context-sensitive menu.
■ From Storage Manager or Schema Manager > Tools menu > Data Management

3-16 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Starting Database Tools

Starting Oracle Assistants


This table describes how to start each assistant, and where to go for further
information on using these products:

Assistant Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > For More Information, See...
Oracle Data Migration Utilities > Oracle Data Migration Assistant ■ "Migrating Using Oracle
Migration Data Migration Assistant" on
Assistant page 5-25
■ Oracle8i Enterprise Edition
Installation for Windows NT
Oracle Database Oracle Enterprise Management > Database ■ "Using Oracle Database
Configuration Administration Applications > Database Configuration Configuration Assistant" on
Assistant Assistant page 8-4
■ Oracle8i Enterprise Edition
Installation for Windows NT
Net8 Assistant Network Administration > Net8 Assistant Net8 Administrator’s Guide
Net8 Easy Config Network Administration > Net8 Easy Config Net8 Administrator’s Guide
Oracle Web Application Development > Oracle Web Publishing Oracle Web Publishing Assistant
Publishing Assistant Getting Started for Windows NT
Assistant
Oracle Enterprise Management > Database Administration "Granting Database
Administration Applications > Oracle Administration Assistant for Administrator and Database
Assistant Windows NT Operator Privileges Using Oracle
Administration Assistant for
Windows NT" on page 10-6

Database Tools Overview 3-17


Starting Database Tools

Starting Oracle for Windows NT Performance Monitor


This table describes how to start Oracle for Windows NT Performance Monitor, and
where to go for further information on using this product:

Tool To Start... For More Information, See...


Oracle for Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > "Using Oracle Performance
Windows NT Database Administration > Oracle for Windows NT Monitor" on page 11-3
Performance Performance Monitor
Monitor

Starting SQL*Plus
This table describes how to start SQL*Plus, and where to go for further information
on using this product:

SQL*Plus To Start... For More Information, See...


Enter the following at the MS-DOS command ■ SQL*Plus Getting Started for Windows
prompt: NT and Windows 95/98
C:\> SQLPLUS ■ SQL*Plus User’s Guide and Reference
Starts the line mode version of SQL*Plus ■ SQL*Plus Quick Reference
or
Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_
NAME > Application Development > SQL
Plus
Starts the GUI version of SQL*Plus

3-18 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Using SQL*Loader

Using SQL*Loader
This section describes Windows NT-specific information for using SQL*Loader
(SQLLDR).

Windows NT Processing Options


These are the possible values for the Operating System Dependent (OSD) file
processing specifications string option, referred to in the "SQL*Loader Control File
Reference" chapter of Oracle8 Utilities.

Processing Option Description

""1 Stream record format in which each record is terminated by a newline character. The
maximum record size is 48 KB.
"FIX n" Fixed record format in which each record is exactly n bytes long. If the record is
terminated by a newline character, the newline character must be the nth byte.
"VAR xxxx" Load variable length records. Specify the OSD "VAR recsizehint" in the control file for
this option to take effect. The xxxx gives an estimate of the average record size to
SQL*Loader so that it can approximate buffer sizes accurately and not waste
memory. The default length is eighty characters. The xxxx does not specify how
many leading bytes of length are included in each record. It only acts as a hint to
SQL*Loader. Each record must always be preceded by five ASCII bytes containing
the length of the remainder of the record. For example, a record must look like the
following:
00024This is a 24 byte string
Any whitespace, carriage returns, or linefeeds at the end of the record are ignored
unless specifically included in the byte count in the length field.
1
Two double quote characters with no space in between.

Direct Path Option


SQL*Loader includes a direct path option that bypasses Oracle8i Enterprise Edition
redo log and data verification features, thereby decreasing loading time. Use the
direct path option with data files known to be error free.

Database Tools Overview 3-19


Using SQL*Loader

Control File Conventions


When preparing a SQL*Loader control file (.CTL), you must follow certain syntax
and notational conventions. When specifying datatypes in the SQL*Loader control
file, note that the default sizes of native datatypes are specific to Windows NT. You
cannot override these defaults in the control file.

Native Datatypes Default Field Length


DOUBLE 8
FLOAT 4
INTEGER 4
SMALLINT 2

Additional Information: For a complete list of options and


instructions on using SQL*Loader, see Oracle8 Utilities. The
directory ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\RDBMS\LOADER
contains a number of examples on the use of SQL*Loader.

3-20 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Using Windows NT Tools

Using Windows NT Tools


The following Windows NT tools can be used to administer an Oracle database:
■ Control Panel
■ Event Viewer
■ Performance Monitor
■ Registry
■ User Manager

Control Panel
The Control Panel enables you to modify system options such as computer services.
A service is an executable process registered in the registry and administered by
Windows NT. The registry automatically tracks and records security information
for each service you create.

Which Oracle Services Appear in the Control Panel?


When you install the Oracle database and other products, Oracle services are
created and displayed in the Services dialog box:

Use the Services dialog box to start, stop, pause, or continue each of the Oracle
services available on the computer.

Database Tools Overview 3-21


Using Windows NT Tools

Oracle services are the same as Windows NT services. In order to connect to and use
an Oracle instance, an Oracle service is created during the database creation process
and associated with the Oracle database.
Once a service is created with your Oracle database, the service can run even while
no user is logged on. This is because your Oracle database starts each instance as a
service. This feature enables you to maintain workstation security while running
your Oracle database.

Additional Information: You can have multiple, active Oracle


home directories on a single computer. This affects the naming
conventions for Oracle services. See "Multiple Oracle Home
Environments" on page 4-5 and "Managing Oracle Services" on
page 9-2 for additional information.

Event Viewer
Event Viewer enables you to monitor events in your system. An event is an
important occurrence in the system or application (such as your Oracle database)
that requires user notification. While messages for major events can display
on-screen as you work at your computer, events not requiring your immediate
attention are recorded by Windows NT in the Event Viewer log file. You can then
view this information at your convenience.

What Oracle Database Events Are Monitored?


Event Viewer can be used to monitor Oracle database events, such as:
■ initialization of the System Global Area (SGA) for the active instance
■ initialization of the Program Global Area (PGA) for the background processes
of the active instance
■ connection to the Oracle database with the CONNECT INTERNAL command

3-22 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Using Windows NT Tools

In addition, the operating system audit trail is logged to Event Viewer. The
following figure shows Event Viewer displaying Oracle database events.
Double-click an entry to find out specific information about an event.

Additional Information: See Chapter 11, "Monitoring a Database",


for specific instructions on accessing and using Event Viewer to
monitor Oracle database events.

Database Tools Overview 3-23


Using Windows NT Tools

Performance Monitor
Performance Monitor measures computer performance. This tool enables you to
view the performance of processors, memory, cache, threads, and processes.
Performance information provided includes device usage, queue lengths, delays,
throughput measurements, and internal congestion measurements. This
information is provided in the form of charts, alerts, and reports.

What Oracle Database Information is Monitored?


If you install Oracle for Windows NT Performance Monitor from your Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition for Windows NT CD-ROM, you can use Performance Monitor to
monitor key Oracle database information, such as:
■ Library Cache
■ Buffer Cache
■ Data Dictionary Cache
■ Redo Log Buffer Cache
■ Thread Activity

3-24 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Using Windows NT Tools

You can use your findings to improve database performance. The following figure
shows Performance Monitor monitoring Oracle database objects listed at the bottom
of the screen:

Counters Objects

Additional Information: See "Using Oracle Performance Monitor"


on page 11-3 for specific instructions on accessing and using the
Performance Monitor to monitor Oracle database performance.

Database Tools Overview 3-25


Using Windows NT Tools

Registry
The Oracle database stores its configuration information in a structure known as the
registry. You can view and modify this configuration information through the
registry editor. The registry contains configuration information for your computer,
and must not be accessible for editing by inexperienced users. Only experienced
administrators should view and change this information.
The registry editor displays configuration information in a tree-like format
consisting of four keys (or folders). These keys are shown in the tree view in the
left-hand window. In the right-hand window, the parameters and values assigned
to that key are displayed.

What Database Parameters Are Configured?


When you install products from your Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT
CD-ROM, configuration parameters are automatically entered in the registry. These
parameters are read each time your Windows NT computer is restarted and
whenever an Oracle product is launched. These parameters include settings for:
■ Oracle home directory
■ Language
■ Company name
■ Oracle home subdirectories for individual products
■ Individual products such as SQL*Plus
■ services

3-26 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Using Windows NT Tools

The following figure shows some of the Oracle database configuration parameters
in the registry:

Additional Information: See Appendix C, "Oracle 8i Configuration


Parameters and the Registry" for definitions of Oracle database
configuration parameters and specific instructions on using the
registry to modify Oracle database configuration parameters.

Database Tools Overview 3-27


Using Windows NT Tools

User Manager
User Manager enables you to manage Windows NT computer security and create
user accounts.

What Oracle8i Database Tasks Can User Manager Perform?


With User Manager, you can:
■ Grant Oracle database roles.
■ Use operating system authentication for user accounts. For example, grant DBA
access to an NT user.
■ Create an NT user account that enables you to make secure client connections to
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition without a password.
The following figure shows User Manager:

Additional Information: See Chapter 10, "Authenticating Database


Users with Windows NT" for specific instructions on using User
Manager to perform Oracle database administration.

3-28 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


4
Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible
Architecture

This chapter describes the concepts of multiple Oracle homes and Optimal Flexible
Architecture (OFA) for Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT.
Specific topics discussed:
■ Introduction to Multiple Oracle Homes and OFA
■ Multiple Oracle Homes Overview
■ Which Products Are Multiple Oracle Home-Enabled?
■ Working with Multiple Oracle Homes
■ Optimal Flexible Architecture Overview
■ Differences Between Directory Trees by Release
■ Directory Tree of a Sample OFA-Compliant Database
■ OFA Directory Naming Conventions
■ OFA and Multiple Oracle Home Configurations
■ Increasing Reliability and Performance
■ Comparison Between OFA on Windows NT and UNIX

Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture 4-1


Multiple Oracle Homes Overview

Introduction to Multiple Oracle Homes and OFA


When you install an Oracle database, you are probably installing one of the largest
applications your computer is capable of supporting. Using multiple Oracle homes
and OFA provides many advantages when administering large databases. The
following advantages are the most important:
■ Databases are easier to administer because of the structured organization of
directories and files, and the consistent naming used for database files.
■ A reduction of performance bottlenecks and improved safeguards against disk
failures, because input/output (I/O) can be distributed across a number of
disks.
■ Software upgrades can be tested in an Oracle home in a separate directory from
the Oracle home where your production database is located.

Multiple Oracle Homes Overview


This section provides an overview of multiple Oracle homes. It includes the
following topics:
■ What Is an Oracle Home?
■ Benefits of Using Multiple Oracle Homes
■ Multiple Oracle Home Functionality in Different Releases
■ Multiple Oracle Home Environments

What Is an Oracle Home?


An Oracle home corresponds to the environment in which Oracle products run.
This environment includes the following:
■ Location of installed product files (for example, C:\ORANT or
C:\ORACLE\ORA81)
■ PATH variable pointing to the products’ binary files
■ Registry entries
■ Service names
■ Program groups
Oracle homes also have a name associated with them, which you specify along with
their location during installation.

4-2 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Multiple Oracle Homes Overview

Benefits of Using Multiple Oracle Homes


The main benefit of using multiple Oracle homes is that you can run multiple
releases of the same products concurrently. For example, you can test an 8.x.x
database patch, before you run your production database 8.x.x against it.

Multiple Oracle Home Functionality in Different Releases


Modifications to multiple Oracle home functionality have occurred since it was
introduced in release 8.0.4. This table helps you determine the capabilities of your
Oracle home depending on the release of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition you are using.

Release Oracle Home Functionality


Before 8.0.4 Releases of Oracle for Windows NT and Windows 95 prior to release 8.0.4 only supported
single Oracle homes, allowing you to install and run Oracle products in a single Oracle home.
Different releases of Oracle products could be installed in the same Oracle home provided they
had different first or second-digit release numbers. For example, you could install release 7.2
products and release 7.3 products and release 7.x and 8.x products in the same Oracle home.
However, you could not install multiple third-digit releases of the same products. For
example, you could not install release 7.3.2 and release 7.3.3 of the same Oracle products on
the same computer; one installation would overwrite the other.
8.0.4 to 8.0.5 You can install one or more releases of Oracle products in multiple Oracle homes. For
example, with multiple Oracle homes, you can install releases 8.0.x and 8.1.3 products or 7.x
and 8.0.x products in different Oracle homes on the same computer.
You can also install different releases of Oracle products in the same Oracle home provided
they have different first or second-digit release numbers. For example, you can install release
7.2 products and release 8.0.x products in the same Oracle home.
8.1.3 to 8.1.5 Releases 8.1.3, 8.1.4, and 8.1.5 have the same multiple Oracle home functionality as release
8.0.4 and later, but with these differences:
■ You cannot install releases 8.1.3, 8.1.4, or 8.1.5 into an Oracle home that was created using
the old Installer. (The old Installer was called Oracle Installer; the new Java-based
Installer is called Oracle Universal Installer.)
■ You cannot install releases of Oracle prior to release 8.1.3 into an Oracle home that was
created by release 8.1.3, 8.1.4., or 8.1.5.
■ Releases 8.1.3, 8.1.4, and 8.1.5 must be installed in separate Oracle homes. You cannot
have more than one release per Oracle home.

Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture 4-3


Multiple Oracle Homes Overview

Release Oracle Home Functionality


8.1.5 You can use release 8.1.5 listener to spawn release 8.1., 8.0, or 7.3.x databases. However, in a
mixed environment, you cannot enable the use of shared sockets.
Some restrictions exist in using 8.1.5 listeners to spawn earlier versions of the database. These
include:
■ You should enable process mode external procedures for release 8.1.5 if you want to
spawn 8.0.3 databases.
■ You must install the 8.0.4.0.3 (or later) patch for Net8.
■ You cannot enable shared sockets.

WARNING: Multiple Oracle homes functionality only works


with releases 8.0.4 and later. It does not work if you have, for
example, release 7.3.3 products already installed on your
computer. You cannot install release 7.3.4 products in a separate
Oracle home.

4-4 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Multiple Oracle Homes Overview

One-Listener Support of Multiple Oracle Homes


You can use one listener for spawning databases for multiple Oracle homes. You
only need to add all the System Identifiers (SIDs) to the SID_LIST section in the
ORACLE_HOME\NETWORK\ADMIN\LISTENER.ORA file.
Because the SID is unique to a system across different Oracle homes, the listener can
spawn the database thread for a specific SID in the correct Oracle home, and the
ORACLE_HOME parameter (used in UNIX environments only) is not needed in the
LISTENER.ORA.

Multiple Oracle Home Environments


This section describes the differences between multiple Oracle home environments
since multiple Oracle homes were first introduced in release 8.0.4.

Release 8.0.4 and Later 8.0.x Oracle Home Environments


If you have release 8.0.4 or later 8.0.x Oracle homes on your computer, note these
differences between the first Oracle home you installed and more recent Oracle
homes you may install:

Element First Oracle Home Each Additional Oracle Home


Service OracleTNSListener80 Includes the Oracle home name in service names. For example:
Names OracleHOME_NAMETNSListener80
Program Oracle for Windows NT Appends the Oracle home name to the program group. For example:
Groups Oracle for Windows NT - HOME_NAME
Oracle home name is not
appended to the group.
Registry Located in Subkeys for each Oracle home added below the
Entries HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE subkey (HOME0,
\SOFTWARE\ORACLE HOME1, HOME2, and so on). For more information on the registry keys
and subkeys, see Appendix C, "Oracle 8i Configuration Parameters and
the Registry".
System Automatically named Only the first starter database on your computer is called ORCL.
Identifier ORCL Additional starter databases use the naming convention ORCx or ORxx
(SID) where x is a number appended to ensure the SID is unique.
name for
starter
database

Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture 4-5


Multiple Oracle Homes Overview

Release 8.1 Oracle Home Environment


Release 8.1 Oracle homes are slightly different from pre-8.1 Oracle homes.

Element First Oracle Home Each Additional Oracle Home


Service OracleHOME_NAMETNSListener OracleHOME_NAMETNSListener
Names
Program Oracle - HOME_NAME Oracle - HOME_NAME
Groups
Registry Located in Subkeys for each Oracle home are added in the
Entries HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\ HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE subkey.
SOFTWARE\ORACLE\HOME0 For example, the next subkeys after HOME0 are HOME1,
HOME2, HOME3, and so on. For more information on the
registry keys and subkeys, see Appendix C, "Oracle 8i
Configuration Parameters and the Registry".
System Automatically named ORCL. For 8.1.3 and 8.1.4, the first starter database on your
Identifier computer was automatically called ORCL. The second
(SID)1 database you created on your computer had a SID of
name and ORCL0. For 8.1.5, you must type in the database name and
DB_NAME SID name of your choice.
Note: Use the Custom option of Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant to create your own SID name.
1
For releases 8.1.3 through 8.1.5, the SID can be a maximum of 64 alphanumeric characters in length. For all previous releases,
the SID is a maximum of 4 alphanumeric characters.

4-6 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Which Products Are Multiple Oracle Home-Enabled?

Which Products Are Multiple Oracle Home-Enabled?


You can install all products on the CD-ROM into your first Oracle home on a
"clean" computer (that is, there is no other Oracle software on the computer)
without any conflict.
If you create more Oracle homes, and install the same products that you installed
into the first Oracle home, conflicts can arise that can break your original database if
the products are not multiple Oracle home enabled (multiple Oracle home
products.)
To avoid such problems, check the following product classifications before installing
multiple versions of the same product on your computer.
Oracle products are classified as follows:
■ Products Supporting Multiple Oracle Homes
■ Products Supporting a Single Oracle Home
■ Products Not Supporting Multiple Oracle Homes
■ Products Not Associated with an Oracle Home

Products Supporting Multiple Oracle Homes


You can install multiple Oracle home products multiple times in different Oracle
homes. All products are multiple Oracle home products unless they are listed in:
"Products Supporting a Single Oracle Home" on page 4-7 or
"Products Not Supporting Multiple Oracle Homes" on page 4-8

Products Supporting a Single Oracle Home


You can install single Oracle home products into any Oracle home, but only once
per computer. When installing groups of products, if any of the products in the
following list are included in the group and already exist on the computer, do not
install them a second time:
■ Oracle for Windows NT Performance Monitor
■ Oracle Migration Assistant for Microsoft Access
■ Oracle Objects for OLE
■ Oracle Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) Driver
■ Oracle Parallel Server option

Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture 4-7


Working with Multiple Oracle Homes

■ Oracle Enterprise Manager


■ Oracle SNMP Agent
■ All products that depend on any of these products

Products Not Supporting Multiple Oracle Homes


All Oracle7 products and all release 8.0.3 products are non-multiple Oracle home
products. You can only install these products into an old-style Oracle home
(pre-8.0.4 Oracle home).

Products Not Associated with an Oracle Home


Products not associated with an Oracle home have no restrictions on into how many
Oracle homes you install them. They include the following:
■ Oracle snap-in common files
■ Oracle Universal Installer
■ Java Runtime Environment
■ Remote Configuration Assistant
When you install these products, the Universal Installer requires that you install
them into any Oracle home. However, they will actually be located under
Start/Program/Oracle.

Working with Multiple Oracle Homes


Unless you specify otherwise at installation time, the Oracle home in which you
installed products most recently is the first directory listed in your PATH (primary
home). As such, it has priority over the other Oracle home entries in your PATH.
If you invoke a product from the MS-DOS command prompt, the release of the
product invoked is the one in the Oracle home listed first in your path, unless you
specifically invoke a different release of the product by one of the following
methods:
■ Specifying the full path name to the release of the product you want to use at
the MS-DOS command prompt.
■ Changing to the directory that contains the executable you want to use.

4-8 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Working with Multiple Oracle Homes

■ Changing your PATH so that the first entry points to the binary files for the
product release you want to use.

Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture 4-9


Working with Multiple Oracle Homes

You can change the value of PATH by using one of the following methods:
■ Oracle Home Selector
■ Assigning a new value at the system level. The new value exists until you
change the value of PATH again.
■ Assigning a new value at the at the MS-DOS command prompt. The new value
reverts to its previous value when you quit the session.

Note: The first two methods of changing the value of PATH are
only valid if you are a member of the Administrators group. After
you have changed the value of PATH, you must open a new
MS-DOS window to make it active. The change is not reflected in
already opened MS-DOS windows.

Changing the Value of PATH, Using Oracle Home Selector


Oracle Home Selector is a graphical user interface (GUI) tool that enables you to
edit your environment path to make an appropriate Oracle home directory your
primary home. This tool can only be used when you have multiple, active Oracle
home directories on a single computer.
To change the value of PATH using Oracle Home Selector:
1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle Installation Products > Oracle Home
Selector.
The Oracle Home Selector window appears.
2. Select the Oracle home that you want as the primary Oracle home from the
drop-down list.
3. Click OK.

Changing the Value of PATH at the System Level


To change the value of PATH at the system level:
On Windows NT
1. Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel.
The Control Panel window appears.
2. Double-click the System icon.
The System Properties window appears.

4-10 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Working with Multiple Oracle Homes

3. Click the Environment tab.


The system variables appear.
4. Edit the value of PATH in the Value field and click Set.
5. Click OK.
On Windows 95 and Windows 98
1. Open the AUTOEXEC.BAT file.
2. Edit the value of the PATH statement.
3. Reboot your computer.

Changing the Value of PATH at the MS-DOS Command Prompt


To change the value of PATH at the MS-DOS command prompt:
At the MS-DOS command prompt, enter:
C:\> SET PATH=PATHNAME;%PATH%
where PATHNAME is the full path to the binary files for the products you want to
use. This change is valid for the current session only. If you want to change the
value of your PATH more permanently, use Oracle Home Selector or change the
value of PATH at the system level. Both methods are described above.

Exiting the Oracle Universal Installer After Entering Name and PATH
If you exit Oracle Universal Installer after you have entered the name and path for
an Oracle home (for example, because there is no more disk space in the path you
specified), you cannot specify a different path until you delete the HOMEID key
and the IDx key corresponding to that Oracle home from the registry. To do this:
1. Read the value of the ORACLE_HOME_NAME parameter for each HOMEID
subkey in the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE key until
you find the value that matches the name of the Oracle home you need to
delete.
2. Delete the HOMEID subkey you just located.
3. Delete the appropriate IDx subkey in the
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\ ALL_HOMES key, where
x has the same value as the ID in HOMEID. For example, if the HOMEID
subkey for the home name you want to delete is HOME1, then the appropriate
IDx subkey is ID1.

Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture 4-11


Working with Multiple Oracle Homes

For more information on the registry keys and subkeys, see Appendix C, "Oracle 8i
Configuration Parameters and the Registry".

4-12 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Optimal Flexible Architecture Overview

Optimal Flexible Architecture Overview


The Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) is a set of file naming and
placement guidelines for Oracle software and databases. It can also be thought of as
a set of "good habits" to adopt when organizing Oracle directories and files on your
computer. All Oracle products on the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT
CD-ROM are OFA-compliant; that is, Oracle Universal Installer places Oracle
products in directory locations that follow the OFA guidelines. Although using OFA
is not a requirement, Oracle Corporation recommends that you use it if your
database will grow in size, or if you plan to have multiple databases.
The aim of OFA is to prevent an entire class of problems that can occur when you
have different versions of Oracle software and multiple, growing databases on your
computer. OFA is designed to provide significant benefits in the following areas:
■ Ease of maintenance of Oracle software and databases through standard file
organization
■ Reliability through data spanning multiple physical drives
■ Performance through decreased I/O contention for disks
For example, one of the many benefits of OFA is that Oracle Universal Installer
separates Oracle software executables from database files. Previously, database files
were placed in ORACLE_HOME\DATABASE, a subdirectory of the Oracle home
directory that also contained Oracle software. Using OFA, Oracle Universal Installer
puts Oracle software in ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME and database files in
ORACLE_BASE\ORADATA.
Putting database files in a subdirectory of the Oracle home directory that also
contained Oracle software made upgrades unnecessarily difficult. Separating
software from data is essential, because over time, when you upgrade a database to
the latest release of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, the new Oracle software
executables will be placed in a different Oracle home directory. After the upgrade is
judged to have been successful, you can easily remove the old Oracle home
directory and reclaim space because the database does not reside there.

Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture 4-13


Optimal Flexible Architecture Overview

Benefits of an OFA-Compliant Database


An OFA-compliant database has the following benefits:
■ Easier database administration and management of database growth
The file system is organized to simplify the following tasks:
■ Locating specific database files
■ Adding database files as the database grows
■ Fewer performance bottlenecks
Disk contention decreases, because Oracle administration files, binary files, and
data files that used to be on one disk can now reside in separate directories or in
separate directories on separate disks.
■ Safeguards against disk failures
By spreading files across more than one disk, disk failures impact as little data
as possible.
■ Support for concurrent execution of application software
You can run multiple versions of application software simultaneously, enabling
you to test and use a new release of an application before abandoning the
previous version. Transferring to a new version after an upgrade is simple for
the database administrator and transparent for the user.

Characteristics of an OFA-Compliant Database


An OFA-compliant database has the following characteristics:
■ Independent subdirectories
Categories of files are separated into independent subdirectories so that files in
one category are minimally affected by operations on files in other categories.
■ Consistent naming conventions for database files
Database files are named to realize the following advantages:
■ Database files are easily distinguishable from all other files
■ Files of one database are easily distinguishable from files of another
database
■ Control files, redo log files, and data files are easily identifiable
■ Clearly indicated association of data file to tablespace

4-14 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Optimal Flexible Architecture Overview

■ Integrity of Oracle home directories


You can add, move, or delete Oracle home directories without having to revise
programs that refer to them.
■ Distinguishes administrative information for each database
The ability to separate administrative information about one database from that
of another ensures a reasonable structure for the organization and storage of
administrative data.
■ Separation of tablespace contents
Tablespace contents are separated to realize the following advantages:
■ Minimize tablespace-free space fragmentation
■ Minimize I/O request contention
■ Maximize administrative flexibility
■ Tuning I/O loads across all disks
I/O loads are tuned across all disks, including disks storing Oracle data in raw
devices, if needed.

Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture 4-15


Differences Between Directory Trees by Release

Differences Between Directory Trees by Release


OFA has caused changes to the Oracle database directory tree. This table lists the
differences:

Element Pre-8.1.3 non-OFA-Compliant Post-8.1.3 OFA-Compliant


Name of the top-level When you install Oracle8i Enterprise When you install Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, all
directory where Edition, all subdirectories are located subdirectories are no longer under a top-level
Oracle is installed. under a top-level ORACLE_HOME ORACLE_HOME directory. There is now a new
directory that by default is C:\ORANT. top-level directory called ORACLE_BASE that is
of the form X:\ORACLE where X is any hard
See the following figure on page 4-17
drive. If you install an OFA-compliant database
for a depiction of the pre-8.1.3
using Oracle Universal Installer defaults,
non-OFA-compliant directory tree.
ORACLE_BASE is C:\ORACLE.
\ORACLE_HOME directories are located under
ORACLE_BASE. The \ORADATA and \ADMIN
directories, which contain the database files and
database administration files, are also located
under ORACLE_BASE.
See the following figure on page 4-17 for a
depiction of the 8.1.4 and 8.1.5 OFA-compliant
directory tree.
Database file names Database files have the SID in the Database files no longer have the SID in the
database file name. For example, the database file name. For example, the first control
first control file is named file is named CONTROL01.CTL. There is no
CTL1SID.ORA. need for the presence of the SID in the file name
because all the database files for a particular
database are placed in \ORADATA under a
directory called DB_NAME that is named for
that database.
Database file name All database files have the same.ORA The convention of having .ORA as the file name
extensions extension. extension for database files is no longer used.
Database file names now have more meaningful
extensions. These are .CTL for control files, .LOG
for log files, and .DBF for data files.

4-16 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Differences Between Directory Trees by Release

The following figure provides a top-level overview of the old and new database
directory trees:

Pre-8.1.3 non-OFA-Compliant Oracle on Windows NT Directory Tree


C:\ORACLE_HOME 1 C:\ORANT is Oracle home 1 by default
\A2OWIZ80
\BIN
\CORE40
\DATABASE \DATABASE contains the database files
\NET80 \CTL1SID.ORA
\SYS1SID.ORA
\PLUS80
\LOG1SID.ORA
\SYSMAN
\...
\...

C:\ORACLE_HOME 2 Oracle home 2

\...

8.1.4 and 8.1.5 OFA-Compliant Oracle on Windows NT Directory Tree


C:\ORACLE_BASE C:\ORACLE is ORACLE_BASE by default
\ORACLE_HOME 1 \ORA81 is Oracle home 1 by default
\BIN
\NETWORK
\ASSISTANTS
\ORADATA \ARCHIVE \ORADATA contains the database files

\ORACLE
\CONTROL01.CTL
\SAMPLE
\CONTROL02.CTL
\...
\SYSTEM01.DBF
\REDO01., ...02, ...03, ...04.LOG

\INDX01.DBF
\ADMIN \.CTL, \.DBF, \.LOG
\DB_NAME1
\ADHOC \ADMIN contains the administration files
\DB_NAME2
\BDUMP including the INIT.ORA file
\...
\PFILE
\...

\ORACLE_HOME 2 \... \ORA82 is Oracle home for release 8.2


\...

Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture 4-17


Directory Tree of a Sample OFA-Compliant Database

Directory Tree of a Sample OFA-Compliant Database


The following is the complete hierarchical directory tree of a sample
OFA-compliant database:

X:\ORACLE_BASE C:\ORACLE is the default ORACLE_BASE directory


\ORACLE_HOME1 \ORA81 is the name of the 1st Oracle home by default
\BIN Subtree for Oracle binaries
\NETWORK Subtree for Net8
\ASSISTANTS Configuration assistants
\ORADATA Subtree for Oracle database files
\DB_NAME1 Subtree for DB_NAME1 database files
\CONTROL01.CTL Control file 1
\CONTROL02.CTL Control file 2
\SYSTEM01.DBF System tablespace data file
\RBS01.DBF Rollback tablespace data file
\INDX01.DBF Index tablespace data file
\TEMP01.DBF Temporary tablespace data file
\USERS01.DBF Users tablespace data file
\OEMREP01.DBF Oracle Enterprise Manager tablespace data file
\REDO01.LOG Redo log file group 1, member 1
\REDO02.LOG Redo log file group 2, member 1
\REDO03.LOG Redo log file group 3, member 1
\REDO04.LOG Redo log file group 4, member 1
\DB_NAME2 Subtree for DB_NAME2 database files
\CTL \DBF \LOG Control, data, and redo log files
\DB_NAME3 Subtree for DB_NAME3 database files
\CTL \DBF \LOG Control, data, and redo log files
\ADMIN Subtree for database administration files
\DB_NAME1 Subtree for DB_NAME1 database administration files
\ADHOC Ad hoc SQL scripts
\ADUMP Audit files
\ARCH Archived redo log files
\BDUMP Background process trace files
\CDUMP Core dump files
\CREATE Database creation files
\EXP Database export files
\PFILE Initialization parameter file
\UDUMP User SQL trace files
\DB_NAME2 Subtree for DB_NAME2 database administration files
\...
\DB_NAME3 Subtree for DB_NAME3 database administration files
\...

4-18 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


OFA Directory Naming Conventions

\ORACLE_HOME2 2nd Oracle home


\...
\ORACLE_HOME3 3rd Oracle home
\...

Note: The directory tree for multiple instance databases (Oracle


Parallel Server installations) has additional subdirectories and files.
See Oracle Parallel Server Getting Started for Windows NT for more
information.

OFA Directory Naming Conventions


OFA uses directory naming conventions that make it easy to identify the precise
Oracle home and database name that is associated with a set of files. This section
describes the naming conventions used for the top-level directories of an
OFA-compliant database directory tree:
■ ORACLE_BASE Directory
■ ORACLE_HOME Directory
■ ADMIN Directory
■ ORADATA Directory
■ DB_NAME Directory

ORACLE_BASE Directory
ORACLE_BASE is the root of the Oracle directory tree. If you install an
OFA-compliant database using Oracle Universal Installer defaults, ORACLE_BASE
is X:\ORACLE where X is any hard drive (for example, C:\ORACLE).
If you are installing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition on a clean computer, you may want
to change ORACLE_BASE to an appropriate value before running Oracle Universal
Installer. Most users will not need or want to do this.
Before you run Oracle Universal Installer for the first time, change the value of
ORACLE_BASE at the system level. Only change the value of ORACLE_BASE
before you run Oracle Universal Installer for the first time because if there is already
an ORACLE_BASE, and then you change it, there will be a conflict of Oracle base
directories. If you create another ORACLE_BASE when the original ORACLE_BASE
already exists, certain tools and the database will not be able to find previously

Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture 4-19


OFA Directory Naming Conventions

created files because they will look for them in the new ORACLE_BASE instead of
the original ORACLE_BASE.
To change the value of ORACLE_BASE at the system level:
On Windows NT:
1. Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel.
The Control Panel window appears.
2. Double-click the System icon.
The System Properties window appears.
3. Click the Environment tab.
The System Variables appear.
4. Type a new value for ORACLE_BASE in the Value text box, then click OK to
quit.
On Windows 95 and Windows 98:
1. Open the AUTOEXEC.BAT file, using a text editor.
2. Edit the value of the ORACLE_BASE statement.
3. Reboot your computer.

Note: TAn ORACLE_BASE registry key exists for every Oracle


home. Ideally, the value of the ORACLE_BASE registry key will be
identical for each Oracle home.

4-20 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


OFA Directory Naming Conventions

ORACLE_HOME Directory
\ORACLE_HOME is located beneath X:\ORACLE_BASE and contains
subdirectories for Oracle software executables and network files.
If you install Oracle8i Enterprise Edition on a clean computer and use the default
settings, the first Oracle home directory that you create is called \ORA81.

ADMIN Directory
Database administration files are stored in subdirectories of ORACLE_BASE
\ADMIN\DB_NAME.
The following table describes the subdirectories for database administration files:

Subdirectories of \ADMIN\DB_NAME Contain...


\ADHOC Ad hoc SQL scripts for a given database
\ARCH Archived redo log files
\BDUMP Background process trace files
\CDUMP Core dump files
\CREATE Database creation files
\EXP Database export files
\PFILE Initialization parameter files
\UDUMP User process trace files

Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture 4-21


OFA Directory Naming Conventions

ORADATA Directory
Database files are stored in ORACLE_BASE\ORADATA\DB_NAME.
The following table describes the database files:

Files in \ORADATA\DB_NAME Description


CONTROL01.CTL Control file 1
CONTROL02.CTL Control file 2
OEMREP01.DBF Oracle Enterprise Manager repository tablespace data file
SYSTEM01.DBF SYSTEM tablespace data file
RBS01.DBF RBS tablespace data file
INDX01.DBF INDX tablespace data file
TEMP01.DBF TEMP tablespace data file
USERS01.DBF USERS tablespace data file
REDO01.LOG Redo log file group one, member one
REDO02.LOG Redo log file group two, member one
REDO03.LOG Redo log file group three, member one
REDO04.LOG Redo log file group four, member one

DB_NAME Directory
\DB_NAME is the unique name for a particular database and has the same value as
the DB_NAME parameter in the INIT.ORA file. When you name a database,
DB_NAME can be no more than eight characters long and can contain only the
following characters:
■ Alphabetic characters
■ Numbers
■ Underscores (_)
■ Pound sign (#)
■ Dollar sign ($)

4-22 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


OFA and Multiple Oracle Home Configurations

OFA and Multiple Oracle Home Configurations


The following sections describe various OFA and multiple Oracle home
configurations.

Specifying an ORACLE_HOME Directory


To install an OFA-compliant database, you must specify an Oracle home directory
in the Path: field of Oracle Universal Installer of the form:
X:\[PATHNAME]\ORACLE\HOME_NAME
where:

X:\ is any hard drive. For example, C:\.


[PATHNAME] is an optional directory pathname.
\ORACLE is a mandatory directory pathname unless you have changed
the value of the ORACLE_BASE registry key before
performing the installation. See "ORACLE_BASE Directory"
on page 4-19 for information on how to change the
ORACLE_BASE from the default value ORACLE.
HOME_NAME is the name of the Oracle home.

The following are examples of OFA-compliant Oracle home directories:


■ C:\TEST\ORACLE\ORA81
■ D:\ORACLE\ORA81

Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture 4-23


OFA and Multiple Oracle Home Configurations

Default OFA Database


To install a default OFA database:
1. Install Oracle8i Enterprise Edition release 8.1.5 on a clean computer (one with
no other Oracle software on the computer), and accept the default Oracle
Universal Installer settings for the first Oracle home (C:\ORACLE\ORA81) in
the Path: field.
2. Complete the installation.
3. Run Oracle Universal Installer again and install release 8.2.x. Accept the default
Oracle Universal Installer settings for the first Oracle home
(C:\ORACLE\ORA82) in the Path: field.
The default OFA database settings consist of the following:

ORACLE_BASE is C:\ORACLE and is the same for all Oracle homes


Oracle home 1 is C:\ORACLE\ORA81
Oracle home 2 is C:\ORACLE\ORA82

4-24 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


OFA and Multiple Oracle Home Configurations

This figure below illustrates the directory tree:

C:\ORACLE
C:\ORACLE is ORACLE_BASE for both Oracle homes

\ADMIN \ORA81 \ORADATA \ORA82


C:\ORACLE\ORA81 C:\ORACLE\ORA82
is Oracle home 1 is Oracle home 2

\ . . . \NETWORK \BIN \ . . . \NETWORK \BIN

\DB_NAME1 \DB_NAME2 \DB_NAME3 \DB_NAME1 \DB_NAME2 \DB_NAME3


\... \... \... \...
\CONTROL01.CTL
\ADHOC
\CONTROL02.CTL
\ARCH \SYSTEM01.DBF
\RBS01.DBF
\BDUMP \INDX01.DBF
\TEMP01.DBF
\CDUMP \USERS01.DBF
\OEMREP01.DBF
\CREATE \REDO01.LOG
\REDO02.LOG
\EXP \REDO03.LOG
\REDO04.LOG
\PFILE

\UDUMP

Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture 4-25


OFA and Multiple Oracle Home Configurations

Non-Default OFA Database, Case 1


To install a non-default OFA database, case 1:
1. Install Oracle8i Enterprise Edition release 8.1.5 and change the default Oracle
Universal Installer settings for the first Oracle home from C:\ORACLE\ORA81
in the Path: field to X:\XYZ.
2. Complete the installation.
3. Run Oracle Universal Installer again and change the default Oracle Universal
Installer settings for the second Oracle home from C:\ORACLE\ORA82 in the
Path: field to Y:\ABC.
The non-default OFA database: case 1 settings follow:

ORACLE_BASE is X:\XYZ for the first Oracle home and is Y:\ABC


for the second Oracle home
Oracle home 1 is X:\XYZ
Oracle home 2 is Y:\ABC

4-26 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


OFA and Multiple Oracle Home Configurations

This figure illustrates the resulting directory trees:

X:\XYZ
X:\XYZ is Oracle home 1 and ORACLE_BASE for Oracle home 1

\ADMIN \NETWORK \BIN \ORADATA

\DB_NAME1 \DB_NAME2 \DB_NAME3 \DB_NAME1 \DB_NAME2 \DB_NAME3

\... \... \... \.CTL \.DBF \.LOG \.CTL \.DBF \.LOG \.CTL \.DBF \.LOG

Y:\ABC
Y:\ABC is Oracle home 2 and ORACLE_BASE for Oracle home 2

\ADMIN \NETWORK \BIN \ORADATA

\DB_NAME1 \DB_NAME2 \DB_NAME3 \DB_NAME1 \DB_NAME2 \DB_NAME3

\... \... \... \.CTL \.DBF \.LOG \.CTL \.DBF \.LOG \.CTL \.DBF \.LOG

Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture 4-27


OFA and Multiple Oracle Home Configurations

Non-Default OFA Database, Case 2


To install a non-default OFA database, case 2:
1. Install Oracle8i Enterprise Edition release 8.1.5 and change the default Oracle
Universal Installer settings for the first Oracle home from C:\ORACLE\ORA81
in the Path: field to X:\XYZ\ORACLE\ABC.
2. Complete the installation.
3. Run Oracle Universal Installer again and change the default Oracle Universal
Installer settings for the second Oracle home from C:\ORACLE\ORA82 to
X:\PQR.
The non-default OFA database, case 2 settings follow:

ORACLE_BASE is X:\XYZ\ORACLE and is the same for both Oracle homes


Oracle home 1 is X:\XYZ\ORACLE\ABC
Oracle home 2 is X:\PQR

4-28 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


OFA and Multiple Oracle Home Configurations

This figure illustrates the resulting directory tree:

X:\XYZ X:\PQR
X:\PQR is Oracle home 2
X:\XYZ\ORACLE is
ORACLE_BASE for
both Oracle homes
\NETWORK \BIN

X:\XYZ\ORACLE\ABC is
Oracle home 1
\ORACLE\ABC \ADMIN \ORADATA

\NETWORK \BIN
\DB_NAME1 \DB_NAME2 \DB_NAME3 \DB_NAME1 \DB_NAME2 \DB_NAME3
\... \... \... \...

\ADHOC \CONTROL01.CTL
\CONTROL02.CTL
\ARCH
\SYSTEM01.DBF
\BDUMP
\RBS01.DBF
\CDUMP \INDX01.DBF
\CREATE \TEMP01.DBF
\EXP \USERS01.DBF
\PFILE \OEMREP01.DBF
\UDUMP \REDO01.LOG
\REDO02.LOG
\REDO03.LOG
\REDO04.LOG

Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture 4-29


Increasing Reliability and Performance

Increasing Reliability and Performance


One of the basic goals of OFA is to increase reliability and performance by
distributing I/O load across different physical drives. If you are trying to maximize
reliability and performance, Oracle Corporation recommends that you do the
following:
■ Read "Disk Mirroring" below.
■ Move your files to the disks on your system to take advantage of the
recommendations

Disk Mirroring
Oracle log files and database files can be separated and treated with different levels
of hardware reliability.
Generally, Oracle log files are more highly reliable, because of redundancy. Creating
reliability based on redundancy may require you to duplicate all of your data, using
disk mirrors.
Disk mirroring can be done with the Windows NT Disk Administrator and
commonly with hardware controllers. Two identical drives are usually required to
construct a mirror, the concept being that if one disk fails, the other disk can be used
to recover data that would otherwise be lost. Using one of the disks to recover lost
data may involve "breaking" the mirror. If the mirror breaks, you need to build a
new mirror.
You can achieve a lesser degree of redundancy by configuring the disks, using a
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) configuration provided by the disk
controller. The RAID level determines the amount of redundancy. Some RAID levels
may use the "hot swapping" feature. Hot swapping means that you can replace a
bad disk with a good one without turning off the computer or losing functionality.

Disk Striping
How you set up disks for use in a database depends on the number of disks and the
type of hard disk controllers available. If the hard disk controllers support both
striping and mirroring, Oracle Corporation recommends you configure the
controllers to support striping.
Some controllers are configured at system startup time by issuing a keyboard
sequence that brings up configuration programs written by the controller
manufacturer. One goal is to stripe as many drives together as possible by
configuring the controllers. Each stripe shows up as one logical device.

4-30 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Increasing Reliability and Performance

Striping provides significant performance advantages. All the space from the
striped drives appears as a single logical drive. Furthermore, the space is used by
interlacing "stripes" of space from all of the disks in the stripe. This means that a
large file uses some space from the first disk, then some from the second disk and so
on to the last disk and then starting back at the first disk again. Each file may be
spread over all of the striped disks. The data in such a file may be accessed
randomly by more than one CPU without contention.
The controllers that support striping usually provide caching as well. This means
that data may be written to the controller and cached and saved for a time in
storage not on the disk. Data that is read can be cached on the controller in a similar
fashion. Read caching is not necessary for Oracle databases since all database reads
are cached already in the System Global Area (SGA). The value of the
DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS parameter in the initialization parameter file (INIT.ORA)
determines the number of buffers that can be used in the SGA. This value also
configures the Oracle database on startup.

Using Raw Partitions for Tablespaces


A raw partition is a portion of a physical disk that is accessed at the lowest possible
level. The I/O of a raw partition improves performance by approximately 5% to
10% compared to the I/O of a partition containing a file system. Therefore, Oracle
Corporation encourages you to use raw partitions for your tablespaces.

Additional Information: See Appendix F, "Storing Tablespaces on


Raw Partitions".

Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture 4-31


Comparison Between OFA on Windows NT and UNIX

Comparison Between OFA on Windows NT and UNIX


You implement OFA on Windows NT and UNIX in the same way. However,
differences exist with regard to the following:
■ Directory Naming
■ ORACLE_BASE Directory
■ Support for Symbolic Links on Windows NT

Additional Information: See your UNIX operating system-specific


administrator’s reference for information about OFA on UNIX.

Directory Naming
The top-level names of the OFA directory tree differ between Windows NT and
UNIX. However, the main subdirectory and file names are the same on both
operating systems.

ORACLE_BASE Directory
On Windows NT, ORACLE_BASE is associated with an Oracle home directory.
ORACLE_BASE is defined in the registry (for example, in
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \SOFTWARE\ORACLE \HOME0).
On UNIX, ORACLE_BASE is associated with a UNIX user’s environment.

Support for Symbolic Links on Windows NT


Windows NT currently does not support symbolic links like those in UNIX,
although Microsoft has announced the intention to support them in a near-future
release.
The goal of OFA is to place all Oracle software under one ORACLE_BASE directory
and to spread the files across different physical drives as your databases increase in
size.
On Windows NT 4.0, this implies that everything is on the same hard drive, which
may be neither feasible nor desirable.
On UNIX, although everything seems to be in one directory on the same hard drive,
files can be on different hard drives if they are symbolically linked or have that
directory as a mount point.

4-32 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Comparison Between OFA on Windows NT and UNIX

Oracle Corporation recommends that you use one logical drive to store your
database administration files and that you place other files, as needed, on other
logical drives in an ORADATA\DB_NAME directory.
In the following example, there are four logical drives for a database named PROD:
■ C:\ contains an Oracle home and the database administration files
■ F:\ contains the redo log files. (The F:\ drive could also represent two
physical drives that have been striped to increase performance.)
■ G:\ contains one of the control files and all of the tablespace files.(The G:\
drive could also use a RAID Level-5 configuration to increase reliability.)
■ H:\ contains the second control file.

C:\ORACLE First logical drive


\ORA81 Oracle home
\BIN Subtree for Oracle binaries
\NETWORK Subtree for Net8
\...
\ADMIN Subtree for database administration files
\PROD Subtree for PROD database administration files
\ADHOC Ad hoc SQL scripts
\ADUMP Audit files
\ARCH Archived redo log files
\BDUMP Background process trace files
\CDUMP Core dump files
\CREATE Database creation files
\EXP Database export files
\PFILE Initialization parameter file
\UDUMP User SQL trace files
F:\ORACLE Second logical drive (represents two physical drives that
have been striped)
\ORADATA Subtree for Oracle database files
\PROD Subtree for PROD database files
\REDO01.LOG Redo log file group one, member one
\REDO02.LOG Redo log file group two, member one
\REDO03.LOG Redo log file group three, member one
\REDO04.LOG Redo-log file group four, member one
G:\ORACLE Third logical drive (uses a RAID Level 5 configuration)
\ORADATA Subtree for Oracle database files
\PROD Subtree for PROD database files
\CONTROL01.CTL Control file 1

Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible Architecture 4-33


Comparison Between OFA on Windows NT and UNIX

\SYSTEM01.DBF System tablespace data file


\RBS01.DBF Rollback tablespace data file
\INDX01.DBF Index tablespace data file
\TEMP01.DBF Temporary tablespace data file
\USERS01.DBF Users tablespace data file
\OEMREP01.DBF Oracle Enterprise Manager tablespace data file
H:\ORACLE Fourth logical drive
\ORADATA Subtree for Oracle database files
\PROD Subtree for PROD database files
\CONTROL02.CTL Control file 2

4-34 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


5
Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading
Databases

This chapter describes the options available to you when you have existing databases
on your computer and want to install the latest release of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition.
In particular, it describes how to coexist different database releases using multiple
Oracle homes on your computer, and how to migrate an Oracle7 database or
upgrade an earlier Oracle8 database release to the current release of Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition.
Specific topics discussed are:
■ Intended Audience
■ What To Do With Previous Oracle Database Releases
■ Multiple Oracle Homes Overview
■ Migrating, Upgrading, and Downgrading Overview
■ Export/Import Overview
■ Version 8 and Version 7 Client/Server Configurations
■ Installing an Oracle 8.1 Database Where Version 7.x Already Exists
■ Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i
■ Upgrading an Oracle8 Database Release 8.0.x to 8.1.5
■ Migration Issues for Net 8 and SQL*Net
■ Moving Database Files to an OFA-Compliant Directory

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-1


Intended Audience

Intended Audience
Read this chapter if you have existing Oracle7 and/or Oracle8 databases on your
computer and you want to install Oracle8i Enterprise Edition release 8.1.5. If you are
installing Oracle8i Enterprise Edition on a computer that has no other Oracle
database releases, you do not have to read this chapter.
Additional Information: See Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Installation
for Windows NT if you want to install Oracle8i Enterprise Edition on a
computer containing no other databases.

Note: The generic Oracle8i Migration guide is the primary source


of migration and upgrading information in the Oracle
documentation set. You are frequently referred to the generic guide
throughout this chapter, in particular to obtain information on what
you must do before and after migrating or upgrading. Information on
how to run the various migration and upgrade utilities is also
provided in the generic guide, but the focus is on UNIX. This
chapter provides information on using these utilities on Windows
NT.

Note: The directory path examples in this chapter follow Optimal


Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines (for example, ORACLE_
BASE\ORACLE_HOME\RDBMS\ADMIN). If you specified
non-OFA compliant directories during installation, your directory
paths will differ. See section "OFA and Multiple Oracle Home
Configurations" on page 4-23 for information.

5-2 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Multiple Oracle Homes Overview

What to Do With Previous Oracle Database Releases


If you already have Oracle7, and/or Oracle8 databases on your computer and want
to install release 8.1.5, the following options are available to you.
■ Install release 8.1.5 in a separate Oracle home on the same computer (this
procedure is known as using multiple Oracle homes).

Note: It is not possible to install release 8.1.5 products into an


existing Oracle home created using the pre-8.1.5 Oracle Installer.

■ Migrate release 7.x to release 8.1.5.


■ Upgrade release 8.0.x to release 8.1.5.
■ Use Export/Import utilities to physically copy data in the previous database
release to a new release 8.1.5 database.
If you are not sure what option is best for you, read the following overview
sections:
■ Multiple Oracle Homes Overview on page 5-3
■ Migrating, Upgrading, and Downgrading Overview on page 5-4
■ Export/Import Overview on page 5-6

Multiple Oracle Homes Overview


An Oracle home is a directory location where you can install software. Multiple
Oracle homes functionality enables you to preserve your previous release 7.x or
8.0.x databases in locations separate from where you will install release 8.1.5.
Installing a new database release in a separate Oracle home allows you to test it
before migrating or upgrading your production databases to the new release. There
have been modifications to multiple Oracle home functionality since it was
introduced in release 8.0.4. If you have multiple Oracle homes on your computer
from previous releases, see "Multiple Oracle Home Functionality in Different
Releases" on page 4-3 to become familiar with the new Oracle home functionality
for release 8.1.5. In particular, note:
■ You cannot install release 8.1.5 into an existing Oracle home that was created
using the old Oracle Installer.
■ You cannot install releases of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition prior to release 8.1.4
into an Oracle home that was created by release 8.1.5.
■ Releases 8.1.5 and later must be installed in separate Oracle homes. You cannot
have more than one release per Oracle home.
Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-3
Migrating, Upgrading, and Downgrading Overview

Migrating, Upgrading, and Downgrading Overview


This section explains the difference between migrating, upgrading, and
downgrading, and lists the Oracle database versions that can be migrated or
upgraded.

What Is Migrating?
Migrating is the process of transforming an installed version of an Oracle database into
a later version. For example, transforming an Oracle7 database to an Oracle8i
database is migrating the database system.

Additional Information: See "Migrating an Oracle7 Database to


Oracle8i" on page 5-21.

What Is Upgrading?
Upgrading is the process of transforming an installed version of an Oracle database
release into another release of the same version. For example, transforming an Oracle8
database release 8.0.4 to release 8.1.5 is upgrading the database system.

Additional Information: See "Upgrading an Oracle8 Database


Release 8.0.x to 8.1.5" on page 5-45.

What Is Downgrading?
Downgrading is the process of transforming an installed version of an Oracle database
from a later release back into an earlier release. For example, transforming an Oracle
database from release 8.1.5 back into release 8.0.3 is downgrading, and transforming
an Oracle database from version 8 back into version 7 is downgrading.

Additional Information: Chapter 10, "Downgrading to an Older


Version 8 Release" for information about downgrading to release
8.0, or Chapter 11, "Downgrading to Version 7" for information
about downgrading to version 7 of Oracle8i Migration.

5-4 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Migrating, Upgrading, and Downgrading Overview

Migrating and Upgrading Using Multiple Oracle Homes


You can easily migrate or upgrade databases across multiple Oracle homes. If you
use the graphical user interface (GUI) Oracle Data Migration Assistant, all database
instances on your system are displayed in a drop-down list. You select the Oracle
database instance you want to migrate or upgrade and the assistant takes care of
any multiple Oracle homes issues.
If you use the command line tool MIG to migrate, or a U*.SQL script to upgrade,
you need to copy files from one Oracle home directory to another. You must also
ensure the PATH variable is set correctly so that any Oracle database tools you run
are started from the correct Oracle home directory.

Additional Information: See "You can change the value of PATH


by using one of the following methods:" on page 4-10.

Checklist of Database Release Numbers


Check that your Oracle database release can be migrated or upgraded directly to
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition. This table provides a list of the database releases you can
migrate or upgrade and the tools you can use to perform these tasks:

Oracle Database Release Use This Tool...


Releases prior to 7.1.3.3.6 If the database version precedes release 7.1.3.3.6, migrate it to at least
release 7.1.3.3.6 before using MIG or Oracle Data Migration Assistant
to migrate it to release 8.1.5. See the documentation that accompanied
your previous database release for information on how to migrate it to
release 7.1.3.3.6.
Release 7.1.3.3.6 or a later 7.1.x release ■ MIG can migrate databases that are Oracle7, release 7.1.x or later
to release 8.1.5.
■ Oracle Data Migration Assistant migrates from release 7.1.3.3.6 or
later to release 8.1.5.
Release 8.0.2.0.0 to 8.1.x ■ SQL scripts executed in SQL*Plus can upgrade databases release
8.0.2.0.0 to 8.0.5.x to release 8.1.5.
■ Oracle Data Migration Assistant upgrades from release 8.0.3.0.0 or
later to release 8.1.5.
Release 8.1.3 to 8.1.5 ■ SQL scripts executed in SQL*Plus can upgrade databases release
8.1.3 to release 8.1.5.

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-5


Export/Import Overview

Export/Import Overview
An alternative method of migrating or upgrading is to:
1. Export your data from the source database using the Export Utility (EXP). The
export physically copies the data to the export dump file.
2. Create the Oracle8i database into which you will import the exported data.
3. Import the exported data into the new Oracle8i database using the Import
Utility (IMP).
The Export Utility puts all of the data in one large binary file that can require large
amounts of disk space.

Additional Information: See "Choose a Migration Method" in


Chapter 2, "Preparing to Migrate" of Oracle8i Migration for
information on when to use the Export/Import utilities for
migrating a database. See "Export Utility (EXP)" on page 3-9 and
"Import Utility (IMP)" on page 3-9 for information on how to start
these utilities. See "Exporting an Existing Database" on page 8-12
and "Importing a Database" on page 8-22 for information on using
these tools on Windows NT.

5-6 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Version 8 and Version 7 Client/Server Configurations

Version 8 and Version 7 Client/Server Configurations


Oracle7 and Oracle8i clients can communicate either with Oracle7 or Oracle8i
databases. This functionality gives you maximum flexibility when designing your
network and deciding when to:
■ Install Oracle7 and Oracle8i Databases in Multiple Oracle Homes
■ Install Oracle7 and Oracle8i Databases on Separate Computers
■ Migrate an Oracle7 Database to an Oracle8i Database
■ Upgrade an Oracle8 Database to the Current Oracle8i Database Release
■ Migrate Oracle7 Clients to Oracle8i Clients

Note: It is not possible to install release 8.1.5 products into an


existing Oracle home created using the pre-8.1.4 Oracle Installer.

Consider the following database coexistence issues before you decide which of the
above options is most suitable for your requirements:
■ Oracle7 Database Applications
■ Different Client and Database Release Considerations
■ Multi-Versioning

Oracle7 Database Applications


Can all my Oracle7 applications run on an Oracle8i database?
Most Oracle7 applications can run on an Oracle8i database. Some applications
cannot run on an Oracle8i database unless you upgrade them to versions that
support Oracle8i databases. If you have a combination of Oracle7 and Oracle8i
applications, you may want to have an Oracle7 database and Oracle8i database exist
on the same computer, until you have time to upgrade all your Oracle7 applications
to Oracle8i. Contact your application vendor to check if your third-party
applications are supported with Oracle8i Enterprise Edition.

Additional Information: See Chapter 8, "Upgrading Your


Applications" of Oracle8i Migration

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-7


Version 8 and Version 7 Client/Server Configurations

Different Client and Database Release Considerations


Consider the following client to database connection issues before you decide if
upgrading or migrating is appropriate for your environment:
■ Oracle8i Client Release 8.1 to Oracle8i Database Release 8.1
■ Oracle8 Client Release 8.0/Oracle7 Client to Oracle8i Database Release 8.1
■ Oracle8i Client Release 8.1 to Oracle8 Release 8.0/Oracle7 Databases

Oracle8i Client Release 8.1 to Oracle8i Database Release 8.1


As the following diagram depicts, an Oracle8i Client release 8.1 requires Net8 Client
release 8.1, and Oracle8i release 8.1 database requires Net8 Server release 8.1.

Oracle8i
Database
8.1.5
Oracle8 Client Application release 8.1

Net8 Client release 8.1 Net8 Server release 8.1

The Oracle8 Client release 8.1 and clients must be configured with a service name,
as described in “Using the Local Naming Method” in Chapter 5, "Configuring the
Network" of Net8 Administrator’s Guide.

5-8 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Version 8 and Version 7 Client/Server Configurations

Oracle8 Client Release 8.0/Oracle7 Client to Oracle8i Database Release 8.1


As the following diagram depicts, an Oracle8 Client release 8.0 requires a
compatible release of Net8 Client, an Oracle7 Client requires SQL*Net Client, and
an Oracle8 database release 8.1 requires Net8 Server release 8.1 to connect
successfully to an Oracle8i database release 8.1.

Oracle8 Client Application release 8.0

Net8 Client release 8.0

Net8 Server release 8.1

Oracle8i
Database
Oracle7 Client Application 8.1.5

SQL*Net Client Net8 Server release 8.1

While it is not necessary to reconfigure release 8.0 and release 7.x clients with a
service name, Oracle Corporation recommends doing so to take advantage of new
functionality. For example, in the TNSNAMES.ORA file:
net_service_name =
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS =...)
(ADDRESS =...)
)
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=SALES)
)

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-9


Version 8 and Version 7 Client/Server Configurations

This effect may be accomplished by manually replacing SID=SID with SERVICE_


NAME=SERVICE_NAME or using the Net8 Assistant’s compatibility mode. See
“Using the Release 8.0/2.x Compatibility Mode” in Chapter 3 "Upgrading and
Migrating" of Net8 Administrator’s Guide.
Consider the following questions for an environment with Oracle7 clients
connecting to an Oracle8 release 8.1 database:
■ Will my third party Oracle7 applications be able to take advantage of Net8
features?
No. You must rebuild or upgrade applications to work with Net8 libraries.
■ Do my Oracle7 clients require Net8 Client to connect to a remote Oracle8i database?
No. If an Oracle7 client needs to connect to a remote Oracle8i database, only
SQL*Net Client release 2.x has to be configured on the Oracle7 client. Net8 is
backward compatible with SQL*Net release 2.x. The only limitation is that the
new network features available with Net8 are unavailable with this connection
type.
■ Do my Oracle7 clients require Net8 Client to connect to a local Oracle8i database?
Yes. If the Oracle7 client needs to connect to a local Oracle8i database, you have
SQL*Net Client release 2.x, Net8 Client, and Net8 Server in the same system.
Note that Net8 Client and Net8 Server are already installed during the
installation of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition or Oracle8.
If you are using Oracle7 release 7.3.4 and SQL*Net release 2.3.4, you can connect
to the local Oracle 8 database without specifying a service name. Oracle 7 client
automatically uses the Bequeath Protocol Adapter when connecting to an
Oracle 8 database.
If you are using Oracle7 release 7.3.3 (or lower) and SQL*Net release 2.3.3 (or
lower), you need to create a service name using SQL*Net Easy Configuration or
Oracle Network Manager in SQL*Net Client version 2.x.

5-10 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Version 8 and Version 7 Client/Server Configurations

Oracle8i Client Release 8.1 to Oracle8 Release 8.0/Oracle7 Databases


An Oracle8 Client release 8.1 requires Net8 Client release 8.1, an Oracle7 Server
requires SQL*Net Server, and an Oracle8 Server release 8.0 requires Net8 Server
release 8.0.

Oracle8 Client Application release 8.1

Net8 Client release 8.1

SQL*Net Server Net8 Server release 8.0

Oracle7 Oracle8
Database Database
8.0

The release 8.1 clients must be configured with the SID of the database. For
example, the TNSNAMES.ORA would have the following effect:
net_service_name =
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS =...)
(ADDRESS =...)
)
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SID=SALES)
)
This effect may be accomplished by manually editing the TNSNAMES.ORA file or
using the Net8 Assistant’s compatibility mode. See "Using Release 8.0/7.x Features
and Connecting To a Release 8.0/7.x Service" in Chapter 3, "Upgrading and
Migrating" of Net8 Administrator’s Guide.
Additionally, the LISTENER.ORA on the database server must still be configured
with the description of the SID, as described in "Statically Configuring a Listener" in
Chapter 5, "Configuring the Network" of Net8 Administrator’s Guide.

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-11


Version 8 and Version 7 Client/Server Configurations

Consider the following questions for an environment with Oracle8 clients release
8.1 connecting to an Oracle7 database.
■ Do my Oracle8 clients require SQL*Net Client release 2.x to connect to a remote
Oracle7 database?
No. If an Oracle8 client needs to connect to a remote Oracle7 database, only Net8
Client needs to be configured on the Oracle8 client. SQL*Net release 2.x is
upwards compatible with Net8. The only limitation is that the new network
features available with Net8 are unavailable with this connection type.
■ Do my Oracle8 clients require SQL*Net release 2.x to connect to a local Oracle7
database?
Yes. If the Oracle8 client needs to connect to a local Oracle7 database, you need
both SQL*Net Server release 2.x and Net8 Client on the same system.

Additional Information: For more detailed information on


installing, migrating, and upgrading SQL*Net and Net8, see:
Chapter 4, "Installing, Upgrading, and Migrating Net8" in Oracle
Net8 Administrator’s Guide.

Multi-Versioning
You can run different versions of Oracle databases on the same computer system at
the same time. However, each version can only access a database that is consistent
with its version. For example, if you have version 7 and version 8 of Oracle installed
on the same computer system, the version 7 server can access version 7 databases,
but not version 8 databases, and the version 8 server can access version 8 databases
but not version 7 databases. The only way for a version 8 database to read version 7
database files is to perform a migration. You should be aware that after migration,
the version 7 database will no longer be able to read the files.

5-12 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Version 8 and Version 7 Client/Server Configurations

Install Oracle7 and Oracle8i Databases in Multiple Oracle Homes

WARNING: It is not possible to install release 8.1.5 products into


an existing Oracle home. This functionality was only available
for certain previous releases and has not been continued.
Releases of 8.1.5 and later must be installed in separate Oracle
homes. You cannot have more than one release per Oracle home.
Oracle Corporation recommends you adopt an Optimal Flexible
Architecture (OFA) when creating multiple Oracle homes. See
"Directory Tree of a Sample OFA-Compliant Database" on
page 4-18 for more information.

You can install Oracle7 and Oracle8i databases in multiple (separate) Oracle homes
and have both Oracle7 and Oracle8i clients connecting to Oracle7 and Oracle8i
databases. Multiple Oracle homes functionality currently only works with releases 8.0.4
and later releases. If you have, for example, release 7.3.3 products already installed,
you cannot install any other release 7.x products in a separate Oracle home. Also, if
you have release 8.0.3 or earlier 8.0.x products already installed, you cannot install
any other of these products in a separate Oracle home. The following figure gives
an example of this network configuration:

Old style New style


Oracle7 home directory Oracle8 home directories

Three databases are in three


separate Oracle home directories Oracle7 Oracle8 Oracle8i
on the same computer Database Database Database
(Multiple Oracle Homes) 7.3.3 8.0.5 8.1.5

Oracle7 client Oracle8 client Oracle7 client Oracle8 client Oracle8 client

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-13


Version 8 and Version 7 Client/Server Configurations

Install Oracle7 and Oracle8i Databases on Separate Computers


You can install Oracle7 and Oracle8i databases on separate computers and have
both Oracle7 and Oracle8 clients connecting to both databases. The figure below
shows two computers and a number of Oracle7 and Oracle8 clients. On each
computer you can have a mix of databases and products in Oracle homes.

Oracle8 Oracle8 Oracle8i New style Oracle8


Database Database Database home directories
8.0.4 8.1.3 8.1.5
Six databases are in
four Oracle home directories
on the same computer

Old style
Oracle7 Oracle7 Oracle8
Oracle 7.2.x and
Database Database Database
Oracle 8.0.x
7.2.2 7.3.3 8.0.5
Oracle home

Oracle7 client Oracle8 client Oracle7 client Oracle8 client Oracle8 client

Three databases are in


three Oracle home Oracle8 Oracle8 Oracle8i New style Oracle8
directories on Database Database Database home directories
the same computer 8.0.4 8.0.5 8.1.5

5-14 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Version 8 and Version 7 Client/Server Configurations

Migrate an Oracle7 Database to an Oracle8i Database


You can migrate your Oracle7 database to an Oracle8i database and have both
Oracle7 and Oracle8i clients connecting to the Oracle8i database. You can not
migrate your Oracle7 database to an Oracle8i database in the same Oracle home.
See "Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i" on page 5-21 for instructions. The
following figure illustrates this network configuration:

Oracle7 Oracle8i
Database Database
7.3.3 Migrate Oracle7 database 8.1.5
to an Oracle8i database
in a different Oracle home

Oracle7 client Oracle7 client Oracle8i client Oracle8i client

Oracle7 Oracle8i
Database Database
Migrate Oracle7 database
7.3.3 8.1.5
to an Oracle8i database
in the same Oracle home

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-15


Version 8 and Version 7 Client/Server Configurations

Upgrade an Oracle8 Database to the Current Oracle8i Database Release


You can upgrade your Oracle8 database, for example, release 8.0.4, to release 8.1.5
and have both Oracle7 and Oracle8 clients connecting to the release 8.1.5 Oracle8i
database. You can upgrade databases either in the same Oracle home or across
different Oracle homes. See "Upgrading an Oracle8 Database Release 8.0.x to 8.1.5"
on page 5-45 for instructions. The following figure illustrates this network
configuration:

Oracle8 Oracle8i
Database Database
8.0.3 Upgrade Oracle8 database 8.1.5
to current Oracle8i database
release across different Oracle homes

Oracle7 client Oracle7 client Oracle8i client Oracle8i client

Oracle8 Oracle8i
Database Database
Upgrade Oracle8 database
8.0.3 8.1.5
to current Oracle8i database
release in the same Oracle home

5-16 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Version 8 and Version 7 Client/Server Configurations

Migrate Oracle7 Clients to Oracle8i Clients


You can migrate some or all of your Oracle7 clients to Oracle8i Enterprise Edition
release 8.1.5. You can also migrate your Oracle7 database to an Oracle8i database or
upgrade your Oracle8 release to the current Oracle8i database at a later date.

Additional Information: For detailed information on migrating


SQL*Net and upgrading Net8, see:
■ Chapter 3, "Upgrading and Migrating" of Net8 Administrator’s
Guide.
■ Chapter 4, "Installing, Upgrading, and Migrating Net8" in
Oracle Net8 Administrator’s Guide.

The following figure illustrates this network configuration.

Oracle7 Oracle8
Database Database
7.3.3 8.0.5

Migrate
Oracle7 client
to Oracle8 client
Oracle7 client release 7.x Oracle8i client Oracle7 client Oracle8 client
configured with release 8.1.5
SQL*Net Client release 2.x configured with
Net8 Client

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-17


Installing an Oracle 8.1 Database Where Version 7.x Already Exists

Installing an Oracle 8.1 Database Where Version 7.x Already Exists


In the following example, an Oracle7 release 7.3.3 starter database called ORACLE
with a SID of ORCL is already installed in C:\ORANT. Now, install the Oracle
release 8.1.5 starter database in a separate Oracle home directory called TEST81 in
the C:\ORACLE\ORA81 directory. In this example, ORCL is the first and only
database on the computer. The second database you install will be called ORCL0 by
default.

Additional Information: See "Starter and Custom Database


Overview" on page 7-2 for more information on conventions used
for database naming.

To install an Oracle8i database and Oracle7 database in multiple (separate)


Oracle homes:
1. Ensure you have enough hard disk space and RAM for both databases. You
need to add the system requirements for Oracle8i Enterprise Edition and Oracle7
Server to determine the total system requirements. See Oracle8i Enterprise
Edition Installation for Windows NT for system requirements.
2. Ensure all Oracle7 services are stopped. See "Managing Oracle Services" on
page 9-2 for information on how to stop services.
3. Install Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT from the CD-ROM. See
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Installation for Windows NT for complete installation
instructions.
The Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Autorun dialog box appears and prompts you to
make a selection:
■ Add/Remove Products
■ Explore CD
■ Browse Information
4. Click Add/Remove Products.
The Oracle Universal Installer Welcome dialog box appears.
5. Click Next. The Oracle License Terms dialog box appears.
6. Click "I accept the License Terms and Export Restrictions." If you do not accept
the terms, you cannot proceed with the installation.
The File Locations dialog box appears. Do not change the text in the Source...
field. This is the location of files for installation.
a. Enter the name of a new Oracle home in the Destination Name:field. In this
example, enter TEST81.
5-18 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started
Installing an Oracle 8.1 Database Where Version 7.x Already Exists

b. Enter the location of the Oracle home directory where you want to install
release 8.1.5. In this example, enter C:\ORACLE\ORA81 in the Path: field.
You must install the release 8.1 software into a directory that is separate
from your release 8.0 Oracle home. Installing the release 8.1 software into
the same Oracle home as the release 8.0 software is not supported in release
8.1.
c. Click Next.
The Available Products dialog box appears.
7. Select Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, then click Next.
The Installation Types dialog box appears.
8. Select Minimal to install a standard set of components for an Oracle database
server, then click Next.
The Available Product Components dialog box appears.
9. Select the Oracle products you want to install.
10. Click Next.
The Migrating an Existing Database dialog box appears indicating that Oracle
Universal Installer has detected an earlier version of the database. You are
asked if you want to migrate your Oracle7 database ORCL database to release
8.1.5 using Oracle Data Migration Assistant.
11. Click None. Then click Next to continue installation of the 8.1.5 database.
If you click ORCL or any other database that resides on your computer, Oracle
Data Migration Assistant is launched at the end of installation and migrates the
Oracle7 database to release 8.1.5.
The Starter Database dialog box appears and prompts you to create a starter
database.
12. Choose No, then click Next.
The Summary window appears.
13. Click Install.

The Configuration Tools window appears.


14. Click Next.
The End of Installation window appears.
15. Click Exit to quit Oracle Universal Installer.

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-19


Installing an Oracle 8.1 Database Where Version 7.x Already Exists

You now have an Oracle7 database located in C:\ORANT\DATABASE and an


Oracle8 database located in C:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORCL0.
Note that if you decided to invoke Oracle Data Migration Assistant at Step 11.
and migrated the Oracle7 database to release 8.1.5, you only have one Oracle8
database on your computer.
After installation is complete, modify the release 8.1.5 LISTENER.ORA file to
resolve possible conflicts in listening addresses, and then restart the listener.
This is required to enable the release 8.1.5 database to accept connections from
clients. See Migration Issues for Net8 and SQL*Net and Net8 Administrator’s
Guide for information on how to modify the LISTENER.ORA file.

5-20 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i


This section describes how to migrate an Oracle7 database to the current Oracle8i
database release. You can choose either of the following tools to perform a
migration:
■ Oracle Data Migration Assistant
■ MIG
Oracle Corporation recommends that new users use Oracle Data Migration
Assistant to migrate databases because it is the easiest method to perform a
migration. If you want to perform a migration manually using command line tools,
use MIG.
Before you start a migration using the assistant or MIG, read the following sections:

Ten Issues That Can Affect Oracle7 to Oracle8i Migration


The following table lists and describes the ten issues you should be aware of that
can affect Oracle7 to Oracle8i migration.

Issues That Affect Migration Description


1. Running out of space ■ Version 8 binaries may require as much as three times the disk space
required by version 7 binaries. This requirement may cause you to
run out of disk space during migration. It is very important that you
read "System Considerations and Requirements" and "Prepare the
Version7 Source Database for Migration" in Oracle8i Migration to find
out more about this and other requirements before you migrate.
■ During migration, the data dictionary requires 50% more space to
hold both Oracle7 and Oracle8i data dictionaries. Actual usage can be
verified by running MIG in CHECK_ONLY mode.
2. Duration of migration is The time it takes to migrate is not dependent on the size of the database,
unrelated to database size but on the number of objects in the data dictionary. For example, actual
migration for a 3 1/2 GB database with 25,473 objects on a Sun E6000 with
20 CPUs, with datafiles stripped on the file system on 128 KB slices can
take 1 1/2 hours. Remember to allow extra time for backing up and
restoring database in case of problems.

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-21


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

Issues That Affect Migration Description


3. Avoiding problem areas ■ Check for usage of ROWIDs in both user columns as well as
application code (including triggers & packaged procedures). These
may require to be converted to use the DBMS_ROWID package.
■ Check the names of any Oracle7 database objects (for example, tables
and columns) that use names that are key words or reserved words
for Oracle8i Enterprise Edition. Usage of key words and reserved
words can cause unexpected failures during migration. See Appendix
C, "Oracle Reserved Words" of Oracle8i SQL Reference for a list of
reserved words.
■ Certain version 7 initialization parameters are obsolete in version 8.
Remove all obsolete parameters from the release 7.x INITSID.ORA
file that start a version 8 instance. Obsolete parameters may cause
errors if used with a version 8 database. Also, alter any parameter
whose syntax has changed in version 8. See Appendix B, "Changes to
Initialization Parameters" of Oracle8i Migration for lists of new,
changed, and obsolete parameters.
4. Compatibility Make sure that all Oracle product versions, operating system versions,
and third-party software versions are certified against Oracle8i. See
"Supported Operating Systems" on page 2-2 for the list of supported
Windows operating systems and versions. See "List of Oracle8i Enterprise
Edition Products" on page 2-7 for a list of supported Oracle product
versions for this release.
5. Invalid objects and lost Migration leaves all objects (packages, triggers, views, and so on) invalid
statistics except for tables. All other objects must be made valid again by
recompilation. This can either be done manually (preferably by building a
dependency tree before migration from dependency), otherwise this is
done automatically as the objects are first accessed. The latter will of
course slow down initial access. All estimated or calculated statistics are
lost during migration. These need to be recalculated to ensure proper
functionality of the Cost Based Optimizer. Some bitmapped indexes will
get invalidated. Check all bitmapped indexes in the DBA_INDEXES table
and recreate any that are marked as status unusable.
6. Editing the registry If you edit the registry for any reason during the migration process, you
need to reboot your computer.
7. Read-only tablespace Oracle7 read-only tablespaces are readable by Oracle8i and do not require
confusions any conversion. But to prevent Oracle8i rowid conversions to take place
every time a table is accessed, the tablespaces in read-only mode should be
made read-write. Perform full table scans on all tables in the tablespace.
After the full table scans are complete, you can put the tablespaces in
read-only mode again.

5-22 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

Issues That Affect Migration Description


8. The point of no return You can return the database to an Oracle7 version up until the ALTER
DATABASE CONVERT command is run. If a failure occurs during ALTER
DATABASE CONVERT (when it is converting the physical file headers of
the datafiles), you must restore the database from backup and rerun the
migration. Do not open the database between running the migration and
executing the ALTER DATABASE CONVERT command.
9. Preventing large restores To avoid restoring the entire database due to any failures during the
ALTER DATABASE CONVERT, put all tablespaces, except SYSTEM and
ROLLBACK into read-only or offline normal mode. This causes the
ALTER DATABASE CONVERT command to only convert the datafile
headers for SYSTEM and ROLLBACK. If any errors occur, you need only
restore the datafiles for the SYSTEM and ROLLBACK and rerun the
migration. If the migration is successful, the headers for the rest of the
datafiles will be converted when they are read-write or online.
10. Testing Most migration problems can be avoided if a test migration is performed
first. Performing a test migration helps raise any problems that can occur
as well as letting you see the amount of time it takes to migrate. See "Test
the Migration Process" in Chapter 2, "Preparing to Migrate" in Oracle8i
Migration.

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-23


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

Installing Appropriate Versions of SQL*Net


When migrating from Oracle7 Server release 7.3.x to Oracle8i release 8.1.5, install
the appropriate version of SQL*Net in the 7.3.x Oracle home before using Oracle
Data Migration Assistant or MIG. Migration will be unsuccessful if you do not
install the appropriate versions of SQL*Net.

Migrating from... Install...


Oracle7 release 7.3.2.x to Oracle8i SQL*Net release 2.3.2.1.4 and SQL*Net release 2.3.2.1.12
Note: If you do not have SQL*Net release 2.3.2.1.4 on your system, you
must install it before installing SQL*Net release 2.3.2.1.12. SQL*Net release
2.3.2.1.4 is not available on the release 8.1.5 CD-ROM. It is only available on
the release 7.3.2.2.0 CD-ROM.
Oracle7 release 7.3.3.x to Oracle8i SQL*Net release 2.3.3.0.3
To install SQL*Net release 2.3.2.1.12 or 2.3.3.0.3:
1. Start Oracle Installer from the CD-ROM. See Oracle8i Enterprise Edition
Installation for Windows NT for complete installation instructions.
2. Answer questions about language and Oracle home directory location.
3. Select Custom Installation. The Software Asset Manager window
appears.
4. Click From...
5. Navigate to \PATCHES\SQLNET\232112 on the CD-ROM if you
want to install SQL*Net release 2.3.2.1.12. Navigate to
\PATCHES\SQLNET\23303 if you want to install SQL*Net release
2.3.3.0.3.
6. Select SQL*Net Server 2.3.2.1.12 and SQL*Net Client 2.3.2.1.12 if you
want to install SQL*Net release 2.3.2.1.12. Select SQL*Net Server
2.3.3.0.3 and SQL*Net Client 2.3.3.0.3 if you want to install SQL*Net
release 2.3.3.0.3.
7. Click Install.
A window appears showing the progress of the installation. After
installation is complete, a message appears confirming the installation.
8. Click Exit to quit Oracle Installer.

5-24 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

Migrating Using Oracle Data Migration Assistant


Oracle Data Migration Assistant helps you migrate data from an Oracle7 database
to an Oracle8i database. During installation of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, you are
prompted to migrate a database with this assistant if Oracle Universal Installer
detects that an earlier database release exists on your computer. If you do not want
to migrate a database during the installation process, you can just install the
assistant and use it later.

What To Do Before Using Oracle Data Migration Assistant


Complete the following steps before you use this assistant:
■ Read Chapter 4, "Migration Using the Oracle Data Migration Assistant" in
Oracle8i Migration for background information before starting the migration
process.

IMPORTANT: Version 8 binaries may require as much as three


times the disk space required by version 7 binaries. This
requirement may cause you to run out of disk space during
migration. It is very important that you read "System
Considerations and Requirements" and "Prepare the Version7
Source Database for Migration" to find out more about this and
other requirements before you migrate.

■ Ensure the Oracle7 database to be migrated is at least release 7.1.3.3.6.


■ Ensure the service for the Oracle7 database instance is present in the Services
window of the Control Panel.
■ Ensure SQL*Net Server release 2.x or later is installed.

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-25


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

To migrate a database using Oracle Data Migration Assistant:


1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Migration Utilities >
Oracle Data Migration Assistant.
The Oracle Data Migration Assistant welcome window appears:

2. Respond to instructions in each Oracle Data Migration Assistant window, and


click Next when you are ready to continue to the next window. When you get to
the last window, click Next to start the migration of the database. More
documentation on this product can be accessed by clicking Help.

5-26 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

Migrating Using MIG


This section describes how to use MIG to migrate your Oracle7 database to an
Oracle8i database.

Note: Information on how to run MIG (sometimes referred to as


the Migration Utility) is provided in Oracle8i Migration, but the
focus is on UNIX. This section provides information on using MIG
on Windows NT.

To migrate an Oracle7 database using MIG:


Step 1: What To Do Before Using MIG
Step 2: Shut Down the Oracle7 Database
Step 3: Back Up the Oracle7 Database
Step 4: Install MIG From Oracle8i Enterprise Edition CD-ROM
Step 5: Run MIG
Step 6: Create Oracle8i Services and Database Files
Step 7: Remove Oracle7 Software (Optional)

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-27


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

Step 1: What To Do Before Using MIG


Complete the following steps before you use MIG:
■ Review Migration Concepts
■ Use Appropriate SQL*DBA or SQL*Plus Versions
■ Check Database To Be Migrated Version Number
■ Check Character Set

Review Migration Concepts


■ Read Chapter 1, "Overview" and Chapter 2, "Preparing to Migrate” in Oracle8i
Migration for background information before starting the migration process.
■ Read “System Considerations and Requirements” and “Prepare the Version7
Source Database for Migration” in Chapter 3 “Migrating Using the Migration
Utility” of Oracle8i Migration for information on tasks you must perform before
using MIG.

IMPORTANT: Version 8 binaries may require as much as three


times the disk space required by version 7 binaries. This
requirement may cause you to run out of disk space during
migration. It is very important that you read “System
Considerations and Requirements” and “Prepare the Version7
Source Database for Migration” to find out more about this and
other requirements before you migrate.

Use Appropriate SQL*DBA or SQL*Plus Versions


When you are asked to enter commands at the SQL*DBA or SQL*Plus prompt,
remember to use the appropriate version of the tool for the version of Oracle7
Server you are migrating:

Use... When Migrating From...


SQLDBA71 Oracle7 release 7.1.x
SQLDBA72 Oracle7 release 7.2.x
SVRMGR23 Oracle7 release 7.3.x

Check Database To Be Migrated Version Number


Check that your database release can be directly migrated to Oracle8i Enterprise
Edition. MIG only migrates databases that are Oracle7, release 7.1.x or later. If the

5-28 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

database is an earlier version (for example, version 6), migrate it to at least Oracle7
release 7.1.3.3.6 before migrating it to an Oracle8i database.

Check Character Set


1. Check the character set of your Oracle7 database, and compare it with the
character set in the NLS_LANG environment variable, or in the registry (if the
character set does not exist as an environment variable).
2. Start SQL*Plus or SQL*DBA at the MS-DOS command prompt. If you are
migrating from:

Oracle7 Release... Enter at the MS-DOS Command Prompt...


7.1.x C:\> SQLDBA71 MODE=LINE
7.2.x C:\> SQLDBA72 MODE=LINE
7.3.x C:\> SVRMGR23

3. Connect to the Oracle7 database as INTERNAL, where PASSWORD is the


password of the database you want to migrate:

Oracle7 Release... Enter at the SQLDBA or SQLPLUS Command Prompt...


7.1.x SQLDBA> CONNECT INTERNAL/PASSWORD
7.2.x SQLDBA> CONNECT INTERNAL/PASSWORD
7.3.x SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL/PASSWORD

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-29


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

4. Obtain the value of NLS_CHARACTERSET:

Oracle7 Release... Enter at the SQLDBA or SQLPLUS Command Prompt...


7.1.x SQLDBA> SELECT VALUE FROM NLS_DATABASE_
PARAMETERS WHERE PARAMETER=’NLS_
CHARACTERSET’;
7.2.x SQLDBA> SELECT VALUE FROM NLS_DATABASE_
PARAMETERS WHERE PARAMETER=’NLS_
CHARACTERSET’;
7.3.x SQL> SELECT VALUE FROM NLS_DATABASE_
PARAMETERS WHERE PARAMETER=’NLS_
CHARACTERSET’;

The character set value is returned by the database. If the character sets are
identical, then you can proceed to run MIG.
If the character sets are different, before you run MIG, you must set the NLS_
LANG environment variable at the MS-DOS command prompt as follows:
AMERICAN_AMERICA.database character set
where database character set is substituted with the character set of your Oracle7
database. For example, if the character set of your Oracle7 database is JA16EUC,
set the NLS_LANG environment variable as follows:
C:\> SET NLS_LANG=AMERICAN_AMERICA.JA16EUC
Messages output from MIG will now be in English. After MIG finishes, reset the
NLS_LANG environment variable to its original value.

5-30 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

Step 2: Shut Down the Oracle7 Database


Shut down the database. Do not use SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE or SHUTDOWN
ABORT. If the database is not shut down before you start the migration, MIG stops
and issues an error message. Also, if the database is not cleanly shutdown, any
backup you make may be useless as it was taken while data was being written to
the data files.
1. Start SQL*DBA or SQL*Plus:

Oracle7 Release... Enter at the MS-DOS Command Prompt...


7.1.x C:\> SQLDBA71 MODE=LINE
7.2.x C:\> SQLDBA72 MODE=LINE
7.3.x C:\> SQLPLUS

2. Connect to the Oracle7 database as INTERNAL, where PASSWORD is the


password of the database you want to migrate:

Oracle7 Release... Enter at the SQLDBA or SQLPLUS Command Prompt...

7.1.x1 SQLDBA> CONNECT INTERNAL/PASSWORD


SQLDBA> ALTER USER SYS DEFAULT TABLESPACE
SYSTEM TEMPORARY TABLESPACE SYSTEM;
SQLDBA> ALTER TABLESPACE SYSTEM ADD DATAFILE
‘ORACLE_HOME\RDBMS71\SYS2SID.ORA’ SIZE 50 M;
SQLDBA> ALTER TABLESPACE ROLLBACK_DATA ADD
DATAFILE ‘ORACLE_HOME\RDBMS71\RBSMIGSID.ORA’
SIZE 20 M;
7.2.x SQLDBA> CONNECT INTERNAL/PASSWORD
7.3.x SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL/PASSWORD
1
For Oracle7 release 7.1 only, edit the INITSID.ORA file and set the REMOTE_LOGIN_
PASSWORDFILE parameter to EXCLUSIVE or SHARED.
The message Connected. appears if you successfully connected to the database.

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-31


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

3. Shut down the database:

Oracle7 Release... Enter at the SQLDBA or SQLPLUS Command Prompt...


7.1.x SQLDBA> SHUTDOWN
7.2.x SQLDBA> SHUTDOWN
7.3.x SQL> SHUTDOWN

Step 3: Back Up the Oracle7 Database


1. Back up the entire Oracle home directory and all its subdirectories.

WARNING: If anything goes wrong with the Oracle7 database


during migration, you will need to restore the database from the
backup. Back up your database now as a precaution!

Ensure the database was cleanly shut down before you back up. Ensure you
back up the database files in the following list (and any other database files you
may have created). Also, back up any scripts you may have created.

■ Data files SYS1SID.ORA, USR1SID.ORA,


RBS1SID.ORA, TMP1SID.ORA
■ Initialization parameter file INITSID.ORA
■ Redo log files LOG1SID.ORA, LOG2SID.ORA,
LOG3SID.ORA, LOG4SID.ORA
(the last two redo log files are only available
for Oracle release 7.3.4)
■ Control files CTL1SID.ORA and CTL2SID.ORA

5-32 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

To obtain the list of database files you must back up:


a. Create a spool file called V7DBFILES.LOG:

Oracle7 Release... Enter at the SQLDBA or SQLPLUS Command Prompt...


7.1.x SQLDBA> SPOOL V7DBFILES.LOG
7.2.x SQLDBA> SPOOL V7DBFILES.LOG
7.3.x SQL> SPOOL V7DBFILES.LOG

b. Enter the following commands at the SQL*DBA or SQL*Plus prompt where


the WHERE clause equals counteroffers, DB_FILES, or LOG_FILES. Note
that counteroffers must be lowercase. The list of database files is output to
V7DBFILES.LOG.

Oracle7 Release... Enter at the SQLDBA or SQLPLUS Command Prompt...

7.1.x SQLDBA> SELECT MEMBER FROM V$LOGFILE;


SQLDBA> SELECT NAME FROM V$DATAFILE;
SQLDBA> SELECT VALUE FROM V$PARAMETER WHERE
NAME = ’control_files’;
7.2.x SQLDBA> SELECT MEMBER FROM V$LOGFILE;
SQLDBA> SELECT NAME FROM V$DATAFILE;
SQLDBA> SELECT VALUE FROM V$PARAMETER WHERE
NAME = ’control_files’;
7.3.x SQL> SELECT MEMBER FROM V$LOGFILE;
SQL> SELECT NAME FROM V$DATAFILE;
SQL> SELECT VALUE FROM V$PARAMETER WHERE
NAME = ’control_files’;

c. Turn off the SPOOL command:

Oracle7 Release... Enter at the SQLDBA or SQLPLUS Command Prompt...


7.1.x SQLDBA> SPOOL OFF
7.2.x SQLDBA> SPOOL OFF
7.3.x SQL> SPOOL OFF

See "Backing Up and Recovering Database Files" on page 12-1, Oracle8 Concepts,
Oracle8 Backup and Recovery Guide, and Oracle8 Administrator’s Guide for
information on how to back up a database.

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-33


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

Step 4: Install MIG From Oracle8i Enterprise Edition CD-ROM


You can install MIG in either of two ways depending if you want to install the
release 8.1.5 software that includes MIG or just MIG.

Note: The following installation steps are a shorter version of the


complete installation instructions you can find in Oracle8i Enterprise
Edition Installation for Windows NT.

To install the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition including MIG:


1. Run Oracle Universal Installer.
The File Locations dialog box appears.
a. Enter the name of a new Oracle home in the Oracle Home Name: field. For
example, enter MIGTO81.
b. Enter the location of the Oracle home directory where you want to install
the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition product. In this example, enter
C:\ORACLE\ORA81 in the Location: field.
c. Click Next.
The Available Products dialog box appears.
2. Select Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, then click Next.
The Installation Types dialog box appears.
3. Select the Minimal installation type to avoid the creation of a new database.
4. The Select Starter Database dialog box appears.
5. Click No.
The Summary window appears.
6. Click Install.
The Configuration Tools window appears.
7. Click Next.
The End of Installation window appears.
Click Exit.
MIG has been installed as part of Oracle Utilities.

5-34 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

If you just want to install MIG, perform the following steps:


1. Run Oracle Universal Installer.
The File Locations dialog box appears.
a. Enter the name of a new Oracle home in the Oracle Home Mansfield. For
example, enter MIGTO81.
b. Enter the location of the Oracle home directory where you want to install
MIG. In this example, enter C:\ORACLE\ORA81 in the Location: field.
c. Click Next.
The Available Products dialog box appears.
2. Select Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, then click Next.
The Installation Types dialog box appears.
3. Select Custom.
The Available Product Components dialog box appears.
Click Oracle Utilities, of which MIG is a component.
4. Click Next.
The Summary window appears.
5. Click Install.
The Configuration Tools window appears.
6. Click Next.
The End of Installation window appears.
7. Click Exit to quit Oracle Universal Installer.
MIG is located in C:\ORACLE\ORA81\BIN.

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-35


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

Step 5: Run MIG


There are some tasks that you may have to perform before you run MIG.
1. Ensure that you have DBA privileges, which are necessary to run MIG.
2. Ensure that SQL*Net version 2.x is installed in the Oracle home directory of the
database you are migrating. If it is not installed, MIG will be unable to connect
to the Oracle7 database. You will receive the error ORA-12203: TNS: Unable to
connect to destination, if this is the case. If this product is not installed, install it
from the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition CD-ROM. See "Installing Appropriate
Versions of SQL*Net" on page 5-24 for more information.
3. Ensure that no other DBA (connected as INTERNAL or SYS) with the
RESTRICTED SESSION privilege connects to the database while MIG is
running. Normal users cannot connect to the database during this phase.
4. Do not start the Oracle7 database. MIG starts the Oracle7 database as part of its
processing.
5. Start the Oracle7 service OracleServiceSID at the MS-DOS command prompt:
C:\> NET START OracleServiceSID
6. Set ORACLE_SID to the SID of the database you want to migrate. For example,
if the database you want to migrate is the starter database with the SID named
ORCL, enter the following at the MS-DOS command prompt. Note there are no
spaces around the equal sign (=) character.
C:\> SET ORACLE_SID=ORCL
7. Run MIG. You can enter MIG HELP=YES at the MS-DOS command prompt for
a complete list of parameters that can be included with the MIG command. You
must include the PFILE parameter to specify the exact location of the version 7
INITSID.ORA file because MIG is in a different directory from the version 7
initialization parameter file. Ensure you specify the complete pathname of
ORACLE_HOME including drive letter.
C:\> MIG PFILE=ORACLE_HOME\DATABASE\INITSID.ORA SPOOL=C:\MIG.LOG
The MIG command creates the MIGSID.ORA file that is required in a later step
to create Oracle8i Enterprise Edition control files.
8. If the prompt for Oracle7 Password: appears, enter the same password as the
INTERNAL password for the Oracle7 database. This prompt displays because
the DBA_AUTHORIZATION registry parameter is set properly or not set at all
for Oracle7.

5-36 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

MIG runs and displays the operations being performed. MIG can take
considerable time to run. Please wait until it has finished running.
Check the results after running MIG. If there are error messages, see Appendix
A, "Troubleshooting Migration Problems" of Oracle8i Migration for more
information before going to Step 9.
9. Stop the Oracle7 service at the MS-DOS command prompt when MIG has
completed successfully:
C:\> NET STOP OracleServiceSID
10. Delete the Oracle7 services at the MS-DOS command prompt using
ORADIM7x.

Oracle7 Release... Enter at the MS-DOS Command Prompt...


7.1.x C:\> ORADIM71 -DELETE -SID SID
7.2.x C:\> ORADIM72 -DELETE -SID SID
7.3.x C:\> ORADIM73 -DELETE -SID SID

Note: You can receive the error "failed to open service", when
attempting to delete services. To avoid this error, reboot your
Windows NT computer.

MIG creates a convert file that contains the information of the version 7 control
file. Later in the migration process, the convert file is used when you execute
the ALTER DATABASE CONVERT command to create a new control file for
version 8.
The default location of the convert file is ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_
HOME\RDBMS where ORACLE_HOME is the version 8 Oracle home. The
default filename is CONVERT.ORA.

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-37


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

WARNING: Do not open the Oracle7 database, which was shut


down by the version 8 MIG utility. To ensure data file version
integrity, the SCNs in the dictionary, the convert file, and file
header must all be consistent when the database is converted to
version 8. If the Oracle7 database is opened after running MIG,
the SCN check will fail when the database is converted to version
8, and an ORA-01211 error will be displayed, stating "Oracle7
data file is not from migration to Oracle8i." If the Oracle7
database is opened, you must rerun the Migration Utility, starting
at "Step 2: Shut Down the Oracle7 Database".

After successfully running MIG, perform a cold backup of the Oracle7 database.
This backup serves the following purposes:
■ If you want to return to the Oracle7 database after executing the ALTER
DATABASE CONVERT command, you can restore the backup and start the
version 7 database.
■ It can be used as the first version 8 backup for a version 8 recovery.
■ If an error occurs at version 8 database convert time (ALTER DATABASE
CONVERT or ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS), you can restore this
backup, fix the problem(s), and continue the conversion process. However,
if you restore a backup performed before you ran MIG, you must rerun
MIG.
Additional Information: See Chapter 12, "Backing Up and
Recovering Database Files", Oracle8 Concepts, Oracle8 Backup and
Recovery Guide, and Oracle8 Administrator’s Guide for information on
how to back up a database.

5-38 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

Step 6: Create Oracle8i Services and Database Files


1. If you have not already installed the Oracle8i software, do so now. Do not install
a database when prompted.
2. Create the Oracle8i database service at the MS-DOS command prompt
C:\> ORADIM -NEW -SID SID -INTPWD PASSWORD -MAXUSERS USERS -STARTMODE AUTO
-PFILE ORACLE_HOME\DATABASE\INITSID.ORA
where:

■ SID is the same SID name as the SID of the version 7


database you migrated.
■ PASSWORD is the password for the new release 8.1.5 database
instance. The -INTPWD option is not required. If
you do not specify it, operating system
authentication is used, and no password is required.
See "Automatically Enabling Operating System
Authentication During Installation" on page 10-3 for
a description of features.
■ USERS is the maximum number of users who can be
granted SYSDBA and SYSOPER privileges.
■ ORACLE_HOME is the release 8.1.5 Oracle home directory. Ensure
you specify the full pathname with the -PFILE
option, including drive letter of the Oracle home
directory.

3. Either delete or rename the database’s control files, or use the CONTROL_FILES
parameter in the INITSID.ORA file to specify new control file names. The
ALTER DATABASE CONVERT command automatically creates new control
files in Step 8. If you do not use the CONTROL_FILES parameter, this
command uses the control file names of your pre-migration database and
returns an error if the control files already exist. Therefore, in this case, you must
delete or rename the control file(s). However, if you use the CONTROL_FILES
parameter in the INITSID.ORA file, the ALTER DATABASE CONVERT
command creates the new control file(s) with the names you specify, and you
do not need to remove the old control files. Check the file V7DBFILES.LOG that
you created in "Step 3: Back Up the Oracle7 Database" for the complete list and
location of control files you must delete.

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-39


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

4. Before starting SQL*Plus:


a. Ensure all release 7.x data files and log files are accessible and in the correct
directories.
b. Ensure all release 7.x control files are deleted or renamed.
c. Change any parameters that point to RDBMS71, RDBMS72, or RDBMS73 to
point to RDBMS in the release 7.x INITSID.ORA file.
d. Certain version 7 initialization parameters are obsolete in version 8.
Remove all obsolete parameters from the release 7.x INITSID.ORA file that
start a version 8 instance. Obsolete parameters may cause errors if used
with a version 8 database. Also, alter any parameter whose syntax has
changed in version 8. See Appendix B, "Changes to Initialization
Parameters" of Oracle8i Migration for lists of new, changed, and obsolete
parameters.
e. Ensure the COMPATIBLE parameter is set to 8.0.5.0.0 in the release 7.x
INITSID.ORA file. Set the COMPATIBLE parameter to the following:
COMPATIBLE=8.0.5.0.0

Additional Information: Some new features of Oracle8i release


8.1.x require a compatibility setting of 8.1.0 or higher. See Chapter 8,
"Compatibility and Interoperability" of Oracle8i Migration for more
information.

5. Start the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition version of SQL*Plus at the MS-DOS


command prompt:
C:\> SQLPLUS
6. Connect to the Oracle8i instance as INTERNAL:
SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL/PASSWORD
7. Start an Oracle8i instance without mounting the new Oracle8i database:
SQL> STARTUP NOMOUNT PFILE=ORACLE_HOME\DATABASE\INITSID.ORA

Warning: Starting in any other mode will corrupt the database!

8. Create new version 8 control files:


SQL> ALTER DATABASE CONVERT;

5-40 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

Warning: Successful execution of this command is the point of


no return to Oracle7. If you need to return to the Oracle7
database, please restore it from the backup you made in "Step 3:
Back Up the Oracle7 Database". If an error occurs during this
step, you must correct the condition(s) that caused the error(s).

This command uses the MIGSID.ORA file that was created earlier when you
ran MIG. All data files that are online are converted to Oracle8i Enterprise
Edition format, and new control files are built. Control files are considerably
larger in version 8 than in version 7. Control files in the tens of kilobytes size
range in version 7 could be expanded into the range of tens of megabytes
automatically during migration to version 8. This size increase could be
important if a control file is on a raw device or if its available disk space is
restricted.
9. Open the Oracle8i database:
SQL> ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
All rollback segments that are online when the Oracle8i database is opened are
also opened and converted to the Oracle8i database format.
10. Create a spool file called CATOUT.LOG by entering the following at the
SQL*Plus prompt:
SQL> SPOOL CATOUT.LOG
11. Run the following scripts in sequence:

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-41


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

Script Required by... Enter at the SQL*Plus Prompt...


U0703040.SQL All databases SQL> @%ORACLE_HOME%\RDBMS\ADMIN\U0703040.SQL
where %ORACLE_HOME% represents your drive letter and release
8.1.5 Oracle home directory. This script can take over thirty minutes
to run depending on the size of your database. Check CATOUT.LOG
to verify that the operation was successful.
U0703040.SQL creates and alters certain system tables and drops the
MIGRATE user. Objects in the MIGRATE user’s schema are not
needed after the conversion is complete. You can also delete the
binary file (ORACLE_HOME\RDBMS\CONVERT.ORA) that is used
as part of the conversion process.
U0703040.SQL also runs the CATALOG.SQL and CATPROC.SQL
scripts, which create the system catalog views and all the necessary
packages for using PL/SQL.
Note: If the U0703040.SQL script runs for an inordinately long time,
it may be caused by a setting for LARGE_POOL_SIZE that is too
large for your installation. Use the V$PARAMETER view to check the
setting for LARGE_POOL_SIZE, and if it is too large, set it to a
smaller value in your INITSID.ORA file.
CATREP.SQL Advanced SQL> @%ORACLE_HOME%\RDBMS\ADMIN\CATREP.SQL
Replication
where %ORACLE_HOME% represents your drive letter and release
8.1.5 Oracle home directory.
Run this script only if you have Advanced Replication and want to
use it. CATREP.SQL takes over an hour to run.
R0703040.SQL Advanced SQL> @%ORACLE_HOME%\RDBMS\ADMIN\R0703040.SQL
Replication
where %ORACLE_HOME% represents your drive letter and release
8.1.5 Oracle home directory.
The R0703040.SQL script performs a post-CATREP.SQL Advanced
Replication related upgrade.
CATPARR.SQL Oracle Parallel SQL> @%ORACLE_HOME%\RDBMS\ADMIN\CATPARR.SQL
Server
where %ORACLE_HOME% represents your drive letter and release
8.1.5 Oracle home directory.
Run this script only if you have Oracle Parallel Server and want to
use it.

5-42 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

Script Required by... Enter at the SQL*Plus Prompt...


UTLRP.SQL All databases SQL> @%ORACLE_HOME%\RDBMS\ADMIN\UTLRP.SQL
where %ORACLE_HOME% represents your drive letter and release
8.1.5 Oracle home directory.
Oracle Corporation recommends you run this script to compile all
existing PL/SQL modules that were previously in an INVALID state,
such as packages, procedures, types, and so on. Doing this at this
stage is optional; however, it will ensure that the cost of
recompilation is incurred during installation time rather than later
on.

Oracle Corporation supplies other scripts with Oracle8i Enterprise Edition that
create additional structures you can use in managing your database and
creating database applications. These scripts are also located in ORACLE_
HOME\RDBMS\ADMIN. See the chapter "SQL*Scripts" in Oracle8 Reference for
a complete list and descriptions of available scripts.
12. Turn off the SPOOL command:
SQL> SPOOL OFF
13. Check the spool file CATOUT.LOG and verify that the scripts you ran compiled
every package and procedure successfully. Correct any problems you find in
this file.
14. Shut down the Oracle8i database in NORMAL mode to perform a clean
database shutdown. Do not use SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE or SHUTDOWN
ABORT. Note that NORMAL is the default parameter.
SQL> SHUTDOWN
Performing a clean database shutdown flushes all caches, clears buffers, and
performs other Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)
housekeeping activities. These measures are an important final step to ensure
the integrity and consistency of the newly migrated release 8.1.5 database.
15. Back up the Oracle8i database. See Appendix 12, "Backing Up and Recovering
Database Files" for a list of tools to back up the database.
The Oracle7 database has now been migrated to the Oracle8i database and is
ready for use.

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-43


Migrating an Oracle7 Database to Oracle8i

Note: After a migration, all objects have the status INVALID,


unless you have run the UTLRP.SQL script. To check the status of
objects, enter the following at the SQL*Plus prompt.
SQL> SELECT * FROM ALL_OBJECTS WHERE STATUS =
‘INVALID’;

16. Complete the procedures described in Chapter 5, "After Migrating the


Database" of Oracle8i Migration.

WARNING: If you retain the old version 7 software, never start the
migrated database with the old version 7 software. Only start the
database with the executables in the new version 8 installation
directory.

Step 7: Remove Oracle7 Software (Optional)


You can remove Oracle7 software if you have successfully migrated to Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition and have a backup of the Oracle7 software. Oracle Installer warns
you of any product dependencies that might cause problems if particular products
are removed, and prompts you to confirm the deinstallation.
To remove Oracle7 software:
1. Stop all Oracle services. For information on how to stop Oracle services, see
"Managing Oracle Services" on page 9-2.
2. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle for Windows NT >ORACLE_HOME > Oracle
Installer to start Oracle Installer.
The Software Asset Manager window appears.
3. Select the Oracle7 product(s) you want to remove from the Installed Products
window of the Software Asset Manager window.
4. Click Remove.

5-44 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Upgrading an Oracle8 Database Release 8.0.x to 8.1.5

Upgrading an Oracle8 Database Release 8.0.x to 8.1.5


This section describes how to upgrade an Oracle8 database release 8.0.x to release
8.1.5. You can choose either of the following database tools to upgrade:
■ Oracle Data Migration Assistant
■ SQL scripts
Oracle Corporation recommends that new users use Oracle Data Migration
Assistant to upgrade databases because it is the easiest and quickest method to
perform an upgrade. If you already have upgrade scripts from a previous Oracle
database release, you can edit them to include the new upgrading scripts.

Upgrading Using Oracle Data Migration Assistant


Oracle Data Migration Assistant helps you upgrade data from an Oracle8 database
release 8.0.x to release 8.1.5. During installation of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, you
are prompted to upgrade a database with this assistant if Oracle Universal Installer
detects that a release 8.0.x database exists on your system. If you do not want to
upgrade during the installation process, you can just install this assistant and use it
later.

Note: Oracle Data Migration Assistant cannot be used to upgrade


the following releases:
■ Oracle8 Enterprise Edition release 8.0.1 and 8.0.2 Beta releases.
MIG can upgrade 8.0.2 releases. Upgrading release 8.0.1 is not
supported by either tool.
■ Oracle8 Enterprise Edition software developer kit (SDK)
releases 8.1.1 and 8.1.2.
■ Oracle7 releases. For example, you cannot use the assistant to
upgrade from release 7.1.3.3.6 to release 7.3.3.0.0. If you need to
upgrade version 7 releases, see Oracle7 Server Migration Guide
and the upgrading documentation that came with your Oracle7
software.
■ Migration in an OPS environment is not supported.

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-45


Upgrading an Oracle8 Database Release 8.0.x to 8.1.5

Before you use this assistant, ensure the Oracle8 database to be upgraded meets
these requirements:
■ the database you want to upgrade is at least release 8.0.3.0.0
■ the service for the database instance is present in the Services window of the
Control Panel
To upgrade a database using Oracle Data Migration Assistant:
1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Migration Utilities >
Oracle Data Migration Assistant.
The Oracle Data Migration Assistant welcome window appears:

2. Respond to instructions in each Oracle Data Migration Assistant window, then


click Next when you are ready to continue to the next window. When you get to
the last window, click Next to start the upgrade of the database. More
documentation on this product can be accessed by clicking Help.

5-46 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Upgrading an Oracle8 Database Release 8.0.x to 8.1.5

Upgrading Using SQL Scripts


You can run SQL scripts in SQL*Plus to upgrade an Oracle8i database release 8.0.x
to release 8.1.5.

Warning: If you are using mutually referencing types,


downgrading back to your current release may not be supported
after you upgrade to release 8.1.5. See the section "Downgrading
From Release 8.0.5 to Release 8.0.x" of the READMEMIG.DOC
located in the ORACLE_HOME\RDBMS directory for more
information.

Upgrading consists of the following tasks:


Step 1: Shut Down the Release 8.0.x Database
Step 2: Back Up the Release 8.0.x Database
Step 3: Edit the COMPATIBLE Parameter in the 8.0.x INITSID.ORA File
Step 4: Install Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Release 8.1.5
Step 5: Run the SQL Scripts

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-47


Upgrading an Oracle8 Database Release 8.0.x to 8.1.5

Step 1: Shut Down the Release 8.0.x Database


1. Start SQL*Plus at the MS-DOS command prompt:
C:\> SQLPLUS
2. Connect to the release 8.0.x database as INTERNAL, where PASSWORD is the
password of the database you want to migrate:
SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL/PASSWORD
The message Connected. appears if you successfully connected to the database.
3. Shut down the database in NORMAL mode. Do not use SHUTDOWN
IMMEDIATE or SHUTDOWN ABORT. If the database is not cleanly shutdown,
any backup you make may be useless as it was taken while data was being
written to the data files. Note that NORMAL is the default mode. Enter the
following at the SQL*Plus prompt:
SQL> SHUTDOWN

Step 2: Back Up the Release 8.0.x Database


Perform a full offline backup of the database.
1. Back up the entire Oracle home directory and all of its subdirectories.

Warning: If anything goes wrong with the release 8.0.x database


during upgrade, you will need to restore the database from the
backup. Back up your database now as a precaution!

Ensure the database is cleanly shutdown before you back up. Ensure you back
up the database files in the following list (and any other database files you may
have created). Also, back up any scripts you may have created.

■ Data files SYS1SID.ORA, USR1SID.ORA, RBS1SID.ORA,


TMP1SID.ORA
■ Initialization parameter INITSID.ORA
file
■ Redo log files LOG1SID.ORA, LOG2SID.ORA
■ Control files CTL1SID.ORA

5-48 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Upgrading an Oracle8 Database Release 8.0.x to 8.1.5

To obtain the list of database files you must back up:


a. Create a spool file called V8DBFILES.LOG. Enter the following at the
SQL*Plus prompt:
SQL> SPOOL V8DBFILES.LOG
b. Enter the following commands at the SQL*Plus prompt, where the WHERE
clause equals control_files, DB_FILES, or LOG_FILES. Note that control_
files must be lowercase. The list of database files is output to
V8DBFILES.LOG.
SQL> SELECT MEMBER FROM V$LOGFILE;
SQL> SELECT NAME FROM V$DATAFILE;
SQL> SELECT VALUE FROM V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = ’control_files’;
c. Turn off the SPOOL command:
SQL> SPOOL OFF
See Chapter 13, "Developing Applications", Oracle8 Concepts, Oracle8 Backup and
Recovery Guide, and Oracle8 Administrator’s Guide for information on how to
back up a database.

Step 3: Edit the COMPATIBLE Parameter in the 8.0.x INITSID.ORA File


Ensure the COMPATIBLE parameter is left unset if it has not been set in the
INITSID.ORA file. Leave the COMPATIBLE parameter unchanged if it has been
previously set.
Additional Information: Some new features of Oracle8i release
8.1.x require a compatibility setting of 8.1.0. See Chapter 7
"Compatibility and Interoperability" of Oracle8i Migration for more
information.

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-49


Upgrading an Oracle8 Database Release 8.0.x to 8.1.5

Step 4: Install Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Release 8.1.5


1. Ensure all Oracle services are stopped. See "Managing Oracle Services" on
page 9-2 for information on how to stop services.
2. Install Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT from the CD-ROM. See
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Installation for Windows NT for complete installation
instructions.
The Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Autorun dialog box appears and prompts you to
make a selection:
■ Add/Remove Products
■ Explore CD
■ Browse Information
3. Click Add/Remove Products.
The Oracle Universal Installer Welcome dialog box appears.
4. Click Next. The Oracle License Terms dialog box appears.
5. Click "I accept the License Terms and Export Restrictions." If you do not accept
the terms, you cannot proceed with the installation.
The File Locations dialog box appears. Do not change the text in the Source...
field. This is the location of files for installation.
a. Enter the name of a new Oracle home in the Destination Name: field. In this
example, enter TEST81.
b. Enter the location of the Oracle home directory where you want to install
release 8.1.5. In this example, enter C:\ORACLE\ORA81 in the Path: field.
You must install the release 8.1 software into a directory that is separate
from your release 8.0 Oracle home. Installing the release 8.1 software into
the same Oracle home as the release 8.0 software is not supported in release
8.1.
c. Click Next.
The Available Products dialog box appears.
6. Select Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, then click Next.
The Installation Types dialog box appears.
7. Select the Minimal installation type to avoid the creation of a new database.
8. The Select Starter Database dialog box appears.

5-50 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Upgrading an Oracle8 Database Release 8.0.x to 8.1.5

9. Click No.
The Summary window appears.
10. Click Install.
The Configuration Tools window appears.
11. Click Next.
The End of Installation window appears.
12. After installation is complete, copy the release 8.0.x INITSID.ORA file from the
release 8.0.x ORACLE_HOME\DATABASE directory to the release 8.1.5
ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\DATABASE directory.
13. Shut down and restart the computer.

14. Certain release 8.0 initialization parameters are obsolete in release 8.1. Remove
all obsolete parameters from any initialization parameter file that will start a
release 8.1 instance; obsolete parameters may cause errors in release 8.1. Also,
alter any parameter whose syntax has changed in release 8.1. See Appendix B,
"Changes to Initialization Parameters" of Oracle8i Migration for lists of new,
renamed, and obsolete parameters.
15. If you are updating snapshots automatically by using the JOB_QUEUE_
PROCESSES initialization parameter, comment out this parameter in the
INITSID.ORA file. After upgrading your database, you can remove the
comments to use the parameter normally.

Step 5: Run the SQL Scripts


1. Start the Oracle8 services of the release 8.0.x database you want to upgrade. For
example, enter the following at the MS-DOS command prompt to start the
services of the starter database with a SID of ORCL:
C:\> NET START ORACLESERVICEORCL
2. Set ORACLE_SID to the SID of the release 8.0.x database you want to upgrade.
For example, if the database you are upgrading is the starter database with a
SID of ORCL, enter the following at the MS-DOS command prompt. Note there
are no spaces around the equal sign (=) character.
C:\> SET ORACLE_SID=ORCL
3. Start SQL*Plus at the MS-DOS command prompt:
C:\> SQLPLUS

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-51


Upgrading an Oracle8 Database Release 8.0.x to 8.1.5

4. Connect to the release 8.0.x Oracle8 instance as INTERNAL:


SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL/PASSWORD
5. Run STARTUP RESTRICT:
SQL> STARTUP RESTRICT

Note: STARTUP RESTRICT only applies to a single instance, not


to the database. If you are using Oracle Parallel Server, either use
STARUP RESTRICT to start up one instance with PARALLEL_
SERVER=FALSE, or start up all instances using STARTUP
RESTRICT.

6. Create a spool file called UPGRADE.LOG:


SQL> SPOOL UPGRADE.LOG
7. Run the following scripts:

To Upgrade... Run Script1 Enter at the SQL*Plus Prompt...


8.0.1.0 Not supported
8.0.2.0 Not supported
8.0.3.0 to 8.1.5 U0800030.SQL SQL> @%ORACLE_HOME%\RDBMS\ADMIN\U0800030.SQL
where %ORACLE_HOME% represents your drive letter and release 8.1.5
Oracle home directory.
8.0.4.0 or 8.0.4.1 U0800040.SQL SQL> @%ORACLE_HOME%\RDBMS\ADMIN\U0800040.SQL
to 8.1.5 where %ORACLE_HOME% represents your drive letter and release 8.1.5
Oracle home directory.
8.0.5 U0800050.SQL SQL> @%ORACLE_HOME%\RDBMS\ADMIN\U0800050.SQL
where %ORACLE_HOME% represents your drive letter and release 8.1.5
Oracle home directory.
8.1.3 U0801030.SQL SQL> @%ORACLE_HOME%\RDBMS\ADMIN\U0801030.SQL
where %ORACLE_HOME% represents your drive letter and release 8.1.5
Oracle home directory.

5-52 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Upgrading an Oracle8 Database Release 8.0.x to 8.1.5

To Upgrade... Run Script1 Enter at the SQL*Plus Prompt...


8.1.4 U0801040.SQL SQL> @%ORACLE_HOME%\RDBMS\ADMIN\U0801040.SQL
where %ORACLE_HOME% represents your drive letter and release 8.1.5
Oracle home directory.

1
When you run any of these U*.SQL scripts, the CATALOG.SQL and CATPROC.SQL scripts, which create the system catalog
views and all the necessary packages for using PL/SQL, are also run.

Note:
■ You must use the version of the script supplied with the release
8.1.5 installation.
■ You must run the script in the release 8.1.5 environment.
■ You only need to run one script, even if your upgrade spans
several releases. For example, if your current release is 8.0.3.0.0,
then you only need to run U0800030.SQL.
■ If the old release you had installed prior to upgrading was
higher than release 8.0.5.0, see the READMEMIG.doc file in the
new installation for the correct upgrade script to run.
■ If the upgrade script runs for an inordinately long time, it may
be caused by a setting for LARGE_POOL_SIZE that is too large
for your installation. Use the V$PARAMETER view to check
the setting for LARGE_POOL_SIZE, and if it is too large, set it
to a smaller value in your INIT.ORA file.

8. If you have Advanced Replication installed, run the CATREP.SQL script. If you
have Oracle Parallel Server installed, run the CATPARR.SQL script. Otherwise,
go to Step 9.
Oracle Corporation supplies other scripts with Oracle8i Enterprise Edition that
create additional structures you can use in managing your database and
creating database applications. These scripts are also located in ORACLE_
HOME\RDBMS\ADMIN. See Oracle8 Reference for a complete list and
descriptions of available scripts.
9. Run the UTLRP.SQL script. This is a script that Oracle Corporation recommends
you run to compile all existing PL/SQL modules that were previously in an

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-53


Upgrading an Oracle8 Database Release 8.0.x to 8.1.5

INVALID state, such as packages, procedures, types, and so on. Doing this at
this stage is optional; however, it will ensure that the cost of recompilation is
incurred during installation time rather than later on. Enter at the SQL*Plus
prompt:
SQL> @%ORACLE_HOME%\RDBMS\ADMIN\UTLRP.SQL
10. Turn off the SPOOL command.
SQL> SPOOL OFF
Check the spool file UPGRADE.LOG you created in Step 6. and verify that
every package and procedure compiled successfully. Correct any problems you
find in the file. If you are upgrading from release 8.0.2, also check the
UPGRADE2.LOG spool file.
11. Run ALTER SYSTEM DISABLE RESTRICTED SESSION:
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM DISABLE RESTRICTED SESSION
12. Run UTLCONST.SQL to check for bad date constraints. If you already ran
UTLCONST.SQL after you migrated or upgraded to a previous version 8
release, you do not need to run it again. However, running the script many
times will not damage your system; therefore, if you are unsure about whether
it has been run on your system, run it now.
SQL> SPOOL UTLRESULT.LOG
SQL> @%ORACLE_HOME%\RDBMS\ADMIN\UTLCONST.SQL
SQL> SPOOL OFF
A bad date constraint involves invalid date manipulation. An invalid date
manipulation is one that implicitly assumes the century in the date, causing
problems at the year 2000. The UTLCONST.SQL script runs through all of the
check constraints in the database and sets constraints as bad if they include any
invalid date manipulation. UTLCONST.SQL selects all the bad constraints at the
end. After you run the script, the UTLRESULT.LOG file includes all the
constraints that have invalid date constraints. UTLCONST.SQL does not correct
bad date constraints, but it does disable them. Either drop the bad constraints or
recreate them after you make the necessary changes.

13. Exit SQL*Plus:


SQL> EXIT
14. Ensure the COMPATIBLE parameter is left unset if it has not been set in the
INITSID.ORA file. Leave the COMPATIBLE parameter unchanged if it has
been previously set.

5-54 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Migration Issues for Net8 and SQL*Net

Additional Information: Some new features of Oracle8 release


8.1.x require a compatibility setting of 8.1.0. See Chapter 7
"Compatibility and Interoperability" of Oracle8i Migration for more
information.

Your database is upgraded to release 8.1.5.

Migration Issues for Net8 and SQL*Net


During migration from Oracle 7.x or Oracle 8.0.x to Oracle 8i, the following issues
need to be addressed:
■ Location of Network Configuration Files
■ Listener Configuration in Multiple Oracle Home Installations
■ Changing Listener.ora for Migrated Databases
■ Changes in Handling of TCP/IP Listening Address
■ Enabling NT Native Authentication
■ NT Authenticated Users in the Database
■ Connection using Multi-threaded Server Mode
■ Installing Appropriate Versions of SQL*Net
■ Installation of Oracle Names

Location of Network Configuration Files


SQL*Net and Net8 8.1 use configuration files from ORACLE_
HOME\network\admin by default, while Net8 8.0 uses configuration files from
ORACLE_HOME\net80\admin by default. If you want all the Oracle products to
use configuration files from the same location, you can set the registry variable
TNS_ADMIN.

Additional Information: Please refer to Appendix D. Net8


Configuration Parameters, Services and Port Numbers for more
information.

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-55


Migration Issues for Net8 and SQL*Net

Listener Configuration in Multiple Oracle Home Installations


Before installing an Oracle8i server ensure that any existing Net8 or SQL*Net
listeners on the same computer are stopped. An existing listener may prevent the
Net8 8.1 listener from starting during the Oracle8i install due to listener endpoint
conflicts with an existing listener.
Once Oracle8i is installed, Oracle recommends that you use the new Net8 8.1
listener for all of your Oracle databases of Oracle8i release 8.1 and previous releases
(such as an Oracle8 8.0 database). Even if you install Oracle 8i on multiple Oracle
Homes on the same computer, you should only use one listener for all your
databases on the same computer.
If you want to continue to use multiple listeners (such as a Net8 8.0 listener and
Net8 8.1 listener) on the same computer, verify that there are no listener endpoint
conflicts between the two listeners before starting both listeners. For information on
listener endpoint configuration please refer to the Net8 Administrators guide
included in the online Oracle8i documentation.
Additionally, on Windows NT platforms, the new Net8 8.1 listener will be set to
start automatically at system reboot. If you intend to use only the Net8 8.1 listener
for all of your databases you should ensure that only the Windows NT service for
the Net8 8.1 listener, as listed in the Windows NT services control panel, is set to
start automatically.
If you want to use multiple listeners on the same computer, you need to reconfigure
one of the listeners to make sure that you use different listening endpoints for all
protocols. To resolve conflicts, you may need to make the following changes in
listener configuration:
■ PORT number for TCP/IP,
■ SERVICE name for SPX,
■ PIPE name for Named Pipes, and
■ KEY for IPC.
If you need to change the IPC key used by External Procedure, you also need to
change the KEY for the alias EXPROC_CONNECTION_DATA in tnsnames.ora to
match the KEY value in listener.ora.
If Net8 8.1 listener service is not created during Oracle 8i installation due to
conflicts in listening endpoints, you can start your Net8 8.1 listener by using the
listener control program:
From a command prompt:

5-56 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Migration Issues for Net8 and SQL*Net

lsnrctl start <listener_name>


where <listener_name> is LISTENER for typical install or the name given during
custom install.
This command also creates the NT service for the listener if the service does not
already exist.

Changing Listener.ora for Migrated Databases


When you migrate Oracle 7 or Oracle 8.0 database to an Oracle8i database, the SID
of the database needs to be removed from the Oracle 7/8.0 homeís listener.ora and
added to Oracle 8i homeís listener.ora file.

Changes in Handling of TCP/IP Listening Address


In Oracle 8i, when the LISTENER.ORA or CMAN.ORA contains the TCP/IP system
name in ADDRESS, the Listener or Connection Manager listens on all addresses for
the system. Therefore, even if a system has multiple interface cards with different
TCP/IP host names, listening using any of the host names ensures that the Listener
or Connection Manager will listen on all interface cards. It is an error to configure
multiple addresses for the same port in LISTENER.ORA.
For Oracle 7 or Oracle 8.0, the Listener or Connection Manager only listened for the
TCP/IP host name specified in LISTENER.ORA or CMAN.ORA and you had to
specify listening addresses for multiple TCP/IP host names of a system. The default
LISTENER.ORA created for Oracle 7/Oracle 8.0 contained multiple addresses, e.g.
LISTENER = (ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=system1)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=127.0.0.1)(PORT=1521))
)
The above addresses are invalid for Oracle 8i and the ADDRESS line containing
127.0.0.1 must be removed.

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-57


Migration Issues for Net8 and SQL*Net

Enabling NT Native Authentication


For Oracle 7 and Oracle 8.0 default installation, NT native authentication is turned
off. In order to allow Oracle client to use NT native authentication, the parameter
sqlnet.authentication_services must be set to NTS in sqlnet.ora for Oracle client and
Oracle server, i.e.
sqlnet.authentication_services = (NTS)
This can be done using Net8 Assistant or through manual editing.

NT Authenticated Users in the Database


For Oracle 8i, Database Configuration Assistant sets the parameter OS_AUTHENT_
PREFIX="" in init.ora during database creation. Therefore, Oracle users in the
database should be created without the prefix OPS$ for Oracle 8i. The prefix OPS$ is
needed for Oracle 7 or Oracle 8.0 default installation, where OS_AUTHENT_
PREFIX parameter is not set in init.ora by default.
In Oracle 7.3.3, Oracle 7.3.4 and Oracle 8.0.x, the external users created in the
database were not prefixed with the domain name. For example, the Oracle user in
the database was NTUSER1 for an NT user DOMAIN1\NTUSER1 (assuming that
init.ora parameter OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX=""). If you wished to create the Oracle
user prefixed with domain name, you needed to set the registry value OSAUTH_
PREFIX_DOMAIN in HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\HOME_
ID to TRUE.
For better security in a domain environment, we have changed the default for
Oracle 8i so that external users created in the database are prefixed with domain
name. For example, for an NT user DOMAIN1\NTUSER1, the Oracle user created
in the database should be DOMAIN1\NTUSER1. But you can set the registry value
OSAUTH_PREFIX_DOMAIN in HKEY_LOCAL_
MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\HOME_ID to FALSE if you do not want to
prefix the domain name. Please note that it is less secure if you do not prefix the
domain name. Therefore, if you migrate a database with external users to Oracle 8i,
you have two options:
■ Set the registry value OSAUTH_PREFIX_DOMAIN in HKEY_LOCAL_
MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\HOME_ID to FALSE, or
■ Delete the existing external users and create the new OS authenticated users in
the database using Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT.

5-58 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Migration Issues for Net8 and SQL*Net

Connection using Multi-threaded Server Mode


For Oracle 8i, if the database is configured for multi-threaded server mode, it is
recommended that you specify the service name of the database in the Net Service
Name to ensure that the connection is in multi-threaded server mode. If the Net
Service Name contains the SID of the database, the client will connect to the
database in dedicated server mode if listener.ora contains the statically configured
SID of the database but not the GLOBAL_DBNAME of the database.
This behavior is different from Oracle 8.0. In Oracle 8.0, if the database is configured
for multi-threaded server mode, the clients connected to the database in
multi-threaded server mode even if the Net Service Name contained the SID of the
database.
If Net Service Names of your clients contain the SID of the database and you want
them to connect to the Oracle 8i database in multi-threaded server mode, you
should configure the GLOBAL_DBNAME of the database in listener.ora. For
example, for a database with SID as orcl, DB_NAME as orcl and DB_DOMAIN as
us.oracle.com, the listener entry for Oracle 8i should be:
SID_LIST_LISTENER = (SID_LIST =
(SID_DESC=(SID_NAME=orcl)(GLOBAL_DBNAME=orcl.us.oracle.com))
)

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-59


Migration Issues for Net8 and SQL*Net

Installing Appropriate Versions of SQL*Net


When migrating from Oracle7 Server release 7.3.x to Oracle8i release 8.1.5, install
the appropriate version of SQL*Net in the 7.3.x Oracle home before using Oracle
Data Migration Assistant or MIG. Migration will be unsuccessful if you do not
install the appropriate versions of SQL*Net.

Migrating from... Install...


Oracle7 release 7.3.2.x to Oracle8i SQL*Net release 2.3.2.1.4 and SQL*Net release 2.3.2.1.12
Note: If you do not have SQL*Net release 2.3.2.1.4 on your system, you
must install it before installing SQL*Net release 2.3.2.1.12. SQL*Net release
2.3.2.1.4 is not available on the release 8.1.5 CD-ROM. It is only available on
the release 7.3.2.2.0 CD-ROM.
Oracle7 release 7.3.3.x to Oracle8i SQL*Net release 2.3.3.0.3
To install SQL*Net release 2.3.2.1.12 or 2.3.3.0.3:
1. Start Oracle Installer from the CD-ROM. See Oracle8i Enterprise Edition
Installation for Windows NT for complete installation instructions.
2. Answer questions about language and Oracle home directory location.
3. Select Custom Installation. The Software Asset Manager window
appears.
4. Click From...
5. Navigate to \PATCHES\SQLNET\232112 on the CD-ROM if you
want to install SQL*Net release 2.3.2.1.12. Navigate to
\PATCHES\SQLNET\23303 if you want to install SQL*Net release
2.3.3.0.3.
6. Select SQL*Net Server 2.3.2.1.12 and SQL*Net Client 2.3.2.1.12 if you
want to install SQL*Net release 2.3.2.1.12. Select SQL*Net Server
2.3.3.0.3 and SQL*Net Client 2.3.3.0.3 if you want to install SQL*Net
release 2.3.3.0.3.
7. Click Install.
A window appears showing the progress of the installation. After
installation is complete, a message appears confirming the installation.
8. Click Exit to quit Oracle Installer.

Installation of Oracle Names


During installation of Oracle Names in Oracle 8i, the NT service for the default
Names Server is not created. You need to invoke Net8 Assistant to create the Names
Server.

5-60 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Moving Database Files to an OFA-Compliant Directory

Moving Database Files to an OFA-Compliant Directory


The Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) is a feature of Oracle8i Enterprise
Edition for Windows NT release 8.1.5. It has been available for Oracle on UNIX for
some years. OFA is a set of file naming and placement guidelines recommended by
Oracle Corporation for Oracle software and databases. It can also be thought of as a
set of "good habits" to adopt when organizing Oracle directories and files on your
computer. All Oracle products on the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT
are OFA-compliant; that is, Oracle Universal Installer places Oracle products in
directory locations that follow the OFA guidelines.
One of the many benefits of OFA is that you can separate Oracle software
executables from database files. Previously, database files were placed in ORACLE_
HOME\DATABASE, (for example, C:\ORANT\DATABASE) a subdirectory of the
Oracle home directory that also contained Oracle software. Using OFA, you can put
Oracle software in X:\ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME and database files in
X:\ORACLE_BASE\ORADATA\DB_NAME.
Additional Information: For more information on OFA and the
type of directory structure where you should place your database
files after migration or upgrade, see "Optimal Flexible Architecture
Overview" on page 4-13.

Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases 5-61


Moving Database Files to an OFA-Compliant Directory

5-62 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


6
Post-Installation Configuration Tasks

This chapter describes some of the configuration tasks you must perform before
using products like interMedia, Net8, and Oracle options.Where appropriate, the
chapter provides references to other guides for those configuration tasks.
The chapter focuses on the post-installation configuration of a variety of Oracle
products.
■ What Products Must You Configure?

Note: The directory path examples in this chapter follow Optimal


Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines (for example, ORACLE_
BASE\ORACLE_HOME\RDBMS\ADMIN). If you specified
non-OFA compliant directories during installation, your directory
paths will differ. See "OFA and Multiple Oracle Home
Configurations" page 4-23 for more information.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-1


What Products Must You Configure?

What Products Must You Configure?


The configuration tasks that you must perform are determined by the products that
you install and the network configuration files that you use.
Some products (such as Oracle Enterprise Manager) must always be manually
configured. The configuration requirements for other products (such as Oracle
options) are determined by how you install the product and the network
configuration files that you use.
Review the following table and the sections/documents referenced to identify the
configuration that you must perform after product installation and before using
them.

Product Configuration automatic? See the following for Instructions...


Net8 network software For server configuration files, Oracle Net8 Administrator’s Guide and
configuration is usually automatic. For "Migration Issues for Net8 and
client configuration files, configuration SQL*Net" on page 5-55 of the current
must typically be manually performed guide.
(unless you use the Host Adapter)
Oracle interMedia: Depends on how product was installed "Oracle interMedia" on page 6-3
and on the network configuration files
used
Oracle options:
■ Oracle Spatial Dependent on how product was "Oracle Options" page 6-10
installed
■ Oracle Time Series Dependent on how product was "Oracle Time Series" page 6-12
installed and network configuration files
used
■ Oracle Visual Dependent on how product was "Oracle Visual Information Retrieval"
Information Retrieval installed and network configuration files page 6-15
used
■ Oracle Objects Yes. No manual configuration is required.
■ Java Yes No manual configuration is required.
■ Oracle Partitioning Yes No manual configuration is required.

6-2 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

Product Configuration automatic? See the following for Instructions...


■ Oracle Parallel Server Dependent on how option was installed. Oracle Parallel Server Getting Started for
Windows NT
If Oracle Parallel Server option is
installed through the Oracle8i Enterprise
Edition Typical installation type path,
configuration is automatic.
If Oracle Parallel Server option and the
Oracle database are installed together
through the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition
Custom installation type path, Oracle
Database Configuration Assistant is
started and prompts you for information
before automatically configuring Oracle
Parallel Server.
See Oracle Parallel Server Getting Started
for Windows NT for more information.
Multi-threaded server Dependent on how support was "Multi-Threaded Server Support" page
support installed. 6-17
Advanced Replication Dependent on how support was "Advanced Replication" page 6-21
support installed.
PL/SQL External Dependent on network configuration "Building External Procedures" page
Procedures files used. 13-4
Multi-threaded External No. "Enabling Multi-Threaded Callout
Clouts Support" page 13-10
Oracle Services for No. Using Microsoft Transaction Server with
Microsoft Transaction Oracle8i
Server

Oracle interMedia
Oracle enables file management in a variety of media, from text, to audio, to video.
Files in each medium are managed through a specific "option" such as Oracle
interMedia. This section describes interMedia configuration and describes each
medium management component.

Audio
interMedia Audio manages audio data in multiple file formats in an Oracle
database.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-3


What Products Must You Configure?

Types of audio data supported include conversations, songs, and other sounds in
popular audio file formats. This makes it possible to integrate audio data with other
application-specific object-relational data.

Video
interMedia Video manages video data in multiple video file formats. This makes it
possible to integrate video data with other application-specific object-relational
data.

Image
interMedia Image provides image storage, retrieval, and format conversion
capabilities through an object data type (ODT). It also supports image storage, using
Binary Large Objects (BLOBs) and references to image data residing in external files
(BFILEs).
The Image component of interMedia also comes with a sample demonstration that
shows how an image is extracted from an Oracle database.

Locator
interMedia Locator enables Oracle8i to support online internet-based geocoding
facilities for locator applications and proximity queries.

Configuration Responsibility and Syntax


Review the following table to determine how to configure interMedia Audio, Video,
Image, and Locator.

If you... Then...
Installed the Oracle interMedia No manual configuration is required. All tasks described page 6-5 are
through the Oracle8i Enterprise automatically performed.
Edition Typical installation type path,
Installed both Oracle interMedia and Oracle Database Configuration Assistant starts at the end of installation.
Oracle Server together through the If you select either of the following options:
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Custom
■ Custom
installation type path,
■ Typical, and then select the Create new database files suboption
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant asks if you want interMedia to
be automatically configured.

6-4 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

If you... Then...
Installed Oracle interMedia during a You must manually configure Oracle interMedia by either:
separate installation from Oracle8i
■ Performing the tasks page 6-5.
Enterprise Edition
■ Starting Oracle Database Configuration Assistant and selecting
Modify a database. Then following the on-screen instructions.
Manually copy your Oracle7 You must modify the TNSNAMES.ORA and LISTENER.ORA network
LISTENER.ORA and TNSNAMES.ORA configuration files on your server to enable external procedure calls to
files into your Oracle8i network work and interMedia to function properly. Follow the tasks in
directory "Configuring Net8 for External Procedures" in Chapter 6 of Oracle Net8
Administrator’s Guide.
Want multi-threaded external callout Perform the tasks in "Enabling Multi-Threaded Callout Support" page
functionality 13-10.
Want to use the demos Perform the tasks described for the configuration of interMedia sample
demos below.
Want to build the interMedia Image Install a C compiler.
sample demonstration
Want to use Oracle Visual Install Oracle interMedia first. If you selected both options for
Information Retrieval with Oracle installation at the same time, Oracle interMedia was installed first.
interMedia

1. To configure Oracle interMediaAudio, Video, Image, and Locator:Start


SVRMGR:
C:\> SVRMGRL
2. Connect to the database with the SYS account:
SVRMGRL> connect SYS/<SYS_PASSWORD> as SYSDBA
3. Start the database (if necessary):
SVRMGRL> STARTUP
4. Run the ordinst.sql script:
SVRMGRL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\ADMIN\ORDINST.SQL
5. Run the iminst.sql script:
SVRMGRL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\IM\ADMIN\IMINST.SQL
6. Exit SVRMGRL:

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-5


What Products Must You Configure?

To configure Oracle interMedia Audio demonstrations:


1. Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\AUD\DEMO directory.
2. Follow the instructions in the README.txt file.
To configure Oracle interMedia Video demonstrations:
1. Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\VID\DEMO directory.
2. Follow the instructions in the README.txt file.
To configure Oracle interMedia Image demonstrations:
1. Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\IMG\ADMIN directory.
2. Read the README file in this directory for instructions on configuring the
demo.
3. Make the interMedia Image demos for a Microsoft C compiler by entering:
C:\> MAKE
An additional demonstration resides in the following location:
...ORD\IMG\DEMO\VC\IMGSAMP\SIMPIMG
In order to build and run the demonstration, you must first modify the MAKEFILE
to adapt it to your environment.
To configure Oracle interMedia Locator demonstrations:
1. Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\MD\DEMO\GEOCODER
directory.
2. The NH_CS.SQL file contains the sample data that can be loaded into Oracle8i.
GEOHTTP.SQL and GEOLOCAT.SQL are examples that show the use of
Locator functionality. GEOINDEX.SQL contains examples of data indices
created by using the Locator.

Oracle interMedia Text


Oracle interMedia Text (formerly called ConText) enables text queries through SQL
and PL/SQL from most Oracle interfaces.
By installing interMedia Text with an Oracle database server, client tools such as
SQL*Plus, Oracle Forms, and Pro*C/C++ are able to retrieve and manipulate text in
an Oracle database.
Oracle interMedia Text manages textual data in concert with traditional data types
in an Oracle database. When text is inserted, updated, or deleted, interMedia Text
automatically manages the change.

6-6 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

Configuration Responsibilities and Syntax


Review the following table to determine your interMedia Text post-installation
tasks.

If you... Then...
Installed Oracle interMedia Text from See description below this table.
the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition CD-ROM
and you do not have a previous release
of interMedia Text installed (formerly
called ConText)
Installed Oracle interMedia Text from See Oracle8i interMedia Text Migration.
the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition CD-ROM
and you do have a previous release of
interMedia Text installed (formerly
called ConText)
Migrated your database, you may need See the guides Oracle8i interMedia Text Migration and Oracle8i
to configure Net8 for external interMedia Text Reference.
procedures. Otherwise Oracle
interMedia Text may not work. In any
case other than migration, Net8 should
be configured correctly by default to
work with Oracle interMedia Text.
If you are indexing formatted You must set your environment to use the INSO filter before you can
documents such as Microsoft Word... index your documentation set. For more information on setting
up your environment for INSO filtering, see Appendix-C of
the Oracle8i interMedia Text Reference.

If one of the following is true, the Oracle database is already configured for use with
Oracle interMedia Text:
■ The database is a starter database that you created by installing Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition with the Typical installation type.
■ The database is a starter database that you created by installing Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition with the Minimal installation type and selecting Yes in the
Select Starter Database dialog box.
■ The database is a starter database that you created by performing the following
sequence of steps:
1. Install Oracle8i Enterprise Edition with the Custom installation type.
2. In the Available Product Components dialog box, select Oracle Server.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-7


What Products Must You Configure?

3. When prompted to run Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, click Yes.


4. Select the Typical database creation type.
5. Select "Copy existing database files from the CD".

Additional Information: See Chapter 7, "Starter and Custom


Databases" for more information about creating a starter database.

■ You created the database by using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant,


selecting the Typical database creation type, and selecting Copy existing
database files from the CD.
If none of these are true, you must configure the Oracle database for use with Oracle
interMedia Text by doing one of the following:
■ Using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
■ Configuring Manually

Using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant


You can use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to configure an Oracle
database for use with Oracle interMedia Text either at the time you create the
database or later.

6-8 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

To configure... Do this...
At the time you create Select interMedia Text in the Database Cartridges and Options
the database page.
At a later time 1. Select Modify a database in the Welcome page.
2. Select the database that you want to modify in the Modify
Instance page.
3. Select interMedia Text in the Modify Database Cartridges and
Options page.

Configuring Manually
Manually configuring an Oracle database for use with Oracle interMedia Text
consists of creating a tablespace for the interMedia Text data dictionary tables and
then creating the CTXSYS user name and the interMedia Text data dictionary tables
themselves.
To create a tablespace for the interMedia Text data dictionary tables:
1. Start SQL*Plus:
C:\> SQLPLUS
2. Connect as SYS:
Enter user-name: SYS/PASSWORD
3. Create a tablespace for the interMedia Text data dictionary tables:
SQL> CREATE TABLESPACE TABLESPACE_NAME DATAFILE ’ORACLE_BASE\ORADATA\DB_
NAME\DR01.DBF’ SIZE 80M;
To create the CTXSYS user name and the interMedia Text data dictionary tables:
1. Connect as INTERNAL:
SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL/PASSWORD
2. Run the DR0CSYS.SQL script to create the CTXSYS user name:
SQL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\CTX\ADMIN\DR0CSYS.SQL PASSWORD DEFAULT_
TABLESPACE_NAME TEMPORARY_TABLESPACE_NAME;
where:
■ PASSWORD is the password that you want to use for the CTXSYS user
name.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-9


What Products Must You Configure?

■ DEFAULT_TABLESPACE_NAME is the default tablespace for the


interMedia Text data dictionary tables. Set the default tablespace to the
value of TABLESPACE_NAME in step 3 of the instructions on page 6-9.
■ TEMPORARY_TABLESPACE_NAME is the temporary tablespace for the
interMedia Text data dictionary tables. Set the temporary tablespace to the
value of TABLESPACE_NAME in step 3 of the instructions on page 6-9.
3. Connect as CTXSYS:
SQL> CONNECT CTXSYS/PASSWORD
4. Run the DR0INST.SQL script to create and populate the interMedia Text data
dictionary tables:
SQL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\CTX\ADMIN\DR0INST.SQL ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_
HOME\CTX\LIB\ORACTXX8.DLL;
5. Run the language-specific default script, where XX is the language code (for
example, US):
SQL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\CTX\ADMIN\DEFAULTS\DRDEFXX.SQL;
6. Exit SQL*Plus:
SQL> EXIT

Oracle Options

Oracle Spatial
Oracle Spatial makes the storage, retrieval, and manipulation of spatial data easier
and more intuitive to users.
One example of spatial data is a road map. A road map is a two-dimensional object
that contains points, lines, and polygons representing cities, roads, and political
boundaries such as states. A road map represents geographic information. The
locations of cities, roads, and political boundaries are projected onto a
two-dimensional display or piece of paper, preserving the relative positions and
relative distances of the objects.

6-10 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

Review the following table to determine your configuration responsibilities:

If you... Then...
Installed Oracle Spatial through the No manual configuration is required. All Oracle Spatial configuration
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Typical tasks described under "Configuring Oracle Spatial:" are automatically
installation type path performed.
Installed both Oracle Spatial and Oracle Database Configuration Assistant starts at the end of installation.
Oracle Server together through the If you select either of the following options:
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Custom
■ Custom
installation type path
■ Typical, and then select the Create new database files suboption
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant prompts you about whether or
not you want Oracle Spatial to be automatically configured.
Installed Oracle Spatialduring a You must manually configure Oracle Spatialby either:
separate installation from Oracle8i
■ Performing the Oracle Spatial configuration tasks described under
Enterprise Edition
"Configuring Oracle Spatial:"
■ Starting Oracle Database Configuration Assistant and selecting
Modify a database. Then following the onscreen instructions

Configuring Oracle Spatial:


1. Start SQL*Plus at the MS-DOS command prompt:
C:\> SQLPLUS
2. Connect to the database with the INTERNAL account:
Enter user-name: INTERNAL
3. Start the database (if necessary):
SQL> STARTUP
4. Run the ORDINST.SQL script:
SQL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\ADMIN\ORDINST.SQL
5. Connect to the database as the SYSTEM user:
SQL> CONNECT SYSTEM/PASSWORD
where PASSWORD is MANAGER for the SYSTEM user account by default. If
you have changed this password, substitute MANAGER with the correct
password.
6. Run the MDINST.SQL script:

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-11


What Products Must You Configure?

SQL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\MD\ADMIN\MDINST.SQL
7. Exit SQL*Plus:
SQL> EXIT

Note: The script MDINST.SQL has a variable %MD_SYS_


PASSWORD% that is instantiated at installation time by the Oracle
Universal Installer. Therefore, if you have changed the MDSYS
user’s password, be sure during a manual installation to remember
also to update the MDINST.SQL script with that password.

Oracle Time Series


Oracle Time Series stores and retrieves time-stamped data through object data types
(ODTs).
Oracle Time Seriesis a building block for applications, rather than being an end-user
application. For example, applications can use this option to process historical data
derived from financial market transactions, such as trades of stocks, bonds, and
mutual fund shares. From this you can find the opening, closing, low, and high
prices for a stock on a specific date; calculate monthly volumes for a stock for a
specific year; and derive the 30-day moving average for a stock over a year.
Oracle Time Series also comes as a set of demos that provide a sample
demonstration of how the product works.

6-12 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

Review the following table to determine your configuration responsibilities.

If you... Then...
Installed Oracle Time Series through No manual configuration is required. All configuration tasks described
the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition page 6-13 are automatically performed.
Typical installation type path
Installed both Oracle Time Series and Oracle Database Configuration Assistant starts at the end of installation.
Oracle Server together through the If you select either of the following options:
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Custom
■ Custom
installation type path
■ Typical, and then select the Create new database files suboption
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant prompts you about whether or
not you want Oracle Time Seriesto be automatically configured.
Installed Oracle Time Series during a You must manually configure Oracle Time Series by either:
separate installation from Oracle8i
■ Performing the tasks on page 6-13.
Enterprise Edition
■ Starting Oracle Database Configuration Assistant and selecting
Modify a database. Then following the onscreen instructions.
Want to use the demos Perform the tasks described page 6-14.
Manually copy your Oracle7 You must modify the TNSNAMES.ORA and LISTENER.ORA network
LISTENER.ORA and configuration files on your server to enable external procedure calls to
TNSNAMES.ORA files into your work and Oracle Time Series to function properly. Follow the tasks in
Oracle8i network directory "Configuring Net8 for External Procedures" in Chapter 6 of Oracle Net8
Administrator’s Guide.
Want multi-threaded external callout Perform the tasks in "Enabling Multi-Threaded Callout Support" page
functionality 13-10.

To configure Oracle Time Series:


1. Start SQL*Plus:
C:\> SQLPLUS
2. Connect to the database with the INTERNAL account:
Enter user-name: INTERNAL
3. Start the database (if necessary):
SQL> STARTUP
4. Run the ORDINST.SQL script:
SQL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\ADMIN\ORDINST.SQL

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-13


What Products Must You Configure?

5. Run the TSINST.SQL script:


SQL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\TS\ADMIN\TSINST.SQL
6. Exit SQL*Plus:
SQL> EXIT
The following Oracle Time Series demos are provided in subdirectories of
ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\TS.

Demonstration Directory What the Demonstration Does


Basic usage USAGE Creates a sample database for use with Oracle Time Series and
demonstrates several basic queries. This demo is used as the basis for all
demos.
Option extension EXTEND Includes sample PL/SQL code to extend the functionality of Oracle Time
Series with new functions. Oracle Objects option is required to extend
Oracle Time Series.
OCI OCI Provides C examples of client-side time series access.
Pro*C/C++ PROC Provides examples of several approaches to client-side time series access.
Precompiler Users must have Pro*C/C++ to build this demo.
Developer 2000 DEV2K Includes a Developer 2000 Form that incorporates a Developer 2000
Graphic, both of which access data using Oracle Time Series. This demo
requires Developer 2000 release 2.0 or later.
Quick Start TSQUICK Provides a quick start. This demo uses TSTools to automate the
generation of the Oracle Time Series schema for a stock pricing database,
then demonstrates several basic queries.
Specialized usage USAGEUTL Targets electrical utility applications. Demonstrates how to compute
peak and off-peak summaries of 15-minute data.

To configure Oracle Time Series demos:


1. Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\TS\DEMO directory.
2. Read the README file in this directory for an overview of the Oracle Time
Series demos.
3. Go to the appropriate subdirectory of ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_
HOME\ORD\TS\DEMO for instructions on configuring the demo that you
want to use (for example, directory PROC for Pro*C/C++).
4. Follow the README file instructions in the subdirectory to configure the demo.

6-14 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

Note: Each of the subdirectories contains a README that


provides configuration instructions.

Oracle Visual Information Retrieval


Oracle Visual Information Retrieval stores, retrieves, and manipulates image data
managed by an Oracle database.
This option provides image storage, content-based retrieval, and format conversion
capabilities through an object data type. This option is a building block for various
imaging applications, rather than being an end-user application. Some common
applications for this option consist of digital art galleries and museums, real estate
marketing, document imaging, and stock photo collections for fashion designers
and architects, for example.
Oracle Visual Information Retrieval also provides a sample demonstration, showing
how an image is extracted from an Oracle database.
Review the following table to determine your configuration responsibilities.

Note: When you select installation of Oracle Visual Information


Retrieval, Oracle interMedia is installed automatically since Oracle
Visual Information Retrieval cannot function properly without it.

If you... Then...
Installed Oracle Visual Information No manual configuration is required. All configuration tasks described
Retrieval through the Oracle8i under "To configure Oracle Visual Information Retrieval:" are
Enterprise Edition Typical installation automatically performed.
type path
Installed both Oracle Visual Oracle Database Configuration Assistant starts at the end of installation.
Information Retrieval and Oracle If you select either of the following options:
Server together through the Oracle8i
■ Custom
Enterprise Edition Custom
installation type path ■ Typical, and then select the Create new database files suboption
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant asks if you want Oracle Visual
Information Retrieval to be automatically configured.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-15


What Products Must You Configure?

If you... Then...
Installed Oracle Visual Information You must manually configure Oracle Visual Information Retrieval by
Retrieval during a separate either:
installation from Oracle8i Enterprise
■ Performing the configuration tasks described page 6-16.
Edition
■ Starting Oracle Database Configuration Assistant and selecting
"Modify a database". Then, follow the on-screen instructions.
Want to use the demonstration Perform the configuration tasks described under "To configure the
Oracle Visual Information Retrieval demonstration:".
Want to build an Oracle Visual Install a C compiler.
Information Retrieval sample
demonstration.
Manually copy your Oracle7 You must modify the TNSNAMES.ORA and LISTENER.ORA network
LISTENER.ORA and configuration files on your server to enable external procedure calls to
TNSNAMES.ORA files into your work and Oracle Visual Information Retrieval to function properly.
Oracle8i network directory Follow the tasks in "Configuring Net8 for External Procedures" in
Chapter 6 of Oracle Net8 Administrator’s Guide.
Want multi-threaded external callout Perform the tasks in "Enabling Multi-Threaded Callout Support" page
functionality 13-10.

To configure Oracle Visual Information Retrieval:


1. Ensure that Oracle interMedia is already configured. Oracle interMedia must be
configured before Oracle Visual Information Retrieval. See the configuration
instructions for Oracle interMedia on page 6-5 for information about running
the ordinst.sql and iminst.sql scripts.
2. Start SVRMGRL:
C:\> SVRMGRL
3. Connect to the database with the SYS account:
SVRMGRL> connect SYS/<SYS_PASSWORD> as SYSDBA:
4. Start the database (if necessary):
SVRMGRL> STARTUP
5. Run the virinst.sql script:
SVRMGRL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\VIR\ADMIN\VIRINST.SQL
6. Run the iminst.sql script:
SVRMGRL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\IM\ADMIN\IMINST.SQL

6-16 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

7. Exit SVRMGRL:
SVRMGRL> EXIT
To configure the Oracle Visual Information Retrieval demonstration:
1. Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\VIR\ADMIN directory.
2. Read the README file in this directory for instructions on configuring the
demonstration.
3. Make the Oracle Visual Information Retrieval demonstration for a Microsoft C
compiler by entering:
C:\> MAKE

Multi-Threaded Server Support


Oracle Database Configuration Assistant lets you enable or disable multi-threaded
server support in your Oracle database.
Multi-threaded server mode is also called shared server mode.
If your Oracle database is not configured for multi-threaded server mode, then it is
configured for dedicated server mode.
The following table describes the differences between dedicated server mode and
multi-threaded server mode.

Mode Description
Dedicated server mode The Oracle database allocates a resource dedicated to serving only that one client
connection.
This mode is best used in the following environments:
■ Decision support system (DSS) environment.
■ A small number of users will connect to your Oracle database.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-17


What Products Must You Configure?

Mode Description
Multi-threaded server Enables many client user processes to share a small number of server processes.
mode (also called
Many client users can connect to a dispatcher process. The dispatcher process then
shared server mode)
routes client requests to the next available shared server process. No dedicated server
process exists for each client user process for the duration of the connection. Instead,
inactive server processes are recycled and used as needed. This reduces system
overhead and enables you to increase the number of supported users.
This mode is best used in the following environments:
■ Online transaction processing (OLTP) environment
■ A large number of users will simultaneously connect to your database
■ You want to use Net8 features such as connection pooling, connection
multiplexing, and load balancing
■ Managing and using system resources to a high degree is important
■ Predictable and fast database connection times are very important. (This may be a
very important criterion for Web applications.)
Note: This mode is required for Oracle Java option to function properly.

Additional Information: See the Oracle Net8 Administrator’s Guide


for more information about multi-threaded server mode.

There are two types of multi-threaded server support:


■ Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP) clients
■ Two-task Net8 clients
These types are independent of each other. In other words, you can have any of the
following combinations:
■ Both types of support are enabled
■ Both types of support are disabled
■ One type of support is enabled, and the other type of support is disabled

6-18 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

The current configuration of your Oracle database depends on how the database
was installed.

If installed through... Then the configuration is...


Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Typical option Multi-threaded server mode for IIOP clients and dedicated server
of Oracle Universal Installer mode for two-task Net8 clients
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Minimal Dedicated server mode for both types of clients
option of Oracle Universal Installer
Typical option of Oracle Database If you selected Java VM Option, the mode is multi-threaded server
Configuration Assistant mode for IIOP clients.
Dedicated server mode for two-task Net8 clients, unless you
perform the following sequence of steps:
1. Run Oracle Database Configuration Assistant.
2. Select Create a database.
3. Select Typical.
4. Select the Create new database files suboption.
5. Select Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) as your database
environment.
6. Enter 20 or more for the number of concurrent database
connections.
This creates a database in multi-threaded server mode for two-task
Net8 clients.
Custom option of Oracle Database Dedicated server mode or multi-threaded server mode, depending
Configuration Assistant on what you select when prompted by Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant.

Enabling Multi-Threaded Server Support for IIOP Clients


Multi-threaded server support for IIOP clients is automatically enabled when you
install Oracle Java option.

Enabling Multi-Threaded Server Support for Two-Task Net8 Clients


Multi-threaded support for two-task Net8 clients must be enabled manually.
To enable multi-threaded server support for two-task Net8 clients:
1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Oracle Enterprise
Management > Database Administration Applications > Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-19


What Products Must You Configure?

The Oracle Database Configuration Assistant welcome page appears.


2. Select Modify a database and click Next.
3. Select the Oracle database to modify and, if prompted, enter the INTERNAL
password.
4. Click Next.
5. Select Shared Server Mode and click Next.
6. Click Next in the options page.
7. Make any necessary changes to the multi-threaded server parameters. Click
Help for more information about the parameters.
8. Click Next.
9. Make any necessary changes to the multi-threaded server parameters. Click
Help for more information about the parameters.
10. Click Finish.
A dialog box prompts you to select the initialization parameter file to use.
11. Select the appropriate file and click OK.
Your initialization parameter file is modified.
12. Shut down and restart your Oracle database for the changes to take effect.

Disabling Multi-Threaded Server Support for Two-Task Net8 Clients


Multi-threaded support for two-task Net8 clients must be disabled manually.
To disable multi-threaded server support for two-task Net8 clients:
1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Oracle Enterprise
Management > Database Administration Applications > Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant.
The Oracle Database Configuration Assistant welcome page appears.
2. Select Modify a database and click Next.
3. Select the Oracle database to modify and, if prompted, enter the INTERNAL
password.
4. Click Next.
5. Select Dedicated Server Mode and click Finish.

6-20 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

A dialog box prompts you to select the initialization parameter file to use.
6. Select the appropriate file and click OK.
Your initialization parameter file is modified.
7. Shut down and restart your Oracle database for the changes to take effect.

Advanced Replication
This section describes how to manually configure Advanced Replication in your
Oracle database.
Typically, Advanced Replication is automatically configured during installation.
The following figure describes the situations under which Advanced Replication is
configured or not configured.
If Advanced Replication is automatically configured, do not follow the instructions
in this section. Follow the instructions only if you want to add Advanced
Replication to an Oracle database that was not previously configured with this
feature.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-21


What Products Must You Configure?

If you select the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition installation option and select...

Typical Minimal Custom

Advanced replication is Advanced replication is The Available Product Components dialog box
automatically configured. automatically configured if appears.
you installed the starter 1. Select Oracle Server and click Install.
database when prompted by
the Select Starter Database 2. Click Yes when prompted to run Oracle Database
dialog box. Configuration Assistant.
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant starts at
the end of installation and prompts you to select
either of two database installation types:
■ Typical
■ Custom

If you select Typical, the installer prompts you If you select Custom, one of the Oracle Database
about how to create your database: Configuration Assistant pages prompts you to
■ Copy existing database files from the CD configure Advanced Replication.
■ Create new database files If you select the Advanced Replication check box,
advanced replication is automatically configured.
If you do not select the Advanced Replication
check box, advanced replication is not configured.

If you select Copy existing database files from If you select Create new database files, one of the
the CD, advanced replication is automatically Oracle Database Configuration Assistant pages
configured. prompts you to configure Advanced Replication.
If you select the Advanced Replication check box,
advanced replication is automatically configured.
If you do not select the Advanced Replication check
box, advanced replication is not configured.

6-22 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

Configuring advanced replication consists of the following steps:


■ Checking Tablespace Requirements
■ Checking Initialization Parameters
■ Performing Configuration Tasks
■ Monitoring Data Dictionary Tables
■ Upgrading Advanced Replication
See the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Installation for Windows NT CD-ROM insert for
Advanced Replication installation requirements.

Additional Information: There are many configuration and usage


possibilities with Advanced Replication. For more information
about advanced replication and for definitions of master sites and
snapshot sites, see
■ Oracle8i Distributed Database Systems
■ Oracle8i Replication
■ Oracle8i Concepts
■ Oracle8i Administrator’s Guide

Checking Tablespace Requirements


The following are recommended tablespace requirements for Advanced
Replication:

Tablespace Requirement
SYSTEM At least 20 MB of free space is required for replication
packages. Replication triggers and procedures are stored here.
ROLLBACK SEGMENTS ■ Rollback Initial Extent = 50 KB
■ Rollback Next Extent = 50 KB
ROLLBACK At least 5 MB of free space.
TEMPORARY At least 10 MB of free space.
USER No specific requirement.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-23


What Products Must You Configure?

Checking Initialization Parameters


Certain initialization parameter values must be set or added to the INIT.ORA file
(recommended values are included) if you use Advanced Replication.

Master Site
Add these initialization parameters to the master site.

Parameter Name Recommended Value


SHARED_POOL_SIZE At least 10 MB; 15 MB if Java was installed,
using the Typical installation option, 50 MB
if Java was installed, using the Custom
installation option.1
DISTRIBUTED_LOCK_TIMEOUT 300 s
DISTRIBUTED_TRANSACTIONS 5
GLOBAL_NAMES TRUE
OPEN_LINKS 4
PROCESSES Add 9 to current value
JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES 2 (depends on number of n-way sites)
JOB_QUEUE_INTERVAL 10 s
1
Java itself requires a POOL_SIZE parameter of 10 MB.

Snapshot Sites
Add these initialization parameters for snapshot sites.

Parameter Name Recommended Value


JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES 2
JOB_QUEUE_INTERVAL 60 s

Performing Configuration Tasks


After setting up the INIT.ORA file with the initialization parameters for Advanced
Replication, perform the following steps.

6-24 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

To configure Advanced Replication:


1. Start SQL*Plus:
C:\> SQLPLUS
2. Connect to the database with the INTERNAL account:
Enter user-name: INTERNAL
3. Start the database if it is not currently running:
SQL> STARTUP
4. Run the CATREP.SQL script once the database has started.
The script is found in the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\RDBMS\ADMIN
directory, and takes approximately one hour to run.
Spool output to a log file first before running CATREP.SQL.
5. Enter the following command:
SQL> SPOOL OUTPUT.LOG
This creates a file called OUTPUT.LOG to which to output all on-screen activity
while the SPOOL session is open.
6. Run CATREP.SQL:
SQL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\RDBMS\ADMIN\CATREP.SQL
7. Close the SPOOL file when the script completes running:
SQL> SPOOL OFF
OUTPUT.LOG is saved to your current directory.
8. Confirm that CATREP.SQL ran correctly by running a query on ALL_OBJECTS
where STATUS = ’INVALID’:
SQL> SELECT * FROM ALL_OBJECTS WHERE STATUS = ’INVALID’;
If all package bodies compiled successfully, the following message displays:
0 rows selected.
If you find that any of the package bodies compiled incorrectly, recompile them
manually. The syntax for running them manually follows:
SQL> ALTER PACKAGE PACKAGE NAME COMPILE BODY;

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-25


What Products Must You Configure?

If CATREP.SQL ran successfully, a number of replication tables are created in


the SYSTEM tablespace. The database is now set up for Advanced Replication
support.
9. Exit SQL*Plus:
SQL> EXIT
10. See Oracle8i Replication for details on setting up the following:

■ Master definition site


■ Master sites
■ Updatable snapshot sites
■ Conflict resolution

Note: Run the following statement on the master site when setting
up updatable snapshot sites:
SVRMGR> GRANT EXECUTE ON DBMSOBJGWRAPPER TO PUBLIC;

Monitoring Data Dictionary Tables


The practical limit to the number of master sites an environment can have is 36. The
processes SNP0 to SNP9 (total of 10) and SNPA to SNPZ (total of 26) each handle
one destination master at a time.
If you use Advanced Replication and intend to set up a large number of replicated
objects, monitor the following data dictionary tables with the SQL SELECT
command:
■ ARGUMENT$
■ IDL_CHAR$
■ IDL_UB1$
■ IDL_UB2$
■ IDL_SB4$
■ I_ARGUMENT1
■ I_SOURCE1I$
■ SOURCE$
■ TRIGGER

6-26 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

If necessary, increase the storage parameters to accommodate the storage


requirements of large numbers of replicated objects.

Upgrading Advanced Replication


If you are upgrading from a previous version of the Oracle database and want to
use advanced replication, you must first complete the upgrade. (See Chapter 5,
"Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases" in this guide.)
Because advance replication is an advanced feature, see "Oracle8i Replication" for a
presentation of its basic concepts before proceeding. For information about
available training, contact Oracle Education.

Audio
interMedia Audio manages audio data in multiple file formats in an Oracle
database.
Types of audio data supported include conversations, songs, and other sounds in
popular audio file formats. This makes it possible to integrate audio data with other
application-specific object-relational data.

Video
interMedia Video manages video data in multiple video file formats. This makes it
possible to integrate video data with other application-specific object-relational
data.

Image
interMedia Image provides image storage, retrieval, and format conversion
capabilities through an object data type (ODT). It also supports image storage, using
Binary Large Objects (BLOBs) and references to image data residing in external files
(BFILEs).
The Image component of interMedia also comes with a sample demonstration that
shows how an image is extracted from an Oracle database.

Locator
interMedia Locator enables Oracle8i to support online internet-based geocoding
facilities for locator applications and proximity queries.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-27


What Products Must You Configure?

Configuration Responsibility and Syntax


Review the following table to determine how to configure interMedia Audio, Video,
Image, and Locator.

If you... Then...
Installed the Oracle interMedia No manual configuration is required. All tasks described page 6-5 are
through the Oracle8i Enterprise automatically performed.
Edition Typical installation type path,
Installed both Oracle interMedia and Oracle Database Configuration Assistant starts at the end of installation.
Oracle Server together through the If you select either of the following options:
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Custom
■ Custom
installation type path,
■ Typical, and then select the Create new database files suboption
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant asks if you want interMedia to
be automatically configured.
Installed Oracle interMedia during a You must manually configure Oracle interMedia by either:
separate installation from Oracle8i
■ Performing the tasks under "To configure Oracle interMediaAudio,
Enterprise Edition
Video, Image, and Locator:Start SVRMGR:".
■ Starting Oracle Database Configuration Assistant and selecting
"Modify a Database". Then following the on-screen instructions.
Manually copy your Oracle7 You must modify the TNSNAMES.ORA and LISTENER.ORA network
LISTENER.ORA and TNSNAMES.ORA configuration files on your server to enable external procedure calls to
files into your Oracle8i network work and interMedia to function properly. Follow the tasks in
directory "Configuring Net8 for External Procedures" in Chapter 6 of Oracle Net8
Administrator’s Guide.
Want multi-threaded external callout Perform the tasks in "Enabling Multi-Threaded Callout Support" page
functionality 13-10.
Want to use the demos Perform the tasks described for the configuration of interMedia sample
demos below.
Want to build the interMedia Image Install a C compiler.
sample demonstration
Want to use Oracle Visual Install Oracle interMedia first. If you selected both options for
Information Retrieval with Oracle installation at the same time, Oracle interMedia was installed first.
interMedia

6-28 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

To configure Oracle interMediaAudio, Video, Image, and Locator:


1. Start SVRMGR:
C:\> SVRMGRL
2. Connect to the database with the SYS account:
SVRMGRL> connect SYS/<SYS_PASSWORD> as SYSDBA
3. Start the database (if necessary):
SVRMGRL> STARTUP
4. Run the ordinst.sql script:
SVRMGRL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\ADMIN\ORDINST.SQL
5. Run the iminst.sql script:
SVRMGRL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\IM\ADMIN\IMINST.SQL
6. Exit SVRMGRL:

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-29


What Products Must You Configure?

To configure Oracle interMedia Audio demonstrations:


1. Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\AUD\DEMO directory.
2. Follow the instructions in the README.txt file.
To configure Oracle interMedia Video demonstrations:
1. Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\VID\DEMO directory.
2. Follow the instructions in the README.txt file.
To configure Oracle interMedia Image demonstrations:
1. Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\IMG\ADMIN directory.
2. Read the README file in this directory for instructions on configuring the
demo.
3. Make the interMedia Image demos for a Microsoft C compiler by entering:
C:\> MAKE
An additional demonstration resides in the following location:
...ORD\IMG\DEMO\VC\IMGSAMP\SIMPIMG
In order to build and run the demonstration, you must first modify the MAKEFILE
to adapt it to your environment.
To configure Oracle interMedia Locator demonstrations:
1. Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\MD\DEMO\GEOCODER
directory.
2. The NH_CS.SQL file contains the sample data that can be loaded into Oracle8i.
GEOHTTP.SQL and GEOLOCAT.SQL are examples that show the use of
Locator functionality. GEOINDEX.SQL contains examples of data indices
created by using the Locator.

Oracle interMedia Text


Oracle interMedia Text (formerly called ConText) enables text queries through SQL
and PL/SQL from most Oracle interfaces.
By installing interMedia Text with an Oracle database server, client tools such as
SQL*Plus, Oracle Forms, and Pro*C/C++ are able to retrieve and manipulate text in
an Oracle database.

6-30 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

Oracle interMedia Text manages textual data in concert with traditional data types
in an Oracle database. When text is inserted, updated, or deleted, interMedia Text
automatically manages the change.

Configuration Responsibilities and Syntax


Review the following table to determine your interMedia Text post-installation
tasks.

If you... Then...
Installed Oracle interMedia Text from See description below this table.
the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition CD-ROM
and you do not have a previous release
of interMedia Text installed (formerly
called ConText)
Installed Oracle interMedia Text from See the guide Oracle8i interMedia Text Migration
the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition CD-ROM
and you do have a previous release of
interMedia Text installed (formerly
called ConText)
Migrated your database, you may need See the guides Oracle8i interMedia Text Migration and Oracle8i
to configure Net8 for external interMedia Text Reference.
procedures. Otherwise Oracle
interMedia Text may not work. In any
case other than migration, Net8 should
be configured correctly by default to
work with Oracle interMedia Text.
If you are indexing formatted You must set your environment to use the INSO filter before you can
documents such as Microsoft Word... index your documentation set. For more information on setting
up your environment for INSO filtering, see Appendix-C of
the Oracle8i interMedia Text Reference.

If one of the following is true, the Oracle database is already configured for use with
Oracle interMedia Text:
■ The database is a starter database that you created by installing Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition with the Typical installation type.
■ The database is a starter database that you created by installing Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition with the Minimal installation type and selecting Yes in the
Select Starter Database dialog box.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-31


What Products Must You Configure?

■ The database is a starter database that you created by performing the following
sequence of steps:
1. Install Oracle8i Enterprise Edition with the Custom installation type.
2. In the Available Product Components dialog box, select Oracle Server.
3. When prompted to run Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, click Yes.
4. Select the Typical database creation type.
5. Select "Copy existing database files from the CD".

Additional Information: See Chapter 7, "Starter and Custom


Databases" for more information about creating a starter database.

■ You created the database by using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant,


selecting the Typical database creation type, and selecting Copy existing
database files from the CD.
If none of these are true, you must configure the Oracle database for use with Oracle
interMedia Text by doing one of the following:
■ Using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
■ Configuring Manually

Using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant


You can use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to configure an Oracle
database for use with Oracle interMedia Text either at the time you create the
database or later.

6-32 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

To configure... Do this...
At the time you create Select interMedia Text in the Database Cartridges and Options
the database page.
At a later time 1. Select Modify a database in the Welcome page.
2. Select the database that you want to modify in the Modify
Instance page.
3. Select interMedia Text in the Modify Database Cartridges and
Options page.

Configuring Manually
Manually configuring an Oracle database for use with Oracle interMedia Text
consists of creating a tablespace for the interMedia Text data dictionary tables and
then creating the CTXSYS user name and the interMedia Text data dictionary tables
themselves.
To create a tablespace for the interMedia Text data dictionary tables:
1. Start SQL*Plus:
C:\> SQLPLUS
2. Connect as SYS:
Enter user-name: SYS/PASSWORD
3. Create a tablespace for the interMedia Text data dictionary tables:
SQL> CREATE TABLESPACE TABLESPACE_NAME DATAFILE ’ORACLE_BASE\ORADATA\DB_
NAME\DR01.DBF’ SIZE 80M;
To create the CTXSYS user name and the interMedia Text data dictionary tables:
1. Connect as INTERNAL:
SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL/PASSWORD
2. Run the DR0CSYS.SQL script to create the CTXSYS user name:
SQL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\CTX\ADMIN\DR0CSYS.SQL PASSWORD DEFAULT_
TABLESPACE_NAME TEMPORARY_TABLESPACE_NAME;
where:
■ PASSWORD is the password that you want to use for the CTXSYS user
name.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-33


What Products Must You Configure?

■ DEFAULT_TABLESPACE_NAME is the default tablespace for the


interMedia Text data dictionary tables. Set the default tablespace to the
value of TABLESPACE_NAME in step 3 of the instructions on page 6-9.
■ TEMPORARY_TABLESPACE_NAME is the temporary tablespace for the
interMedia Text data dictionary tables. Set the temporary tablespace to the
value of TABLESPACE_NAME in step 3 of the instructions on page 6-9.
3. Connect as CTXSYS:
SQL> CONNECT CTXSYS/PASSWORD
4. Run the DR0INST.SQL script to create and populate the interMedia Text data
dictionary tables:
SQL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\CTX\ADMIN\DR0INST.SQL ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_
HOME\CTX\LIB\ORACTXX8.DLL;
5. Run the language-specific default script, where XX is the language code (for
example, US):
SQL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\CTX\ADMIN\DEFAULTS\DRDEFXX.SQL;
6. Exit SQL*Plus:
SQL> EXIT

Oracle Options

Oracle Spatial
Oracle Spatial makes the storage, retrieval, and manipulation of spatial data easier
and more intuitive to users.
One example of spatial data is a road map. A road map is a two-dimensional object
that contains points, lines, and polygons representing cities, roads, and political
boundaries such as states. A road map represents geographic information. The
locations of cities, roads, and political boundaries are projected onto a
two-dimensional display or piece of paper, preserving the relative positions and
relative distances of the objects.

6-34 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

Review the following table to determine your configuration responsibilities:

If you... Then...
Installed Oracle Spatial through the No manual configuration is required. All Oracle Spatial configuration
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Typical tasks described page 6-11 are automatically performed.
installation type path
Installed both Oracle Spatial and Oracle Database Configuration Assistant starts at the end of installation.
Oracle Server together through the If you select either of the following options:
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Custom
■ Custom
installation type path
■ Typical, and then select the Create new database files suboption
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant prompts you about whether or
not you want Oracle Spatial to be automatically configured.
Installed Oracle Spatialduring a You must manually configure Oracle Spatialby either:
separate installation from Oracle8i
■ Performing the Oracle Spatial configuration tasks described under
Enterprise Edition
"Configuring Oracle Spatial:"
■ Starting Oracle Database Configuration Assistant and selecting
Modify a database. Then following the onscreen instructions

Configuring Oracle Spatial:


1. Start SQL*Plus at the MS-DOS command prompt:
C:\> SQLPLUS
2. Connect to the database with the INTERNAL account:
Enter user-name: INTERNAL
3. Start the database (if necessary):
SQL> STARTUP
4. Run the ORDINST.SQL script:
SQL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\ADMIN\ORDINST.SQL
5. Connect to the database as the SYSTEM user:
SQL> CONNECT SYSTEM/PASSWORD
where PASSWORD is MANAGER for the SYSTEM user account by default. If
you have changed this password, substitute MANAGER with the correct
password.
6. Run the MDINST.SQL script:

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-35


What Products Must You Configure?

SQL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\MD\ADMIN\MDINST.SQL
7. Exit SQL*Plus:
SQL> EXIT

Note: The script MDINST.SQL has a variable %MD_SYS_


PASSWORD% that is instantiated at installation time by the Oracle
Universal Installer. Therefore, if you have changed the MDSYS
user’s password, be sure during a manual installation to remember
also to update the MDINST.SQL script with that password.

Oracle Time Series


Oracle Time Series stores and retrieves time-stamped data through object data types
(ODTs).
Oracle Time Seriesis a building block for applications, rather than being an end-user
application. For example, applications can use this option to process historical data
derived from financial market transactions, such as trades of stocks, bonds, and
mutual fund shares. From this you can find the opening, closing, low, and high
prices for a stock on a specific date; calculate monthly volumes for a stock for a
specific year; and derive the 30-day moving average for a stock over a year.
Oracle Time Series also comes as a set of demos that provide a sample
demonstration of how the product works.

6-36 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

Review the following table to determine your configuration responsibilities.

If you... Then...
Installed Oracle Time Series through No manual configuration is required. All configuration tasks described
the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition under "To configure Oracle Time Series:" are automatically performed.
Typical installation type path
Installed both Oracle Time Series and Oracle Database Configuration Assistant starts at the end of installation.
Oracle Server together through the If you select either of the following options:
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Custom
■ Custom
installation type path
■ Typical, and then select the Create new database files suboption
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant prompts you about whether or
not you want Oracle Time Seriesto be automatically configured.
Installed Oracle Time Series during a You must manually configure Oracle Time Series by either:
separate installation from Oracle8i
■ Performing the tasks under "To configure Oracle Time Series:".
Enterprise Edition
■ Starting Oracle Database Configuration Assistant and selecting
Modify a database. Then following the onscreen instructions.
Want to use the demonstration Perform the tasks described in the table illustrating the demonstration.
Manually copy your Oracle7 You must modify the TNSNAMES.ORA and LISTENER.ORA network
LISTENER.ORA and configuration files on your server to enable external procedure calls to
TNSNAMES.ORA files into your work and Oracle Time Series to function properly. Follow the tasks in
Oracle8i network directory "Configuring Net8 for External Procedures" in Chapter 6 of Oracle Net8
Administrator’s Guide.
Want multi-threaded external callout Perform the tasks in "Enabling Multi-Threaded Callout Support" page
functionality 13-10.

To configure Oracle Time Series:


1. Start SQL*Plus:
C:\> SQLPLUS
2. Connect to the database with the INTERNAL account:
Enter user-name: INTERNAL
3. Start the database (if necessary):
SQL> STARTUP
4. Run the ORDINST.SQL script:
SQL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\ADMIN\ORDINST.SQL

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-37


What Products Must You Configure?

5. Run the TSINST.SQL script:


SQL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\TS\ADMIN\TSINST.SQL
6. Exit SQL*Plus:
SQL> EXIT
The following Oracle Time Series demos are provided in subdirectories of
ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\TS.

Demonstration Directory What the Demonstration Does


Basic usage USAGE Creates a sample database for use with Oracle Time Series and
demonstrates several basic queries. This demo is used as the basis for all
demos.
Option extension EXTEND Includes sample PL/SQL code to extend the functionality of Oracle Time
Series with new functions. Oracle Objects option is required to extend
Oracle Time Series.
OCI OCI Provides C examples of client-side time series access.
Pro*C/C++ PROC Provides examples of several approaches to client-side time series access.
Precompiler Users must have Pro*C/C++ to build this demo.
Developer 2000 DEV2K Includes a Developer 2000 Form that incorporates a Developer 2000
Graphic, both of which access data using Oracle Time Series. This demo
requires Developer 2000 release 2.0 or later.
Quick Start TSQUICK Provides a quick start. This demo uses TSTools to automate the
generation of the Oracle Time Series schema for a stock pricing database,
then demonstrates several basic queries.
Specialized usage USAGEUTL Targets electrical utility applications. Demonstrates how to compute
peak and off-peak summaries of 15-minute data.

To configure Oracle Time Series demos:


1. Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\TS\DEMO directory.
2. Read the README file in this directory for an overview of the Oracle Time
Series demos.
3. Go to the appropriate subdirectory of ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_
HOME\ORD\TS\DEMO for instructions on configuring the demo that you
want to use (for example, directory PROC for Pro*C/C++).
4. Follow the README file instructions in the subdirectory to configure the demo.

6-38 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

Note: Each of the subdirectories contains a README that


provides configuration instructions.

Oracle Visual Information Retrieval


Oracle Visual Information Retrieval stores, retrieves, and manipulates image data
managed by an Oracle database.
This option provides image storage, content-based retrieval, and format conversion
capabilities through an object data type. This option is a building block for various
imaging applications, rather than being an end-user application. Some common
applications for this option consist of digital art galleries and museums, real estate
marketing, document imaging, and stock photo collections for fashion designers
and architects, for example.
Oracle Visual Information Retrieval also provides a sample demonstration, showing
how an image is extracted from an Oracle database.
Review the following table to determine your configuration responsibilities.

Note: When you select installation of Oracle Visual Information


Retrieval, Oracle interMedia is installed automatically since Oracle
Visual Information Retrieval cannot function properly without it.

If you... Then...
Installed Oracle Visual Information No manual configuration is required. All configuration tasks described
Retrieval through the Oracle8i under "To configure Oracle Visual Information Retrieval:" are
Enterprise Edition Typical installation automatically performed.
type path
Installed both Oracle Visual Oracle Database Configuration Assistant starts at the end of installation.
Information Retrieval and Oracle If you select either of the following options:
Server together through the Oracle8i
■ Custom
Enterprise Edition Custom
installation type path ■ Typical, and then select the Create new database files suboption
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant asks if you want Oracle Visual
Information Retrieval to be automatically configured.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-39


What Products Must You Configure?

If you... Then...
Installed Oracle Visual Information You must manually configure Oracle Visual Information Retrieval by
Retrieval during a separate either:
installation from Oracle8i Enterprise
■ Performing the configuration tasks described page 6-16.
Edition
■ Starting Oracle Database Configuration Assistant and selecting
"Modify a database". Then, follow the on-screen instructions.
Want to use the demonstrations Perform the configuration tasks described under "To configure the
Oracle Visual Information Retrieval demonstration:".
Want to build an Oracle Visual Install a C compiler.
Information Retrieval sample
demonstration.
Manually copy your Oracle7 You must modify the TNSNAMES.ORA and LISTENER.ORA network
LISTENER.ORA and configuration files on your server to enable external procedure calls to
TNSNAMES.ORA files into your work and Oracle Visual Information Retrieval to function properly.
Oracle8i network directory Follow the tasks in "Configuring Net8 for External Procedures" in
Chapter 6 of Oracle Net8 Administrator’s Guide.
Want multi-threaded external callout Perform the tasks in "Enabling Multi-Threaded Callout Support" page
functionality 13-10.

To configure Oracle Visual Information Retrieval:


1. Ensure that Oracle interMedia is already configured. Oracle interMedia must be
configured before Oracle Visual Information Retrieval. See the configuration
instructions for Oracle interMedia on page 6-5 for information about running
the ordinst.sql and iminst.sql scripts.
2. Start SVRMGRL:
C:\> SVRMGRL
3. Connect to the database with the SYS account:
SVRMGRL> connect SYS/<SYS_PASSWORD> as SYSDBA:
4. Start the database (if necessary):
SVRMGRL> STARTUP
5. Run the virinst.sql script:
SVRMGRL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\VIR\ADMIN\VIRINST.SQL
6. Run the iminst.sql script:
SVRMGRL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\IM\ADMIN\IMINST.SQL

6-40 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

7. Exit SVRMGRL:
SVRMGRL> EXIT
To configure the Oracle Visual Information Retrieval demonstration:
1. Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ORD\VIR\ADMIN directory.
2. Read the README file in this directory for instructions on configuring the
demonstration.
3. Make the Oracle Visual Information Retrieval demonstration for a Microsoft C
compiler by entering:
C:\> MAKE

Multi-Threaded Server Support


Oracle Database Configuration Assistant lets you enable or disable multi-threaded
server support in your Oracle database.
Multi-threaded server mode is also called shared server mode.
If your Oracle database is not configured for multi-threaded server mode, then it is
configured for dedicated server mode.
The following table describes the differences between dedicated server mode and
multi-threaded server mode.

Mode Description
Dedicated server mode The Oracle database allocates a resource dedicated to serving only that one client
connection.
This mode is best used in the following environments:
■ Decision support system (DSS) environment.
■ A small number of users will connect to your Oracle database.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-41


What Products Must You Configure?

Mode Description
Multi-threaded server Enables many client user processes to share a small number of server processes.
mode (also called
Many client users can connect to a dispatcher process. The dispatcher process then
shared server mode)
routes client requests to the next available shared server process. No dedicated server
process exists for each client user process for the duration of the connection. Instead,
inactive server processes are recycled and used as needed. This reduces system
overhead and enables you to increase the number of supported users.
This mode is best used in the following environments:
■ Online transaction processing (OLTP) environment
■ A large number of users will simultaneously connect to your database
■ You want to use Net8 features such as connection pooling, connection
multiplexing, and load balancing
■ Managing and using system resources to a high degree is important
■ Predictable and fast database connection times are very important. (This may be a
very important criterion for Web applications.)
Note: This mode is required for Oracle Java option to function properly.

Additional Information: See the Oracle Net8 Administrator’s Guide


for more information about multi-threaded server mode.

There are two types of multi-threaded server support:


■ Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP) clients
■ Two-task Net8 clients
These types are independent of each other. In other words, you can have any of the
following combinations:
■ Both types of support are enabled
■ Both types of support are disabled
■ One type of support is enabled, and the other type of support is disabled

6-42 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

The current configuration of your Oracle database depends on how the database
was installed.

If installed through... Then the configuration is...


Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Typical option Multi-threaded server mode for IIOP clients and dedicated server
of Oracle Universal Installer mode for two-task Net8 clients
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Minimal Dedicated server mode for both types of clients
option of Oracle Universal Installer
Typical option of Oracle Database If you selected Java VM Option, the mode is multi-threaded server
Configuration Assistant mode for IIOP clients.
Dedicated server mode for two-task Net8 clients, unless you
perform the following sequence of steps:
1. Run Oracle Database Configuration Assistant.
2. Select Create a database.
3. Select Typical.
4. Select the Create new database files suboption.
5. Select Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) as your database
environment.
6. Enter 20 or more for the number of concurrent database
connections.
This creates a database in multi-threaded server mode for two-task
Net8 clients.
Custom option of Oracle Database Dedicated server mode or multi-threaded server mode, depending
Configuration Assistant on what you select when prompted by Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant.

Enabling Multi-Threaded Server Support for IIOP Clients


Multi-threaded server support for IIOP clients is automatically enabled when you
install Oracle Java option.

Enabling Multi-Threaded Server Support for Two-Task Net8 Clients


Multi-threaded support for two-task Net8 clients must be enabled manually.
To enable multi-threaded server support for two-task Net8 clients:
1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Oracle Enterprise
Management > Database Administration Applications > Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-43


What Products Must You Configure?

The Oracle Database Configuration Assistant welcome page appears.


2. Select Modify a database and click Next.
3. Select the Oracle database to modify and, if prompted, enter the INTERNAL
password.
4. Click Next.
5. Select Shared Server Mode and click Next.
6. Click Next in the options page.
7. Make any necessary changes to the multi-threaded server parameters. Click
Help for more information about the parameters.
8. Click Next.
9. Make any necessary changes to the multi-threaded server parameters. Click
Help for more information about the parameters.
10. Click Finish.
A dialog box prompts you to select the initialization parameter file to use.
11. Select the appropriate file and click OK.
Your initialization parameter file is modified.
12. Shut down and restart your Oracle database for the changes to take effect.

Disabling Multi-Threaded Server Support for Two-Task Net8 Clients


Multi-threaded support for two-task Net8 clients must be disabled manually.
To disable multi-threaded server support for two-task Net8 clients:
1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Oracle Enterprise
Management > Database Administration Applications > Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant.
The Oracle Database Configuration Assistant welcome page appears.
2. Select Modify a database and click Next.
3. Select the Oracle database to modify and, if prompted, enter the INTERNAL
password.
4. Click Next.
5. Select Dedicated Server Mode and click Finish.

6-44 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

A dialog box prompts you to select the initialization parameter file to use.
6. Select the appropriate file and click OK.
Your initialization parameter file is modified.
7. Shut down and restart your Oracle database for the changes to take effect.

Advanced Replication
This section describes how to manually configure Advanced Replication in your
Oracle database.
Typically, Advanced Replication is automatically configured during installation.
The following figure describes the situations under which Advanced Replication is
configured or not configured.
If Advanced Replication is automatically configured, do not follow the instructions
in this section. Follow the instructions only if you want to add Advanced
Replication to an Oracle database that was not previously configured with this
feature.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-45


What Products Must You Configure?

If you select the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition installation option and select...

Typical Minimal Custom

Advanced replication is Advanced replication is The Available Product Components dialog box
automatically configured. automatically configured if appears.
you installed the starter 1. Select Oracle Server and click Install.
database when prompted by
the Select Starter Database 2. Click Yes when prompted to run Oracle Database
dialog box. Configuration Assistant.
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant starts at
the end of installation and prompts you to select
either of two database installation types:
■ Typical
■ Custom

If you select Typical, the installer prompts you If you select Custom, one of the Oracle Database
about how to create your database: Configuration Assistant pages prompts you to
■ Copy existing database files from the CD configure Advanced Replication.
■ Create new database files If you select the Advanced Replication check box,
advanced replication is automatically configured.
If you do not select the Advanced Replication
check box, advanced replication is not configured.

If you select Copy existing database files from If you select Create new database files, one of the
the CD, advanced replication is automatically Oracle Database Configuration Assistant pages
configured. prompts you to configure Advanced Replication.
If you select the Advanced Replication check box,
advanced replication is automatically configured.
If you do not select the Advanced Replication check
box, advanced replication is not configured.

6-46 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

Configuring advanced replication consists of the following steps:


■ Checking Tablespace Requirements
■ Checking Initialization Parameters
■ Performing Configuration Tasks
■ Monitoring Data Dictionary Tables
■ Upgrading Advanced Replication
See the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Installation for Windows NT CD-ROM insert for
Advanced Replication installation requirements.

Additional Information: There are many configuration and usage


possibilities with Advanced Replication. For more information
about advanced replication and for definitions of master sites and
snapshot sites, see
■ Oracle8i Distributed Database Systems
■ Oracle8i Replication
■ Oracle8i Concepts
■ Oracle8i Administrator’s Guide

Checking Tablespace Requirements


The following are recommended tablespace requirements for Advanced
Replication:

Tablespace Requirement
SYSTEM At least 20 MB of free space is required for replication
packages. Replication triggers and procedures are stored here.
ROLLBACK SEGMENTS ■ Rollback Initial Extent = 50 KB
■ Rollback Next Extent = 50 KB
ROLLBACK At least 5 MB of free space.
TEMPORARY At least 10 MB of free space.
USER No specific requirement.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-47


What Products Must You Configure?

Checking Initialization Parameters


Certain initialization parameter values must be set or added to the INIT.ORA file
(recommended values are included) if you use Advanced Replication.

Master Site
Add these initialization parameters to the master site.

Parameter Name Recommended Value


SHARED_POOL_SIZE At least 10 MB; 15 MB if Java was installed,
using the Typical installation option, 50 MB
if Java was installed, using the Custom
installation option.1
DISTRIBUTED_LOCK_TIMEOUT 300 s
DISTRIBUTED_TRANSACTIONS 5
GLOBAL_NAMES TRUE
OPEN_LINKS 4
PROCESSES Add 9 to current value
JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES 2 (depends on number of n-way sites)
JOB_QUEUE_INTERVAL 10 s
1
Java itself requires a POOL_SIZE parameter of 10 MB.

Snapshot Sites
Add these initialization parameters for snapshot sites.

Parameter Name Recommended Value


JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES 2
JOB_QUEUE_INTERVAL 60 s

Performing Configuration Tasks


After setting up the INIT.ORA file with the initialization parameters for Advanced
Replication, perform the following steps.

6-48 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

To configure Advanced Replication:


1. Start SQL*Plus:
C:\> SQLPLUS
2. Connect to the database with the INTERNAL account:
Enter user-name: INTERNAL
3. Start the database if it is not currently running:
SQL> STARTUP
4. Run the CATREP.SQL script once the database has started.
The script is found in the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\RDBMS\ADMIN
directory, and takes approximately one hour to run.
Spool output to a log file first before running CATREP.SQL.
5. Enter the following command:
SQL> SPOOL OUTPUT.LOG
This creates a file called OUTPUT.LOG to which to output all on-screen activity
while the SPOOL session is open.
6. Run CATREP.SQL:
SQL> @ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\RDBMS\ADMIN\CATREP.SQL
7. Close the SPOOL file when the script completes running:
SQL> SPOOL OFF
OUTPUT.LOG is saved to your current directory.
8. Confirm that CATREP.SQL ran correctly by running a query on ALL_OBJECTS
where STATUS = ’INVALID’:
SQL> SELECT * FROM ALL_OBJECTS WHERE STATUS = ’INVALID’;
If all package bodies compiled successfully, the following message displays:
0 rows selected.
If you find that any of the package bodies compiled incorrectly, recompile them
manually. The syntax for running them manually follows:
SQL> ALTER PACKAGE PACKAGE NAME COMPILE BODY;

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-49


What Products Must You Configure?

If CATREP.SQL ran successfully, a number of replication tables are created in


the SYSTEM tablespace. The database is now set up for Advanced Replication
support.
9. Exit SQL*Plus:
SQL> EXIT
10. See Oracle8i Replication for details on setting up the following:

■ Master definition site


■ Master sites
■ Updatable snapshot sites
■ Conflict resolution

Note: Run the following statement on the master site when setting
up updatable snapshot sites:
SVRMGR> GRANT EXECUTE ON DBMSOBJGWRAPPER TO PUBLIC;

Monitoring Data Dictionary Tables


The practical limit to the number of master sites an environment can have is 36. The
processes SNP0 to SNP9 (total of 10) and SNPA to SNPZ (total of 26) each handle
one destination master at a time.
If you use Advanced Replication and intend to set up a large number of replicated
objects, monitor the following data dictionary tables with the SQL SELECT
command:
■ ARGUMENT$
■ IDL_CHAR$
■ IDL_UB1$
■ IDL_UB2$
■ IDL_SB4$
■ I_ARGUMENT1
■ I_SOURCE1I$
■ SOURCE$
■ TRIGGER

6-50 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


What Products Must You Configure?

If necessary, increase the storage parameters to accommodate the storage


requirements of large numbers of replicated objects.

Upgrading Advanced Replication


If you are upgrading from a previous version of the Oracle database and want to
use advanced replication, you must first complete the upgrade. (See Chapter 5,
"Installing, Migrating, and Upgrading Databases" in this guide.)
Because advance replication is an advanced feature, see "Oracle8 Replication" for a
presentation of its basic concepts before proceeding. For information about
available training, contact Oracle Education.

Post-Installation Configuration Tasks 6-51


What Products Must You Configure?

6-52 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


7
Starter and Custom Databases

This chapter describes how to install either a starter or custom Oracle database,
including the contents of the starter database.
Specific topics discussed:
■ Starter and Custom Database Overview
■ Starter Database Contents

Starter and Custom Databases 7-1


Starter and Custom Database Overview

Starter and Custom Database Overview


Two types of Oracle databases are available for installation from your Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition for Windows NT CD-ROM:

Type Description
Starter Preconfigured, ready-to-use database that requires minimal user input to
create
Custom Database that you create to match your environment, with guidance from
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant

Note: You also have the option of not installing a database.

When you run Oracle Universal Installer and select Oracle8i Enterprise Edition as
the installation option, the Installation Types dialog box presents you with the
following three selections.

7-2 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Starter and Custom Database Overview

The types of databases available with each selection are shown below:

If You Select...

Typical Minimal Custom

The starter database is The Select Starter Database The Available Product Components dialog box
automatically installed. dialog box appears during appears.
installation and prompts you
to install the starter database. 1. Select Oracle Server and click Install.

1. Select Yes. 2. Select Yes when prompted to run Oracle


Database Configuration Assistant and click Next.
2. Click Next.
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant starts
The starter database is at the end of installation and prompts you to
automatically installed. select either of two database installation types:
If you select No, then no ■ Typical
starter database is installed. ■ Custom

If you select Typical, the installer prompts you If you select Custom, Oracle Database
about how to create your database: Configuration Assistant guides you through the
creation of a database fully customized to match
■ Copy existing database files from the CD.
your environment.
■ Create new database

If you select "Copy existing database files from If you select Create new database files, the
the CD", the starter database is automatically installer prompts you for answers to several
installed. database environment questions before a
partially customized database is created.

Starter and Custom Databases 7-3


Starter and Custom Database Overview

This table describes some of the starter and custom database features available with
each Oracle Universal Installer and Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
installation type:

Database Oracle Universal Installer Oracle Database Oracle Database


Feature Typical or Minimal Type Configuration Assistant Configuration Assistant
Typical Type Custom Type
Type of The Typical type Consists of two suboptions: Enables you to create a
database automatically installs a fully database appropriate to
■ The Copy existing
installed from preconfigured and your environment with
database files from CD
the CD-ROM or ready-to-use starter customized INIT.ORA
suboption installs the
created database with default parameter settings. The
same database as that of
INIT.ORA file parameter Custom type is only for
the Typical or Minimal
settings. Oracle database
type of Oracle Universal
administrators (DBAs)
The Minimal type asks if Installer.
experienced with advanced
you want to install a
■ The Create new database creation
database. If you select Yes,
database files suboption procedures.
then the same database that
creates a database based
you receive with the Typical
on the amount of
type is installed.
available RAM and
answers you provide to
several database
environment questions.
Global Database Generated from the global Generated from the global Generated from the global
name (in the database name.1 database name. database name.
form of
name.domain)
System Defaults to the name part of Defaults to the name part of Defaults to the name part of
identifier (SID) the global database name.1 the global database name. the global database name.
name

7-4 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Starter and Custom Database Overview

Database Oracle Universal Installer Oracle Database Oracle Database


Feature Typical or Minimal Type Configuration Assistant Configuration Assistant
Typical Type Custom Type
Database For the Typical type, If you selected Java VM Your choice of dedicated
configuration multi-threaded server mode Option, the mode is server mode or
mode2 for IIOP clients and dedicated multi-threaded server mode multi-threaded server mode
server mode for two-task for IIOP clients. (also called shared server
Net8 clients. mode).
Dedicated server mode for
For the Minimal type, two-task Net8 clients, unless
dedicated server mode for you:
both types of clients.
1. Run Oracle Database
Configuration
Assistant.
2. Select Create a
database.
3. Select Typical.
4. Select the Create new
database files
suboption.
5. Select Online
Transaction Processing
(OLTP) as your
database environment.
6. Enter 20 or more for the
number of concurrent
database connections.
This creates a database in
multi-threaded server mode
for two-task Net8 clients.
Initial archiving Set to NOARCHIVELOG. Set to NOARCHIVELOG. Your choice of
mode NOARCHIVELOG or
ARCHIVELOG.

Starter and Custom Databases 7-5


Starter and Custom Database Overview

Database Oracle Universal Installer Oracle Database Oracle Database


Feature Typical or Minimal Type Configuration Assistant Configuration Assistant
Typical Type Custom Type
interMedia and The Typical type installs No options are configurable Enables you to configure
options these Oracle products: through the "Copy existing these Oracle products (if
database files from CD" installed):3
■ interMedia Audio
suboption.
■ interMediaText ■ interMedia Audio
The Create New Database
■ interMedia Video Files suboption enables you ■ interMediaText
to configure these Oracle ■ interMedia Video
■ interMedia Image
options (if installed):3
■ interMedia Locator ■ interMedia Image
■ interMedia Audio
■ Oracle Spatial ■ interMedia Locator
■ interMediaText
■ Oracle Time Series ■ Oracle Spatial
■ interMedia Video
■ Oracle Visual ■ Oracle Time Series
Information Retrieval ■ interMedia Image
■ Oracle Visual
■ COM Automation ■ interMedia Locator Information Retrieval

No options are installed ■ Oracle Spatial


through the Minimal type. ■ Oracle Time Series
■ Oracle Visual
Information Retrieval

Options4 The Typical type installs and The Partitioning and Objects The Partitioning and Objects
automatically configures options are automatically options are automatically
these Oracle options: configured when installed configured when installed
with Oracle Universal with Oracle Universal
■ Partitioning
Installer. Installer.
■ Objects
Depending on how Oracle Depending on how Oracle
■ Parallel Server Parallel Server option was Parallel Server option was
installed, it may also be installed, it may also be
No options are installed
automatically configured. automatically configured.
through the Minimal type.
See Oracle Parallel Server See Oracle Parallel Server
Getting Started for Windows Getting Started for Windows
NT for information. NT for information.
Advanced Automatically configured Automatically configured Your choice.
replication through the Typical type. with the Copy existing
database files from CD
Automatically configured
suboption.
through the Minimal type if
you select the starter The Create new database
database for installation files suboption offers you
when prompted. the choice.

7-6 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Starter and Custom Database Overview

Database Oracle Universal Installer Oracle Database Oracle Database


Feature Typical or Minimal Type Configuration Assistant Configuration Assistant
Typical Type Custom Type
Automatic Both types enable the Both suboptions enable the Enables the Windows NT
operating Windows NT user who Windows NT user who user who performed the
system performed the installation to performed the installation to installation to log in as
authentication5 log in as INTERNAL to the log in as INTERNAL to the INTERNAL to the database
database without entering a database without entering a without entering a
password. password. password.
User names, Automatically installs the Both suboptions Creates the SYS, SYSTEM,
tablespaces, user names, tablespaces, automatically create the user and DBSNMP user names
database files, database files, rollback names, tablespaces, database and INTERNAL alias
rollback segments, and data files, rollback segments, and described in "User Names
segments, and dictionary described in data dictionary described in and Passwords" on page 7-8.
data dictionary "Starter Database Contents" "Starter Database Contents"
Enables you to customize
on page 7-8. on page 7-8.
many features, including the
following:
■ Tablespace and
database file settings
■ System global area
(SGA) memory
parameter settings
■ Archive settings
■ Trace file locations
Database Both types install a single The Copy existing database Your choice of OLTP, DSS, or
environment starter database appropriate files from CD suboption Hybrid.6
for both Online Transaction installs the same database
Processing (OLTP) and environment as that of the
Decision Support System Typical or Minimal type of
(DSS) environments. Oracle Universal Installer.
The Create new database
files suboption enables you
to choose your database
environment:6
■ OLTP
■ DSS
■ Hybrid
1
When you install an Oracle database for the first time on a computer, you are prompted for the global database name.
2
See "Multi-Threaded Server Support" on page 6-17 for descriptions of dedicated server mode and multi-threaded server
mode (also known as shared server mode).
3
Options are not installable through Oracle Database Configuration Assistant. Oracle Database Configuration Assistant only
configures options that were installed with Oracle Universal Installer.

Starter and Custom Databases 7-7


Starter Database Contents

4
Oracle Advanced Networking option is also available for installation. This option can be installed through the Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition and Oracle8i Client Custom installation types of Oracle Universal Installer.
5
See "Automatically Enabling Operating System Authentication During Installation" on page 10-3 for more information.
6
See "Using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant" on page 8-4 for definitions of these database environments.

Starter Database Contents


The starter database installed through the Oracle Universal Installer Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition Typical or Minimal installation type, or through the Oracle
Database Configuration Assistant Typical option, contains the following features:
■ User Names and Passwords
■ System Identifier and Database Name
■ Tablespaces
■ Data Files
■ Initialization Parameter File
■ Redo Log Files
■ Control File
■ Rollback Segments
■ Data Dictionary

User Names and Passwords


Your starter database contains the following user names and passwords:

Note: Change the password for each user name immediately after
installation:
C:\> SQLPLUS
Enter user-name: INTERNAL/PASSWORD
SQL> ALTER USER USERNAME IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD;
See Chapter 9, "Administering a Database" for instructions on how
to change the password for INTERNAL.

7-8 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Starter Database Contents

User Name Password Description


INTERNAL ORACLE Performs database administration tasks, including
starting up and shutting down a database.
Note: This password is required only for
users who did not install the Oracle Note 1: INTERNAL is not a true user name; it is an
database. The user who installed the alias for the SYS user name and SYSDBA privilege.
Oracle database is not prompted to enter a
Note 2: INTERNAL uses the SYS schema, listed
password when connecting as INTERNAL.
below, with additional SYSDBA privileges. See the
See "Connecting Without a Password" on Oracle8i Administrator’s Guide for more information.
page 7-11 for more information.
SYS CHANGE_ON_INSTALL DBA user name with the following database roles:
■ AQ_ADMINISTRATOR_ROLE
■ AQ_USER_ROLE
■ CONNECT
■ DBA
■ DELETE_CATALOG_ROLE
■ EXECUTE_CATALOG_ROLE
■ EXP_FULL_DATABASE
■ HS_ADMIN_ROLE
■ IMP_FULL_DATABASE
■ RECOVERY_CATALOG_OWNER
■ RESOURCE
■ SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE
■ SNMPAGENT
SYSTEM MANAGER DBA user name with DBA database role.
OUTLN OUTLN User name with DBA database role.
DBSNMP DBSNMP User name with CONNECT, RESOURCE, and
SNMPAGENT database roles. Run
CATNSNMP.SQL if you want to drop this role and
user.
MTSSYS MTSSYS Oracle Services for Microsoft Transaction Server
user name.
SCOTT TIGER User name with CONNECT and RESOURCE
database roles.

Starter and Custom Databases 7-9


Starter Database Contents

User Name Password Description


DEMO DEMO User name with CONNECT and RESOURCE
database roles. Oracle Corporation recommends
that you drop this account if it is not needed.
CTXSYS CTXSYS Oracle interMedia Text user name with CONNECT
and RESOURCE database roles.
MDSYS MDSYS Oracle Spatial and interMedia Audio, Video,
Locator, and Image administrator user
Note: Users should change password after
name.Created by user at installation.
installation.
ORDSYS ORDSYS Oracle interMedia Audio, Video, Locator, and
Image; Oracle Time Series and Oracle Visual
Note: Users should change password after
Information Retrieval administrator user name with
installation.
CONNECT and RESOURCE database roles.
ORDPLUGIN ORDPLUGIN Oracle interMedia Audio and Video user name
allowing non-native plug-in formats for one
Note: Users should change password after
session.
installation.
Grants the following permissions:
■ create session
■ connect resource
■ create library
■ create procedure
■ create any operator
■ create any index type
■ create any type
■ create any table
■ drop any index type
■ drop any operator
■ drop any type
■ create public synonym
■ drop public synonym
COMDEMO COMDEMO Oracle COM Automation feature user name with
DBA and RESOURCE database roles.

7-10 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Starter Database Contents

Connecting to the Database From a Remote Machine


When connecting to the starter database from a remote machine as SYS or
INTERNAL, you must use a different password from the one described above when
logging on as SYSDBA. This is because the Password file enables database access in
this situation and it requires the password ORACLE for this purpose.

Connecting Without a Password


If you installed Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, your Windows NT user name was
added to a special Windows NT local group called ORA_DBA. Membership in this
group enables you to log in as INTERNAL to your Oracle database without entering
a password. See Chapter 10, "Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT" for
more information.

System Identifier and Database Name


Starting with release 8.1.5, users must enter a database name of their choosing
during installation. The SID name defaults from the name chosen for the database,
but can be changed later. In previous releases, the SID and database name were set
automatically during installation of each Oracle database.
A SID is a unique name for an Oracle database instance. The SID can be up to 64
alphanumeric characters long. A database name (identified by the DB_NAME
parameter in your INIT.ORA initialization parameter file) is a unique name for the
Oracle database.
For example, if the SID and database name for an Oracle database are ORCLx, each
database file is located in the ORACLE_BASE\ORADATA\ORCLx directory and the
initialization parameter file is located in the ORACLE_BASE\ADMIN\ORCLx
\PFILE directory. The directory ORCLx is named after the DB_NAME parameter in
your initialization parameter file.
Multiple Oracle homes enable you to have multiple, active Oracle databases
installed on a single computer. Each database requires a unique SID and database
name.

Global Database Name


The global database name--a name comprised of the database name and database
domain--is used to identify the database, whereas the SID identifies the Oracle8i
instance that references the database.

Starter and Custom Databases 7-11


Starter Database Contents

A database’s global database name and location within a network structure is


created by setting both the DB_NAME and DB_DOMAIN parameters before database
creation. See the Oracle8i Administrator’s Guide for more information.

Tablespaces
An Oracle database is divided into smaller logical areas of space known as
tablespaces. Each tablespace corresponds to one or more physical data files.
The tablespaces in the Oracle database contain the following types of data:

Tablespace Contains...

SYSTEM The data dictionary, including definitions of tables, views, and


stored procedures needed by the Oracle database. Information
in this area is maintained automatically. The SYSTEM
tablespace is present in all Oracle databases.
USERS Your application data. As you create and enter data into tables,
you fill this space with your data.
TEMP Temporary tables and/or indexes created during the
processing of your SQL statement. You may need to expand
this tablespace if you are executing a SQL statement that
involves a lot of sorting, such as ANALYZE COMPUTE
STATISTICS on a very large table, or the constructs GROUP
BY, ORDER BY, or DISTINCT.
RBS Rolling back transactions that fail to complete normally. You
may need to expand this tablespace if you have long-running
or high-data-volume transactions.
INDX Indexes associated with the data in the USERS tablespace.
OEM_REPOSITORY Repository for Oracle Enterprise Manager.

Additional Information: See the chapter "Tablespaces and


Datafiles" of Oracle8 Concepts and the chapter "Managing
Tablespaces" of the Oracle8i Administrator’s Guide.

Data Files
Data files contain the contents of logical database structures such as tables and
indexes. One or more data files form a logical unit of storage called a tablespace. A
data file can be associated with only one tablespace, and only one database.

7-12 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Starter Database Contents

The starter database contains the following data files located in the ORACLE_
BASE\ORADATA\DB_NAME directory:

Data file Tablespace location


SYSTEM01.DBF SYSTEM
USERS01.DBF USERS
TEMP01.DBF TEMP
RBS01.DBF RBS
INDX01.DBF INDX
OEMREP01.DBF OEM_REPOSITORY

Additional Information: See the chapter "Tablespaces and


Datafiles" of Oracle8 Concepts and the chapter "Managing Datafiles"
of the Oracle8i Administrator’s Guide.

Initialization Parameter File


The starter database contains one initialization parameter file located in the
ORACLE_BASE\ADMIN\DB_NAME\PFILE directory:

Initialization parameter file Description


INIT.ORA The parameter file INIT.ORA must exist for an
instance to start. A parameter file is a text file that
contains a list of instance configuration parameters.
The starter database INIT.ORA file has preconfigured
parameters. No edits are required to this file in order
to use the starter database.

Additional Information: See Appendix B, "Oracle8i Database


Specifications for Windows NT" of this guide. This appendix lists
the Oracle database-specific initialization parameters for Windows
NT and their default values. See Oracle8 Reference for more
information on initialization parameters.

Redo Log Files


The starter database contains four redo log files located in the ORACLE_
BASE\ORADATA\DB_NAME directory:

Starter and Custom Databases 7-13


Starter Database Contents

Database Files Disk Size Description


REDO01.LOG 1 MB Redo log files hold a record of all changes made to data in
the database buffer cache. If an instance failure occurs, the
REDO02.LOG 1 MB
redo log files are used to recover the modified data that
REDO03.LOG 1 MB was in memory.
REDO04.LOG 1 MB Redo log files are used in a cyclical fashion. For example, if
four files constitute the online redo log, the first file is
filled, then the second file, then the third file, and then the
forth file. The first file is then re-used and filled, the
second file is re-used and filled, and so on.

Additional Information: See the chapters "Preparing for Media


Recovery" and "Performing Media Recovery" of the Oracle8 Backup
and Recovery Guide.

Control File
The starter database contains two control files located in the ORACLE_BASE\
ORADATA\DB_NAME directory:

Control Files Description


CONTROL01.CTL A control file is an administrative file required to start and
run the database. The control file records the physical
CONTROL02.CTL
structure of the database. For example, a control file
contains the database name, and the names and locations
of the database’s data files and redo log files.

Note: Oracle Corporation recommends that you keep at least two


control files (on separate physical drives) for each database and set
the CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter to list each control
file. See the chapter "Managing Control Files" of the Oracle8i
Administrator’s Guide for information on setting this initialization
parameter value.

Rollback Segments
Rollback segments record the old values of data changed by each transaction
(whether or not committed). Every database contains one or more rollback
segments, which are portions of the database that record the actions of transactions

7-14 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Starter Database Contents

in the event that a transaction is rolled back. Rollback segments are used to provide
read consistency, to roll back transactions, and to recover the database.
The starter database contains the following rollback segments:

Rollback Segment Contained in this Tablespace... Used by


SYSTEM SYSTEM SYS
RB_TEMP SYSTEM (private) SYS
RB1 through RB16 RBS PUBLIC (a pool of rollback
segments that any instance
requiring a rollback segment
can use)

Data Dictionary
The data dictionary is a protected collection of tables and views containing
reference information about the database, its structures, and its users. The data
stored in the dictionary includes the following:
■ Names of the Oracle database users
■ Privileges and roles granted to each user
■ Names and definitions of schema objects (including tables, views, snapshots,
indexes, clusters, synonyms, sequences, procedures, functions, and packages)
■ Integrity constraints
■ Space allocation for database objects
■ Auditing information, such as who accessed or updated various objects

Additional Information: See the chapter "The Data Dictionary" of


Oracle8 Concepts and the chapter "Static Data Dictionary Views" of
Oracle8 Reference.

Creating Control, Data, and Log Files on Remote Computers


Although it is possible for Oracle to access database files on remote computers
using Universal Naming Convention (UNC), it is not recommended because of
performance and network reliability concerns.
UNC is a PC format for specifying the location of resources on a local area network.
UNC uses the following format:

Starter and Custom Databases 7-15


Starter Database Contents

\\server-name\shared-resource-pathname
For example, to access the file SYSTEM01.DBF in the directory
C:\ORACLE\ORA81\ORADATA\ORCL on the shared server ARGON, you
reference the file as:
\\ARGON\ORACLE\ORA81\ORADATA\ORCL\SYSTEM01.DBF
Note that the location of archive log files cannot be specified using UNC. If you set
the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST initialization parameter to a UNC specification, the
database does not start and you receive the following errors:
ORA-00256: error occurred in translating archive text string ’\meldell\rmdrive’
ORA-09291: sksachk: invalid device specified for archive destination
OSD-04018: Unable to access the specified directory or device
O/S-Error: (OS 2) The system cannot find the file specified
Ensure that you set the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST initialization parameter to a mapped
drive.

Note: An ORA-00256 error also occurs if you enter:


\\\meldell\rmdrive
or
\\\meldell\\rmdrive
Control files required the additional backslashes for release 8.0.4,
but redo files and data files did not.

7-16 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


8
Creating a Database

This chapter describes how to create a database automatically using Oracle


Database Configuration Assistant. It also describes how to create a database
manually using command line tools and the BUILD_DB.SQL script.
Specific topics discussed:
■ Before You Create a Database
■ Creating a Database Using Tools
■ Using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
■ Using BUILD_DB.SQL
■ Using ORADIM to Administer an Oracle Instance

Note: This chapter describes tasks that use Server Manager


command line syntax. After release 8.1.5, all Server Manager text
and examples will be replaced with SQL*Plus equivalents.
Although Server Manager will continue to be shipped with 8.1.x
releases, Oracle Corporation strongly recommends that you
migrate to SQL*Plus as soon as possible. See your SQL*Plus
documentation for information on using SQL*Plus to perform
database administration tasks.

Creating a Database 8-1


Before You Create a Database

Before You Create a Database


Before you create a database, consider the following requirements described below.

Naming Conventions for Oracle Databases


Starting with Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, all mounted Oracle databases in a
network must have unique database names.
A name is associated with a database at "CREATE DATABASE" time and stored in
its control files. If the database keyword is provided in the CREATE DATABASE
statement, that value becomes the name for that database. If not, the program uses
the value of the DB_NAME parameter in the INIT.ORA file.
If you attempt to mount two Oracle8i databases with the same database name, you
receive the following error during the second mount:
ORA-01102: cannot mount database in EXCLUSIVE mode
If there are two or more Oracle8i databases on the same computer, but located in
different Oracle homes, the following rules apply:
■ Each database name must be unique
■ Each SID must be unique
To change the name of an existing database, you must use the CREATE
CONTROLFILE statement to recreate your control file(s) and specify a new
database name. This restriction only exists for Oracle8i instances. Any Oracle7
instances running simultaneously with an Oracle8i instance are not subject to this
restriction.

Installing Oracle Server (the Database Component)


The Oracle Server component (the database software) must be installed from the
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition installation option on Windows NT. This component is
not available with the Oracle8i Client or Programmer/2000 installation options. See
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Installation for Windows NT for information on how to
install Oracle Server and other Oracle products.

8-2 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Before You Create a Database

Note: The directory path examples in this chapter follow Optimal


Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines (for example, ORACLE_
BASE\ORACLE_HOME\RDBMS\ADMIN). If you specified
non-OFA compliant directories during installation, your directory
paths will differ. See "OFA and Multiple Oracle Home
Configurations" on page 4-23 for information.

Creating Data Files and Log Files on Remote Computers


Although it is possible for Oracle to access database files on remote computers
using Universal Naming Convention (UNC), it is not recommended because of
performance and network reliability concerns.
UNC is a PC format for specifying the location of resources on a local area network.
UNC uses the following format:
\\server-name\shared-resource-pathname
For example, to access the file SYSTEM01.DBF in the directory
C:\ORACLE\ORA81\ORADATA\ORCL on the shared server ARGON, you
reference the file as:
\\ARGON\ORACLE\ORA81\ORADATA\ORCL\SYSTEM01.DBF
Note that the location of archive log files cannot be specified using UNC. If you set
the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST initialization parameter to a UNC specification, the
database does not start and you receive the following errors:
ORA-00256: error occurred in translating archive text string ’\meldell\rmdrive’
ORA-09291: sksachk: invalid device specified for archive destination
OSD-04018: Unable to access the specified directory or device
O/S-Error: (OS 2) The system cannot find the file specified
Ensure that you set the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST initialization parameter to a mapped
drive.

Note: An ORA-00256 error also occurs if you enter:


\\\meldell\rmdrive
or
\\\meldell\\rmdrive
Control files required the additional backslashes for release 8.0.4,
but redo files and data files did not.

Creating a Database 8-3


Creating a Database Using Tools

Creating a Database Using Tools


You can choose either of the following tools to create a database:
■ Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
■ BUILD_DB.SQL script
Use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create a database, because it is the
easier method.
If you want to create a database using command line tools, you can use the BUILD_
DB.SQL script located in ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\RDBMS\ADMIN.

Using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant


Oracle Database Configuration Assistant consists of the following options:
■ Creating a Database
■ Modifying a Database
■ Deleting a Database

8-4 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Creating a Database Using Tools

These options appear on the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant welcome


page:

Creating a Database
During installation of Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, you can select any of the
following options to install Oracle Database Configuration Assistant.
There are slight differences between each option:
■ Typical
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant is installed as part of your Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition software package. During this installation, Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant is automatically started without user intervention to
create a starter database. After installation is finished, you can use the assistant
to create additional databases as described here.
■ Minimal
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant is installed as part of your Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition software package. During this installation, you are prompted
to install a starter database. If you select Yes, Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant is automatically started without user intervention to create a starter
database. After installation is finished, you can use the assistant to create
additional databases as described in here.

Creating a Database 8-5


Creating a Database Using Tools

■ Custom
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant is installed and immediately launched
at the end of the installation process if you select Yes when prompted. You can
create a database at this time, or you can exit the assistant and create a database
at a later date.
To create a database, using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant:
1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Oracle Enterprise
Management > Database Administration Applications > Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant.
The Oracle Database Configuration Assistant welcome page appears.
2. Select Create a database, then click Next.
The following page appears:

3. Choose the Typical or Custom option to create a database:

8-6 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Creating a Database Using Tools

Option Description
Typical Consists of two suboptions:
■ Copy existing database files from the CD
Automatically installs a standard database with default
INIT.ORA file initialization parameter settings
■ Create new database files
Asks you several database environment questions
before dynamically creating a database
Custom Enables you to customize the creation of your database.
This option is only for Oracle database administrators
(DBAs) experienced with advanced database creation
procedures, such as customizing:
■ Data, control, and redo log file settings
■ Tablespace sizes
■ Extent sizes
■ Database memory parameters
■ Archiving formats and destinations
■ Trace file destinations
■ Character set values

Both the Typical option (through its Create new database files suboption) and
the Custom option enable you to specify the type of environment in which to
operate your Oracle database:

Environment Description
Online Transaction Databases in OLTP environments must process thousands
Processing (OLTP) or even millions of transactions from many concurrent
(simultaneously connected) users each day. These
transactions consist of reading (SELECT statements),
writing (INSERT and UPDATE statements), and deleting
(DELETE statements) data in database tables. Users must
have quick access to the most current data. Therefore,
database performance is defined in terms of throughput
(speed) and availability of data.
Decision Support System Databases in DSS environments must process a variety of
(DSS) queries (typically read-only), ranging from a simple fetch
of a few records to numerous complex queries that sort
thousands of records from many different tables.
Therefore, database performance is defined in terms of
response time.

Creating a Database 8-7


Creating a Database Using Tools

Environment Description
Hybrid Hybrid databases support both OLTP and DSS
environments.

4. Respond to instructions on each Oracle Database Configuration Assistant page,


then click Next when you are ready to continue to the next page. When you get
to the last page, click Finish to start the creation of the Oracle database.

Importing Sample Schemas. Sample OLTP and DSS database schemas are available on
the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition for Windows NT CD-ROM. After you finish creating
your Oracle database with Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, you can
import the appropriate sample schema.
If you selected Hybrid, you do not need to import a sample schema; one is already
provided with your database.
To import an OLTP or DSS sample schema into your Oracle database:
1. Start SQL*Plus:
C:\> SQLPLUS
2. Connect with the SYSTEM account:
Enter user-name: SYSTEM/PASSWORD
3. Create a special user account for importing the appropriate schema:
SQL> CREATE USER SAMPLE_USER IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD;
SQL> GRANT RESOURCE TO SAMPLE_USER;
SQL> GRANT CONNECT TO SAMPLE_USER;
where SAMPLE_USER is SAMPLEOLTP for the OLTP sample schema or
SAMPLESTAR for the DSS sample schema.
4. Exit SQL*Plus:
SQL> EXIT;
5. Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\ASSISTANTS\DBCA\SAMPLES
directory on your hard drive.

8-8 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Creating a Database Using Tools

6. Import the appropriate schema:


C:\ORACLE\ORA81\ASSISTANTS\DBCA\SAMPLES> IMP SAMPLE_USER/PASSWORD
FILE=SAMPLE.DMP FULL=Y LOG=MYIMP.LOG

where:
C:\ORACLE is the ORACLE_BASE directory
ORA81 is the ORACLE_HOME directory
SAMPLE_USER is SAMPLEOLTP for the OLTP sample schema or
SAMPLESTAR for the DSS sample schema
SAMPLE.DMP is SOURCE80.DMP for the OLTP sample schema or
TARGET80.DMP for the DSS sample schema

Modifying a Database
The Modify a Database option enables you to perform the following procedures:
■ Configuring Advanced Replication and Oracle options
■ Enabling and Disabling Multi-Threaded Support.

Configuring Advanced Replication and Oracle options


This enables an Oracle database to support Advanced Replication functionality and
the following as-yet-unconfigured options that you installed from your CD-ROM:
■ Oracle interMedia Audio
■ Oracle interMedia Video
■ Oracle interMedia Image
■ Oracle interMedia Text
■ Oracle Spatial
■ Oracle Time Series
■ Oracle Visual Information Retrieval
These options (if installed during a separate installation from Oracle8i Enterprise
Edition) are not automatically configured during installation. If you installed Oracle
options through the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition option on the CD-ROM, your
options were automatically configured for the starter database.

Creating a Database 8-9


Creating a Database Using Tools

Note: If you installed Oracle Visual Information Retrieval and its


check box is shaded, select the check box for Oracle interMedia
Image. Doing this makes the check box for Oracle Visual
Information Retrieval selectable. This is because Oracle Visual
Information Retrieval is dependent upon Oracle interMedia Image.

Enabling and Disabling Multi-Threaded Support. This lets you choose whether to enable
or disable multi-threaded server support in your Oracle database.
Multi-threaded server (MTS) support lets multiple client user processes to share a
small number of server processes. Many client users can connect to a dispatcher
process. The dispatcher process then routes client requests to the next available
shared server process. No dedicated server process exists for each remaining user
process associated with the client user process for the duration of the connection.
Instead, inactive server processes are "recycled" and used as needed. This reduces
system overhead and enables you to increase the number of supported users.

Additional Information: See "Multi-Threaded Server Support" in


Chapter 6.
In addition, see the following guides:
■ Oracle Net8 Administrator’s Guide
■ Oracle8 Concepts
■ Oracle8 Reference

Deleting a Database
The Delete a Database option of Oracle Database Configuration Assistant lets you
quickly and easily delete all database files, with the exception of the initialization
parameter file.

Using BUILD_DB.SQL
This section describes how to create a new database manually using a SQL script.
There are a number of ways to create a database depending on if you want to:
■ Copy an existing database to a new database and remove the old database.
■ Copy an existing database to a new database and keep the old database.
■ Create a new database when no other database exists on your system that you
can copy.

8-10 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Creating a Database Using Tools

The following table summarizes the steps involved in creating a new database for
each of these database creation scenarios. Each step is explained in detail in the
following subsections.

Perform these tasks... If you want to...


Copy an existing Copy an existing Create a new database
database to a new database to a new when no other
database, then remove database, then keep database exists on
the old database the old database your system
Exporting an Existing Database Yes Only if you want to Not applicable
copy data from the
existing database to the
new database
Deleting Database Files Yes No Not applicable
Modifying the INIT.ORA File Yes Yes Yes
Creating and Starting an Oracle Service No Yes Yes
Putting the CREATE DATABASE Yes Yes Yes
Statement in a Script
Creating a Database Yes Yes Yes
Importing a Database Yes Only if you want to Not applicable
import tables and other
objects exported from
the existing database
Updating the ORACLE_SID in the No Only if you want to Yes
Registry change the default SID
Backing Up the New Database Yes Yes Yes

How to Create a Database


An example is used in the following sections to demonstrate how to create a
database.
In this example, you will copy an existing database (the starter database with a SID
of ORCL located in the C:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORCL directory) to a new database
with a database name and SID of PROD located in the
C:\ORACLE\ORADATA\PROD directory.
You will delete the starter database ORCL after you have created the PROD
database.

Note: In this example, ORACLE_BASE is C:\ORACLE. See


Chapter 4, "Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal Flexible
Architecture" for more information on ORACLE_BASE.

Creating a Database 8-11


Creating a Database Using Tools

Creating Directories
Create the following directories in which to put the administration and database
files for the new database PROD:
■ C:\ORACLE\ADMIN\PROD
■ C:\ORACLE\ADMIN\PROD\BDUMP
■ C:\ORACLE\ADMIN\PROD\PFILE
■ C:\ORACLE\ADMIN\PROD\UDUMP
■ C:\ORACLE\ORADATA\PROD

Exporting an Existing Database


You only need to export an existing database if you want to copy its contents to a
new database.
You can invoke the Export Utility by using either parameter mode or interactive
mode. However, parameter mode is the recommended mode. Interactive mode
provides less functionality than parameter mode and exists for backward
compatibility only.

Example 8–1 Parameter Mode


C:\> EXP SYSTEM/PASSWORD FILE=MYEXP.DMP FULL=Y LOG=MYEXP.LOG

Example 8–2 Interactive Mode


C:\> EXP SYSTEM/PASSWORD
Enter only the command EXP SYSTEM/PASSWORD to begin an interactive session
and let the Export Utility prompt you for the information it needs.
See Oracle8 Utilities for more information on using the Export Utility.

8-12 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Creating a Database Using Tools

Note: If you use parameter mode, the Export Utility considers file names
and directory names to be invalid if a blank space is present. Enclose the
full path in the FILE= parameter in triple quotes. For example:
FILE="""C:\PROGRAM FILES\EXPORT.DMP"""
or
FILE="""C:\PROGRAM FILES\EXPORT FILE.DMP"""
If the Export Utility is used in interactive mode, the file name or directory
name can contain a space without quotes.

To export all data from an existing database to a new database:


1. Set ORACLE_SID to the database service of the database whose contents you
want to export. For example, if the database you want to export is the starter
database ORCL, enter the following at the MS-DOS command prompt. Note
that there are no spaces around the equal sign (=)
character.
C:\> SET ORACLE_SID=ORCL
2. Start the Export Utility from the MS-DOS command prompt:
C:\> EXP SYSTEM/PASSWORD FILE=MYEXP.DMP FULL=Y LOG=MYEXP.LOG
You now have a full database export of the starter database ORCL in the file
MYEXP.DMP. All messages from the Export Utility are logged in the file
MYEXP.LOG.

Deleting Database Files


Deleting database files is only required when you want to copy an existing database
to a new database to replace the old database. In the following example, you delete
the database files of the starter database ORCL.
To delete database files:
1. Shut down the starter database ORCL at the MS-DOS command prompt:
C:\> ORADIM -SHUTDOWN -SID ORCL -USRPWD PASSWORD -SHUTTYPE INST
-SHUTMODE I

Creating a Database 8-13


Creating a Database Using Tools

2. Delete the following database files located in the C:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORCL


directory:
■ CONTROL01.CTL
■ CONTROL02.CTL
■ INDX01.DBF
■ OEMREP01.DBF
■ RBS01.DBF
■ SYSTEM01.DBF
■ TEMP01.DBF
■ USERS01.DBF
■ REDO01.LOG
■ REDO02.LOG
■ REDO03.LOG
■ REDO04.LOG

Modifying the INIT.ORA File


If you are using the starter database ORCL as the basis for your new database,
copy:
C:\ORACLE\ADMIN\ORCL\PFILE\INIT.ORA
to
C:\ORACLE\ADMIN\PROD\PFILE\INIT.ORA
and modify the file as described in this section.
If you do not have an existing database on your system, you cannot copy an
initialization parameter file to use as the basis for your new INIT.ORA file.
However, you can use the sample initialization parameter file INITSMPL.ORA
provided in the ORACLE_BASE\ADMIN\SAMPLE\PFILE directory as the basis for
the INIT.ORA file for the PROD database.

8-14 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Creating a Database Using Tools

If you use INITSMPL.ORA as the basis for the INIT.ORA file, you must modify the
following initialization parameters in the INIT.ORA file, or you will not be able to
start the PROD database:
■ DB_NAME
■ INSTANCE_NAME
■ SERVICE_NAMES
■ CONTROL_FILES
■ BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST
■ USER_DUMP_DEST
Modifying the DB_FILES initialization parameter is recommended to optimize
performance.

Initialization Parameter Modification Instructions.


DB_NAME This parameter indicates the name of the database, and
must match the name used in the CREATE DATABASE
statement in "Putting the CREATE DATABASE
Statement in a Script", later in this section. You give a
unique database name to each database. You can use up
to eight characters for a database name. The name does
not need to match the SID of the database service.
Set this parameter to
DB_NAME=PROD.DOMAIN
INSTANCE_NAME Set this parameter to
INSTANCE_NAME=PROD.DOMAIN
SERVICE_NAMES Set this parameter to
SERVICE_NAMES=PROD.DOMAIN
CONTROL_FILES This parameter lists the control files of the database.
You do not have the control files on your file system at
this point, because the control files are created when
you run the CREATE DATABASE statement. Ensure
that you specify the complete path and file name,
including drive letter.
Set this parameter to:
CONTROL_FILES =
("C:\ORACLE\ORADATA\PROD\CONTROL01.CTL",
"C:\ORACLE\ORADATA\PROD\CONTROL02.CTL")

Creating a Database 8-15


Creating a Database Using Tools

Initialization Parameter Modification Instructions.


BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST Set this parameter to
BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST =
C:\ORACLE\ADMIN\PROD\BDUMP
USER_DUMP_DEST Set this parameter to
USER_DUMP_DEST =
C:\ORACLE\ADMIN\PROD\UDUMP
DB_FILES Set this parameter to the same number as the value of
the MAXDATAFILES option of the CREATE
DATABASE statement. The value of 100 is used for this
example.
DB_FILES=100

Additional Information: See Appendix B, "Oracle8i Database


Specifications for Windows NT" and Oracle8 Reference for
information on other initialization parameters that you may want
to add or modify.

Creating and Starting an Oracle Service


You only need to create and start an Oracle service if you want to do one of the
following:
■ Copy an existing database to a new database and keep the old database
■ Create a new database when no other database exists on your system that you
can copy
Before you create the database, first create a Windows NT service to run the
database. This service is the Oracle database process, ORACLE.EXE, installed in the
form of a Windows NT service.
Use ORADIM to create the service. After it has been created, the service starts
automatically. See "Using ORADIM to Administer an Oracle Instance" on page 8-27
for information on how to use ORADIM.
To create and start an Oracle service:
1. Run ORADIM from the MS-DOS command prompt:
C:\> ORADIM -NEW -SID PROD -INTPWD PASSWORD -STARTMODE MANUAL
-PFILE C:\ORACLE\ADMIN\PROD\PFILE\INIT.ORA
Note that the previously created INIT.ORA file is specified, with complete path,
including drive name. You can check if the service is started in the services
window of the Windows NT Control Panel.

8-16 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Creating a Database Using Tools

2. Set ORACLE_SID to equal PROD. Note that there are no spaces around the
equal sign (=) character:
C:\> SET ORACLE_SID=PROD

Putting the CREATE DATABASE Statement in a Script


The CREATE DATABASE statement is a sequence of SQL statements that creates the
database. Create a script containing this statement that you can reuse anytime you
want to create a database.
Open the BUILD_DB.SQL script located in C:\ORACLE\ORA81\RDBMS\ADMIN
and save it as BUILD_PROD.SQL.
This file becomes the basis for your script.

Note: The following example uses the BUILD_DB.SQL script to


create a database. You can also use the BUILDALL.SQL script to
create a database. BUILDALL.SQL not only creates the database by
calling BUILD_DB.SQL but also runs many other scripts such as
CATALOG.SQL, CATSNMP.SQL, SCOTT.SQL, and
COMDEMO.SQL.

To prepare the CREATE DATABASE script:


Make the following changes to the BUILD_PROD.SQL script.
1. Set PFILE so it points to the C:\ORACLE\ADMIN\PROD\PFILE\INIT.ORA
initialization file.
2. Change CREATE DATABASE SAMPLE to CREATE DATABASE PROD.
3. Change all occurrences of SAMPLE to PROD. For example, change
C:\ORACLE\ORADATA\SAMPLE\REDO01.LOG to
C:\ORACLE\ORADATA\PROD\REDO01.LOG
The following is the sample BUILD_DB.SQL script included with Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition. Areas that you must modify to create a database called PROD
are highlighted.
--
-- This file must be run out of the directory containing the
-- initialization file.

startup nomount pfile=C:\Oracle\ADMIN\SAMPLE\pfile\initsmpl.ora

Creating a Database 8-17


Creating a Database Using Tools

-- Create database

create database SAMPLE


controlfile reuse
logfile ’C:\Oracle\ORADATA\SAMPLE\redo01.log’ size 1M reuse,
’C:\Oracle\ORADATA\SAMPLE\redo02.log’ size 1M reuse,
’C:\Oracle\ORADATA\SAMPLE\redo03.log’ size 1M reuse,
’C:\Oracle\ORADATA\SAMPLE\redo04.log’ size 1M reuse
datafile ’C:\Oracle\ORADATA\SAMPLE\system01.dbf’ size 10M reuse autoextend on
next 10M maxsize 200M
character set WE8ISO8859P1;

create rollback segment rb_temp storage (initial 100 k next 250 k);

-- Create additional tablespaces ...

-- USERs: Create user sets this as the default tablespace


-- TEMP: Create user sets this as the temporary tablespace
-- RBS: For rollback segments

create tablespace users


datafile ’C:\Oracle\ORADATA\SAMPLE\users01.dbf’ size 3M reuse autoextend on
next 5M maxsize 150M;
create tablespace rbs
datafile ’C:\Oracle\ORADATA\SAMPLE\rbs01.dbf’ size 5M reuse autoextend on
next 5M maxsize 150M;
create tablespace temp
datafile ’C:\Oracle\ORADATA\SAMPLE\temp01.dbf’ size 2M reuse autoextend on
next 5M maxsize 150M;
create tablespace oem_repository
datafile ’C:\Oracle\ORADATA\SAMPLE\oemrep01.dbf’ size 3M reuse autoextend on
next 5M maxsize 150M;
create tablespace indx;
datafile ’C:\Oracle\ORADATA\SAMPLE\indx01.dbf’ size 2M reuse autoextend on
next 5M maxsize 150M;
-- next 5M maxsize 150M;
alter rollback segment rb_temp online;

-- Change the SYSTEM users’ password, default tablespace and


-- temporary tablespace.

alter user system temporary tablespace temp;


alter user system default tablespace users;

-- Create 16 rollback segments. Allows 16 concurrent users with open


-- transactions updating the database. This should be enough.

create public rollback segment rb1 storage(initial 50K next 250K)


tablespace rbs;
create public rollback segment rb2 storage(initial 50K next 250K)

8-18 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Creating a Database Using Tools

tablespace rbs;
create public rollback segment rb3 storage(initial 50K next 250K)
tablespace rbs;
create public rollback segment rb4 storage(initial 50K next 250K)
tablespace rbs;
create public rollback segment rb5 storage(initial 50K next 250K)
tablespace rbs;
create public rollback segment rb6 storage(initial 50K next 250K)
tablespace rbs;
create public rollback segment rb7 storage(initial 50K next 250K)
tablespace rbs;
create public rollback segment rb8 storage(initial 50K next 250K)
tablespace rbs;
create public rollback segment rb9 storage(initial 50K next 250K)
tablespace rbs;
create public rollback segment rb10 storage(initial 50K next 250K)
tablespace rbs;
create public rollback segment rb11 storage(initial 50K next 250K)
tablespace rbs;
create public rollback segment rb12 storage(initial 50K next 250K)
tablespace rbs;
create public rollback segment rb13 storage(initial 50K next 250K)
tablespace rbs;
create public rollback segment rb14 storage(initial 50K next 250K)
tablespace rbs;
create public rollback segment rb15 storage(initial 50K next 250K)
tablespace rbs;
create public rollback segment rb16 storage(initial 50K next 250K)
tablespace rbs;

You will run this script at the Server Manager prompt in "Creating a Database" on
page 8-19.

Additional Information: If creating a tablespace in a raw partition,


modify the data file names with a naming convention of
\\.\DRIVE_LETTER: or \\.\SYMBOLIC LINK NAME. See
Appendix F, "Storing Tablespaces on Raw Partitions" for more
information on storing tablespaces in raw partitions.

Creating a Database
To use the BUILD_PROD.SQL script to create a database:
1. Verify that the service is started in the Windows NT Control Panel. In this
example, the service name is OracleServicePROD, and its status column must
display Started. If not, select the service name and click Start.
You can also check the status of the service by entering the following at the
MS-DOS command prompt:
C:\> NET START

Creating a Database 8-19


Creating a Database Using Tools

A list of all Windows NT services currently running on the system appears. If


OracleServicePROD is missing from the list, enter:
C:\> NET START ORACLESERVICEPROD
2. Make PROD the current SID:
C:\> SET ORACLE_SID=PROD
3. Start Server Manager from the MS-DOS command prompt, and connect to the
database as INTERNAL:
C:\> SVRMGRL
SVRMGR> CONNECT INTERNAL/PASSWORD
The password is the one that you used to create the service, with the ORADIM
-NEW command in "Creating and Starting an Oracle Service" on page 8-16.
The message Connected appears.
4. Turn on spooling to save the messages:
SVRMGR> SPOOL BUILD_PROD.LOG
5. Run the BUILD_PROD.SQL script that you created in "Putting the CREATE
DATABASE Statement in a Script" on page 8-17:
SVRMGR> @C:\ORACLE\ORA81\RDBMS\ADMIN\BUILD_PROD.SQL;
If the database is created successfully, the instance is started and the message
Statement processed appears numerous times.

8-20 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Creating a Database Using Tools

If you receive any errors, there are three possible causes, as illustrated below.

Cause Solution
The BUILD_PROD.SQL script Correct them.
contains syntax errors.
Some of the files to be created by Make sure you are not using any file names already used by another
the BUILD_PROD.SQL script database on the system.
already exist in the file system.
An error occurred at the operating You should have received a series of errors in Server Manager, the last one
system level, such as a file or of which should have the OSD- prefix. At the end of the OSD error, you
directory permission problem. typically see an operating system error number in parentheses.
To see what the error means, do either of the following.
From the MS-DOS command prompt, enter:
C:\> NET HELPMSG n
or
From the Server Manager prompt, enter:
SVRMGR> HOST NET HELPMSG n
where n is the operating system error number.

You must correct these problems before attempting to recreate a database.


6. Run the CATALOG.SQL script to create the data dictionary:
SVRMGR> @C:\ORACLE\ORA81\RDBMS\ADMIN\CATALOG.SQL;

Note: You may see messages such as ORA-01432: public synonym


to be dropped does not exist while the CATALOG.SQL,
CATPROC.SQL, and CATREP.SQL scripts are running. These are
information messages and are intended to occur while creating a
new database.
If you see any unusual errors while examining the BUILD_
PROD.LOG log file in step 10, see Oracle8 Error Messages for
suggested actions.

7. Run the CATPROC.SQL script to install the objects used by the Oracle
database’s PL/SQL functionality:
SVRMGR> @C:\ORACLE\ORA81\RDBMS\ADMIN\CATPROC.SQL;

Creating a Database 8-21


Creating a Database Using Tools

8. Run the CATREP.SQL script if you want Advanced Replication functionality


with the new database. Ensure that the rollback segments are large enough and
are online before you run CATREP.SQL.
SVRMGR> @C:\ORACLE\ORA81\RDBMS\ADMIN\CATREP.SQL;
9. Turn off spooling:
SVRMGR> SPOOL OFF
10. Examine the BUILD_PROD.LOG file for any unusual errors.

IMPORTANT: The new database contains two users, SYS and


SYSTEM, with passwords CHANGE_ON_INSTALL and
MANAGER, respectively. For security reasons, change the
passwords now. Use the ALTER USER statement to change the
passwords:
SVRMGR> ALTER USER SYS IDENTIFIED BY NEW_SYS_PASSWORD;
SVRMGR> ALTER USER SYSTEM IDENTIFIED BY NEW_SYSTEM_PASSWORD;

11. Exit Server Manager:


SVRMGR> EXIT
12. Run ORADIM from the MS-DOS command prompt to set the database to start
automatically when you start the computer:
C:\> ORADIM -EDIT -SID PROD -STARTMODE AUTO

Importing a Database
You can import the full export created in "Exporting an Existing Database" on
page 8-12 into the new database.
You can also invoke the Import Utility, using parameter mode or interactive mode.
Parameter mode is recommended, because interactive mode provides less
functionality. Interactive mode exists solely for backward compatibility.

Example 8–3 Parameter Mode


C:\> IMP SYSTEM/PASSWORD FILE=MYEXP.DMP FULL=Y LOG=MYEXP.LOG

Example 8–4 Interactive Mode


C:\> IMP SYSTEM/PASSWORD

8-22 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Creating a Database Using Tools

Enter only the command IMP SYSTEM/PASSWORD to begin an interactive session


and let the Import Utility prompt you for the information it needs.
See Oracle8 Utilities for more information on using the Import Utility.

Note: If you use parameter mode, the Import Utility considers file names
and directory names to be invalid if there is a blank space. Enclose the full
path in the FILE= parameter in triple quotes. For example:
FILE="""C:\PROGRAM FILES\EXPORT.DMP"""
or
FILE="""C:\PROGRAM FILES\EXPORT FILE.DMP"""
If you use the Import Utility in interactive mode, the file name or directory
name can contain a space without quotes.

To import a database:
■ Run the Import Utility:
C:\> IMP SYSTEM/PASSWORD FILE=MYEXP.DMP FULL=Y LOG=MYIMP.LOG

IMPORTANT: If the original database from which the export file


was generated contains tablespaces that are not in the new
database, the Import Utility will try to create those tablespaces with
associated data files.
The easy solution is to ensure that both databases contain the same
tablespaces. The data files do not have to be identical. Only the
tablespace names are important.

Updating the ORACLE_SID in the Registry


If this is the first database on the system or if you want to make the new database
the default database, you must make a change in the registry.
1. Start the registry editor at the MS-DOS command prompt:
C:\> REGEDT32
The registry editor window appears.
2. Choose the \HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE subkey for the first
Oracle home on your computer. For subsequent installations to different Oracle
homes on the same computer, the path is

Creating a Database 8-23


Creating a Database Using Tools

\HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\HOMEID,
where ID is the unique number identifying the Oracle home.

Additional Information: See Appendix C, "Oracle 8i Configuration


Parameters and the Registry" for more information on the subkey
locations for multiple Oracle homes.

3. Locate the ORACLE_SID parameter on the right side of the registry editor
window.
4. Double-click the parameter name and change the data to the new SID, which is
PROD in this example.
If you do not yet have the ORACLE_SID,because this is the first database on your
system, you must create the ORACLE_SID, parameter.
To create the ORACLE_SID parameter:
1. From the Edit menu, choose Add Value....
The Add Value dialog box appears:

2. In the Value Name text box, type ORACLE_SID.


3. In the Data Type list box, select REG_EXPAND_SZ (for an expandable string).
4. Click OK.
A string editor dialog box appropriate for the data type appears:

5. In the String Editor dialog box, type PROD.


6. Click OK.
The registry editor adds the ORACLE_SID parameter.
8-24 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started
Creating a Database Using Tools

7. From the Registry menu, choose Exit.


The registry exits.

Backing Up the New Database

WARNING: If anything goes wrong while operating the new


database without a backup, you must repeat the database creation
procedure. Back up your database now to prevent such damage.

To back up the new database:


1. Shut down the database instance and stop the service:
C:\> ORADIM -SHUTDOWN -SID PROD -USRPWD PASSWORD
-SHUTTYPE SRVC,INST -SHUTMODE I

WARNING: Although ORADIM returns the prompt


immediately, you must wait for the database and the service to
stop completely before continuing to Step 2. Wait until the
Control Panel indicates the OracleServicePROD service has
stopped. If you do not do this, the backup may be useless as it
was taken while data was being written to the data files.

2. Using the tool of your choice, back up the database files.


Database files consist of the initialization parameter file, control files, online
redo log files, and data files.
When the backup is complete, you can start the database again, create users and
objects, if necessary, make any other changes, and use the database.
Be sure to back up the database backup after making any significant changes to
the database, such as switching the ARCHIVELOG mode, or adding a
tablespace or data file.

Additional Information: See Chapter 12, "Backing Up and


Recovering Database Files", Oracle8 Concepts, Oracle8 Backup and
Recovery Guide, and Oracle8 Administrator’s Guide for more
information on archiving and backup/recovery.

Creating a Database 8-25


Creating a Database Using Tools

Storing Database Files on Compressed Drives


Do not store database files on a compressed drive. This can result in write errors
and decreased performance.

8-26 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Using ORADIM to Administer an Oracle Instance

Using ORADIM to Administer an Oracle Instance


ORADIM is a command line tool that is only available on Oracle8i Enterprise
Edition for Windows NT.
You only need to use ORADIM if you are manually creating, deleting, or modifying
databases. Oracle Database Configuration Assistant is an easier tool to use for this
purpose.
Note: This is the only place in the product information set where
you will find information on ORADIM

ORADIM and Oracle Database Configuration Assistant perform similar tasks. The
following table compares what you can do with these tools.

ORADIM Oracle Database Configuration Assistant


■ Use ORADIM to create, start, stop, modify, ■ Use the assistant to create and delete databases (and
and delete instances (and not any associated their associated instances and services). Note that the
database files) at the MS-DOS command assistant cannot start or stop existing databases.
prompt.
■ Can be used to modify an instance. You can ■ Cannot be used to modify an instance.
modify an existing instance to change such
values as the instance name, the password,
the startup mode, or the shutdown mode.
■ Only creates the password file and the ■ Creates the database, the associated instance, the
related service. The database (that is, the service, and the password file.
database files) is not created.

When you use ORADIM, a log file called ORADIM.LOG opens in ORACLE_
BASE\ORACLE_HOME\DATABASE, or in the directory specified by the ORA_
CWD registry parameter. All operations, whether successful and failed, are logged
in this file. You must check this file to verify the success of an operation.
The following sections describe the ORADIM commands and parameters. Note that
each command is preceded by a dash (-).

To get a list of ORADIM parameters and descriptions...


Use this ORADIM -? | -H | -HELP
syntax: Note: Specifying ORADIM without any options also returns a
list of ORADIM parameters and descriptions.
Example: C:\> ORADIM -?

Creating a Database 8-27


Using ORADIM to Administer an Oracle Instance

Creating an Instance

To create an instance...
Use this syntax: ORADIM -NEW -SID SID | -SRVC SERVICE_NAME [-INTPWD INTERNAL_PWD] -
SHUTTYPE SRVC | INST | SRVC, INST
[-MAXUSERS NUMBER][-STARTMODE AUTO | MANUAL][-PFILE FILENAME]
Example to create C:\> ORADIM -NEW -SID PROD -INTPWD MYPASSWORD1 -STARTMODE AUTO
an instance called -PFILE C:\ORACLE\ADMIN\PROD\PFILE\INIT.ORA
PROD:
Syntax ■ -NEW Indicates that you want to create a new instance. This is a
description: mandatory parameter.
■ -SID SID The name of the instance you want to create. You must specify
either this parameter or the -SRVC parameter described below.
■ -SRVC The name of the service you want to create (OracleServiceSID).
SERVICE_NAME You must specify either this parameter or the -SID parameter
described above.
■ -INTPWD The password for the INTERNAL account. The -INTPWD option
INTERNAL_PWD is not required. If you do not specify it, operating system
authentication is used, and no password is required. See
"Automatically Enabling Operating System Authentication
During Installation" on page 10-3 for a description of features.
■ -MAXUSERS The number of users defined in the password file. The default is
NUMBER 5.
■ -STARTMODE Indicates whether to start the instance automatically or
AUTO, MANUAL manually at startup. The default setting is MANUAL.
■ -PFILE The INIT.ORA file to be used with this instance. Ensure that you
FILENAME specify the complete pathname of this file, including drive letter.
■ -SHUTTYPE Indicates whether to stop the service or the instance. Both can be
SRVC, INST specified. This is a mandatory parameter.

8-28 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Using ORADIM to Administer an Oracle Instance

Starting an Instance

To start an instance...
Use this syntax: ORADIM -STARTUP -SID SID [-USRPWD USER_PWD] [-STARTTYPE SRVC | INST | SRVC,
INST] [-PFILE FILENAME]
Example to start C:\> ORADIM -STARTUP -SID PUMA -STARTTYPE SRVC -PFILE
an instance called C:\ORACLE\ADMIN\PROD\PFILE\INIT.ORA
PUMA:
Syntax ■ -STARTUP Indicates that you want to start an instance that already
description: exists. This is a mandatory parameter.
■ -SID SID The name of the instance you want to start. This is a
mandatory parameter.
■ -USERPWD USER_ The password.
PWD
■ -STARTTYPE SRVC, Indicates whether to start the service or the instance. One or
INST both values can be specified. If not specified, the registry is
checked for the current setting.

Stopping an Instance

To stop an instance:
Use this syntax: ORADIM -SHUTDOWN -SID SID [-USRPWD USER_PWD] [-SHUTTYPE SRVC | INST | SRVC,
INST] [-SHUTMODE A | I | N]
Example to stop C:\> ORADIM -SHUTDOWN -SID PUMA -SHUTTYPE SRVC INST
an instance called
PUMA:
Syntax ■ -SHUTDOWN Indicates that you want to stop an instance. This is a
description: mandatory parameter.
■ -SID SID The name of the instance you want to stop. This is a
mandatory parameter.
■ -USERPWD USER_ The password.
PWD
■ -SHUTTYPE SRVC, Indicates whether to stop the service or the instance. One or
INST both values can be specified. If not specified, the registry is
checked for the current setting.
■ -SHUTMODE A, I, N Specifications on how to stop an instance; A indicates abort
mode, I indicates immediate mode, and N indicates normal
mode. This is an optional parameter. If you do not specify
how to stop an instance, normal is the default mode.

Creating a Database 8-29


Using ORADIM to Administer an Oracle Instance

Modifying an Instance

To modify an instance...
Use this syntax: ORADIM -EDIT -SID SID [-NEWSID NEWSID] [-INTPWD INTERNAL_PWD]
[-STARTMODE AUTO | MANUAL][-PFILE FILENAME]
Example to modify C:\> ORADIM -EDIT -SID PROD -NEWSID LYNX -INTPWD MYCAT123 -STARTMODE
an instance called AUTO -PFILE C:\ORACLE\ADMIN\LYNX\PFILE\INIT.ORA
PROD:
Note: You can modify an existing instance, in this example PROD, to change such values as the
instance name, the password, the startup mode, and the number of users.
Syntax ■ -EDIT Indicates that you want to modify an instance. This is a
description: mandatory parameter.
■ -SID SID The name of the instance you want to modify. This is a
mandatory parameter.
■ -NEWSID The new instance name. This is an optional parameter.
NEWSID
■ -INTPWD The password for the INTERNAL account.
INTERNAL_PWD
Note: This parameter cannot be used to change the password, as
it does not overwrite the existing password file. It can only
create a new password file when none already exists. To create a
new password file, use ORAPWD, or delete the Oracle8i services
(this action implicitly deletes the associated password file) and
then recreate the Oracle8i services (this action implicitly creates
the associated password file). See "Password Utility (ORAPWD)"
in Chapter 3, "Database Tools Overview".
■ -STARTMODE Indicates whether to start the instance automatically or
AUTO, MANUAL manually at startup. The default setting is MANUAL.
■ -PFILE The INIT.ORA file to be used with this instance. Ensure that you
FILENAME specify the complete pathname of this file, including drive letter.

8-30 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


9
Administering a Database

This chapter describes how to administer Oracle8i Enterprise Edition.


Specific topics discussed are:
■ Managing Oracle Services
■ Starting and Shutting Down a Database with SQL*Plus
■ Starting and Shutting Down a Database Using Services
■ Running Multiple Instances
■ Creating Password Files
■ Deleting Password Files
■ Connecting as INTERNAL with a Password File
■ Changing the INTERNAL Password
■ Encrypting Database Passwords
■ Archiving Redo Log Files
■ Using the ORADEBUG Utility

Note: This chapter describes tasks that use SQL*Plus command


line syntax. Starting with release 8.1.4 Beta, all Server Manager text
and examples have been replaced with SQL*Plus equivalents.
Although Server Manager will continue to be shipped with 8.1.x
releases, Oracle Corporation strongly recommends that you
migrate to SQL*Plus as soon as possible. See your SQL*Plus
documentation for information on using SQL*Plus to perform
database administration tasks.

Administering a Database 9-1


Oracle Service Naming Conventions for Multiple Oracle Homes
Oracle8i Enterprise Edition allows you to have multiple, active Oracle home
directories on a single computer. Chapter 4, "Multiple Oracle Homes and Optimal
Flexible Architecture" describes this feature. Multiple Oracle homes affect the
naming conventions for Oracle services. As you perform installations into Oracle
home directories:
■ you must accept the default Oracle home name provided or specify a different
name for each Oracle home directory during installation, which is added to
some service names
■ you will be prompted to identify a system identifier (SID) and database name
for each installation

9-2 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


These two figures show how the Services dialog box appears with two Oracle8i
databases on a single computer:

Service names for first Oracle8 i


database installation. A home
name of HOME1 appears in
some service names.

Service names for second


Oracle8i database installation.
The home name of HOME2 is
part of service names.

Service name for first Oracle8i


database installation as entered
by the user.

Administering a Database 9-3


Available Oracle Services
Depending on the products that you have installed, a number of Oracle services are
started when you restart your Windows NT computer. The two main Oracle
services are:

Service Name Description


OracleServiceSID Created for the database instance SID. An Oracle instance is a
logical term that refers to:
■ an Oracle service called OracleServiceSID
■ a database
Each Oracle instance must have a system identifier (SID). A
SID is a unique name for an Oracle database instance that can
be up to 64 alphanumeric characters in length.
For example, if the SID for the Oracle8i database is ORCLx, it is
appended to the service OracleService. The instance name is
the same as the value of the ORACLE_SID registry
configuration parameter.
OracleHOME_ Listens for and accepts incoming connection requests from
NAMETNSListener client applications. Automatically starts when the Windows
NT computer restarts. The HOME_NAME that displays in this
service name is the value you entered in the Name field on the
File Locations dialog box of Oracle Universal Installer.

Additional Oracle services related to specific products or database features are also
available:

Service Name Description


OracleHOME_NAMEAgent Listens for and responds to job and event requests
sent from the Oracle Enterprise Manager console.
OracleHOME_ ConText server processes started on an NT server are
NAMEConTextService normally terminated by Windows NT when the user
logs off. This service can be used to start server
processes that survive logouts.

OracleHOME_NAMEExtprocAgent Enables external procedure callouts from PL/SQL to


the database to be implemented with multiple,
light-weight threads instead of a single dedicated
process.

9-4 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Service Name Description

OracleWebAssistant01 Enables information from database queries to be


published to a Web page at specified time intervals.

OracleMTSService01 Provides the COM communication interface between


Microsoft Transaction Server (and its MS DTC
component) and the Oracle8i database.
1
This is the name for this service if you have only one Oracle home directory on your computer. Each
additional Oracle home directory on your computer uses the naming convention
OracleWebAssistant1, OracleWebAssistant2, OracleMTSService1, OracleMTSService2, and so on for
this service.

Services for network products are also available. See Net8 Administrator’s Guide for
information on Oracle network services.

Starting Oracle Services


Oracle services must be started for you to use the Oracle8i database and its
products.
Start Oracle services in either of three ways:
■ From the Control Panel
■ From the MS-DOS command prompt
■ From the Oracle Administration Assistant

Note: You can start the Oracle8i database when you start
OracleServiceSID. See section "Starting and Shutting Down a
Database Using Services" for information on registry parameters
that enable you to do this.

To start Oracle Services from the Control Panel:


1. Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel.
The Control Panel window appears.
2. Double-click Services.
The Services dialog box appears.
3. Find the service you want to start in the list, and verify that it has a status of
Started. If it does not, select it and choose Start.

Administering a Database 9-5


4. Click Close to exit the Services dialog box.
To start Oracle Services from the MS-DOS command prompt:
1. Enter the following command to start an Oracle service at the MS-DOS
command prompt:
C:\> NET START SERVICE
where SERVICE is a specific service name, such as OracleServiceORCL.
If you cannot find OracleServiceSID in the list, use ORADIM to create it. See
Chapter 8, "Creating a Database" for instructions on using ORADIM.
To start Oracle Services from the Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows
NT:
1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Enterprise Management >
Database Administration Applications > Oracle Administration Assistant for
Windows NT.
2. Right-click the SID.
where SID is a specific instance name, such as ORCL.
3. Choose Start Service
where SERVICE is a specific service name, such as OracleServiceORCL.

Stopping Oracle Services


On occasion (for example, if you want to re-install the Oracle8i database), you must
stop Oracle services. Stop Oracle services in either of three ways:
■ From the Control Panel
■ From the MS-DOS Command Prompt
■ From the Oracle Administration Assistant

Note: You can stop the Oracle8i database in normal, immediate, or


abort mode when you stop OracleServiceSID. See the section
"Starting and Shutting Down a Database Using Services" for
information on registry parameters that enable you to do this.

9-6 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


To stop Oracle8i Services from the Control Panel:
1. Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel.
The Control Panel window appears.
2. Double-click Services.
The Services dialog box appears.
3. Select OracleHOME_NAMETNSListener and choose Stop.
OracleHOME_NAMETNSListener is stopped.
4. Select OracleServiceSID and choose Stop.
5. Click OK.
OracleServiceSID is stopped.
To stop Oracle Services from the MS-DOS command prompt:
1. Enter the following command to stop an Oracle service at the MS-DOS
command prompt:
C:\> NET STOP SERVICE
where SERVICE is a specific service name, such as OracleServiceORCL.
To stop Oracle Services from the Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows
NT:
1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Enterprise Management >
Database Administration Applications > Oracle Administration Assistant for
Windows NT.
2. Right-click the SID
where SID is a specific instance name, such as ORCL.
3. Choose Stop Service
where SERVICE is a specific service name, such as OracleServiceORCL.

Administering a Database 9-7


Auto-starting Oracle Services
You can start Oracle services whenever the Windows NT computer is restarted. Use
the Service dialog box to configure when and how the Oracle8i database is started.
To automatically start the Oracle8i database each time you restart:
1. Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel.
The Control Panel window appears.
2. Double-click Services.
The Services dialog box appears.
3. Select the service OracleServiceSID and choose the Startup button.
The Service dialog box appears.
4. Choose Automatic from the Startup Type field.
5. Click OK.
6. Click Close to exit the Services dialog box.

9-8 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


To automatically start Oracle Services from the Oracle Administration Assistant
for Windows NT:
1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Enterprise Management >
Database Administration Applications > Oracle Administration Assistant for
Windows NT.
2. Right-click the SID
where SID is a specific instance name, such as ORCL.
3. Choose Startup/Shutdown Options...
4. Click the Oracle NT Service tab.
5. In the Oracle NT Service Startup Type box click Automatic.

Administering a Database 9-9


Starting and Shutting Down a Database with SQL*Plus

Starting and Shutting Down a Database with SQL*Plus


These instructions assume that a database instance is created and the services are
started.

Note: The directory path examples in this chapter follow Optimal


Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines (for example, ORACLE_
BASE\ORACLE_HOME\RDBMS\ADMIN). If you specified
non-OFA compliant directories during installation, your directory
paths will differ. See section "OFA and Multiple Oracle Home
Configurations" on page 4-23 for information.

To start or shut down an Oracle8i database:


1. Go to your Oracle8i database server.
2. Start SQL*Plus at the MS-DOS command prompt:
C:\> SQLPLUS
3. Connect to the Oracle8i database with the INTERNAL user name:
SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL
4. Follow the instructions below:

If You Want to... Then Enter...


Start a database with the SQL> STARTUP
default parameter file
This command uses the default INIT.ORA file located in the ORACLE_BASE\
ADMIN\DB_NAME\PFILE directory.
Start a database with a SQL> STARTUP PFILE=PATH\FILENAME
file other than the default
This command uses the INIT.ORA file specified in PATH\FILENAME. This example
parameter file
starts the database using a file named INIT2.ORA in C:\ORA81\ADMIN\ORCL\
PFILE:
SQL> STARTUP PFILE=C:\ORA81\ADMIN\ORCL\PFILE\INIT2.ORA
Stop the database SQL> SHUTDOWN [MODE]
where MODE is one of the following:
■ Normal
The database waits for all currently connected users to disconnect and disallows any
new connections before shutting down. This is the default mode.

9-10 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Starting and Shutting Down a Database Using Services

If You Want to... Then Enter...


■ Immediate
The database terminates and rolls back active transactions, disconnects clients, and
shuts down.
■ Abort
The database terminates active transactions and disconnects users; it does not roll
back transactions. The database performs automatic recovery and rollback the next
time it is started. Use this mode only in emergencies.

Note: See "Choosing a Database Tool" on page 3-2 for a list of


other tools that can start the database and the Oracle8i
Administrator’s Guide for information on options you can specify
when starting your database.

Starting and Shutting Down a Database Using Services


You can start or shut down the Oracle8i database by starting or stopping the service
OracleServiceSID in the Control Panel. This automated procedure is equivalent to
manually entering the following:

If You... These Commands are Performed...


Start OracleServiceSID C:\> ORADIM - STARTUP -SID SID -USERPWD PASSWORD
-STARTTYPE SRV,INST
Stop OracleServiceSID C:\> ORADIM - SHUTDOWN -SID SID -USERPWD
PASSWORD -SHUTTYPE SRV,INST -SHUTMODE -I

To start the database by starting OracleServiceSID:


1. Review or set the following registry parameters. Note that ORADIM, when
used to create or edit instances, automatically sets these values in the registry.

Parameter When Set to TRUE, this Parameter...


ORA_SID_AUTOSTART When set to TRUE (the default value), starts the database when
OracleServiceSID is started.
ORA_SID_PFILE Sets the full path to the INIT.ORA parameter file. The default
path is ORACLE_BASE\ADMIN\DB_NAME\PFILE\INIT.ORA.

Administering a Database 9-11


Starting and Shutting Down a Database Using Services

See Appendix C, "Oracle 8i Configuration Parameters and the Registry" for


instructions on adding and editing registry parameters.
The exact location in which to set these parameters is determined by the number of
Oracle home directories on your computer:

If You Have... Then Add These Parameters in...


One home directory HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\HOME0
Additional directories HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\HOMEID
where ID is incremented for each additional Oracle home directory
on your computer.

2. Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel.


The Control Panel window appears.
3. Double-click Services.
The Services dialog box appears.
4. Select OracleServiceSID and choose Start.
This automatically starts ORADIM and issues the -STARTUP command using
the initialization parameter file identified by ORA_SID_PFILE.
To shut down the database by stopping OracleServiceSID:
1. Set either of the following parameters to TRUE in the registry:

Parameter When Set to TRUE, this Parameter...


ORA_SHUTDOWN Enables the selected Oracle8i database to be shut down. This
includes any database in the current Oracle home.
ORA_SID_SHUTDOWN Shuts down the Oracle8i database identified by the SID
value.

If either is set to FALSE (the default setting), you cannot shut down the
database by stopping OracleServiceSID.
The exact location in which to set these parameters is determined by the
number of Oracle home directories on your computer:

If You Have... These Parameters are Located in...


One home directory HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\HOME0

9-12 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Starting and Shutting Down a Database Using Services

If You Have... These Parameters are Located in...


Two or more home HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\HOMEID
directories
where ID is incremented for each additional Oracle home
directory on your computer.

See Appendix C, "Oracle 8i Configuration Parameters and the Registry" for


instructions on adding and editing registry parameters.
2. Set the following optional parameters to appropriate values in the registry:

Parameter Description
ORA_SID_ Set to A (abort), I (immediate), or N (normal) to indicate the
SHUTDOWNTYPE database shutdown mode. The default mode is I (immediate) if
you do not set this parameter.
ORA_SID_ Sets the maximum time to wait before the service for a particular
SHUTDOWN_ SID stops.
TIMEOUT

3. Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel.


The Control Panel window appears.
4. Double-click Services.
The Services dialog box appears.
5. Select OracleServiceSID and choose Stop.
This automatically starts ORADIM, which issues the -SHUTDOWN command
in the mode indicated by ORA_SID_SHUTDOWNTYPE, and shuts down your
Oracle8i database.

Administering a Database 9-13


Starting and Shutting Down a Database Using Services

To start or stop a Database using Oracle Services from the Oracle Administration
Assistant for Windows NT:
1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Enterprise Management >
Database Administration Applications > Oracle Administration Assistant for
Windows NT.
2. Right-click the SID
where SID is a specific instance name, such as ORCL.
3. Choose Startup/Shutdown Options...
4. Click the Oracle Instance tab.
5. Select Start up instance when service is started or select Shut down instance
when service is stopped.

9-14 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Starting and Shutting Down a Database Using Services

To view information on Process Information from the Oracle Administration


Assistant for Windows NT:
1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Enterprise Management >
Database Administration Applications > Oracle Administration Assistant for
Windows NT.
2. Right-click the SID
where SID is a specific instance name, such as ORCL.
3. Choose Process Information...
Information on Oracle threads is displayed.

Note: In order to use the Process Information feature in the


Oracle Administration Assistant, Windows NT native
authentication needs to be enabled. To enable Windows NT native
authentication set SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES =
(NTS) in the sqlnet.ora file and restart the Oracle database.

Administering a Database 9-15


Running Multiple Instances

Running Multiple Instances


To run multiple instances, ensure that you have already created each instance and
started the services for each instance using ORADIM or the Services dialog box in
Windows NT. You then run multiple instances by starting each of the instances
using SQL*Plus.
To run multiple instances:
1. Ensure that you have already created each instance.
2. Ensure that you started the services for each instance using ORADIM or the
Services dialog box of the Windows NT Control Panel.
3. Set the ORACLE_SID configuration parameter at the MS-DOS command
prompt to the SID for each instance you want to run:
C:\> SET ORACLE_SID=SID
where SID is the name of the Oracle8i database instance.
4. Start SQL*Plus:
C:\> SQLPLUS
5. Connect as INTERNAL:
SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL
6. Start up the database with the new instance:
SQL> STARTUP PFILE=ORACLE_BASE\ADMIN\DB_NAME\PFILE\INIT.ORA
where ORACLE_BASE is C:\ORACLE by default (unless you changed it during
installation) and DB_NAME is the name of the instance.

9-16 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Creating Password Files

Creating Password Files


Use the Password Utility ORAPWD to create password files. ORAPWD is
automatically installed with the Oracle8i Utilities. Password files are located in the
ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\DATABASE directory and are named
PWDSID.ORA, where SID identifies the Oracle8i database instance. Password files
can be used for local or remote connections to an Oracle8i database. The example
below describes how to perform a local connection.
To create a password file:
1. Create a password file with ORAPWD:
C:\> ORAPWD FILE=PWDSID.ORA PASSWORD=PASSWORD ENTRIES=MAX_USERS
The essential elements of a password file are:

Element Description
SID Identifies the database instance.
FILE Specifies the password file name.
PASSWORD Sets the password for the INTERNAL and SYS accounts.
ENTRIES Sets the maximum number of entries in the password file. This
corresponds to the maximum number of distinct users allowed to
connect to the database with the SYSDBA and SYSOPER DBA
privileges simultaneously.

2. Set the INIT.ORA file parameter REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE to


EXCLUSIVE or SHARED. Definitions for all possible values are described
below:

Element Description
EXCLUSIVE Specifies that only one instance can use the password file and that the
password file contains names other than SYS and INTERNAL. Oracle8i
looks in the registry for the value of the ORA_SID_PWFILE parameter.
If a value is unspecified, it looks in the registry for the value of the
ORA_PWFILE parameter, which points to a file containing the
INTERNAL password as well as user names, passwords, and
privileges. If that is not set, it uses the default of ORACLE_
BASE\ORACLE_HOME\DATABASE\PWDSID.ORA.

Administering a Database 9-17


Creating Password Files

Element Description
SHARED Specifies that multiple instances can use the password file (for example,
a parallel server environment). However, the only users recognized by
the password file are SYS and INTERNAL. You cannot log in with
SYSOPER or SYSDBA privileges even if those privileges are granted in
the password file. The SHARED value of this parameter affords
backward compatibility with earlier releases. The Oracle8i database
looks for the same files as it does when the value is EXCLUSIVE, but
only the INTERNAL account is available for privileged access. This is
the default value.
NONE Specifies that the Oracle8i database ignores the password file and that
privileged users are authenticated by the Windows NT operating
system. NONE is the default setting.

3. Start SQL*Plus:
C:\> SQLPLUS
4. Connect as INTERNAL:
SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL
5. Start the Oracle8i database:
SQL> STARTUP
6. Grant appropriate privileges to each user who needs to perform database
administration. For example:
SQL> GRANT SYSDBA TO SCOTT;
If successful, the following message displays:
Statement Processed.
This adds SCOTT to the password file and enables SCOTT to connect to the
database with SYSDBA privileges. Use SQL*Plus to add or delete user names,
user passwords, and user privileges in password files.
7. Connect to the Oracle8i database with DBA privileges for SCOTT:
SQL> CONNECT SCOTT/TIGER AS SYSDBA
You are connected to the Oracle8i database.

Caution: Copying or manually moving password files may result


in ORADIM not being able to find a password to start an instance.

9-18 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Creating Password Files

Viewing Password Files


The password file is automatically hidden. This section describes two ways of
viewing the password file:
■ To see the password file from the MS-DOS command prompt:
■ To see the password file from Windows NT Explorer:
To see the password file from the MS-DOS command prompt:

To... Enter...
See the password file C:\ORACLE\ORA81\DATABASE> ATTRIB
The password file displays:
A H C:\ORACLE\ORA81\DATABASE\PWDSID.ORA
Make the password file visible C:\ORACLE\ORA81\DATABASE> ATTRIB -H
PWDSID.ORA
Note: The password file must be visible before you can
move or copy it.
Hide the password file again C:\ORACLE\ORA81\DATABASE> ATTRIB +H
PWDSID.ORA

To see the password file from Windows NT Explorer:


1. Open Windows NT Explorer.
2. Open the folder to view.
3. Click Folder Options from the View main menu.
4. Click the View tab.
5. Follow the instructions below:

To... Click...
See the password file Show all files.
Hide the password file Do not show hidden files.

Administering a Database 9-19


Connecting as INTERNAL with a Password File

Deleting Password Files


This section describes how to delete a password file.
To delete a password file:
1. Make the password file visible at the MS-DOS command prompt or in Windows
NT Explorer by following the instructions in section "Viewing Password Files"
on page 9-19.
2. Delete the password file based on whether you made it visible at the MS-DOS
command prompt or in Windows NT Explorer.

Connecting as INTERNAL with a Password File


You can connect as INTERNAL with a password file. The password for INTERNAL
is ORACLE if you installed Oracle8i Enterprise Edition through the Oracle8i
Enterprise Edition option. If you installed Oracle8i Enterprise Edition through the
Custom installation option, the password for INTERNAL is whatever you entered
when prompted during installation.
To connect as INTERNAL with a password file:
1. Follow the procedures in "Creating Password Files" on page 9-17 to create a
password file with ORAPWD.
2. Set the INIT.ORA file parameter REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE to
EXCLUSIVE or SHARED.

Note: When REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE is set to NONE,


connecting remotely to a database as INTERNAL is prohibited even if the
correct password is supplied.

3. Connect to your Oracle8i database as follows:


SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL/PASSWORD
where PASSWORD is the password created with ORAPWD or ORADIM.

9-20 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Changing the INTERNAL Password

Changing the INTERNAL Password


Change the INTERNAL user account password with either ORADIM or ORAPWD.
To change the password with ORADIM:
1. Delete the SID for the password you want to change:
C:\> ORADIM -DELETE -SID SID
where SID is the SID to delete.
2. Create the same SID again and specify a new INTERNAL password:
C:\> ORADIM -NEW -SID SID -INTPWD NEW_PASSWORD - STARTMODE AUTO - MAXUSERS N
-PFILE <drive: \path\init{sid}.ora>
where SID is the same SID to recreate, NEW_PASSWORD is the new
INTERNAL password, and N is the maximum number of DBAs/operators who
can be logged in at once with this password.
To change the password with ORAPWD:
1. See section "Deleting Password Files" on page 9-20 for instructions on deleting
the password file.
2. See section "Creating Password Files" on page 9-17 for instructions on creating a
password file.
To change the password with SQL*Plus:
The section assumes the password file is already created and the INIT.ORA file
parameter REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE is set to SHARED or EXCLUSIVE.
1. Start SQL*Plus:
C:\> SQLPLUS
2. Connect with the INTERNAL user name:
SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL
3. Change the password for the SYS user name, for which INTERNAL is an alias:
SQL> ALTER USER SYS IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD;
This also changes the INTERNAL password.

Administering a Database 9-21


Encrypting Database Passwords

Encrypting Database Passwords


With the Oracle8i database, you can encrypt the password used to verify a remote
database connection.
To enable password encryption:
1. Add DBLINK_ENCRYPT_LOGIN to the initialization parameter INIT.ORA file
on the server computer.
2. Set DBLINK_ENCRYPT_LOGIN equal to TRUE.
3. Set the ORA_ENCRYPT_LOGIN configuration variable on the client computer
to TRUE. See Appendix C, "Oracle 8i Configuration Parameters and the
Registry" for instructions on adding and setting configuration parameters in the
registry.
Once these parameters are set to TRUE, whenever a user attempts a remote login,
the Oracle8i database encrypts the password before sending it to the remote
database. If the connection fails, the failure is noted in the audit log. The Oracle8i
database then checks if either of these parameters is set to FALSE. If so, the Oracle8i
database attempts the connection again using an unencrypted version of the
password. If the connection is successful, the success is noted in the audit log, and
the connection proceeds.

Note: Releases prior to release 7.1 do not support encrypted passwords. If


you are connecting to an earlier version of the Oracle database, you must
set the initialization parameter DBLINK_ENCRYPT_LOGIN to FALSE for
the connection to succeed.

9-22 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Archiving Redo Log Files

Archiving Redo Log Files


Your Oracle8i database is created in either ARCHIVELOG or NOARCHIVELOG
mode. See the table in section "Starter and Custom Database Overview" on page 7-2
for the archiving mode in which your database is created.

In NOARCHIVELOG mode, redo logs are not archived. This protects the database
from instance failure, but not from disk failure. Setting your archive mode to
ARCHIVELOG and enabling automatic archiving causes redo log files to be
archived. This protects the database from both instance and disk failure.
This section describes how to change the archive mode to ARCHIVELOG and
enable automatic archiving. See the chapter "Archiving Redo Information" of the
Oracle8i Administrator’s Guide for complete descriptions of the ARCHIVELOG and
NOARCHIVELOG modes.

Step 1: Change the Archive Mode to ARCHIVELOG


To change the archive mode to ARCHIVELOG:
1. Start SQL*Plus at the MS-DOS command prompt:
C:\> SQLPLUS
2. Connect to the Oracle8i database with the INTERNAL user name:
SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL
3. If the database is open, shut it down:
SQL> SHUTDOWN
4. Mount the database:
SQL> STARTUP MOUNT
5. Enter the following command:
SQL> ARCHIVE LOG LIST

Administering a Database 9-23


Archiving Redo Log Files

The following output indicates the database is not in archive mode:


Database log mode No Archive Mode
Automatic archival Disabled
Archive destination %RDBMS%\
Oldest online log sequence 34
Current log sequence 37
6. Change the archive mode to ARCHIVELOG:
SQL> ALTER DATABASE ARCHIVELOG;
7. Enter the following command:
SQL> ARCHIVE LOG LIST
The following output indicates the database is now in archive mode:
Database log mode Archive Mode
Automatic archival Disabled
Archive destination %RDBMS%\
Oldest online log sequence 34
Current log sequence 37
8. Open the database:
SQL> ALTER DATABASE OPEN;
9. Continue to "Step 2: Enable Automatic Archiving" on page 9-25.

9-24 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Archiving Redo Log Files

Step 2: Enable Automatic Archiving


To enable automatic archiving:
1. Open the ORACLE_BASE\ADMIN\DB_NAME\INIT.ORA file.
2. Find the following three parameters:
# LOG_ARCHIVE_START = TRUE
# LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST = %ORACLE_HOME%\DATABASE\ARCHIVE
# LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT = "%%ORACLE_SID%%T%TS%S.ARC"
3. Remove the # sign from in front of each.

Note: The double quotes around LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT do


not need to be removed.

4. Edit the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST value to identify an existing drive and


directory in which to archive your filled redo logs.
5. Edit the LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT value to indicate the appropriate archiving
format:

Format Description Example


%%ORACLE_SID%%%T.ARC Specifies the thread number. This SID0001.ARC
number is padded to the left by
zeroes. The default value is one with
a range of up to three characters.
%%ORACLE_SID%%%S.ARC Specifies the log sequence number. SID0001.ARC
This number is padded to the left by
zeroes. The default value is one with
a range of up to five characters.
%%ORACLE_SID%%%t.ARC Specifies the thread number. The SID1.ARC
number is not padded. The default
value is one with no range limit on
characters.
%%ORACLE_SID%%%sARC Specifies the log sequence number. SID1.ARC
The number is not padded. The
default value is one with no range
limit on characters.

6. Save your changes.

Administering a Database 9-25


Archiving Redo Log Files

7. Exit the file.


8. Shut down the database:
SQL> SHUTDOWN
9. Restart the database
SQL> STARTUP
10. Enter the following command:
SQL> ARCHIVE LOG LIST
The following output indicates that automatic archiving of redo log files is
enabled and an archiving destination is specified:
Database log mode Archive Mode
Automatic archival Enabled
Archive destination C:\BACKUP
Oldest online log sequence 34
Current log sequence 37

9-26 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Using the ORADEBUG Utility

Using the ORADEBUG Utility


The ORADEBUG utility is a debugging tool that sends debug commands through
SQL*Plus to Oracle processes. It is primarily for use by developers and Oracle
Support Services personnel. Only use this utility when instructed to do so by Oracle
Support Services. Note that you must have database administrator privileges to use
ORADEBUG.
To start ORADEBUG:
1. Start SQL*Plus from the MS-DOS command prompt and connect to the
database as INTERNAL. For example:
C:\> SQLPLUS
SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL
2. Enter the following at the SQL*Plus prompt:
SQL> ORADEBUG
ORADEBUG runs and prompts you for parameters. To obtain a list of these
parameters, enter the following at the SQL*Plus prompt:
SQL> ORADEBUG HELP
The output from most debug commands is written to a trace file. Trace files are
created in the directory specified by the INIT.ORA initialization parameters
BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST and USER_DUMP_DEST. By default, these
parameters are set to ORACLE_BASE\ADMIN\DB_NAME\BDUMP and
ORACLE_BASE\ADMIN\DB_NAME\UDUMP, respectively. If you want to
find the location of your trace file, enter the following at the SQL*Plus prompt:
SQL> ORADEBUG TRACEFILE_NAME
If the output from a debug command produces more than one line of output,
the result is sent to a trace file, and a message indicating that the command has
completed is relayed to SQL*Plus. If the output from a debug command
produces only one line of output, the output is relayed directly to SQL*Plus.

Note: There is currently a limitation when using ORADEBUG that


can cause SQL*Plus to hang if you attempt to debug a thread that is
blocking on input/output (I/O) until that I/O completes.

Administering a Database 9-27


Using the ORADEBUG Utility

9-28 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


10
Authenticating Database Users with
Windows NT

This chapter describes how to authenticate Oracle8i database users with Windows
NT. Specific topics discussed are:
■ Authentication Overview
■ Automatically Enabling Operating System Authentication During Installation
■ Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT
Authentication Using the Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT
■ Adding a Computer
■ Granting Database Administrator and Database Operator Privileges Using Oracle
Administration Assistant for Windows NT
■ Connecting to a Database
■ Create a Nonprivileged Database User using Oracle Administration Assistant
for Windows NT
■ Create a Local Database Role
■ Create an External OS Role
Manual Authentication Using Windows NT
■ Connecting Without a Password as a Nonprivileged Database User
■ Connecting as SYSDBA and SYSOPER Without a Password
■ Connecting as INTERNAL Without a Password
■ Granting Database Roles through Windows NT

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-1


Authentication Overview

Authentication Overview
The Oracle8i database can use information maintained by Windows NT to
authenticate database users. The benefits of Windows NT authentication include:
■ Enabling users to connect to an Oracle8i database without supplying a user
name or password
■ Centralizing Oracle8i database user authorization information in Windows NT,
which frees Oracle8i from storing or managing user passwords
■ Allowing Oracle8i and Windows NT user names to be the same
Windows NT Native authentication methods (automatically installed with Net8
Server and Net8 Client) enable database user authentication through Windows NT.
This enables client computers to make secure connections to an Oracle8i database
on a Windows NT server. A secure connection is when a Windows NT client user
name is retrieved on a Windows NT server through Windows NT Native
authentication methods. The Windows NT server then permits the user name to
perform the database actions on the server.
In Oracle 8.1.5, by default, external users created in the database must be prefixed
with the domain name. For example, for an NT user DOMAIN1\NTUSER1, the
Oracle user created in the database must be DOMAIN1\NTUSER1. If you wish to
create the Oracle user in the database without prefixing with the domain name, you
first need to set the registry value OSAUTH_PREFIX_DOMAIN in
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\HOMEID to FALSE.

Note: For Windows NT authentication to work, the


SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES parameter must be set by
as follows in your ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME
\NETWORK\ADMIN\SQLNET.ORA file on both client and server:
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES = (NTS)

10-2 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Automatically Enabling Operating System Authentication During Installation

Automatically Enabling Operating System Authentication During


Installation
When you install Oracle8i Enterprise Edition, your Windows NT user name is
automatically added to a Windows NT local group called ORA_DBA. The
ORA_DBA local group is:
■ Automatically created when Oracle8i Enterprise Edition is installed.
■ A special Windows NT local group whose members automatically receive the
SYSDBA privilege.
Enables you to:
■ Connect to any local Oracle8i databases without a password by issuing
commands such as the following:
■ CONNECT INTERNAL
■ CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
■ Connect to Oracle8i databases without a password by issuing a command such
as the following:
■ CONNECT /@NET_SERVICE_NAME AS SYSDBA
where NET_SERVICE_NAME is the network service name of the Oracle8i
database to which to connect.
■ Perform database administration procedures such as starting and shutting
down local databases
■ Add additional Windows NT users to ORA_DBA, enabling them to have the
SYSDBA privilege provided you have Administrator privileges.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-3


Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT

Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT


Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT is a graphical user interface (GUI)
tool that enables you to easily configure Oracle database administrators, operators,
users, and roles to be authenticated by the Windows NT operating system. Oracle
Administration Assistant for Windows NT enables you to:
■ Configure regular Windows NT domain users and global groups to access the
Oracle database without a password.
■ Configure Windows NT database administrators (with the SYSDBA privilege)
to access the Oracle database without a password.
■ Configure Windows NT database operators (with the SYSOPER privilege) to
access the Oracle database without a password.
■ Create and grant local and external OS database roles to Windows NT domain
users and global groups.
Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT eliminates the need for manually:
■ Creating NT local groups that match the database system identifier (SID) and
role.
■ Assigning NT domain users to these local groups.
■ Authenticating users in Server Manager or SQL*Plus line mode with the
CREATE USER USERNAME IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY syntax.
If you want to use Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT to manage a
remote computer, you must have administrator privileges for the remote computer.
Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT always creates users in the
database with the domain name as the prefix. Therefore, if you are managing Oracle
7.x or Oracle 8.0.x databases remotely, you must set the registry value
OSAUTH_PREFIX_DOMAIN in
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\HOMEID to TRUE in the
remote system.

10-4 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Adding a Computer

Adding a Computer
When you use Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT for the first time, it
will automatically add the local computer in the navigation tree. You may then add
another computer by following steps:
1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Enterprise Management >
Database Administration Applications > Oracle Administration Assistant for
Windows NT.
2. Right Click Computer.
3. Choose New > Computer
4. Specify the domain and hostname of the computer on which your Oracle
database is installed, and click OK.
5. Double-click Computers to display the computer you added.
6. Double-click the computer you added. Several Oracle Administration Assistant
for Windows NT nodes appear.
7. In the appropriate pull down menu select the domain location and name of the
computer on which the Oracle database is installed.

8. Click OK. You can now access the Oracle database to perform authentication
tasks.
Save your configuration in a console file by clicking Save on the Console pull-
down menu.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-5


Granting Database Administrator and Database Operator Privileges Using Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT

Granting Database Administrator and Database Operator Privileges


Using Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT
You can grant the SYSOPER and SYSDBA privileges to DBAs using the Oracle
Administration Assistant for Windows NT snap-in for the Microsoft Management
Console.
1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Enterprise Management >
Database Administration Applications > Oracle Administration Assistant for
Windows NT.
Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT starts.
2. Right click the OS Database Operators.
3. Choose Add/Remove.

10-6 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Granting Database Administrator and Database Operator Privileges Using Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT

4. Highlight the name of a user or from the NT Domain Users and Groups box to
grant SYSDBA privileges.
5. Click the Add button. The user will now appear in the OS Database Operators
window.
6. Click OK.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-7


Granting Database Administrator and Database Operator Privileges Using Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT

To grant the SYSDBA privileges using the Oracle Administration Assistant for
Windows NT snap-in in the Microsoft Management Console:

1. Right click the OS Database Administrators.


2. Choose Add/Remove.

10-8 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Granting Database Administrator and Database Operator Privileges Using Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT

3. Highlight the name of a user or from the NT Domain Users and Groups box to
grant SYSDBA privileges.
4. Click the Add button. The user will now appear in the OS Database
Administrators window.
5. Click OK.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-9


Connecting to a Database

Connecting to a Database
1. Right-click the database instance to access (for example, ORCL) in the Microsoft
Management Console scope pane.

2. Choose Connect Database. Several NT nodes appear beneath the instance,


indicating that you are connected to the Oracle database. If these nodes do not
appear, double-click the instance.
3. To connect a local computer the Oracle Administration Assistant will first try to
connect as a SYSDBA to the database using Bequeath. To connect a remote
computer Oracle Administration Assistant will try to connect using NT native
authentication as a SYSDBA to the database using TCP/IP (port 1521 and 1526).
If it is unsuccessful, the following dialog box will be displayed for you to enter
information to connect to the database.

10-10 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Connecting to a Database

The Windows NT domain user with which you are attempting to connect to the
Oracle database is not recognized as an authenticated user with SYSDBA privilege.
Therefore, you must enter an Oracle user name and password to access the
database. To avoid being prompted with this dialog box again, configure your
domain user to be a database administrator authenticated by the Windows NT
operating system.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-11


Connecting to a Database

The dialog box shown above appeared because you are not using the TCP/IP
networking protocol to connect to a remote Oracle database. Using SPX or Named
Pipes causes this dialog box to appear each time you attempt a remote connection.
To avoid having to respond to this dialog box, change to the TCP/IP networking
protocol and use default port 1521 or 1526.
The dialog box shown above may also appear because the Oracle database is not
running. Start the Oracle database.

Note: For connections to local Oracle databases, the Bequeath


networking protocol is automatically used. Bequeath is
automatically installed with Net8 Server.

Net Service Name


Enter the net service name with which to connect to your Oracle database. The net
service name is an alias for a specific database instance that you create with the
graphical user interface tool Net8 Assistant or Net8 Easy Config. You must enter a
net service name regardless of the authentication method you select below.

10-12 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Connecting to a Database

Database Authenticated
Select this option if you want to access the database with an Oracle user name and
password. This user name and password must exist in the Oracle database. This
user name must also have the SYSDBA privilege.
■ Enter an Oracle database user name.
■ Enter the password for the Oracle database user name.
OS Authenticated Connection as SYSDBA
Select this option if you want to access the database with the Windows NT domain
user with which you are currently logged in. This Windows NT domain user must
already be recognized by Windows NT as an authenticated user with SYSDBA
privileges. Otherwise, your logon attempt will fail.
Database Properties
To view database properties right click the database, choose Properties.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-13


Create a Nonprivileged Database User using Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT

Create a Nonprivileged Database User using Oracle Administration


Assistant for Windows NT
You may create a Nonprivileged Database User using the Oracle Administration
Assistant for Windows NT snap-in in the Microsoft Management Console.
Start the Microsoft Management Console.
1. Choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Enterprise Management >
Database Administration Applications > Oracle Administration Assistant for
Windows NT.
Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT starts.
2. Right Click External OS Users.
3. Choose Create.

10-14 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Create a Nonprivileged Database User using Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT

The Create External OS User Wizard is launched.

4. Choose the domain from the Domain pull down menu then from the NT
Domain Users and Groups box select the name of the user or group you want to
grant access to the database.
5. Click the Add button. The user will now appear in the New NT Authenticated
Users window.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-15


Create a Nonprivileged Database User using Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT

Note: If you select an NT global group for authentication when


using Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT, all users
currently in the group are added to the Oracle database. If at a later
time, you use a Windows NT tool to add or remove users in this NT
global group, these updates are not reflected in the Oracle database.
The newly added or removed users must be explicitly added or
removed in the Oracle database with Oracle Administration
Assistant for Windows NT.

6. Click Next.

The Step2 page allows you to choose which profile and tablespace information to
assign to the user or group.

10-16 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Create a Nonprivileged Database User using Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT

7. Select a profile for the new External OS users. A profile is a named set of
resource limits. If resource limits are enabled, Oracle limits database usage and
instance resources to whatever is defined in the user’s profile. You can assign a
profile to each user, and a default profile to all users who do not have specific
profiles.
8. In the Tablespace Quota window double-click the tablespace to assign a
tablespace quota. It assigns profile and tablespace information to them, and
grants database roles.
9. Click Next.

10. In the Step 3 page highlight the database role to the selected NT users and
groups.
11. Click the Grant button.
To view the properties of an external OS user click on External OS Users in the
Microsoft Management Console scope pane. Right click the external OS user for
which you wish to view the properties and select Properties.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-17


Create a Nonprivileged Database User using Oracle Administration Assistant for Windows NT

OS_ROLES
OS_ROLES is a parameter in the INIT.ORA file that, if set to TRUE, enables the
Windows NT operating system to manage the authorization of external OS roles for
database users. If OS_ROLES is set to TRUE only external OS roles will be displayed
in the field Granted External OS Roles. By default, OS_ROLES is set to FALSE and
only local roles will be displayed in the field Granted Roles. You must set
OS_ROLES to TRUE and restart your Oracle database before you can create external
OS roles.
If OS_ROLES is set to FALSE, the Oracle database manages the granting and
revoking of roles for database users.
If OS_ROLES is set to TRUE and you assign an external OS role to an NT global
group, it is granted only at the global group level, and not at the level of the
individual user in this global group. This means that you cannot revoke or edit the
external OS role assigned to an individual user in this global group through the
Roles tab of the Domain\User Name Properties dialog box at a later time. Instead,
you must use the Assign External OS Roles to an NT Global Group in the dialog box
to revoke the external OS role from this global group (and therefore all its
individual users).
External OS roles assigned to an individual domain user or local roles (with
OS_ROLES set to FALSE) assigned to an individual domain user or NT global
group are not affected by this issue, and can be edited or revoked.
If OS_ROLES is set to TRUE, you can not grant local roles in the database to any
database user. You must grant the roles through Windows NT.

10-18 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Create a Local Database Role

Create a Local Database Role


You can create local database role using the Oracle Administration Assistant for
Windows NT snap-in for the Microsoft Management Console.
1. In the Microsoft Management Console scope pane right click Local Roles for the
Database for which you wish to create a local role.
2. Click Create.

3. Enter a Local Role name to use. A Local Role is a role that is managed by the
Oracle database.
4. Select None if you want a user to be able to use this local role without being
required to enter a password.
5. Select Password if you want the use of this role to be protected by a password.
These roles can only be used by supplying an associated password with the SET
ROLE command. See the Oracle8 Administrator’s Guide for additional information.
6. Enter the password to use with this role.
7. Confirm the password by entering it a second time.
8. Click Next.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-19


Create a Local Database Role

Available System Privileges

9. Select appropriate system privileges to assign to the local role.


10. Click Grant to grant the selected system privileges to the local role.
The Granted System Privileges box displays the list of system privileges
granted to the local role. To revoke a system privilege, make an appropriate
selection, then click Revoke.
Click the value in the Admin Option column to display a drop-down list box.
This box enables you to select Yes or No. Select Yes if you want to grant the
Admin Option to this role.
11. Click Next.

10-20 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Create a Local Database Role

Available Roles
Select appropriate roles to assign to the local role. Both local roles and External OS
roles appear in this list.

12. Click Grant to grant the selected roles to the role.

13. Click Revoke to revoke the selected roles from the role.

14. The Granted Roles Displays the list of roles granted to the role. Both local roles
and external OS roles can appear in this list. To revoke roles, make appropriate
selections, then click Revoke.
15. Click Back to go to the previous step in this wizard.

16. Click Finish.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-21


Create an External OS Role

Create an External OS Role


You can create an External OS role using the Oracle Administration Assistant for
Windows NT snap-in for the Microsoft Management Console.
1. In the Microsoft Management Console scope pane right click External OS Roles
for the database you wish to create an external role.
2. Click Create

Note: This wizard is only available if you set the INIT.ORA


parameter OS_ROLES to TRUE and restart the Oracle database.
“Authentication: External” appears on this page to indicate that
only external OS roles can be created.

3. Enter an external OS role name to use. An external OS role is a role that is


managed by the Windows NT operating system.
4. Click Next.

10-22 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Create an External OS Role

Available System Privileges

5. Select appropriate system privileges to assign to the External OS role.


6. Click Grant to grant the selected system privileges to the External OS role.
7. Click Revoke to revoke the selected system privileges from the External OS role.
8. The Granted System Privileges box displays the list of system privileges
granted to the external OS role. To revoke a system privilege, make an
appropriate selection, then click Revoke.
Admin Option
Click the value in the Admin Option column to display a drop-down list box.
This box enables you to select Yes or No. Select Yes if you want to grant the
Admin Option to this role.
9. Click Next.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-23


Create an External OS Role

10. Select appropriate roles to assign to the External OS role.

11. Click Grant to grant the selected roles to the External OS role. Both Local roles
and external OS roles appear in this list.
Click Revoke to revoke the selected roles from the External OS role.
The Granted Roles box displays the list of roles granted to the External OS role.
Both Local roles and External OS roles can appear in this list.
12. Click Finish.

10-24 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Connecting Without a Password as a Nonprivileged Database User

Connecting Without a Password as a Nonprivileged Database User


This section describes how to authenticate nonprivileged database users
(nondatabase administrators) using Windows NT so that a password is not required
when accessing the database. When you use Windows NT to authenticate
nonprivileged database users, your database relies solely on Windows NT to restrict
access to database user names. In the steps below, the following Windows NT user
names are authenticated:

User Name This User...


Local user FRANK Logs into their local Windows NT client computer to access an
Oracle8i database. The database can be on a different computer.
To access other databases and resources on other computers, the
local user must provide a user name and password each time.
Domain user FRANK on Logs into a domain (SALES in the steps below) that includes
domain SALES many other Windows NT computers and resources, one of
which contains an Oracle8i database. The domain user can
access all the resources the domain provides with a single user
name and password.

The local and domain user name FRANK and the domain SALES are used in the
steps below. Substitute the appropriate local and domain user name and domain
name for your environment.
Follow the steps below to connect without a password as a nonprivileged database
user:
■ Step 1: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Oracle8i Database Server
■ Step 2: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Client Computer

Step 1: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Oracle8i Database Server


To perform authentication tasks on an Oracle8i database server:
1. Add the OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX parameter to your INIT.ORA file.
The OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX value is prefixed to local or domain user names
attempting to connect to the server with the user’s operating system name and
password. The prefixed user name is compared with the Oracle user names in
the database when a connection request is attempted. Using the
OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX parameter with Windows NT Native authentication

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-25


Connecting Without a Password as a Nonprivileged Database User

methods is the recommended method for performing secure, trusted client


connections to your server.
2. Set OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX to an appropriate value. Values are case insensitive.
For example:

Set OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX to... Result


XYZ XYZ is prefixed to the beginning of the
Windows NT user name (for example,
XYZFRANK for local user FRANK or
XYZSALES\FRANK for domain user FRANK
on domain SALES).
Note: XYZ is only an example of an
acceptable parameter value. Use a value
appropriate to your environment.
"" This is recommended, as it eliminates the need
for any prefix to the Windows NT user names
(for example, FRANK for local user FRANK or
SALES\FRANK for domain user FRANK on
domain SALES).
Not included in INIT.ORA file The value defaults to OPS$ (for example,
OPS$FRANK for local user FRANK or
OPS$SALES\FRANK for domain user FRANK
on domain SALES).

The parameter value XYZ is used in the steps below. Substitute XYZ with the
value you set for OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX.
3. Use User Manager to create a Windows NT local or domain user name for
FRANK (if the appropriate name does not currently exist). See your Windows
NT documentation or your network administrator if you do not know how to
do this.
4. Ensure that you have the following line in your
ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\NETWORK\ADMIN\SQLNET.ORA file:
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES = (NTS)
5. Start SQL*Plus:
C:\> SQLPLUS
6. Connect to the database with the SYSTEM database administrator (DBA) name:

10-26 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Connecting Without a Password as a Nonprivileged Database User

SQL> CONNECT
Enter user-name: SYSTEM/PASSWORD
Unless you have changed it, the SYSTEM password is MANAGER by default.
7. Create an operating system-authenticated user by entering the following:

If Authenticating a... Then Enter...


Local user name SQL> CREATE USER XYZFRANK IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY;
Domain user name SQL> CREATE USER "XYZSALES\FRANK" IDENTIFIED
EXTERNALLY;

Where: Is the...
XYZ Value set for the OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX initialization parameter.
FRANK Windows NT local user name.
SALES\FRANK Domain name and Windows NT domain user name. The double
quotes are required and the entire syntax must be in uppercase.

8. Grant the Windows NT local user FRANK or domain user FRANK appropriate
database roles:

If Authenticating a... Then Enter...


Local user name SQL> GRANT RESOURCE TO XYZFRANK;
SQL> GRANT CONNECT TO XYZFRANK;
Domain user name1 SQL> GRANT RESOURCE TO "XYZSALES\FRANK";
SQL> GRANT CONNECT TO "XYZSALES\FRANK";
1
Enter the syntax for domain users in uppercase and with double quotes around the domain user
name.

9. Connect to the database with the INTERNAL DBA name:


SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL
10. Shut down the database:

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-27


Connecting Without a Password as a Nonprivileged Database User

SQL> SHUTDOWN
11. Restart the database:
SQL> STARTUP
This causes the change to the OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX parameter value to take
affect.

Step 2: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Client Computer


To perform authentication tasks on the client computer:
1. Create Windows NT local or domain user name FRANK with the same user
name and password that exist on the Windows NT server (if the appropriate
name does not currently exist).
2. Ensure that you have the following line in your ORACLE_BASE\
ORACLE_HOME\NETWORK\ADMIN\SQLNET.ORA file:
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES = (NTS)
3. Use Net8 Assistant or Net8 Easy Config to configure a network connection from
your client computer to the Windows NT server on which your Oracle8i
database is installed. See the Net8 Administrator’s Guide for instructions.
4. Start SQL*Plus:
C:\> SQLPLUS
5. Connect to your Windows NT server:
SQL> CONNECT /@NET_SERVICE_NAME
where NET_SERVICE_NAME is the Net8 network service name for the Oracle8i
database that you created in Step 3.
The Oracle8i database searches the data dictionary for an automatic login user
name corresponding to the Windows NT local or domain user name, verifies it,
and allows you to connect as XYZFRANK or XYZSALES\FRANK.
6. Verify that you have connected to the Oracle8i database as local or domain user
FRANK by viewing the roles assigned in Step 8 of "Step 1: Perform
Authentication Tasks on the Oracle8i Database Server".
SQL> SELECT * FROM USER_ROLE_PRIVS;
which outputs for local user FRANK:
USERNAME GRANTED_ROLE ADM DEF OS_

10-28 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Connecting Without a Password as a Nonprivileged Database User

------------------------------ ------------------------------ --- --- ---


XYZFRANK CONNECT NO YES NO
XYZFRANK RESOURCE NO YES NO
2 rows selected.
or, for domain user FRANK:
USERNAME GRANTED_ROLE ADM DEF OS_
------------------------------ ------------------------------ --- --- ---
XYZSALES\FRANK CONNECT NO YES NO
XYZSALES\FRANK RESOURCE NO YES NO
2 rows selected.
As the Oracle8i user name is the whole name XYZFRANK or
XYZSALES\FRANK, all objects created by XYZFRANK or XYZSALES\FRANK
(that is, tables, views, indexes, and so on) are prefixed by this name. For another
user to reference the table SHARK owned by XYZFRANK, for example, the user
must enter:
SQL> SELECT * FROM XYZFRANK.SHARK

Attention: Automatic authorization is supported for all Net8


protocols.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-29


Connecting as SYSDBA and SYSOPER Without a Password

Connecting as SYSDBA and SYSOPER Without a Password


This section describes how to enable Windows NT to grant the SYSOPER and
SYSDBA privileges to DBAs. This enables DBAs to issue the following commands
from a client computer and connect to the Oracle8i database without entering a
password:
■ CONNECT / AS SYSOPER
■ CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
To enable this feature, the Windows NT local or domain user name of the client
must belong to one of the following four Windows NT local groups on the server:

Local Group This Local Group Includes All...


ORA_OPER SYSOPER database privileges; applicable for all system identifiers
(SIDs).
ORA_DBA 1 SYSDBA database privileges; applicable for all SIDs.
ORA_SID_DBA SYSDBA database privileges; applicable only for the SID specified
in the name.
ORA_SID_OPER SYSOPER database privileges; applicable only for the SID
specified in the name.
1
ORA_DBA is automatically created during installation. See section "Automatically Enabling Operating
System Authentication During Installation" on page 10-3 for information.

10-30 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Connecting as SYSDBA and SYSOPER Without a Password

The SYSOPER and SYSDBA privileges are mapped to the following Windows NT
local groups:

This Privilege... Maps to the Local Group...


SYSOPER ORA_SID_OPER, ORA_OPER
SYSDBA ORA_SID_DBA, ORA_DBA, ORA_SID_OPER, ORA_OPER

Follow the steps below to connect as SYSOPER or SYSDBA without a password:


■ Step 1: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Oracle8i Database Server
■ Step 2: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Client Computer

Step 1: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Oracle8i Database Server


To perform authentication tasks on the Oracle8i database server:
1. Open User Manager on the Windows NT server where your Oracle8i database
is installed.
2. Choose New Local Group from the User Menu.
The New Local Group dialog box appears.
3. Enter the appropriate Windows NT local group name in the Group Name field.
For this example, the SID entered is ORCL.

4. Click Add.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-31


Connecting as SYSDBA and SYSOPER Without a Password

The Add Users and Groups dialog box appears:

5. Select an appropriate Windows NT user from the Names field and click Add.
6. Click OK.
Your selection is added to the Members field of the New Local Group dialog box:

10-32 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Connecting as SYSDBA and SYSOPER Without a Password

7. Click OK.
8. Exit User Manager.
9. Ensure that you have the following line in your ORACLE_BASE
\ORACLE_HOME\NETWORK\ADMIN\SQLNET.ORA file:
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES = (NTS)
10. In the registry in
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\HOMEID set the
parameter OSAUTH_PREFIX_DOMAIN to TRUE.

Step 2: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Client Computer


To perform authentication tasks on the client computer:
1. Create a Windows NT local or domain user name with the same user name and
password that exist on the Windows NT server (if the appropriate user name
does not currently exist).
2. Ensure that you have the following line in your ORACLE_BASE
\ORACLE_HOME\NETWORK\ADMIN\SQLNET.ORA file:
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES = (NTS)
3. Use Net8 Assistant or Net8 Easy Config to configure a network connection from
your client computer to the Windows NT server on which your Oracle8i
database is installed. See Net8 Administrator’s Guide for instructions.
4. Start SQL*Plus:
C:\> SQLPLUS
5. Connect to the Oracle8i database:
SQL> SET INSTANCE NET_SERVICE_NAME
where NET_SERVICE_NAME is the Net8 network service name for the Oracle8i
database that you created in Step 3.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-33


Connecting as SYSDBA and SYSOPER Without a Password

6. Connect as SYSOPER or SYSDBA based on the local group you specified in step
3 of "Step 1: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Oracle8i Database Server":
":

If The Local Group Is... Then Enter...


ORA_DBA or ORA_SID_DBA SQL> CONNECT / AS SYSOPER
or
SQL> CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
ORA_OPER or ORA_SID_OPER SQL> CONNECT / AS SYSOPER

You are connected to the Windows NT server. If you connect with SYSDBA, you
are given DBA privileges.

10-34 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Connecting as INTERNAL Without a Password

Connecting as INTERNAL Without a Password


This section describes how to connect as INTERNAL without a password. To do
this, you must create one of the following new local Windows NT user groups and
add a Windows NT operating system local or domain user to that group:

Local Group This Local Group Includes All...


ORA_DBA 1 SYSDBA database privileges. This group is applicable for all
SIDs.
ORA_SID_DBA SYSDBA database privileges. This group is applicable only for
the SID specified in the name.
1
ORA_DBA is automatically created during installation. See section "Automatically Enabling Operating
System Authentication During Installation" on page 10-3 for information.

This enables you to log into a local computer or a Windows NT domain. In the
domain, your Oracle8i database is just one of many resources to which you have
access. Once you access this domain, you are automatically validated as an
authorized DBA who can access the Oracle8i database without a password.
Follow the steps below to connect as INTERNAL without a password:
■ Step 1: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Oracle8i Database Server
■ Step 2: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Client Computer

Step 1: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Oracle8i Database Server


To perform authentication tasks on the Oracle8i database server:
1. Create a Windows NT user name (local or domain) if one does not already exist.
2. Ensure that you have the following line in your
ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\NETWORK\ADMIN\SQLNET.ORA file:
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES = (NTS)
3. Open User Manager.
4. Go to New Local Group from the User Menu.
The New Local Group dialog box appears.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-35


Connecting as INTERNAL Without a Password

5. Enter the ORA_SID_DBA or ORA_DBA Windows NT local group name in the


Group Name field. For this example, the SID entered is ORCL:

6. Click Add.

10-36 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Connecting as INTERNAL Without a Password

The Add Users and Groups dialog box appears:

7. Select an appropriate Windows NT local or domain user from the Names field
and click Add.
8. Click OK.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-37


Connecting as INTERNAL Without a Password

Your selection is added to the Members field of the New Local Group dialog box:

9. Click OK.
10. Exit User Manager.

11. Connect to the database with the INTERNAL DBA name:


SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL
12. Shut down the database:
SQL> SHUTDOWN
13. Restart the database:
SQL> STARTUP

10-38 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Connecting as INTERNAL Without a Password

Step 2: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Client Computer


To perform authentication tasks on the client computer:
1. Create a Windows NT local or domain user name with the same user name and
password that exist on the Windows NT server (if the appropriate user name
does not currently exist).
2. Ensure that you have the following line in your ORACLE_BASE
\ORACLE_HOME\NETWORK\ADMIN\SQLNET.ORA file:
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES = (NTS)
3. Use Net8 Assistant or Net8 Easy Config to configure a network connection from
your client computer to your Oracle8i database. See Net8 Administrator’s Guide
for instructions.
4. Start SQL*Plus:
C:\> SQLPLUS
5. Connect to the Oracle8i database:
SQL> SET INSTANCE NET_SERVICE_NAME
where NET_SERVICE_NAME is the Net8 network service name for the Oracle8i
database that you created in Step 3.
6. Connect to your Windows NT server:
SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL
You are connected to the Windows NT server.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-39


Granting Database Roles through Windows NT

Granting Database Roles through Windows NT


This section describes how to grant Oracle8i database roles to users directly through
Windows NT. When you use Windows NT to authenticate users, Windows NT local
groups can grant these users database roles. Through User Manager, you can create,
grant, or revoke database roles to users.
All privileges for these roles are active when the user connects. When using
operating system roles, all roles are granted and managed through the operating
system. You cannot use both operating system roles and Oracle roles at the same
time. For example:

If You... Then...
1. Enable operating system roles. You only receive the roles granted to
DTMSDOM\FRANK, and not the
2. Log onto a Windows NT domain with your
roles granted to SCOTT.
domain user name; for example,
SALES\FRANK, where SALES is the domain
name and FRANK is the domain user name.
3. Connect to the Oracle8i database as Oracle
database user SCOTT.

Follow the steps below to grant database roles with Windows NT:
■ Step 1: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Oracle8i Database Server
■ Step 2: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Client Computer

Step 1: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Oracle8i Database Server


To perform authentication tasks on the Oracle8i database server:
1. Add the OS_ROLES initialization parameter to the INIT.ORA file.
2. Set OS_ROLES to TRUE.
The default setting for this parameter is FALSE.
3. Ensure that you have the following line in your ORACLE_BASE
\ORACLE_HOME\NETWORK\ADMIN\SQLNET.ORA file:
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES = (NTS)

10-40 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Granting Database Roles through Windows NT

4. Start SQL*Plus:
C:\> SQLPLUS
5. Connect to your Windows NT server:
SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL
6. Create a new database role:
SQL> CREATE ROLE DBSALES3 IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY;
where DBSALES3 is the name of the role for these steps. Substitute a role name
appropriate to your database environment.
7. Grant Oracle roles to DBSALES3 that are appropriate to your database
environment:
SQL> GRANT DBA TO DBSALES3 WITH ADMIN OPTION;
SQL> GRANT RESOURCE TO DBSALES3 WITH ADMIN OPTION;
SQL> GRANT CONNECT TO DBSALES3 WITH ADMIN OPTION;
8. Connect to the database with the INTERNAL DBA name:
SQL> CONNECT INTERNAL
9. Shut down the database:
SQL> SHUTDOWN
10. Restart the database:
SQL> STARTUP
11. Open the Windows NT User Manager.

12. Choose New Local Group from the User menu.

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-41


Granting Database Roles through Windows NT

The New Local Group dialog box appears:

13. Enter the Windows NT local group name corresponding to the database role in
the Group Name field with the following syntax:
ORA_SID_ROLENAME [_D] [_A]
where:

SID Indicates the database instance.

ROLENAME Identifies the database role granted to users of a database


session.

D Optional character indicating that this database role is to


be the default role of the database user. If specified, this
character must be preceded by an underscore.

A Optional character indicating that this database role


includes the ADMIN OPTION. This enables the user to
grant the role to other roles only. If specified, this
character must be preceded by an underscore.

For this example, ORA_ORCL_DBSALES3_D is entered.


14. Click Add.

10-42 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Granting Database Roles through Windows NT

The Add Users and Groups dialog box appears:

15. Select the appropriate Windows NT local or domain user name and click Add.

16. Click OK.


Your selection is added to the Members field of the New Local Group dialog box:

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-43


Granting Database Roles through Windows NT

You can convert additional database roles to several possible Windows NT


groups, as shown in the following table. Then, users connecting to the ORCL
instance in this example and authenticated by Windows NT as members of
these Windows NT local groups have the privileges associated with DBSALES3
and DBSALES4 by default (because of the _D option). DBSALES1 and
DBSALES2 are available for use by the user if they first connect as members of
DBSALES3 or DBSALES4 and use the SET ROLE command. If a user tries to
connect with DBSALES1 or DBSALES2_A without first connecting with a
default role, they are unable to connect. Additionally, users can grant
DBSALES2 and DBSALES4 to other roles.

Database Roles Windows NT Groups


DBSALES1 ORA_ORCL_DBSALES1
DBSALES2 ORA_ORCL_DBSALES2_A
DBSALES3 ORA_ORCL_DBSALES3_D
DBSALES4 ORA_ORCL_DBSALES4_DA

Note: When the Oracle8i database converts the group name to a


role name, it changes the name to uppercase.

17. Click OK.

18. Exit User Manager.

10-44 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


Granting Database Roles through Windows NT

Step 2: Perform Authentication Tasks on the Client Computer


To perform authentication tasks on the client computer:
1. Create a Windows NT local or domain user name with the same user name and
password that exist on the Windows NT server (if the appropriate user name
does not currently exist).
2. Ensure that you have the following line in your ORACLE_BASE
\ORACLE_HOME\NETWORK\ADMIN\SQLNET.ORA file:
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES = (NTS)
3. Use Net8 Assistant or Net8 Easy Config to configure a network connection from
your client computer to your Oracle8i database. See Net8 Administrator’s Guide
for instructions.
4. Start SQL*Plus:
C:\> SQLPLUS
5. Connect to the correct instance:
SQL> SET INSTANCE NET_SERVICE_NAME
where NET_SERVICE_NAME is the Net8 service name for the Oracle8i database
that you created in Step 3.
6. Connect to the Oracle8i database:
SQL> CONNECT SCOTT/TIGER
You are connected to the Windows NT server over Net8 with the Oracle user
name SCOTT/TIGER. The roles applied to the Oracle user name SCOTT consist
of all roles defined for the Windows NT user name that were mapped to the
database roles above (in this case, ORA_DBSALES3_D). All roles available
under an authenticated connection are determined by the Windows NT user
name and the Oracle-specific Windows NT local groups to which the user
belongs (for example, ORA_SID_DBSALES1 or ORA_SID_DBSALES4_DA).

Authenticating Database Users with Windows NT 10-45


Granting Database Roles through Windows NT

10-46 Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Getting Started


11
Monitoring a Database

This chapter describes how to monitor Oracle8i Enterprise Edition.


Specific topics discussed are:
■ Database Monitoring Overview
■ Using Oracle Performance Monitor
■ Using the Event Viewer
■ Using Trace and Alert Files

Monitoring a Database 11-1


Database Monitoring Overview

Database Monitoring Overview


The following tools enable you to monitor your Oracle8i database:

This Tool Enables You To...


Oracle Performance Monitor database objects, such as CPU usage, buffer cache, and
Monitor background processes.
Event Viewer Monitor database events.
Trace Files Record occurrences and exceptions of database operations.
Alert Files Record important information about error messages and
exceptions during database operations.
Oracle Enterprise Monitor and tune using tools with real-time graphical
Manager’s Performance performance information.
Management Packs
Oracle Administration View information on or kill Oracle threads.
Assistant for Windows NT

Each tool is described in the following sections.<